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Timeline of Google Search

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{{Attribute English Wikipedia|original-exists=yes|substantial-edits=yes}}
[[wikipedia:Google Search|Google Search]], offered by [[wikipedia:Google|Google]], is the most widely used search engine on the [[wikipedia:World Wide Web|World Wide Web]] as of 2014, with over three billion searches a day. This page covers key events in the history of Google's search service.
 
For a history of Google the company, including all of Google's products, acquisitions, and corporate changes, see the [[wikipedia:history of Google|history of Google]] page.
 
==Big picture==
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
! Time period !! Development
|-
| 1996–1997 || Development of basic technology, launch of search engine
|-
| 2000 || Internationalization: search is launched in 13 new languages.
|-
| 2001–2004 || Google launches many new search categories, such as [[wikipedia:Google News|Google News]], [[wikipedia:Google Books|Google Books]], and [[wikipedia:Google Scholar|Google Scholar]].
|-
| 2002 onward || The beginning of explicitly announced search algorithm updates.
|-
| 2008–2010 || Faster search experience for user: [[wikipedia:Google Suggest|Google Suggest]] (experimental launch 2004, integrated into main search engine 2008), [[wikipedia:Google Instant|Google Instant]] (2010), and Google Instant Previews.
|-
| 2005, 2009, 2012 || Google starts using web histories to help in searches (2005), experimentally launches social search (2009), and launches [[wikipedia:Search Plus Your World|Search Plus Your World]] (2012).
|-
| 2009–2010 || [[wikipedia:Google Caffeine|Caffeine]] update for faster indexing of the web and fresher and on-topic search results.
|-
| 2011–2014|| [[wikipedia:Google Panda|Google Panda]] (an update to some parts of Google's search algorithm) is released in 2011, with announced updates continuing till September 2014 (Panda 4.1). Stated goals include cracking down on spam, content farms, scrapers, and websites with a high ad-to-content ratio.
|-
| 2012–2014 || [[wikipedia:Google Penguin|Google Penguin]] (an update to some parts of Google's search algorithm) is released in 2012, with the goal of concentrating on webspam. The last named update is in October 2014. Starting December 2014, Penguin moves to continuous updates (Penguin Everflux).
|-
| 2012 onward || Google integrates the [[wikipedia:Knowledge Graph|Knowledge Graph]] into its search results.
|-
| 2013 || Google releases [[wikipedia:Google Hummingbird|Google Hummingbird]], an update that may enable semantic search in the future and integrate better with the Knowledge Graph.
|-
| 2014 onward || Google makes a major update to its algorithm for local search. The update gets the name [[wikipedia:Google Pigeon|Google Pigeon]].
|-
| 2015 onward || Google alerts webmasters to mobile usability issues in January, and announces a major update to its search algorithm, to be rolled out starting April 21, 2015, that will heavily demote mobile-unfriendly sites for web searches on mobile devices.
|}
 
==Full timeline==
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
! Year !! Month and date (if available) !! Event type !! Event
|-
| 1996 || January–March || Prelude || [[wikipedia:Larry Page|Larry Page]] and [[wikipedia:Sergey Brin|Sergey Brin]], graduate students in computer science at [[wikipedia:Stanford University|Stanford University]], begin working on [[wikipedia:BackRub|BackRub]], the precursor to Google Search. Page begins work alone initially, supported by a [[wikipedia:National Science Foundation|National Science Foundation]] Graduate Fellowship, and Brin joins him shortly thereafter. The project is an outgrowth of their work on the [[wikipedia:Stanford Digital Library Project|Stanford Digital Library Project]].<ref name="Anatomy">{{Cite journal
| volume = 35
| page = 3
| last = Brin
| first = Sergey
|author2=Lawrence Page
| title = The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine
| journal = Computer Networks and ISDN Systems
| accessdate = July 24, 2008
| year = 1996
| url = http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.109.4049 | doi = 10.1016/S0169-7552(98)00110-X
}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal
| volume = 21
| pages = 37–47
| last = Brin
| first = Sergey
|author2=Rajeev Motwani |author3=Terry Winograd
| title = What can you do with a web in your pocket
| journal = Data Engineering Bulletin
| accessdate = July 24, 2009
| year = 1998
| url = http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.107.7614
}}</ref><ref>[http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardNumber=9411306 The Stanford Integrated Digital Library Project], Award Abstract #9411306, September 1, 1994 through August 31, 1999 (Estimated), award amount $521,111,001</ref><ref>{{cite journal
| doi = 10.1126/science.323.5910.54
| volume = 323
| issue = 5910
| pages = 54–58
| last = Mervish
| first = Jeffrey
| title = NSF Rethinks Its Digital Library
| journal = Science
| date = January 2, 2009
| pmid = 19119211
}}</ref> Web crawling begins in March.
|-
| 1997 || September 15 || Domain || The domain Google.com is registered.<ref name=official-google-history>{{cite web|url=https://www.google.com/about/company/history/|title = Our history in depth|publisher = [[wikipedia:Google|Google]]|date = September 15, 1997|accessdate = February 1, 2014}}</ref>
|-
| 2000 || May 9 || Internationalization || Google adds ten new languages: [[wikipedia:French language|French]], [[wikipedia:German language|German]], [[wikipedia:Italian language|Italian]], [[wikipedia:Swedish language|Swedish]], [[wikipedia:Finnish language|Finnish]], [[wikipedia:Spanish language|Spanish]], [[wikipedia:Portuguese language|Portuguese]], [[wikipedia:Dutch language|Dutch]], [[wikipedia:Norwegian language|Norwegian]] and [[wikipedia:Danish language|Danish]].<ref name=official-google-history/>
|-
| 2000 || September 12 || Internationalization || Google launches search services in [[wikipedia:Japanese language|Japanese]], [[wikipedia:Chinese language|Chinese]], and [[wikipedia:Korean language|Korean]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://googlepress.blogspot.com/2000/09/google-launches-new-japanese-chinese.html|title = Google Launches New Japanese, Chinese, and Korean Search Services: Company Continues Aggressive Global Expansion To Bring Award-Winning Search Engine To Internet Users Worldwide|publisher = Google|date = September 12, 2000|accessdate = February 1, 2014}}</ref>
|-
| 2000 || October || Advertising || [[wikipedia:Google AdWords|Google AdWords]] launches with 350 customers.<ref name=official-google-history/>
|-
| 2000 || December || User experience || [[wikipedia:Google Toolbar|Google Toolbar]] is released, allowing people to search without visiting the Google homepage, and also offering them more information about the webpages they visit.<ref name=official-google-history/> Some commentators have argued that this marks the beginning of [[wikipedia:search engine optimization|search engine optimization]] and the [[wikipedia:Google Dance|Google Dance]].<ref name=moz>{{cite web|url=http://moz.com/google-algorithm-change|title = Google Algorithm Change History|publisher = [[wikipedia:SEOmoz|SEOmoz]]|accessdate = February 1, 2014}}</ref>
|-
| 2001 || July || Search category || Google launches [[wikipedia:Google Image Search|Google Image Search]] with over 250 million images in its search database.<ref name=official-google-history/>
|-
| 2001 || December || Review || Google releases its first annual [[wikipedia:Google Zeitgeist|Google Zeitgeist]].<ref name=official-google-history/>
|-
| 2002 || September || Search category || Google launches [[wikipedia:Google News|Google News]].<ref name=official-google-history/>
|-
| 2002 || September || Search algorithm update || Google makes the first publicly announced update to its search algorithm.<ref name=moz/> A number of Internet commentators view this as the death of [[wikipedia:PageRank|PageRank]] (the name for Google's system for ranking pages) and a significant decline in the quality of Google's search results.<ref name=webmasterworld>{{cite web|url=http://www.webmasterworld.com/forum3/5688.htm|title = September, 2002 Google Update Discussion - Part 1|publisher = Google News Archive Forum|date = February 1, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://level343.com/article_archive/2011/03/14/dancing-the-google-dance-one-algo-change-two-algo-change-go/|title = Dancing the Google Dance: And a One Algo Change, Two Algo Change, Go!|publisher = Level343.com|date = March 14, 2011|accessdate = February 1, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.wired.com/culture/lifestyle/news/2002/10/55597|title = Google Degraded? Geeks Aghast|date = October 5, 2002|accessdate = February 1, 2014|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:Wired Magazine|Wired Magazine]]''|last = Boutin|first = Paul}}</ref>
|-
| 2003 || February || Search algorithm update || Google announces the ''Boston'' update at SES Boston.<ref name=moz/>
|-
| 2003 || April || Search algorithm update || Google announces the ''Cassandra'' update. The update claims to crack down on link spam, including mutual links between co-owned websites, as well as hidden text and hidden links.<ref name=moz/><ref name="WebmasterWorld forum">{{cite web|url=http://www.webmasterworld.com/forum3/11622.htm|title = Cassandra: Google update algo analysis thread. NO whining or cheering about how your site is doing in this one.|publisher = WebmasterWorld (forum)|accessdate = February 1, 2014}}</ref>
|-
| 2003 || May || Search algorithm update || Google announces the ''Dominic'' update. Commentators believed that the update affected the way backlinks were counted, and many webmasters reported new bots from Google that bounced.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.webmasterworld.com/forum3/13088-1-30.htm?highlight=dominic#msg160172|title = Understanding Dominic - Part 2|publisher = WebmasterWorld (forum)|accessdate = February 1, 2014}}</ref>
|-
| 2003 || June || Search algorithm update || Google announces what will later turn out to have been the last of its regular monthly updates. This update is called the ''Esmeralda'' update.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.kuro5hin.org/story/2003/6/23/201523/090|title = Google Update Esmeralda|date = June 24, 2003|accessdate = February 1, 2014}}</ref>
|-
| 2003 || July || Search algorithm update || Google announces the ''Fritz'' update, and also a change to its update policy, as it moves towards continuous rather than batch processing of updates.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mattcutts.com/blog/explaining-algorithm-updates-and-data-refreshes/|title = Explaining algorithm updates and data refreshes}}</ref><ref name=wired-search-history>{{cite web|url=https://www.wired.com/magazine/2010/02/ff_google_algorithm/all/1|title = Exclusive: How Google’s Algorithm Rules the Web|last = Levy|first = Steven|date = February 22, 2010|accessdate = February 1, 2014|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:Wired Magazine|Wired Magazine]]''}}</ref>
|-
| 2003 || September || Search algorithm update || Google announces a "supplemental index" in order to be able to index some parts of the web more rapidly.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchenginewatch.com/article/2067049/Search-Engine-Size-Wars-Googles-Supplemental-Results|title = Search Engine Size Wars & Google's Supplemental Results|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|authorlink = Danny Sullivan (technologist)|date = September 2, 2003|accessdate = February 1, 2014|publisher = Search Engine Watch}}</ref> The supplemental index would eventually be scrapped.
