Combined timeline of malaria organizations

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This is a Combined timeline of malaria organizations, including a selected number of organizations as well as events in mosquito net distribution.

Big picture

Time period Organization launch
1999 Medicines for Malaria Venture is founded.[1]
2000 Africa Fighting Malaria is founded.[2]
2001 Amazon Malaria Initiative is founded.[3]
2002 The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is founded. Other organizations founded in the same year are African Malaria Network Trust
2004 Against Malaria Foundation[4] and MalariaWorld[5] are founded.
2005 Asian Vivax Network is founded.[6]
2006 Malaria Atlas Project is founded.
2007 Spread the Net is founded.[7]
2008 Imagine No Malaria is founded. Other organizations founded in the same year are Millennium Foundation[8] and Malaria No More UK.[9]
2009 Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria launches.[10]

Full timeline

Year Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria Against Malaria Foundation Malaria Atlas Project Malaria Consortium Mosquito net distribution
2000 The percentage of households owning at least one ITN in Sub Saharan Africa is estimated at 3%.[11]
2001 The Global Fund is first proposed.[12] The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation announces a US$100 million commitment to the Global Fund over a multi-year period.[13] The foundation of the Global Fund is supported by the 27th G8 summit.[12] New national strategy for malaria control is developed by the Ministry of Health of Kenya, targeting increased coverage of insecticide treated mosquito nets.[14]
2002 In January, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is established as a private Swiss foundation to increase spending for the prevention and treatment for the three diseases.[15][16][17] The Board meets for the first time, at which point the Fund adopts its by-laws and begins operations.[18]
2003 The Global Fund adopts a three-year replenishment model to guarantee countries of sustained and predictable financial support for their programs.[19] Disbursements at the end of 2003 by the Global Fund totals US$232 million.[16] Malaria Consortium is established as a non-government organization (NGO).[20][21] Malaria Consortium starts operations in Uganda.[22] Insecticide treated nets start to be distributed free-of-charge in Cameroon.[23]
2004 In March, the Global Fund holds its Seventh Board Meeting. Round 4 Call for Proposals is launched.[16] In June, the Global Fund holds its Eighth Board Meeting. The Board approves fourth round of grant proposals (US$968 million for 69 grants in 50 countries).[15][16] Against Malaria Foundation is established with the explicit aim of handling the money raised through World Swim Against Malaria.[24] Malaria Consortium is officially launched, and holds its first organizational strategy meeting, including its founders Sunil Mehra, Graham Root, and Sylvia Meek.[20]
2005 The Global Fund provides 64% of international funding for malaria programs in low and middle-income countries.[25] On November 23, AMF passes the $100,000 mark in money raised since inception.[26] World Swim for Malaria launches, with over 250,000 swimmers and over US$1 million raised.[27] MAP is founded by Bob Snow and Simon I. Hay with the purpose of filling the niche for the malaria control community at a global scale.[28]MAP initially focuses on Plasmodium falciparum.[29] Malaria Consortium starts operations in Myanmar, during the 2005 Malaria Programme Review.[30] The African Summit on Roll Back Malaria is held in Abuja. The summit sets a target for expanding ITN use in Africa—at least 60% coverage of high-risk groups by the year 2005.[31]
2006 The Global Fund receives US$ 1.8 billion, and disburses US$ 1.3 billion.[32] Mosquito net distributions take place in Zambia,[33] Uganda[34], Rwanda[35], Namibia[36],Zimbabwe[37], Malawi[38], Kenya[39],Ethiopia[40], and Botswana.[41] MAP Web site (map.ox.ac.uk) launches.[42] Malaria Consortium collaborates with ORES Tanzania (National NGO based in Tanzania) in an advocacy campaign that would result in the formation of Coalition (Alliances) of members of Parliament against Malaria (TAPAMA) in 2007.[43] A campaign to distribute 3.4 million long-lasting insecticidal nets free of charge to children launches in Kenya.[14] Nothing But Nets launches as a campaign to raise awareness and funding to fight malaria.[44]
2007 In September, The Global Fund concludes its Second Replenishment with a total amount of US$9.7 billion pledged for the period 2008–2010.[16] In November, The Global Fund holds its Sixteenth Board Meeting. The Board approves 73 grants in Round 7 of funding for a total of US$1.1 billion, for 136 countries.[16] Net distributions take place in Cameroon[45], Sudan[46], São Tomé and Príncipe[47], Cambodia[48], and Democratic Republic of the Congo[49] As of May, MAP has 3670 parasite rate surveys from 79 countries.[50] Research by MAP reports about 451 million clinical cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria worldwide.[51] The World Health Organization starts recommending only use of long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and not conventional insecticide treated nets (ITNs).[11]
