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Timeline of microscopy

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| 16th century || Zaccharias and Hans Janssen develop what might be considered the first microscope.
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| 17th century || Before the century, almose almost no one suspected there was life too small to see with the naked eye, with fleas thought to be the smallest possible form of life.<ref name="The Science Book: Big Ideas Simply Explained"/> {{w|Johannes Kepler}} is generally considered by neuroscentists as the first to recognize that images are projected, inverted and reversed by the eye's lens onto the {{w|retina}}.<ref name="Visual Approaches to Cognitive Education With Technology Integration"/> By the mid 17th century {{w|Robert Hooke}} and {{w|Antonie van Leeuwenhoek}} take the microscope to new levels of development.<ref name="History of Microscopes"/>
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| 18th century || Looking through lenses becomes very popular, with many having a microscope when able to afford.<ref name="BiologyBiology"/>
| 1830 || Technological development || [[w:Achromatic lens|Achromatic microscopes]] are invented.<ref name="BiologyBiology"/> ||
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| 1833 || Scientific development || Scottish scientist [[w:Robert Brown (botanist, born 1773)|Robert Brown]] becomes the first to describe his observation of the nucleus in plant cells.<ref name="BiologyBiology"/>|| {{w|United Kingdom}}
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| 1839 || Organization || The {{w|Royal Microscopical Society}} is founded in {{w|London}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Royal Microscopical Society's Competitors, Revenue, Number of Employees, Funding and Acquisitions |url=https://www.owler.com/company/royalmicroscopicalsociety |website=owler.com |accessdate=30 January 2019}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
| 1878 || Scientific development || {{w|Ernst Abbe}} develops a mathematical theory linking resolution to light wavelength.<ref name="History of Microscopes"/> || {{w|Germany}}
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| 1879 || Scientific development || Using the microscope, German biologist {{w|Walter Flemming}} discovers cell {{w|mitosis }} and chromosomes{{w|chromosome}}s, a scientifc achievement recognized as one of the most importants of all time.<ref name="History of Microscopes"/> ||
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| 1880 || Technological development || The first {{w|microtome}}s begin to be used enabling significantly thinner samples to be prepared in order to improve sample.<ref name="History of Microscopes"/> ||
| 1893 || Technological development || German professo {{w|August Köhler}} achieves an almost perfect image by designing a new method of illumination which uses a perfectly defocused image of the light source to illuminate the sample. The now called {{w|Kohler illumination}} turns an unparalleled illumination system. Using double diaphragms, the system provides triple benefits of a uniformly illuminated specimen, a bright image and minimal glare. <ref name="History of Microscopes"/><ref name="Fundamentals of Forensic Photography: Practical Techniques for Evidence Documentation on Location and in the Laboratory"/> || {{w|Germany}}
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| 1897 || Scientific development || American physicist {{w|R.W. Wood}} describes the phenomenon of the [[w:Field electron emission |field emission of electrons]], the process of emitting electrons from an extremely small area of a cathodic surface in the presence of a strong eectric electric field.<ref name="Introduction to Microscopy by Means of Light, Electrons, X Rays, or Acoustics"/> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1900 || Technological development || The theoretic limit of resolution for visible light microscopes (2000 {{w|Å}}) is reached.<ref name="History of Microscopes"/> ||
| 1904 || Technological development || {{w|Carl Zeiss}} introduces the first commercial UV microscope with resolution twice that of a visible light microscope.<ref name="History of Microscopes"/> ||
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| 1924 || Scientific development || French physicist {{w|Louis de Broglie}} develops his theory showing that particles have wave properties and very short wavelenghts. This discovery would allow the develop,et development of the {{w|electron microscope}}.<ref name="Introduction to Microscopy by Means of Light, Electrons, X Rays, or Acoustics"/> ||{{w|France}}
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| 1927 || Scientific development || German physicist {{w|Hans Busch}} demonstrates that a suitably shaped magnetic field could be used as a lens to create electron microscopes.<ref name="Introduction to Microscopy by Means of Light, Electrons, X Rays, or Acoustics"/> || {{w|Germany}}