|-
| 2003 || November || Search algorithm update || Google announces the ''Florida'' update, which commentators consider game-changing in that it completely destroyed the value of 1990s SEO tactics and ushered in a new era of search engine optimization.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchenginewatch.com/article/2066309/What-Happened-To-My-Site-On-Google|title = What Happened To My Site On Google?|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|authorlink = Danny Sullivan (technologist)|date = December 6, 2003|accessdate = February 1, 2014|publisher = Search Engine Watch}}</ref>
|-
| 2003 || December || Search category || Google launches Google Print, that would later become [[wikipedia:Google Books|Google Books]].<ref name=official-google-history/>
|-
| 2004 || January || Search algorithm update || Google announces the ''Austin'' update, to continue with the work of combating SEO tactics that ''Florida'' had made good progress on.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.searchenginejournal.com/the-latest-on-update-austin-googles-january-update/237/|title = The latest on update Austin (Google’s January update)|date = January 31, 2004|publisher = Search Engine Journal|accessdate = February 1, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.search-marketing.info/newsletter/articles/austin-florida.htm|title = Google Update Austin: Google Update Florida Again|last = Wall|first = Aaron|date = January 2004|accessdate = February 1, 2014|publisher = Search Marketing Journal}}</ref>
|-
| 2004 || February 17–20 || Search algorithm update || Google announces the ''Brandy'' update, a massive index expansion, Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), increased attention to anchor text relevance, and the concept of link "neighborhoods."<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.webpronews.com/googles-brandy-update-exposed-2004-02|title = Google’s Brandy Update Exposed|last = French|first = Garrett|date = February 17, 2004|accessdate = February 1, 2014|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:WebProNews|WebProNews]]''}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.sitepoint.com/brandy-google-update/|title = How To Beat Google’s ‘Brandy’ Update|publisher = Sitepoint|date = March 8, 2004|accessdate = February 1, 2014}}</ref>
|-
| 2004 || October || Search category || Google launches [[wikipedia:Google Scholar|Google Scholar]], its search service for academic publications.<ref name=official-google-history/>
|-
| 2004 || December || User experience || [[wikipedia:Google Suggest|Google Suggest]] is introduced as a [[wikipedia:Google Labs|Google Labs]] feature.<ref name=suggest-sel>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/googlecom-finally-gets-google-suggest-feature-14626|title = Google.com Finally Gets Google Suggest Feature|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|authorlink = Danny Sullivan (technologist)|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]|date = August 25, 2008|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref><ref name=suggest-official>{{cite web|url=http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2008/08/at-loss-for-words.html|title = At a loss for words?|date = August 25, 2008|publisher = Official Google Blog|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref>
|-
| 2005 || January || Search algorithm update || To combat link spam, Google, [[wikipedia:Yahoo!|Yahoo!]] and [[wikipedia:Microsoft|Microsoft]] collectively introduce the [[wikipedia:nofollow|nofollow]] attribute.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://searchenginewatch.com/article/2062985/Google-Yahoo-MSN-Unite-On-Support-For-Nofollow-Attribute-For-Links|title = Google, Yahoo, MSN Unite On Support For Nofollow Attribute For Links|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|authorlink = Danny Sullivan (technologist)|date = January 18, 2005|accessdate = February 1, 2014|publisher = Search Engine Watch}}</ref>
|-
| 2005 || February 2 || Search algorithm update || Google announces the ''Allegra'' update, whose effects are unclear.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchenginewatch.com/article/2047678/Googles-Feb.-2005-Update|title = Google's Feb. 2005 Update|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|authorlink = Danny Sullivan (technologist)|date = February 10, 2005|accessdate = February 1, 2014|publisher = Search Engine Watch}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.webmasterworld.com/forum30/27801.htm|title = Update Allegra - Google Update 2-2-2005|publisher = Webmaster World (forum)|accessdate = February 1, 2014}}</ref>
|-
| 2005 || May || Search algorithm update || Google announces the ''Bourbon'' update.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://battellemedia.com/archives/2005/06/google_update_bourbon.php|title = Google Update "Bourbon"|date = June 1, 2005|accessdate = February 1, 2014|publisher = Battelle Media|last = Battelle|first = John|authorlink = John Battelle}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.seroundtable.com/archives/002130.html|title = Bourbon Update Survival Kit|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)|date = June 27, 2005|accessdate = February 1, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Roundtable|Search Engine Roundtable]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchenginewatch.com/article/2061927/GoogleGuy-Shares-Advice-About-May-2005-Bourbon-Update|title = GoogleGuy Shares Advice About May 2005 "Bourbon" Update|date = June 1, 2005|accessdate = February 1, 2014|last = Price|first = Gary|publisher = Search Engine Watch}}</ref>
|-
| 2005 || June || Webmaster tools || Google allows webmasters to submit XML sitemaps via Webmaster Tools, bypassing the need for HTML sitemaps.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchenginewatch.com/article/2061916/New-Google-Sitemaps-Web-Page-Feed-Program|title = New "Google Sitemaps" Web Page Feed Program|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|authorlink = Danny Sullivan (technologist)|date = June 2, 2005|accessdate = February 1, 2014|publisher = Search Engine Watch}}</ref>
|-
| 2005 || June || User experience || Google launches personalized search that automatically taps into users' [[wikipedia:Google Web History|web histories]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2005/06/search-gets-personal.html|title = Search gets personal|date = June 28, 2005|accessdate = February 1, 2014|publisher = Google blog}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://searchenginewatch.com/article/2061728/Google-Relaunches-Personal-Search-This-Time-It-Really-Is-Personal|title = Google Relaunches Personal Search - This Time, It Really Is Personal|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|authorlink = Danny Sullivan (technologist)|date = June 28, 2005|accessdate = February 1, 2014|publisher = Search Engine Watch}}</ref>
|-
| 2005 || June || User experience || Google launches Google Mobile Web Search.<ref name=official-google-history/>
|-
| 2005 || September || Search algorithm update || Although Google denies running an update, [[wikipedia:Matt Cutts|Matt Cutts]] clarifies that [[wikipedia:PageRank|PageRank]] was refreshed for some pages recently (with a three-month refresh cycle) causing changes to many site ranks. Observers call this the ''Gilligan'' update.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mattcutts.com/blog/whats-an-update/|title = What’s an update?|last = Cutts|first = Matt|authorlink = Matt Cutts|date = September 8, 2005|accessdate = February 1, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchenginewatch.com/article/2061165/Googles-Cutts-Says-Not-An-Update-I-Say-An-Update-Just-Not-A-Dance|title = Google's Cutts Says Not An Update - I Say An Update, Just Not A Dance|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|authorlink = Danny Sullivan (technologist)|date = September 9, 2005|accessdate = February 1, 2014|publisher = Search Engine Watch}}</ref>
|-
| 2005 || September–November || Search algorithm update || Google announces and rolls out the ''Jagger'' update in three stages, one in September, one in October, one in November.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.seroundtable.com/archives/002711.html|title = A Review Of The Jagger 2 Update|date = October 26, 2005|last= Pfeiffer|first = Ben|accessdate = February 1, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Roundtable|Search Engine Roundtable]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.webmasterworld.com/forum30/32004.htm|title = Dealing With Consequences of Jagger Update: Your site dropped? Lost rankings? What to do now?|publisher = Webmaster World (forum)|accessdate = February 1, 2014}}</ref>
|-
| 2005 || December (rollout continues till March 2006) || Search algorithm update || Google begins rolling out the '' Big Daddy'' update, continuing for the next few months until March 2006. The update changes URL canonization, site redirects, and related items.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mattcutts.com/blog/indexing-timeline/|title = Indexing timeline|date = May 16, 2006|accessdate = February 1, 2014|last = Cutts|first = Matt|authorlink = Matt Cutts}}</ref>
|-
| 2006 || May || Review || Google releases [[wikipedia:Google Trends|Google Trends]] to make it easy to visualize the popularity of searches over time.<ref name=official-google-history/>
|-
| 2007 || May 16 || Search algorithm update + user experience || Google launches Universal Search, integrating traditional search results with results from [[wikipedia:Google News|Google News]], [[wikipedia:Google Image Search|Google Image Search]], Google Video Search, and other verticals. This is believed to be a major milestone in the user experience.<ref name=official-google-history/><ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2007/05/universal-search-best-answer-is-still.html|title = Universal search: The best answer is still the best answer|date = May 16, 2007|last = Mayer|first = Marissa|authorlink = Marissa Mayer|publisher = Official Google Blog|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/google-20-google-universal-search-11232|title = Google Launches "Universal Search" & Blended Results|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|authorlink = Danny Sullivan (technologist)|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]|date = May 16, 2007|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref>
|-
| 2007 || June || Search algorithm update || The ''Buffy'' update happens. It is not considered a deliberate update, but rather an accumulation of many smaller changes.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mattcutts.com/blog/smx-seattle-wrap-up/|last = Cutts|first = Matt|title = SMX Seattle wrap-up|authorlink = Matt Cutts|date = June 17, 2007|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.seroundtable.com/archives/013882.html|title = Google "Buffy" Update - June Google.com Update|date = June 18, 2007|accessdate = February 2, 2014|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Roundtable|Search Engine Roundtable]]}}</ref>
|-
| 2008 || March/April || Search algorithm update || The ''Dewey'' update seems to lead to a large-scale shuffling of results. Some observers believe that Google is pushing its own properties, such as [[wikipedia:Google Books|Google Books]], but evidence of this is limited.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.seroundtable.com/archives/016754.html|title = Google's Cutts Asking for Feedback on March/April '08 Update (The "Dewey" Update)|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)|date = April 2, 2008|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Roundtable|Search Engine Roundtable]]}}</ref>
|-
| 2008 || August 25 || User experience || [[wikipedia:Google Suggest|Google Suggest]] (later called Autocomplete), originally launched as a Labs feature in December 2004, now becomes part of Google's main site.<ref name=official-google-history/><ref name=suggest-sel/><ref name=suggest-official/>
|-
| 2009 || February || Search algorithm update || The ''Vince'' update happens. [[wikipedia:Matt Cutts|Matt Cutts]] calls it a minor change, but some SEO commentators consider it major.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/google-searchs-vince-change-google-says-not-brand-push-16803|title = Google’s Vince Update Produces Big Brand Rankings; Google Calls It A Trust "Change"|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)|date = March 5, 2009|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref>
|-
| 2009 || February || Webmaster tools || [[wikipedia:Google|Google]], [[wikipedia:Microsoft|Microsoft]], and [[wikipedia:Yahoo!|Yahoo!]] announce joint support for tags that help bots identify canonical versions of webpages without affecting human visitors.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mattcutts.com/blog/canonical-link-tag/|title = Learn about the Canonical Link Element in 5 minutes|last = Cutts|first = Matt|authorlink = Matt Cutts|date = February 15, 2009|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://moz.com/blog/canonical-url-tag-the-most-important-advancement-in-seo-practices-since-sitemaps|title = Canonical URL Tag - The Most Important Advancement in SEO Practices Since Sitemaps|last = Fishkin|first = Rand|date = February 13, 2009|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:SEOmoz|SEOmoz]]}}</ref>
|-