2008 The Global Fund starts to promote the inclusion of Operational/implementation research (OR/IR) activities in disease control programs it supports.[52] In November, the Global Fund holds its Eighteenth Board Meeting. The Board approves grants for a total value of US$2.75 billion (the highest amount ever approved).[16] The AMF YouTube account is created.[53] Net distributions take place in Nigeria[54], India[55], Mali[56], and Burkina Faso[57]. World Swim Against Malaria 2008 takes place.[58][59] MAP researchers construct a map that stratifies the world into three levels of malaria risk: no risk, unstable transmission risk (occasional focal outbreaks), and stable transmission risk (endemic areas where the disease is always present).[60] In the same month, the first net distributions in Togo take place in Danyi N'Digbe.[61] Malaria Consortium opens offices in Thailand[62] and Nigeria.[63] Over 1.1 million nets (including long lasting insecticidal nets – LLINs) are distributed to date by Malaria Consortium.[20][64] The organization joins the Mekong Malaria Partnership.[20] Bed net ownership in Africa covers 32.8% of the at-risk population.[65]
2009 The Global Fund launches the First Learning Wave of National Strategy Applications in an "effort to contribute to broader health systems strengthening".[66] In November, the Global Fund holds its Twentieth Board Meeting. The Board approves Round 9 grants for a total value of US$2.4 billion.[16] Nets are distributed in Gabon[67], Peru[68] Sierra Leone[69] and Papua New Guinea.[70] On May 7, the AgainstMalaria Twitter account is created.[71] On July 4, charity evaluator GiveWell lists AMF as a "recommended organization".[72] On July 8, AMF reaches 1 million distributed mosquito nets.[73] MAP starts creating repositories on GitHub.[74][75] Malaria Consortium starts implementing integrated community case management (iCCM) projects in Mozambique, South Sudan, Uganda, and Zambia.[76] The organization establishes an office in Cambodia[20] At the end of the year, it is estimated that Malaria Consortium has protected over 18 million people from malaria through the provision of LLINs (mosquito nets impregnated with insecticide).[64] Mozambique develops a novel bed net distribution model to increase coverage, based on assumptions about sleeping patterns.[77] 1.3 million treated nets are distributed in India under World Bank-supported project.[78]
2010 In October, The United States president Barack Obama administration announces a three-year (FY11-FY13), $4 billion pledge to the Global Fund. It would be the first time the United States make a multi-year pledge to the Global Fund.[79] AMF is first recommended by charity evaluator Giving What We Can.[80] Nonprofit The Life You Can Save also recommends AMF.[81] In June, international competitions Madness Against Malaria and World Swim Against Malaria 2010 take place.[82][83] On November 30, GiveWell ranks AMF third on its list of top international charities.[84][85] Acclaimed Malaria Consortium exhibition by Adam Nadel Malaria: blood, sweat, and tears launches at the United Nations in New York City.[20][86]
2011 On June 23, The Global Fund announces having signed an agreement with the International Aid Transparency Initiative, a multilateral effort (including donors, countries, and civil society organizations) to publicly disclose aid data in a standardized, timely approach.[87] On November 8, AMF's first Google Plus is posted.[88] Also in November, GiveWell publishes its 2011 review of AMF, in which AMF is considered one of the two top charities.[89] In December, Good Ventures awards a grant of $500,000 to AMF.[90] In November, the Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network (APMEN) funds its first GIS training in Shanghai, China, in collaboration with the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (NIPD, China CDC), the University of Queensland, and the Malaria Atlas Project/Oxford University.[91] Malaria Consortium starts working with the Ministry of Health’s Department of Medical Research to support the first artemisinin resistance containment baseline survey in Myanmar, which looks at growing resistance to antimalarial drugs.[30] In July, The Malaria Prevention and Control project launches in Mozambique, with the purpose to support the efforts of the Mozambican government to reduce malaria throughout the country through scale-up of prevention and control efforts with community involvement.[92] About 100 million bed nets are delivered in Africa.[93]