| 1931 || Technological development || German physicist {{w|Ernst Ruska}} along with {{w|Max Kroll}} at the Berlin Technische Hochschule develop the transmission electron microscope.<ref name="Immunohistology and Electron Microscopy of Anaplastic and Pleomorphic Tumors">{{cite book |last1=Leong |first1=Anthony S. Y. |last2=Wick |first2=Mark R. |last3=Swanson |first3=Paul E. |title=Immunohistology and Electron Microscopy of Anaplastic and Pleomorphic Tumors |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=cH9xuGCxS_cC&pg=PA33&dq=%22in+1938%22+%7Celectron+microscope+is+developed+by+%7B%7Bw%7CErnst+Ruska%7D&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiz7Prw55XgAhVjs1kKHVJhCzMQ6AEIRjAG#v=onepage&q=%22in%201938%22%20%7Celectron%20microscope%20is%20developed%20by%20%7B%7Bw%7CErnst%20Ruska%7D&f=false |ref=Immunohistology and Electron Microscopy of Anaplastic and Pleomorphic Tumors}}</ref><ref name="Nano- and Microscale Drug Delivery Systems: Design and Fabrication"/><ref name="The Chemistry of Molecular Imaging">{{cite book |last1=Long |first1=Nicholas |last2=Wong |first2=Wing-Tak |title=The Chemistry of Molecular Imaging |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=64CbBQAAQBAJ&pg=RA2-PA3&dq=1931+ernst+ruska&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjppdfRg5HgAhXcJ7kGHbf7BOUQ6AEIQjAF#v=onepage&q=1931%20ernst%20ruska&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Volume 205 |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=S2JSDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA56&dq=1931+ernst+ruska&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjppdfRg5HgAhXcJ7kGHbf7BOUQ6AEIKTAA#v=onepage&q=1931%20ernst%20ruska&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
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| 1932 || Technological development || Dutch physicist {{w|Frits Zernike}} invents the phase-contrast microscope, which allows for the first time the study of transparent biological materials.<ref name="History of Microscopes"/> || {{w|Netherlands}}|-| 1932 || Technological development || {{w|Frits Zernike}} develops phase contrast illumination, which allows the imaging of transparent samples. By using interference rather than absorption of light, transparent samples, such as cells, can be imaged without having to use staining techniques.<ref name="History of Microscopes"/> || {{w|Netherlands}}
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| 1935 || Technological development || The first scanning electron microscopes are introduced.<ref name="Biology Run Amok!: The Life Science Lessons of Science Fiction Cinema"/> ||
| 1939 || Technological development || {{w|Siemens}} launches the first commercial {{w|electron microscope}}.<ref name="Visual Approaches to Cognitive Education With Technology Integration">{{cite book |title=Visual Approaches to Cognitive Education With Technology Integration |edition=Ursyn, Anna |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=MzdCDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA65&dq=~710+BC+%22The+Nimrud+lens&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiR-Niz9YngAhXSILkGHVv1CfMQ6AEIKTAA#v=onepage&q=~710%20BC%20%22The%20Nimrud%20lens&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
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| 1930 || Scientific development || Dutch physicist {{w|Frits Zernike}} discovers he could can view unstained cells using the phase angle of rays,and invents the [[w:Phase contrast microscopy|phase contrast microscope. His innovartion would not introduced until]].<ref name="History of Microscopes"/><ref>{{cite book |last1=GHOSAL |last2=SABARI |last3=AVASTHI |last4=SHARMA |first4=ANUPAMA |title=FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES AND INSTRUMENTATION, SECOND EDITION |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=VJNuDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA71&dq=In+1930+Frits+Zernike+angle+of+rays&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiNx9WxhZHgAhVME7kGHYJrBhYQ6AEILDAA#v=onepage&q=In%201930%20Frits%20Zernike%20angle%20of%20rays&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|Netherlands}}
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| 1942 || Technological development || {{w|Ernst Ruska}} improves on the transmission electron microscope (previously buil by Knoll and Ruska) by building built the first scanning electron microscope (SEM) that transmits a beam of electrons across the specimen.<ref name="History of Microscopes"/> ||
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| 1942 || Literature (book) || E.F Canadian physicist {{w|Eli Franklin Burton }} and W.Kohl publish ''The Electron Microscope''.<ref name="The Growth of Electron Microscopy">{{cite book |title=The Growth of Electron Microscopy |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=o-IFp53_1-IC&pg=PA373&dq=1938+James+Hillier+builds+another+TEM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi4zZnMgZHgAhWoHLkGHdfgDZgQ6AEIKzAA#v=onepage&q=1938%20James%20Hillier%20builds%20another%20TEM&f=false}}</ref> ||