| 2009 || August 10 (announced), rollout completed and made live June 8, 2010 || Search algorithm update || Named ''[[wikipedia:Google Search#Google Caffeine|Caffeine]]'', this update is announced on August 10, 2009. It promises faster crawling, expansion of the index, and a near-real-time integration of indexing and ranking.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://googlewebmastercentral.blogspot.com/2009/08/help-test-some-next-generation.html|title = Help test some next-generation infrastructure|date = August 10, 2009|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = Google Webmaster Central Blog}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://mashable.com/2009/08/10/google-caffeine/|title = Google Caffeine: A Detailed Test of the New Google|last = Parr|first = Ben|authorlink = Ben Parr|date = August 10, 2009|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:Mashable|Mashable]]''}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://techcrunch.com/2009/08/10/caffeine-its-google-on-red-bull-or-something/|title = Caffeine: It's Google On Red Bull, Or Something|last = Siegler|first = MG|date = August 10, 2009|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:TechCrunch|TechCrunch]]''}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://techcrunch.com/2009/12/28/google-caffeine-faster-search-index/|title = Google Is About To Get Caffeinated With A Faster Search Index|last = Schoenfeld|first = Erick|date = December 28, 2009|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:TechCrunch|TechCrunch]]''}}</ref> The rollout is made live on June 8, 2010.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2010/06/our-new-search-index-caffeine.html|title = Our new search index: Caffeine|date = June 8, 2010|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = Official Google Blog}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://techcrunch.com/2010/06/08/google-caffeine/|title = Caffeine: Google Finally Brews Its New Pot Of Web Results — 50% Fresher|date = June 8, 2010|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:TechCrunch|TechCrunch]]''|last = Siegler|first = MG}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2010/06/our-new-search-index-caffeine.html|title = Google’s New Indexing Infrastructure "Caffeine" Now Live|last = Fox|first = Vanessa|authorlink = Vanessa Fox|date = June 8, 2010|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref>
|-
| 2009 || October 26 || Search category || Google introduces Social Search as a Google Labs feature.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2009/10/introducing-google-social-search-i.html|title = Introducing Google Social Search: I finally found my friend's New York blog!|date = October 26, 2009|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = Official Google Blog}}</ref> The feature is expanded further in late January 2010.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2010/01/search-is-getting-more-social.html|title = Search is getting more social|publisher = Official Google Blog|date = January 27, 2010|accessdate = February 2, 2014|last= Heymans|first = Maureen}}</ref>
|-
| 2009 || December 7 || Search category || Google launches real-time search for real-time [[wikipedia:Twitter|Twitter]] feeds, [[wikipedia:Google News|Google News]], and other freshly indexed content.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2009/12/relevance-meets-real-time-web.html|title = Relevance meets the real-time web|date = December 7, 2009|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = Official Google Blog}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/google-launches-real-time-search-31355|title = Google Launches Real Time Search Results|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|authorlink = Danny Sullivan (technologist)|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]|date = December 7, 2009|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref>
|-
| 2010 || Late April, early May || Search algorithm update || The update, named ''May Day'', is an algorithm change affecting the long tail. Foreshadowing [[wikipedia:Google Panda|Google Panda]], the update penalizes sites with large amounts of thin content.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/google-confirms-mayday-update-impacts-long-tail-traffic-43054|title = Google Confirms "Mayday" Update Impacts Long Tail Traffic|date = May 27, 2010|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]|last = Fox|first = Vanessa|authorlink = Vanessa Fox}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.seroundtable.com/archives/022293.html|title = Video: Google's Matt Cutts On May Day Update|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Roundtable|Search Engine Roundtable]]|date = May 30, 2010|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref>
|-
| 2010 || September 8 || User experience || Google launches [[wikipedia:Google Instant|Google Instant]], described as a ''search-before-you-type'' feature: as users are typing, Google predicts the user's whole search query (using the same technology as in [[wikipedia:Google Suggest|Google Suggest]], later called the autocomplete feature) ''and'' instantaneously shows results for the top prediction.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2010/09/search-now-faster-than-speed-of-type.html|title = Search: now faster than the speed of type|date = September 8, 2010|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = Official Google Blog}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://techcrunch.com/2010/09/08/google-instant-its-search-before-you-type/|title = Google Instant: It Searches Before You Type|last = Tsotsis|first = Alexia|date = September 8, 2010|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:TechCrunch|TechCrunch]]''}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2010/09/google-instant-behind-scenes.html|title = Google Instant, behind the scenes |date = September 9, 2010|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = Official Google Blog}}</ref> Google claims that this is estimated to save 2–5 seconds per search query.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.google.com/insidesearch/features/instant/about.html|title = About Google Instant |publisher = [[wikipedia:Google|Google]]|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref> SEO commentators initially believe that this will have a major effect on [[wikipedia:search engine optimization|search engine optimization]], but soon revise downward their estimate of the impact.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://moz.com/blog/google-instant-fewer-changes-to-seo-than-the-average-algo-update|last = Fishkin|first = Rand|publisher = [[wikipedia:SEOmoz|SEOmoz]]|title = Google Instant: Fewer Changes to SEO than the Average Algo Update|date = September 21, 2010|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref>
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| 2010 || November 9 || User experience || Google launches Instant Previews, a feature where users can view previews of the ranked pages by hovering over the links in the [[wikipedia:search engine results page|search engine results page]].<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2010/11/beyond-instant-results-instant-previews.html|title = Beyond Instant results: Instant Previews|date = November 9, 2010|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = Official Google Blog}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://mashable.com/2010/11/09/google-instant-previews/|title = Google Now Lets You Preview Search Results Before You Click Them|last = Parr|first = Ben|authorlink = Ben Parr|date = November 9, 2010|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:Mashable|Mashable]]''}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://techcrunch.com/2010/11/09/google-instant-previews/|title = Google Instant Previews: Get Ready To Be 5% More Likely Satisfied With Google Search|date = November 9, 2010|accessdate = February 2, 2014|last = Siegler|first = MG|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:TechCrunch|TechCrunch]]''}}</ref>
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| 2010 || December 1 || Search algorithm update || Google updated its algorithm to penalize websites that provided a bad experience to users. The update is prompted by a November 26 ''[[wikipedia:New York Times|New York Times]]'' story about a fraudulent company called DecorMyEyes that used the publicity generated by negative customer reviews to rise in the search engine rankings.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2010/12/being-bad-to-your-customers-is-bad-for.html|title = Being bad to your customers is bad for business|date = December 1, 2010|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = Official Google Blog|last = Singhal|first = Amit|authorlink = Amit Singhal}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/28/business/28borker.html?_r=2&pagewanted=all&|title = A Bully Finds a Pulpit on the Web|last = Segal|first = David|date = November 26, 2010|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:New York Times|New York Times]]''}}</ref>
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| 2010 || December || Search algorithm update (announcement/confirmation) || Both [[wikipedia:Google|Google]] and Microsoft's [[wikipedia:Bing (search engine)|Bing]] indicate that they use social signals, including signals from [[wikipedia:Twitter|Twitter]] and [[wikipedia:Facebook|Facebook]], to rank search results.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/what-social-signals-do-google-bing-really-count-55389|title = What Social Signals Do Google & Bing Really Count?|date = December 1, 2010|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|authorlink = Danny Sullivan (technologist)}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/google-webmaster-video-reconfirms-use-of-social-signals-59320|title = Google Webmaster Video Reconfirms Use Of Social Signals|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)|date = December 20, 2010|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref>
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| 2011 || January–February || Search algorithm update || Foreshadowing [[wikipedia:Google Panda|Google Panda]], Google penalizes [[wikipedia:Overstock.com|Overstock.com]] and [[wikipedia:JCPenney|JCPenney]] for the use of SEO tactics.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.webmasterworld.com/google/4252178.htm|title = Overstock.com's Google Rankings - Too Good?|date = January 12, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = Google SEO News & Discussion Forum, Webmaster World}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052748704520504576162753779521700?mg=reno64-wsj&url=http%3A%2F%2Fonline.wsj.com%2Farticle%2FSB10001424052748704520504576162753779521700.html|title = Google Penalizes Overstock for Search Tactics|last= Efrati|first = Amir|date = February 24, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:Wall Street Journal|Wall Street Journal]]''}}</ref>
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| 2011 || January 28 || Search algorithm update || Google launches its ''Attribution'' algorithm change to better sieve out websites that scrape content. [[wikipedia:Matt Cutts|Matt Cutts]] claims that slightly over 2% of search queries are affected, but less than 0.5% of results change noticeably.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mattcutts.com/blog/algorithm-change-launched/|title = Algorithm change launched|last= Cutts|first = Matt|authorlink = Matt Cutts|date = January 28, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchnewscentral.com/20110131124/Latest/latest-google-algorithm-change.html|title = It's all about attribution|last = Harry|first = David|publisher = Search News Central|date = January 31, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref>
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| 2011 || February 23–24 || Search algorithm update || Google launches [[wikipedia:Google Panda|Google Panda]], a major update affecting 12% of search queries. The update continues with the earlier work of cracking down on spam, content farms, [[wikipedia:scraper site|scrapers]], and websites with a high ad-to-content ratio.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2011/02/finding-more-high-quality-sites-in.html|title = Finding more high-quality sites in search|publisher = Official Google Blog|date = February 24, 2011|last = Singhal|first = Amit|authorlink = Amit Singhal|last2 = Cutts|first2 = Matt|authorlink2 = Matt Cutts|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.wired.com/business/2011/03/the-panda-that-hates-farms/|title = TED 2011: The ‘Panda’ That Hates Farms: A Q&A With Google’s Top Search Engineers|last = Levy|first = Steven|authorlink = Steven Levy|date = March 3, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:Wired Magazine|Wired Magazine]]''}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|publisher=[[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]|url=http://searchengineland.com/how-google-panda-places-updates-created-a-rollercoaster-ride-for-iyp-traffic-101683|title=How Google Panda & Places Updates Created A Rollercoaster Ride For IYP Traffic|date = November 21, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref> The rollout is gradual over several months, and Panda will see many further updates.