2012 A national bed net distribution is implemented in response to reports of high rates of malaria transmission after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. The Global Fund (GF) sponsors a national distribution of LLINs outside of Port-au-Prince with the goal of two Olyset LLINs per household.[94] On March 15, AMF passes the $10 million mark in money raised since inception.[95] On June 29, World Swim Against Malaria 2012 takes place.[82] In December, Good Ventures awards a grant of $1.25 million to AMF.[96] MAP publishes the first global maps for Plasmodium vivax endemicity.[97] In January, Researchers from MAP present the results of a two-year effort to assemble all available data worldwide on the risk of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Using computer modelling and data on climate and human populations, it is revealed the complex landscape of malaria across the globe.[98] Malaria Consortium trains more than 5,100 health workers across Africa programs from all levels in the health system receive training and nearly three million LLINs are distributed.[20] The percentage of households owning at least one insecticide treated net in Sub-Saharan Africa is estimated at 56%, up from a 3% in 2000.[11]
2013 The Global Fund announces a new funding model, under which funding allocations would be determined for each eligible country based on calculations of country income and national disease burden.[99] The Global Fund’s Fourth Replenishment is hosted, and the 2014–2016 replenishment cycle is launched with a total amount of US$12 billion pledged.[16] Nonprofit Charity Science recommends AMF as its charity of choice in human rights.[100] In November AMF is removed from the list of GiveWell top charities. However, it continues to be recommended by Giving What We Can.[101].[102] On December 2, The mobile video game Nightmare: Malaria is released. The game is created by Psyop Games in partnership with AMF.[103] MAPlaunches its Repository of Open Access Data (ROAD-MAP) resource, with support from a Wellcome Biomedical Resources grant, and then funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.[104] Malaria Consortium begins implementing a community-based seasonal malaria chemoprevention project in Katsina State, Northern Nigeria, with funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Extra funding is provided by UKaid from the British government through Malaria Consortium’s ongoing Support to National Malaria Programme (SuNMaP) project.[105] In Sub-Saharan Africa, 44%of the population at risk is covered by insecticide treated nets, indicating that 90% of people use the nets available to them. At the same time, 278 million of the 840 million people at risk of malaria in the region live in households without even a single Itn.[106]
2014 The Global Fund starts new funding model.[99] On March 25, AMF finalizes an agreement to fund 676,000 mosquito nets in the Democratic Republic of Congo.[107] In November, GiveWell rates AMF as a top charity.[108] In December, Good Ventures awards a $5 million grant to AMF.[109] The ACCESS-SMC (Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention) project begins in the Sahel region, led by Malaria Consortium.[110] UNITAID awarded US$67 million to Malaria Consortium to lead the project.[111] In December, it establishes an office in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, as part of its ACCESS-SMC project.[112]
2015 The proportion of the Global Fund’s investments focused on girls and women increases to 60%, from 46% in 2010.[113] GiveWell publishes its "May 2015" update on AMF, continuing to recommend it.[114] On August 4, AMF is granted Deductible Gift Recipient status in Australia. The news would reach the public on September 3, but all donations since the August date are considered tax deductible.[115][116][117][118] In November 2015, GiveWell publishes a new version of its review of AMF.[119] A study by MAP finds that “by far the most important intervention” in reducing malaria cases and deaths has been the use of insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs), around a billion of which have been distributed in Africa since 2000.[120][121][122] Malaria Consortium, Raks Thai Foundation and Population Services Khmer begin collaboration on a program with aim at strengthening early detection and treatment of malaria through surveillance activities in Thailand and Cambodia. The project is supported by the Global Fund to Fight Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the United Nations Office for Project Services and local malaria programs.[123]
