Comparison of measures of abundance of malaria

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This page compares various measures of the abundance of malaria in a given location.

Comparison table

Measures Variable and Formula Explanation Range Derivatives Sample table
Basic reproductive number[1] R0=bcV/r[2] "the expected number of hosts who would be infected after one generation of the parasite by a single infectious person who had been introduced into an otherwise naïve population"[3] ""[2] Less than 1 in eliminated regions to possibly 3,000 in highly endemic areas[3]
Biting disparity index α[3] "The squared coefficient of variation of the human biting rate".[3]
Entomological infection rate EIR In endemic areas of Africa, generally from 1 to over 1,000 infective bites per year;[4] DCP2 gives less than 1 to over 300,[5] but later on p420 says "With a high EIR (10 to 1,000)" Annual Plasmodium falciparum EIR (APfEIR)[1]
Entomological inoculation rate EIR[2] "Is the product of the human biting rate and the sporozoite rate, the proportion of mosquitoes that have sporozoites in their salivary glands".[2] "Is a commonly-used measure of the intensity of malaria transmission."[6] 500 to 1.0[7] Plasmodium falciparum entomological inoculation rate (Pf EIR)[8] See tables 1,3
Force of infection FOI[9] "The number of new infections per person per unit of time."[9]
Happenings rate h=bE[3] "Is the force of infection, i.e., the per capita rate that uninfected people become infected with malaria."[3]
Human biting rate[10] HBR[11], ma[12] "The nightly biting pressure of the vector on a human population"[10] "The expected number of bites by malaria vectors, per person, per day (or per year)."[12]
Human feeding rate a=fQ[3] "The number of bites on a human, per mosquito, per day"
Hyperparasitemia "Is defined as more than 5% erythrocytes parasitized."[13] "Is defined in endemic areas by the WHO as parasite greater than or equal to 500,000/µl (10% parasitemia)".[14]
Molecular force of infection mFOI, molFOI[15] "Defined as number of distinct clones entering the body over time."[15] "The number of incident parasite strains detected by genotyping per person-year at risk."[16] See Table 2
Multiplicity of infection MOI "Is the number of different Plasmodium falciparum strains co-infecting a single host."[17] here
Net infectiousness of humans to mosquitoes κ[18]
Parasite rate PR[1][18] Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR)[19] here
Parasite ratio X[12] "The prevalence of infection in humans, i.e., the proportion of humans with parasites."[12][20]
Parasitemia "The presence of parasites, especially malarial forms, in the blood."[21] From 5-20 parasites/µl (0.0001-0.0004 % of parasitemia) to 500,000 parasites/µl (10% of parasitemia).[22] Hyperparasitemia, Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia (APFP)[23] here
Sampling bias index σ[3] "The proportion of mosquitoes that become infected after biting a human divided by the proportion of people with detected parasites."[3]
Seroconversion rate λ[24], SCR[25] "Is a function of antimalarial antibodies in the population and indicates exposure to infection."[26] See table 1,2,3
Seroprevalence SP[24] "Prevalence of a marker as measured by results of serologic testing."[27] See table 3
Seroreversion rate SRR[24], ρ[24]
Slide positivity rate SPR "Used as a surrogate measure of malaria incidence."[28]
Spleen rate SR "Is the proportion of people in a given population having enlarged spleens expressed as a percentage."[29]
Sporozoite rate SR[8] Y[3][12] "The fraction of female mosquitoes with sporozoites". "The fraction of infectious mosquitoes, i.e., with sporozoites in their salivary glands."[12] 0–??
Stability index S=a/g[3] "The expected number of human bites taken by a vector over its lifetime."[3]
Susceptibility bias index BE[12] "The infectivity of mosquitoes in a naïve population divided by the infectivity of mosquitoes in an endemic population."[12]
Vectorial capacity[1] C, V[3], cV[3] "Is the daily rate at which future inoculations arise from a currently infective case, provided that all females mosquitoes biting that case become infected."[30] "The number of infectious bites on humans that arise from all the mosquitoes that are infected by a single person on a single day."[3]

Other variables:

Also mentions things like "the age at first infection, the fraction of a population that is infected (i.e., the parasite rate [PR]), the frequency and type of disease syndromes, the incidence of severe disease, the development and loss of functional immunity (i.e., immunity that reduces the frequency and severity of clinical symptoms), total malaria mortality, and the expected outcome of malaria control"

See also

External links


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Hay, Simon I; Snow, Robert W (December 5, 2006). "The Malaria Atlas Project: Developing Global Maps of Malaria Risk". Retrieved January 11, 2017. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Template:Cita libro
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 Smith, David L; McKenzie, F. Ellis; Snow, Robert W; Hay, Simon I (February 20, 2007). "Revisiting the Basic Reproductive Number for Malaria and Its Implications for Malaria Control". Retrieved January 11, 2017. 
  4. Beier, John C. "Vector Incrimination and Entomological Inoculation Rates". Methods in Molecular Medicine. 72.  From Malaria Methods and Protocols.
  6. [1]
  7. Lakkam, Milinda; Wein, Lawrence M. "Analysing the nutrition-disease nexus: the case of malaria". doi:10.1186/s12936-015-0894-x. Retrieved 7 May 2017. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Malaria Journal, Estimating the annual entomological inoculation rate for Plasmodium falciparum transmitted by Anopheles gambiae s.l. using three sampling methods in three sites in Uganda.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Template:Cita web
  10. 10.0 10.1 Fornadel, Christen M.; Norris, Laura C.; Norris, Douglas E. (2010-10-05). "Centers for Disease Control Light Traps for Monitoring Anopheles arabiensis Human Biting Rates in an Area with Low Vector Density and High Insecticide-Treated Bed Net Use". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 83 (4): 838–842. ISSN 0002-9637. PMC 2946753Freely accessible. PMID 20889876. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2010.10-0088. Retrieved 2017-01-13. 
  11. Malaria Journal Light traps fail to estimate reliable malaria mosquito biting rates on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 Template:Cita publicación
  13. The Travel and Tropical Medicine Manual
  14. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases
  15. 15.0 15.1 Template:Cita publicación
  16. Template:Cita publicación
  17. Malaria Journal, Multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum infection in asymptomatic children in Senegal: relation to transmission, age and erythrocyte variants.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Template:Cita libro
  19. Template:Cita publicación
  20. Template:Cita publicación
  21. Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition., parasitemia.
  22. PARA-SITE Online, Informational Tables.
  23. BMC Infectious Diseases, Impact of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia on the imunohematological indices among school children and adolescents in a rural area highly endemic for Malaria in southern Mozambique.
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 Template:Cita publicación
  25. Template:Cita publicación
  26. Template:Cita publicación
  27. Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary
  28. Template:Cita publicación
  29. Template:Cita publicación
  30. Vectorial capacity, basic reproduction number, force of infection and all that: formal notation to complete and adjust their classical concepts and equations.