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| 2011 || March 30 || User experience, incorporation of user feedback || Google launches the +1 button so that users can offer feedback on search results.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.google.com/+/learnmore/+1/|title = The +1 Button: Show appreciation for things you like on the web|publisher = Google|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref> Commentators liken this to the [[wikipedia:like button|like button]] seen on [[wikipedia:Facebook|Facebook]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/meet-1-googles-answer-to-the-facebook-like-button-70569|title = Meet +1: Google’s Answer To The Facebook Like Button|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|authorlink = Danny Sullivan (technologist)|date = March 30, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://techcrunch.com/2011/03/30/google-plus-one/|title = With +1, Google Search Goes Truly Social — As Do Google Ads|last = Siegler|first = MG|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:TechCrunch|TechCrunch]]''|date = March 30, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref>
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| 2011 || April 11 || Search algorithm update || Google rolls out Panda to all English queries worldwide (not limited to English-speaking countries) and integrates new signals into its ranking algorithm.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://googlewebmastercentral.blogspot.com/2011/04/high-quality-sites-algorithm-goes.html|title = High-quality sites algorithm goes global, incorporates user feedback|publisher = Google Webmaster Central blog|date = April 11, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|last = Singhal|first = Amit|authorlink = Amit Singhal}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/google-rolls-out-its-panda-update-internationally-and-begins-incorporating-searcher-blocking-data-72497|title = Panda 2.0: Google Rolls Out Panda Update Internationally & Incorporates Searcher Blocking Data|last = Fox|first= Vanessa|authorlink = Vanessa Fox|date = April 11, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref>
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| 2011 || May 9 || Search algorithm update || Google rolls out further minor updates to Panda but does not discuss them in detail, saying they are more like Panda 2.1 than Panda 3.0.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/its-panda-update-2-not-3-google-says-76508|title = It’s Panda Update 2.1, Not Panda 3.0, Google Says|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|authorlink = Danny Sullivan|date = May 10, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.seroundtable.com/google-panda-3-13379.html|title = Google Panda 3.0|date = May 9, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Roundtable|Search Engine Roundtable]]}}</ref>
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| 2011 || June 2 || Webmaster tools || [[wikipedia:Google|Google]], [[wikipedia:Yahoo!|Yahoo!]], and [[wikipedia:Microsoft|Microsoft]] announce [[wikipedia:Schema.org|Schema.org]], a joint initiative that supports a richer range of tags that websites can use to convey better information.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/schema-org-google-bing-yahoo-unite-79554|title = Schema.org: Google, Bing & Yahoo Unite To Make Search Listings Richer Through Structured Data|last = Fox|first= Vanessa|authorlink = Vanessa Fox|date = June 2, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2011/06/introducing-schemaorg-search-engines.html|title = Introducing schema.org: Search engines come together for a richer web|publisher = Official Google Blog|last = Guha|first = Ramanathan|date = June 2, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://techcrunch.com/2011/06/02/google-yahoo-and-bing-collaborate-on-structured-data-to-make-search-listings-richer/|title = Google, Yahoo, And Bing Collaborate On Structured Data To Make Search Listings Richer|last = Empson|first = Rip|date = June 2, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:TechCrunch|TechCrunch]]''}}</ref>
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| 2011 || June 21 || Search algorithm update || Google rolls out Panda 2.2.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/official-google-panda-update-2-2-is-live-82611|title = Official: Google Panda Update 2.2 Is Live|date = June 21, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/why-google-panda-is-more-a-ranking-factor-than-algorithm-update-82564|title = Why Google Panda Is More A Ranking Factor Than Algorithm Update|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|authorlink = Danny Sullivan (technologist)|date = June 21, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.stonetemple.com/a-holistic-look-at-panda-with-vanessa-fox/|title = A Holistic Look at Panda with Vanessa Fox|last = Enge|first = Eric|date = July 12, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = Stone Temple}}</ref>
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| 2011 || July 23 || Search algorithm update || Google rolls out Panda 2.3.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/official-google-panda-2-3-update-is-live-87230|title = Official: Google Panda 2.3 Update Is Live|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)|date = July 26, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref>
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| 2011 || August 12 || Search algorithm update || Google rolls out Panda 2.4, making Panda available in all languages around the world, except [[wikipedia:Chinese language|Chinese]], [[wikipedia:Japanese language|Japanese]], and [[wikipedia:Korean language|Korean]].<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://googlewebmastercentral.blogspot.com/2011/08/high-quality-sites-algorithm-launched.html|title = High-quality sites algorithm launched in additional languages|last = Singhal|first = Amit|authorlink = Amit Singhal|date = August 12, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = Official Google Blog}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/googles-panda-update-launches-internationally-in-most-languages-89214|title = Google Panda Update 2.4: Panda Goes International, In Most Languages|last = Fox|first = Vanessa|authorlink = Vanessa Fox|date = August 12, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref>
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| 2011 || August 16 || User experience || Google rolls out expanded sitelinks, starting with 12-pack links (but later reducing to 6-pack).<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://insidesearch.blogspot.com/2011/08/evolution-of-sitelinks-expanded-and.html|title = The evolution of sitelinks: expanded and improved|publisher = Inside Search (the official Google Search blog)|date = August 16, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|last = Rocha|first = Daniel}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/official-google-sitelinks-expands-to-12-pack-89555|title = Official: Google Sitelinks Expands To 12 Pack|date = August 16, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|last= Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref>
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| 2011 || September 15 || Webmaster tools || Google rolls out pagination elements for websites to communicate to Google that various webpages are different pages of the same article.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://googlewebmastercentral.blogspot.com/2011/09/pagination-with-relnext-and-relprev.html|title = Pagination with rel="next" and rel="prev"|publisher = Google Webmaster Central Blog|date = September 15, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|last = Li|first = Benjia|last2 = Kupke|first2 = Joachim}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/google-provides-new-options-for-paginated-content-92906|title = Google Provides New Options for Paginated Content|last = Fox|first = Vanessa|authorlink = Vanessa Fox|date = September 15, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref>
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| 2011 || September 30 || Search algorithm update || Google rolls out Panda 2.5.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/confirmed-google-panda-2-5-update-arrived-this-week-95222|title = Confirmed: Google Panda 2.5 Update Arrived This Week|last = McGee|first = Matt|date = September 30, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref> Although the specifics of the update are unclear, a few sites gain significantly and a few others lose significantly.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/google-panda-losers-today-show-winners-youtube-95257|title = Google Panda 2.5: Losers Include Today Show, The Next Web; Winners Include YouTube, Fox News|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|authorlink = Danny Sullivan (technologist)|date = October 1, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref> Other minor ''flux'' updates occur on October 3, October 5 and October 13, and some commentators call these Panda 3.0 and 3.1.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/taking-a-closer-look-at-the-googles-panda-2-5-flux-97603|title = Panda Update 3.0 Live & Panda "Flux"|date = October 19, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|last = Fox|first = Vanessa|authorlink = Vanessa Fox|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref>
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| 2011 || October 18 || User experience, SEO data || Google announces that they will start encrypting all search queries for security purposes.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2011/10/making-search-more-secure.html|title = Making search more secure|date = October 18, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = Official Google Blog|last = Kao|first = Evelyn}}</ref> This disrupts organic keyword referral data for many websites, making search engine optimization harder.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://moz.com/blog/google-hides-search-referral-data-with-new-ssl-implementation-emergency-whiteboard-friday|title = Google Hides Search Referral Data with New SSL Implementation - Emergency Whiteboard Friday|last= Wheeler|first = Aaron|date = October 21, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:SEOmoz|SEOmoz]]}}</ref>
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| 2011 || November 3 || Search algorithm update || Google announces a ''Freshness'' update that would give priority to fresher, more recent search results, and claims this could affect 35% of search queries.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2011/11/giving-you-fresher-more-recent-search.html|title = Giving you fresher, more recent search results|last = Singhal|first = Amit|authorlink = Amit Singhal|date = November 3, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/google-search-algorithm-change-for-freshness-to-impact-35-of-searches-99856|title = Google Search Algorithm Change For Freshness To Impact 35% Of Searches; Twitter Firehose Remains Off|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)|date = November 3, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://techcrunch.com/2011/11/03/googles-new-algorithm-update-impacts-35-of-searches/|title = Google’s New Algorithm Update Impacts 35% Of Searches|last = Perez|first = Sarah|date = November 3, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:TechCrunch|TechCrunch]]''}}</ref> The algorithm largely affects time-sensitive queries. A number of sites gain and many others lose as a result of the update.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://techcrunch.com/2011/11/07/the-winners-losers-of-googles-freshness-update-revealed/|title = The Winners & Losers Of Google’s Freshness Update Revealed|last = Perez|first = Sarah|date = November 7, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:TechCrunch|TechCrunch]]''}}</ref>