2016 The Global Fund announces having supported programs that saved 20 million lives.[124] In September, The Global Fund holds the Pledging conference for its Fifth Replenishment, hosted by Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau. Donor countries, foundations, and private donors pledge US$12.9 billion for the 2017–2019 period. [16] In January, Good Ventures awards a $22.8 million grant to AMF.[125] I May, AMF begins accepting donations in Bitcoin.[126][127] On November 28, GiveWell includes AMF in its list of top charities.[128] GiveWell also publishes a new version of its review of AMF.[129] In November and December, the fundraising event Philosophers Against Malaria takes place. The event raises $58,000 among university philosophy departments for AMF.[130][131][132] In April, MAP creates Temperature-Suitability-Model on GitHub, which contains a parallelised re-implementation of the temperature suitability model.[133] In July, MAP creates DHS-Indicators repository on GitHub, which contains SQL code for generating certain indicators by the United States Department of Homeland Security.[134][135] In November, Study by MAP quantifies the attributable effect of malaria disease control efforts in Africa, and finds that Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence in endemic Africa halved and the incidence of clinical disease fell by 40% between 2000 and 2015.[136] Charity evaluator GiveWell includes Malaria Consortium in its list of top charities for the year, for the consortium's work on seasonal malaria chemoprevention, and publishes a review of the consortium's work on that front.[137][138][139]
2017 The Global Fund, along with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) launch the use of Mobile Clinics to Improve Diagnosis and Treatment of Tuberculosis in Remote Areas in Sudan.[140] On January 9, AMF passes the $100 million mark in money raised since inception.[141] In the same month, Good Ventures awards a grant of $15 million to AMF.[142] In April, GiveWell grants US$4.4 million to AMF.[143] On November 27, GiveWell recommends to Good Ventures to donate $2.5 million to AMF, the minimum amount granted to all top charities. A new review of AMF is also published.[144] MAP constructs an inferential model to relate transmission data to a suite of temporally dynamic environmental covariates (temperature, vegetation, humidity etc.) from a remote sensing platform, with the aim at being able to accurately predict seasonal malaria transmission patterns (onset, duration, magnitude) in locations where malaria survey data are sparse.[145] On December 11, MAP releases new interactive malaria tools, making easier to download a wealth of malariometric data and covariates from its website.[146] Good Ventures grants US$5,000,000 to Malaria Consortium to support its seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) program.[147], which is recommended top-charity for second year in a row by GiveWell.[148] Also in December, The Open Philanthropy Project recommends a grant of US$27,900,000 to Malaria Consortium to support seasonal malaria chemoprevention programs, due to its status as a GiveWell top charity.[149]
2018 The Global Fund helps diagnose 220 million suspected malaria cases, treat 110 million malaria cases and distribute 131 million bed nets.[150] As of September, AMF has supported large-scale distributions in seven countries (Malawi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Uganda, Togo, Papua New Guinea, and Zambia), for a total of 25 million distributed long lasting insecticidal nets.[151] In January, MAP releases a global map of accessibility to cities for the year 2015, showing the estimated travel time to the nearest city globally. The map is created in collaboration with Google, the Joint Research Centre of the European Union, and the University of Twente.[152] Supported by Good Ventures, Malaria Consortium launches a new round of seasonal malaria chemoprevention distributions across Burkina Faso, Chad and Nigeria.[153] This program is chosen as ‘top charity’ by GiveWell for third year in a row, and is allocated US$1.1 million in discretionary grant.[154][155] [156] In December, The Open Philanthropy Project recommends a grant of US$26,600,000 to Malaria Consortium.[157]
2019 The Global found commits US$ 14.02 billion that would cover a three-year period (2020-2022) to finance the fight against HIV, tuberculosis and malaria.[158] As of July, the Global Fund has approved more than US$49 billion in funding, with disbursement surpassing US$42 billion to over 120 countries. An estimated 27 million lives were saved by these investments.[159] Facebook partners with several organizations, including MAP, to launch maps covering demographics, human movement, and network coverage, with the purpose to help health organizations respond to emergencies. The project uses real-time maps powered by satellite imagery, computer vision, census data, and Facebook’s proprietary data. [160][161][162] In March, GiveWell allocates US$7.6 million in discretionary grant to Malaria Consortium's seasonal malaria chemoprevention program.[156]

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External links

References

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