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| 1942 || Organization || The {{w|Microscopy Society of America}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=A Brief History of the Microscopy Society of America |url=https://www.microscopy.org/about/history.cfm |website=microscopy.org |accessdate=30 January 2019}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
| 1967 || Technological development || {{w|Erwin Wilhelm Müller}} adds time-of-flight spectroscopy to the {{w|field ion microscope}}, and develops the {{w|atom probe}} field ion microscope.<ref name="A Biographical Dictionary of People in Engineering: From the Earliest Records Until 2000"/><ref name="A Biographical Dictionary of People in Engineering: From the Earliest Records Until 2000"/> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1970 || Technological development || Korpel and Kessler begin to pursue a scanning laser detection system for {{w|acoustic microscopy}}.<ref>A. Korpel and L. W. Kessler, “Comparison of methods of acoustic microscopy,” in ''Acoustical Holography'', vol. 3 by A. F. Metherell, Ed., New York: Plenum, 1971, pp. 23–43.</ref> ||
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| 1971 || Organization || The {{w|Turkish Society for Electron Microscopy}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Turkish Society for Electron Microscopy |url=http://www.temd.org/en/menu/14/tarihce |website=temd.org |accessdate=30 January 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Turkey}}
| 1978 || Technological development || German scientists [[w:Thomas Cremer|Thomas]] and {{w|Christoph Cremer}} design a laser scanning process which scans an object using a focused laser beam and creates the over-all picture by electronic means similar to those used in scanning electron microscopes.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Zhang |first1=Fan |title=Photon Upconversion Nanomaterials |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=mybUBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA214&dq=1978+Thomas+and+Christoph+Cremer++confocal+laser+scanning+microscope,+which+scans+an+object+using+a+focused+laser+beam&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjT8PuBrZHgAhVeK7kGHQQqCQYQ6AEIKTAA#v=onepage&q=1978%20Thomas%20and%20Christoph%20Cremer%20%20confocal%20laser%20scanning%20microscope%2C%20which%20scans%20an%20object%20using%20a%20focused%20laser%20beam&f=false}}</ref><ref name="History of Microscopes"/> ||
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| 1981 || Technological development || German physicist {{w|Gerd Binnig}} and Swiss physicist {{w|Heinrich Rohrer}} develop the {{w|scanning tunneling microscope}} (STM), used for imaging surfaces at the atomic level.<ref>{{cite book |title=Chemistry, The Practical Science, Media Enhanced Edition |edition=CTI Reviews |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=Mp8aDAAAQBAJ&pg=PT410&dq=1986+%22Gerd+Binnig,+Quate,+and+Gerber+invent+the+Atomic+force+microscope&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiC0eLIr5HgAhUpJrkGHdWHDJsQ6AEIKTAA#v=onepage&q=1986%20%22Gerd%20Binnig%2C%20Quate%2C%20and%20Gerber%20invent%20the%20Atomic%20force%20microscope&f=false}}</ref> The STM ‘sees’ by measuring interactions between atoms, rather than by using light or electrons. It can visualise visualize individual atoms within materials.<ref name="History of Microscopes"/> ||
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| 1986 || Recognition || The {{w|Nobel Prize in Physics}} is awarded jointly to {{w|Ernst Ruska}} (for his work on the electron microscope), along with {{w|Gerd Binnig}} and {{w|Heinrich Rohrer}} (for the scanning tunnelling microscope).<ref name="History of Microscopes"/> ||
| 1998 || Organization || The {{w|European Microscopy Society}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=European Microscopy Society Celebrates its 20th Anniversary |url=https://www.imaging-git.com/news/european-microscopy-society-celebrates-its-20th-anniversary |website=imaging-git.com |accessdate=30 January 2019}}</ref> ||
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| 2010 || Technological development || Researchers at {{w|University of California, Los Angeles}} use a [[w:cryoelectron microscope|Cryogenic cryogenic electron microscopy]] to see the atoms of a virus.<ref name="History of Microscopes"/> ||
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| 2013 || Technological development || The {{w|Arriscope (surgical microscope)}} is presented to the public in a prototype version.<ref>{{cite web
|title=Website of the German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
|url=http://www.hno.org/en/events/
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