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| 2011 || November 14 || Search algorithm update || Google announces a 10-pack of updates, and says that this begins a series of monthly announcements of packs of updates.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://insidesearch.blogspot.com/2011/11/ten-recent-algorithm-changes.html|title = Ten recent algorithm changes|date = November 14, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = Inside Search: the Official Google Search blog|last = Cutts|first = Matt|authorlink = Matt Cutts}}</ref>
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| 2011 || November 18 || Search algorithm update || Google releases an allegedly minor Panda update, which SEO commentators label as Panda 3.1, despite the lack of a generally agreed upon update named Panda 3.0.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/minor-google-panda-update-on-november-18th-101891|title = Google Panda Update 3.1: "Minor" One Made Live On November 18th|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)|date = November 21, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.seroundtable.com/google-panda-31-14348.html|title = Google Panda 3.1 Update : 11/18|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)|date = November 21, 2011|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Roundtable|Search Engine Roundtable]]}}</ref>
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| 2012 || December 2011-January 2012 (announced January 5) || Search algorithm update, user experience || A 30-change pack of updates, including landing-page quality detection, more relevant site-links, more rich snippets, and related-query improvements.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://insidesearch.blogspot.com/2012/01/30-search-quality-highlights-with.html|title = 30 search quality highlights (with codenames!): December|date = January 5, 2012|last = Nayak|first = Pandu|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = Inside Search: The official Google Search blog}}</ref>
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| 2012 || January 10 || Search algorithm update, user experience || Google launches [[wikipedia:Search Plus Your World|Search Plus Your World]], a deep integration of one's social data into search.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2012/01/search-plus-your-world.html|title = Search, plus Your World|date = January 10, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = Official Google Blog|last = Singhal|first = Amit|authorlink = Amit Singhal}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://mashable.com/2012/01/10/google-launches-social-search/|title = Google Merges Search and Google+ Into Social Media Juggernaut|last = Ulanoff|first = Lance|date = January 10, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:Mashable|Mashable]]''}}</ref> SEO commentators are critical of how the search results favor [[wikipedia:Google+|Google+]] and push it to users, compared to more widely used social networks such as [[wikipedia:Facebook|Facebook]] and [[wikipedia:Twitter|Twitter]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/examples-google-search-plus-drive-facebook-twitter-crazy-107554|title = Real-Life Examples Of How Google’s "Search Plus" Pushes Google+ Over Relevancy|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|authorlink = Danny Sullivan (technologist)|date = January 11, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://marketingland.com/twitter-google-wwe-bing-3206|title = Twitter Cries Foul Over Google "@WWE" Search, But Google Still Beats Bing|date = January 11, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|authorlink = Danny Sullivan (technologist)|publisher = [[wikipedia:Marketing Land|Marketing Land]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://techcrunch.com/2012/01/10/search-google-plus-not-your-world/|title = "Search Plus Your World" Is Just About Google+, Not Your World|date = January 10, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|last = Lardinois|first = Frederic|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:TechCrunch|TechCrunch]]''}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://mashable.com/2012/01/13/google-social-search-too-much-too-soon/|title = Why Google's Social Search Is Too Much, Too Soon|last = Kessler|first = Sarah|date = January 13, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:Mashable|Mashable]]''}}</ref>
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| 2012 || January 19 || Search algorithm update || Google updates its algorithm to introduce a penalty for websites with too many ads "above the fold". The update has no name, but some SEOs use "Top Heavy" to describe the update.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://insidesearch.blogspot.com/2012/01/page-layout-algorithm-improvement.html|title = Page layout algorithm improvement|date = January 19, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = Inside Search: The official Google Search blog|last = Cutts|first = Matt|authorlink = Matt Cutts}}</ref>
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| 2012 || February 27 || Search algorithm update || The update, codenamed ''Venice'', is announced as part of Google's end-of-February 40-pack update. Venice seemed to give substantially increased weightage to local results (location inferred from the user's IP and other signals) for many search queries, such as those looking for businesses of various types in the vicinity.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://insidesearch.blogspot.com/2012/02/search-quality-highlights-40-changes.html|title = Search quality highlights: 40 changes for February|publisher = Inside Search: the Official Google Search blog|date = February 27, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|last = Singhal|first = Amit|authorlink = Amit Singhal}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://moz.com/blog/understand-and-rock-the-google-venice-update|title = Understand and Rock the Google Venice Update|date = March 12, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:SEOmoz|SEOmoz]]|last = Ramsey|first = Mike}}</ref> On the same date, Google rolls out Panda 3.3, which it bills as a data refresh rather than an algorithm change.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/google-confirms-panda-update-link-evaluation-local-search-rankings-113078|title = Google Confirms Panda 3.3 Update, Plus Changes To How It Evaluates Links, Local Search Rankings & Much More|last = McGee|first = Matt|date = February 27, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref>
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| 2012 || March 23, April 19, April 27 || Search algorithm update || March 23: Google rolls out Panda 3.4, which is claimed to affect 1.6% of search queries.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/google-says-panda-update-is-rolling-out-now-116444|title = Google Says Panda 3.4 Is ‘Rolling Out Now’|last = McGee|first = Matt|date = March 23, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref><br>Google quietly rolls out Panda 3.5 (April 19) and Panda 3.6 (April 27), with minimal impact.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.seroundtable.com/google-panda-35-15065.html|title = Google Mocks Me For Missing Panda 3.5|date = April 26, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Roundtable|Search Engine Roundtable]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/panda-update-3-6-on-april-27th-120227|title = Confirmed: Panda Update 3.6 Happened On April 27th|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)|date = May 3, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref>
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| 2012 || April 24 || Search algorithm update || Google launches its "Webspam update" which would soon become known as [[wikipedia:Google Penguin|Google Penguin]].<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://insidesearch.blogspot.com/2012/04/another-step-to-reward-high-quality.html|title = Another step to reward high-quality sites|last = Cutts|first = Matt|authorlink = Matt Cutts|date = April 24, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = Inside Search: The official Google Search blog}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/the-penguin-update-googles-webspam-algorithm-gets-official-name-119623|title = The Penguin Update: Google’s Webspam Algorithm Gets Official Name|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|authorlink = Danny Sullivan (technologist)|date = April 26, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/penguin-update-recovery-tips-advice-119650|title = Google Penguin Update Recovery Tips & Advice|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|authorlink = Danny Sullivan (technologist)|date = April 26, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/google-talks-penguin-update-recover-negative-seo-120463|title = Two Weeks In, Google Talks Penguin Update, Ways To Recover & Negative SEO|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|authorlink = Danny Sullivan (technologist)|date = May 10, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref>
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| 2012 || May 16 || Search algorithm update || Google starts rolling out [[wikipedia:Knowledge Graph|Knowledge Graph]], used by Google internally to store semantic relationships between objects. Google now begins displaying supplemental information about objects related to search queries on the side.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2012/05/introducing-knowledge-graph-things-not.html|title = Introducing the Knowledge Graph: things, not strings|last = Singhal|first= Amit|date = May 16, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = The Official Google Blog}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/google-launches-knowledge-graph-121585|title = Google Launches Knowledge Graph To Provide Answers, Not Just Links|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|date = May 16, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://techcrunch.com/2012/05/16/google-just-got-a-whole-lot-smarter-launches-its-knowledge-graph/|title = Google Just Got A Whole Lot Smarter, Launches Its Knowledge Graph|last = Lardinois|first = Frederic|date = May 16, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:TechCrunch|TechCrunch]]''}}</ref>
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| 2012 || May 25 || Search algorithm update || Google rolls out an update of [[wikipedia:Google Penguin|Google Penguin]], variously called Penguin 1.1 and Penguin 2.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/google-pushes-first-penguin-algorithm-update-122518|title = Google Releases Penguin Update 2|date = May 26, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]|last = McGee|first = Matt}}</ref>
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| 2012 || June–September || Search algorithm update || Google rolls out updates to [[wikipedia:Google Panda|Google Panda]]: 3.7 (June 8),<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.seroundtable.com/google-panda-3-7-15281.html|title = Confirmed: Google Panda 3.7 Update|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)|date = June 11, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://moz.com/blog/the-bigfoot-update-aka-dr-pete-goes-crazy|title = The Bigfoot Update (AKA Dr. Pete Goes Crazy)|last = Meyers|first = Peter|date = June 11, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:SEOmoz|SEOmoz]]}}</ref> 3.8 (June 25),<ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/official-google-panda-update-version-3-8-on-june-25th-125945|title = Official Google Panda Update Version 3.8 On June 25th|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)|date = June 25, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.seroundtable.com/google-panda-3-8-15350.html|title = Google Panda 3.8 Live: June 25th & Refresh Only|date = June 26, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Roundtable|Search Engine Roundtable]]|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)}}</ref> 3.9 (July 24),<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.seroundtable.com/google-panda-39-official-15480.html|title = Official: Google Panda 3.9 Refresh|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Roundtable|Search Engine Roundtable]]|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)|date = July 25, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref> 3.9.1 (August 20),<ref name=moz/> and 3.9.2 (September 18).<ref name=moz/>
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| 2012 || July 26 || Third-party tracking || Moz launches MozCast, the "Google weather report". The tool, available online at mozcast.com, tracks the "temperature" of changes to Google's search algorithm and rankings on a day-to-day basis, helping provide better context to search algorithm changes beyond just the biggest ones.<ref>{{cite web|url = https://moz.com/blog/announcing-mozcast-the-google-weather-report|title = Announcing MozCast - The Google Weather Report|last = Meyers|first = Peter|date = July 26, 2012|accessdate = May 1, 2017|publisher = [[wikipedia:Moz|Moz]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url = https://web.archive.org/web/20120715000000*/http://mozcast.com|title = Internet Archive's Wayback Machine results for mozcast.com in 2012|accessdate = May 1, 2017}}</ref><ref name=mozcast-v-algoroo>{{cite web|url = http://insideonline.co.uk/mozcast-vs-algoroo/|title = Mozcast Vs. Algoroo – Which Tool Should You Use?|last = Ryan|first = David|date = May 22, 2016|accessdate = May 1, 2017|publisher = Inside Online}}</ref>
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| 2012 || August 10 || Search algorithm update || Google announces that it will start penalizing websites with repeat copyright infringements, possibly as measured by [[wikipedia:DMCA|DMCA]] takedown requests.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://insidesearch.blogspot.com/2012/08/an-update-to-our-search-algorithms.html|title = An update to our search algorithms|last = Singhal|first = Amit|authorlink = Amit Singhal|date = August 10, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = Inside Search: The official Google Search blog}}</ref> Some SEO commentators call this the ''Pirate'' update.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/dmca-requests-now-used-in-googles-ranking-algorithm-130118|title = The Pirate Update: Google Will Penalize Sites Repeatedly Accused Of Copyright Infringement|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|authorlink = Danny Sullivan (technologist)|date = August 10, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref>
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| 2012 || September 27 || Search algorithm update || Google rolls out a major update to [[wikipedia:Google Panda|Google Panda]] (the update is to the underlying algorithm, rather than merely being a data refresh), that would be dubbed Panda 4.0, but SEO commentators decide to simply call it Panda #20. The change is estimated to have affected 2.4% of search queries.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.seroundtable.com/google-panda-20-15789.html|title = 20th Google Panda Algorithm Update: Fairly Major|date = October 4, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Roundtable|Search Engine Roundtable]]|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)}}</ref>
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| 2012 || September 27 || Search algorithm update || Google announces changes in the way it handles Exact-Match Domains. The change is estimated to have affected 0.6% of search queries.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://moz.com/blog/googles-emd-algo-update-early-data|title = Google's EMD Algo Update - Early Data|last = Meyers|first = Peter|date = September 29, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:SEOmoz|SEOmoz]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/low-quality-exact-match-domains-are-googles-next-target-134889|title = The EMD Update: Google Issues "Weather Report" Of Crack Down On Low Quality Exact Match Domains|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)|date = September 28, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref>
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| 2012 || October 5 || Search algorithm update || Google releases minor tweaks to Penguin, affecting about 0.3% of search queries. SEO commentators call it Penguin #3, following the lead of Panda in ditching the use of 1.x notation in favor of labeling updates by number.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/google-penguin-update-3-135527|title = Google Penguin Update 3 Released, Impacts 0.3% Of English-Language Queries|last = McGee|first = Matt|date = October 5, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.seroundtable.com/google-penguin-3-15802.html|title = Google Released 3rd Penguin Update: Not Jarring Or Jolting|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Roundtable|Search Engine Roundtable]]|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)|date = October 8, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref>
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| 2012-13 || November 2012-January 2013 || Search algorithm update || Google releases updates to [[wikipedia:Google Panda|Google Panda]]: #21 (November 5, affecting 1.1% of queries), #22 (November 21, data refresh only), #23 (December 21, data refresh only, affecting 1.3% of queries), and #24 (January 22, affecting 1.2% of queries).<ref name=moz/>
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| 2012 || December 4 || Search algorithm update || Google adds [[wikipedia:Knowledge Graph|Knowledge Graph]] to non-English queries, and says that the change goes beyond translation and also adds enhanced Knowledge Graph capabilities.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://insidesearch.blogspot.com/2012/12/get-smarter-answers-from-knowledge_4.html|title = Get smarter answers from the Knowledge Graph from Português to 日本語 to русский|last = Brown|first = Aaron|date = December 4, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = Inside Search: The official Google Search blog}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://techcrunch.com/2012/12/04/googles-knowledge-graph-expands-to-more-languages-including-italian-japanese-and-russian/|title = Google’s Knowledge Graph Expands To More Languages, Including Italian, French, Japanese And Russian|last = Lardinois|first = Frederic|date = December 4, 2012|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:TechCrunch|TechCrunch]]''}}</ref>
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| 2013 || March || Third-party tracking || Algoroo, a tool to track changes in Google Search rankings and identify algorithm changes, launches, initially in pre-alpha.<ref>{{cite web|url = https://web.archive.org/web/20130318184550/http://algoroo.com|title = Wayback Machine for algoroo from March 18, 2013|accessdate = May 1, 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.icrossing.com/uk/ideas/how-to-attribute-ranking-fluctuations-serps-volatility-to-google-updates|title = Correlating SERP Fluctuations & Volatility to Google Updates|publisher = iCrossing|date = July 17, 2013|accessdate = May 1, 2017|last = Siotos|first = Modestos}}</ref><ref name=mozcast-v-algoroo/>
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| 2013 || March 13–14 || Search algorithm update || Google rolls out Panda #25. Remarks by [[wikipedia:Matt Cutts|Matt Cutts]] at [[wikipedia:SMX West|SMX West]] give people the impression that this is the last update to Panda as a distinct entity and it will thereafter be integrated into the core algorithm.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.seroundtable.com/google-panda-25-16506.html|title = Google's Final Manual Panda Refresh Here? #25 |date = March 15, 2013|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Roundtable|Search Engine Roundtable]]|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/google-panda-update-25-seems-to-have-hit-151732|title = Google Panda Update 25 Seems To Have Hit|date = March 15, 2013|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)}}</ref> On June 11, 2013, Cutts clarifies that Panda updates roll out over 10-day periods every month and are not continuous.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/googles-panda-dance-matt-cutts-confirms-panda-rolls-out-monthly-over-10-of-30-days-162950|title = Google’s Panda Dance: Matt Cutts Confirms Panda Rolls Out Monthly Over 10 Of 30 Days|date = June 11, 2013|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)}}</ref>
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| 2013 || May 22 || Search algorithm update || Google rolls out a new version of [[wikipedia:Google Penguin|Google Penguin]] that it calls Penguin 2.0, which SEO commentators call Penguin #4.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/penguin-4-with-penguin-2-0-generation-spam-fighting-is-now-live-160544|title = Penguin 4, With Penguin 2.0 Generation Spam-Fighting, Is Now Live|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)|date = May 22, 2013|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://moz.com/blog/penguin-2-were-you-jarred-and-or-jolted|title = Penguin 2.0/4 - Were You Jarred and/or Jolted?|date = May 24, 2013|accessdate = February 2, 2014|last = Meyers|first = Peter|publisher = [[wikipedia:Moz (marketing company)|Moz]]}}</ref>
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| 2013 || August 6 || User experience || Google adds a new feature called "in-depth articles" in its search results to feature long-form content of long-lasting value.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://googlewebmastercentral.blogspot.com/2013/08/in-depth-articles-in-search-results.html|title = In-depth articles in search results|publisher = Google Webmaster Central Blog|date = August 6, 2013|accessdate = February 2, 2014|last = Nayak|first = Pandu}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://moz.com/blog/inside-indepth-articles|title = Inside In-depth Articles: Dissecting Google's Latest Feature|last = Meyers|first = Peter|date = August 13, 2013|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Moz (marketing company)|Moz]]}}</ref>
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| 2013 || August 21–22 (approximate date for rollout), September 26 (announcement) || Search algorithm update || Google releases [[wikipedia:Google Hummingbird|Google Hummingbird]], a core algorithm update that may enable more semantic search and more effective use of the [[wikipedia:Knowledge Graph|Knowledge Graph]] in the future.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/google-hummingbird-172816|title = FAQ: All About The New Google "Hummingbird" Algorithm|date = September 26, 2013|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|authorlink = Danny Sullivan (technologist)|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.seroundtable.com/google-update-17268.html|title = Some Reports Of An August 21/22 Google Update|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Roundtable|Search Engine Roundtable]]|date = August 23, 2013|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref>
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| 2013 || October 4 || Search algorithm update || Google announces what it calls Penguin 2.1, its fifth version of Penguin, claiming to affect 1% of searches. The effect seems minor.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/penguin-2-1-and-5-live-173632|title = Penguin 5, With The Penguin 2.1 Spam-Filtering Algorithm, Is Now Live|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|authorlink = Danny Sullivan (technologist)|date = October 4, 2013|accessdate = February 2, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.seroundtable.com/google-penguin-21-big-17479.html|title = Google Penguin 2.1 Was A Big Hit|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|authorlink = Barry Schwartz (technologist)|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Roundtable|Search Engine Roundtable]]|date = October 7, 2013|accessdate = February 2, 2014}}</ref>
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| 2014 || May 16 || Search algorithm update || Payday Loans 2.0 algorithm change is purely low quality external link related and over-optimization. This specifically goes after high search, spammy queries such as “Payday Loans”. Google is trying to devalue sites that perform in link buying and other black hat methods to game the algorithm.
<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.tideinteractivegroup.com/google-algorithm-timeline.php|title = Payday Loans 2.0|last = Freeman|first = Josh|authorlink = Josh Freeman|publisher = [[wikipedia:Tide Interactive Group|Tide Interactive Group]]}}</ref>
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| 2014 || May 20 || Search algorithm update || Panda 4.0 is implemented to devalue sites that contained poor / low quality content. This has been an ongoing battle that Google has been chipping away at for years. Google has claimed that the algorithm change has impacted roughly 7.5% of all search queries.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.tideinteractivegroup.com/google-algorithm-timeline.php|title = Panda 4.0|last = Freeman|first = Josh|authorlink = Josh Freeman|publisher = [[wikipedia:Tide Interactive Group|Tide Interactive Group]]}}</ref>
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| 2014 || July 3 || Team || [[wikipedia:Matt Cutts|Matt Cutts]], a Distinguished Engineer at Google who has been heading the web spam team since 2004, goes on leave till October.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://searchengineland.com/matt-cutts-on-leave-195785|title = Head Of Google’s Web Spam Team Matt Cutts Is Going On Leave. After 14 years with Google -- and 10 years heading up the web spam team -- veteran says time for a break|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|date = July 3, 2014|accessdate = September 12, 2016}}</ref> He later extends his leave through 2015.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://searchengineland.com/will-matt-cutts-return-extends-leave-207159|title = Will He Ever Return? Head Of Google’s Web Spam Team Matt Cutts Extends Leave Into 2015. 14 year veteran of Google says web spam fighting has been running fine since he took leave in July.|date = October 31, 2014|accessdate = September 12, 2016|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref>
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| 2014 || July 24 || Search algorithm update || Google announces the rollout of [[wikipedia:Google Pigeon|Google Pigeon]], a major update to its search algorithm for "local" searches such as searches related to events or businesses near one. The Pigeon update gives more weight to various search signals to deliver more relevant local results.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/google-makes-significant-changes-local-search-ranking-algorithm-197778|title = Google "Pigeon" Updates Local Search Algorithm With Stronger Ties To Web Search Signal|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|date = July 24, 2014|accessdate = April 12, 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://blumenthals.com/blog/2014/07/25/google-updates-local-algo-with-more-web-based-signals-turmoil-in-serps/|title = Google Updates Local Algo with More Web Based Signals – Turmoil in SERPS|last = Blumenthal|first = Mike|date = July 25, 2014|accessdate = April 12, 2015}}</ref>
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| 2014 || August 6 || Search algorithm update || Google announces search results will give preference to sites using [[wikipedia:HTTP Secure|HTTP Secure]] and [[wikipedia:Transport Layer Security|SSL]] encryption. This added ranking signal would be a "lightweight" ranking boost.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://googlewebmastercentral.blogspot.com/2014/08/https-as-ranking-signal.html |title=HTTPS as a ranking signal |publisher=www.google.com |accessdate=Dec 1, 2014}}</ref>
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| 2014 || August 28 || User experience || Google Authorship is removed completely from search results, as already on December 2013 it reduced number of images showing in SERP's. Now it's totally gone to extinction due to lower adaptation rate by authors, to reduce mobile bandwidth and to improve user experience.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=https://plus.google.com/u/0/+JohnMueller/posts/HZf3KDP1Dm8|title = Authorship removal|last = Mueller|first = John|publisher = [[wikipedia:Google Plus|Google Plus]]|date = August 28, 2014|accessdate = April 12, 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.webtechshare.com/google-authorship-ends-author-rank-still-remains/ |title=Google Authorship Ends |publisher=www.webtechshare.com |accessdate=August 31, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/goodbye-google-authorship-201975|title = It’s Over: The Rise & Fall Of Google Authorship For Search Results. Google has completely dropped all authorship functionality from the search results and webmaster tools.|last = Enge|first = Eric|date = August 28, 2014|accessdate = April 12, 2015|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref>
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| 2014 || September 23 (rollout begins), September 25 (announcement) || Search algorithm update || Google announces that a significant update to [[wikipedia:Google Panda|Google Panda]] is rolling out over the next few weeks. The update is dubbed Panda 4.1.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=https://plus.google.com/+PierreFar/posts/7CWs3a3yoeY|title = Panda update rolling out|date = September 25, 2014|accessdate = April 12, 2015|publisher = [[wikipedia:Google Plus|Google Plus]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/panda-update-rolling-204313|title = Panda 4.1 — Google’s 27th Panda Update — Is Rolling Out|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|authorlink = Danny Sullivan|date = September 25, 2014|accessdate = April 12, 2015|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref> An analysis reveals that the update was heavy on attacking affiliate marketing, keyword stuffing, security warnings, and deception.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.hmtweb.com/marketing-blog/panda-4-1-analysis/|title = Panda 4.1 Analysis and Findings – Affiliate Marketing, Keyword Stuffing, Security Warnings, and Deception Prevalent|last = Gabe|first = Glenn|date = September 29, 2014|accessdate = April 12, 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://moz.com/blog/panda-41-google-leaked-dos-and-donts-whiteboard-friday|title = Panda 4.1 Google Leaked Dos and Don'ts - Whiteboard Friday|last = Bachynski|first = Josh|date = December 5, 2014|accessdate = April 12, 2015|publisher = Moz}}</ref>
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| 2014 || October 17 || Search algorithm update || Penguin 3.0 is implemented as a refresh to re-evaluate sites demoted in the last update due to webspam tactics and demote sites using [[wikipedia:Spamdexing#Link spam|black hat SEO]] tactics. This refresh is rolled out globally over several weeks impacting roughly 1% of English-language queries.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/239162 |title=What You Need to Know About Google's Penguin 3.0|last = Dholakiya|first = Pratik|authorlink = Pratik Dholakiya |publisher=www.entrepreneur.com |accessdate=December 1, 2014}}</ref>
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| 2014 || October 21 || Search algorithm update || ''Pirate'' 2.0 update dubbed by SEO commentators following the similar update in 2012 which penalized sites deemed as violators of copyright laws. This refresh targets a relatively small number of known sites causing dramatic drops in ranking. In tandem with this Google introduces a new Ad Format for queries where people may be searching for copyrighted media, requiring publishers to purchase ads to promote original content over the unauthorized copies.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/google-pirate-update-206124 |title=After More Than Two Years, Google Finally Releasing New "Pirate Update" To Fight Piracy|last = Sullivan|first = Danny|publisher=www.searchengineland.com |accessdate=December 1, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://blog.searchmetrics.com/us/2014/10/26/google-pirate-update-analysis-and-loser-list/|title = Google Pirate Update Analysis and Loser List|publisher = SearchmMetrics|date = October 26, 2014|accessdate = April 12, 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://torrentfreak.com/googles-new-downranking-hits-pirate-sites-hard-141023/|title = Google’s New Search Downranking Hits Torrent Sites Hard|author = Ernesto|date = October 23, 2014|accessdate = April 12, 2015}}</ref>
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| 2014 || December 10 || Search algorithm update || Google announces that [[wikipedia:Google Penguin|Google Penguin]] will switch to continuous updates, also known as "Penguin Everflux".<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/google-says-penguin-shift-continuous-updates-210580|title = Google Says Penguin To Shift To "Continuous Updates". Google To Continuously "Optimize" The Penguin Algorithm As It Goes|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|date = December 10, 2014|accessdate = April 12, 2015}}</ref>
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| 2014 || December 22 || Search algorithm update || [[wikipedia:Google Pigeon|Google Pigeon]], the local search algorithm update, is rolled out to the [[wikipedia:United Kingdom|United Kingdom]], [[wikipedia:Canada|Canada]], and [[wikipedia:Australia|Australia]].<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/google-pigeon-update-rolls-uk-canada-australia-211576|title = Google Pigeon Update Rolls Out To UK, Canada & Australia. Google's new local ranking algorithm that launched in the US earlier this year has rolled out to the UK, Canada and Australia.|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|date = December 22, 2014|accessdate = April 12, 2015}}</ref>
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| 2015 || February 4 || Search algorithm update || Many independent sources report significant fluctuations in Google Search results, but Google does not officially confirm any changes.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.seroundtable.com/google-algorithm-update-19820.html|title = Significant Google Search Algorithm Update Yesterday|last = Schwartz|first= Barry|publisher = Search Engine Roundtable|date = February 5, 2015|accessdate = April 12, 2015}}</ref>
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| 2015 || April 21 (pre-announced February 26) || User experience, search algorithm update (mobile usability) || On January 19, 2015, Google sends emails to webmasters about mobile usability issues on the websites, leading people to speculate that a major mobile usability update for search rankings is underway.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/google-sending-mobile-usability-warnings-huge-number-webmasters-213113|title = Google Sending Mobile Usability Warnings To Huge Number Of Webmasters. Google sending notifications to webmasters with sites that are not mobile friendly. Is this a sign of a new mobile algorithm coming soon?|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|date = January 19, 2015|accessdate = April 12, 2015|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref> On February 26, 2015, Google announces that demotion of mobile-unfriendly sites for searches on mobile devices will commence on April 21, 2015.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://googlewebmastercentral.blogspot.com/2015/02/finding-more-mobile-friendly-search.html|title = Finding more mobile-friendly search results|date = February 26, 2015|accessdate = April 12, 2015|publisher = Google Webmaster Central|last = Makino|first = Takaki|last2 = Jung| first2 = Chaesang | last3 = Phan | first3 = Doantam}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://searchengineland.com/google-search-algorithm-adds-mobile-friendly-factors-app-indexing-ranking-215573|title = New Google "Mobile Friendly" Algorithm To Reward Sites Beginning April 21. Google's mobile ranking algorithm will officially include mobile-friendly usability factors and app indexing. Making sure your site is mobile-friendly is now more important than ever.|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|date = February 26, 2015|accessdate = April 12, 2015|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.rimmkaufman.com/blog/googles-mobile-algorithm-update-coming-april-21st-prepared/10042015/|title = Google’s Mobile Algorithm Update is Coming April 21. Are you Prepared?|last = O'Donnell|first = Jody|last2 = Scott|first2 = Laura|date = April 10, 2015|accessdate = April 12, 2015|publisher = RKGBlog}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.smartinsights.com/search-engine-optimisation-seo/mobile-seo/google-mobile-update-21st-april/|title = Gearing up for Google’s Mobile SEO Update on the 21st April 2015|last = Llewellyn|first = Gavin|date = April 9, 2015|accessdate = April 12, 2015|publisher = Smart Insights}}</ref>
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| 2015 || May 3 || Search algorithm update || Google says it has made a core algorithm change impacting "quality signals". Before the official announcement, commentators had dubbed the changes as "Phantom 2".
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| 2015 || July 17 || Search algorithm update || Google announces an update to [[wikipedia:Google Panda|Google Panda]], dubbed as Panda 4.2 by commentators. Google says that the change affects between 2% and 3% of search queries. Search engine commentators do not notice any sharp changes to search traffic, and expect the changes to be rolled in gradually.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.thesempost.com/google-panda-update-everything-we-know-about-panda-4-2/|title = Google Panda Update: Everything We Know About Panda 4.2|publisher = The SEM Post|date = July 17, 2015|accessdate = September 12, 2016|last = Slegg|first = Jennifer}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url = http://searchengineland.com/google-panda-4-2-is-here-slowly-rolling-out-after-waiting-almost-10-months-225850|title = Google Panda 4.2 Is Here; Slowly Rolling Out After Waiting Almost 10 Months. Google says a Panda refresh began this weekend but will take months to fully roll out.|date = July 17, 2015|accessdate = September 12, 2016|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]|last = Schwartz|first = Barry}}</ref> By September, it appears that many websites that had seen gains due to Panda 4.2 are seeing those gains reversed.<ref>{{cite web|url = https://www.seroundtable.com/google-panda-42-reversed-20837.html|title = Did Google Reverse The Panda 4.2 Update?|date = September 1, 2015|accessdate = September 12, 2016}}</ref>
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| 2015 || October 26 || Search algorithm update (announcement/confirmation) || Google announces that [[wikipedia:RankBrain|RankBrain]], a [[wikipedia:machine learning|machine learning]]-based engine (using [[wikipedia:neural network|neural network]]s), has been the third most influential factor in its search rankings for the last few months. The actual rollout date is not confirmed, but commentators pin the launch time to Spring 2015. It is most useful for new search queries, that account for about 15% of search queries.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url = https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-10-26/google-turning-its-lucrative-web-search-over-to-ai-machines|title = Google Turning Its Lucrative Web Search Over to AI Machines|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:Bloomberg News|Bloomberg News]]''|date = October 26, 2015|accessdate = September 12, 2016|last = Clark|first = Jack}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url = https://techcrunch.com/2016/06/04/artificial-intelligence-is-changing-seo-faster-than-you-think/|title = Artificial intelligence is changing SEO faster than you think|last = Rampton|first = John|date = June 4, 2016|accessdate = September 12, 2016}}</ref>
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| 2016 || February 3 || Team || [[wikipedia:Amit Singhal|Amit Singhal]] steps down from his position as Vice President of Search at Google after 15 years in that role. He is replaced by John Giannandrea who works in artificial intelligence at Alphabet, Google's parent company.<ref>{{cite web|url = https://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/04/technology/amit-singhal-an-influential-engineer-at-google-will-retire.html|title = Amit Singhal, an Influential Engineer at Google, Will Retire|last = Hardy|first = Quentin|date = February 3, 2016|accessdate = September 12, 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url = http://searchengineland.com/amit-singhal-the-head-of-google-search-to-leave-the-company-for-philanthropic-purposes-241707|title = Amit Singhal, The Head Of Google Search, To Leave The Company For Philanthropic Purposes. After 15 years, Google's head of search, Amit Singhal, is leaving the company.|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]|date = February 3, 2016|accessdate = September 12, 2016}}</ref>
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| 2016 || February 18 and 23 || Advertising || Google makes changes to [[wikipedia:Google AdWords|Google AdWords]], removing right-column ads and rolling out 4-ad top blocks on searches with commercial intent. The change has implications on organic search CTRs for such searches, since it pushes the organic search results further down the page, potentially reducing organic search CTRs.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://searchengineland.com/googles-new-serp-layout-4-biggest-winners-losers-based-data-243292|title = Google’s New SERP Layout: The Biggest Winners & Losers. What has been the impact of Google's new desktop ad layout thus far? Columnist Larry Kim uses data to show who has benefited and who has suffered from the change.|last = Kim|first = Larry|date = February 24, 2016|accessdate = September 12, 2016|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref> Up to three additional ads may be shown below the 10 organic search results, and additional ads may be shown on the second page.<ref name=moz/><ref name=moz-4-ads>{{cite web|url = https://moz.com/blog/four-ads-on-top-the-wait-is-over|title = Four Ads on Top: The Wait Is Over|last = Meyers|first = Peter J.|date = February 19, 2016|accessdate = September 12, 2016}}</ref><ref name=wordstream-4-ads>{{cite web|url = http://www.wordstream.com/blog/ws/2016/02/22/google-kills-off-right-side-ads|title = Google Kills Off Side Ads: What You Need to Know|last = Kim|first = Larry|date = February 23, 2016|accessdate = September 12, 2016|publisher = WordStream}}</ref><ref name=wordstream-4-ads-2>{{Cite web|url = http://www.wordstream.com/blog/ws/2016/03/10/takeaways-from-serp-change|title = 3 Weeks After Google Killed Side Ads, Here Are 5 More Takeaways|last = Sagin|first = Erin|date = March 10, 2016|accessdate = September 13, 2016|publisher = WordStream}}</ref>
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| 2016 || May 12 (announced March 16) || User experience, search algorithm update (mobile usability) || Google rolls out a ranking signal boost to benefit mobile-friendly websites on mobile devices. This is the second update of this sort, with the previous update in April 2015.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url = https://webmasters.googleblog.com/2016/03/continuing-to-make-web-more-mobile.html|title = Continuing to make the web more mobile friendly|publisher = Google Webmaster Central Blog|date = March 16, 2016|accessdate = September 12, 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url = http://searchengineland.com/googles-mobile-friendly-algorithm-boost-rolled-249357|title = Google’s mobile-friendly algorithm boost has rolled out. The new Google mobile-friendly algorithm is supposed to give an additional ranking boost for mobile-friendly websites in the mobile search results.|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|date = May 12, 2016|accessdate = September 12, 2016|publisher = [[wikipedia:Search Engine Land|Search Engine Land]]}}</ref>
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| 2016 || September 1 || Search algorithm update || SEO commentators note massive changes to the algorithm for local searches, the biggest since Pigeon. The update is labeled ''Possum'', indicating that some business listings have been filtered rather than actually disappearing. This is attributed to an updated, smarter deduplication algorithm, finer geolocation-awareness, and more decoupling of algorithms used for local search results from the main search results.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url = http://searchengineland.com/everything-need-know-googles-possum-algorithm-update-258900|title = Everything you need to know about Google’s ‘Possum’ algorithm update. Wondering what's up with local search rankings lately? Columnist Joy Hawkins has the scoop on a recent local algorithm update that local SEO experts are calling 'Possum.'|last = Hawkins|first = Joy|date = September 21, 2016|accessdate = May 1, 2017|publisher = Search Engine Land}}</ref> The implications of Possum on local SEO would be discussed for months to come.<ref name=possum-nov-update>{{cite web|url = http://searchengineland.com/study-shows-googles-possum-update-changed-64-local-serps-261761|title = Study shows Google’s Possum update changed 64% of local SERPs. How significantly did the Possum update impact local search results in Google? Columnist Joy Hawkins shares data and insights from a study she did with BrightLocal, which compared local results before and after the update.|last = Hawkins|first = Joy|publisher = Search Engine Land|date = November 3, 2016|accessdate = May 1, 2017}}</ref><ref name=possum-inc>{{cite web|url = https://www.inc.com/john-lincoln/googles-possum-update-how-it-rocked-local-seo-rankings.html|title = Google's Possum Update, How It Rocked Local SEO Rankings. The is one of the biggest Google updates to rock the local SEO rankings in a long time. What you need to know.|last = Lincoln|first = John|date = October 26, 2016|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:Inc. (magazine)|Inc.]]''}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url = https://www.quicksprout.com/2017/01/25/how-seo-has-changed-with-the-possum-update/|title = How SEO Has Changed with the Possum Update|last = Patel|first = Neil|date = January 25, 2017|accessdate = May 1, 2017|publisher = Quick Sprout}}</ref>
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| 2016 || September 23 || Search algorithm update || Google announces a Penguin update, and says that Penguin is now part of Google's core ranking algorithm. Commentators dub this Penguin 4.0.<ref name=moz/><ref>{{cite web|url = https://webmasters.googleblog.com/2016/09/penguin-is-now-part-of-our-core.html|title = Penguin is now part of our core algorithm|publisher = Google Webmaster Central Blog|date = September 23, 2016|accessdate = May 1, 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url = http://searchengineland.com/google-updates-penguin-says-now-real-time-part-core-algorithm-259302|title = Google updates Penguin, says it now runs in real time within the core search algorithm. The latest announced release, Penguin 4.0, will also be the last, given its new real-time nature.|publisher = Search Engine Land|last = Schwartz|first = Barry|date = September 23, 2016|accessdate = May 1, 2017}}</ref>
|}
 
==See also==
 
* [[wikipedia:Timeline of web search engines|Timeline of web search engines]]
 
==References==
 
{{reflist|2}}
{{Google Inc.}}
 
[[wikipedia:Category:Google Search|Category:Google Search]]
[[wikipedia:Category:Computing timelines|Google Search]]
[[wikipedia:Category:History of the Internet|Google Search]]

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