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Timeline of Neuralink

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Full timeline: fix some typos and grammar
This is a '''timeline of {{w|Neuralink}}''', a {{w|San Francisco}}-based {{w|neurotechnology}} company founded by {{w|Elon Musk}} and others, which aims at developing [[w:brain implant|implantable]] {{w|brain–machine interface}}s (BMIs).
==Big picture==
| 2017 || Neuralink is announced publicly.
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| 2018 || Neuralink intends to conduct tests on animals. By late year, Elon Musk for the first time publicly invites people to apply for jobs at the company. He also announces Neuralink aspires to symbiotically merge human brains with a super digital intelligence.
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| 2019 ||A presentation of Neuralink is held, informing publicly on the latest news about the technology. The company cumulates US$158 million in funding and employs a staff of 90 people.|-| 2020 || Neuralink human test of brain-computer interface could start around this year.
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! Year !! Month and date !! Event type !! Details
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| 1970s || || Background Prelude || Research on {{w|brain–computer interface}}s begins at the {{w|University of California, Los Angeles}} (UCLA) under a grant from the {{w|National Science Foundation}}, followed by a contract from {{w|DARPA}}.<ref name="Vidal1">{{cite journal|pmid=4583653|doi=10.1146/annurev.bb.02.060173.001105|year=1973|last1=Vidal|first1=JJ|title=Toward direct brain-computer communication|volume=2|pages=157–80|journal=Annual Review of Biophysics and Bioengineering|issue=1}}</ref><ref name="Vidal2">{{cite journal|author=J. Vidal|title=Real-Time Detection of Brain Events in EEG|journal=IEEE Proceedings|year=1977|url=http://www.cs.ucla.edu/~vidal/Real_Time_Detection.pdf|volume=65|pages=633–641|doi=10.1109/PROC.1977.10542|issue=5}}</ref>
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| 1997 || || Background Prelude || Dr. Richard Norman at the {{w|University of Utah}} develops the Utah electrode array, a tiny piece of silicon, only a quarter of an inch on its side, with 256 electrodes that can be attached to the central nervous system to listen to neural activity.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Markman |first1=Jon |title=Elon Musk's Other Big Start-Up, Neuralink, Is Gaining Momentum |url=https://www.thestreet.com/investing/stocks/elon-musk-neuralink-gains-momentum-15072786 |website=thestreet.com |accessdate=2 September 2019}}</ref>
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| 1998 || || Background Prelude || The first sensor is implanted in the brain of a paralyzed patient. Since then, at least about a dozen people would receive similar implants.<ref name="Elon Musk's dreams of merging AI and brains are likely to remain just that — for at least a decade">{{cite web |title=Elon Musk's dreams of merging AI and brains are likely to remain just that — for at least a decade |url=https://www.theverge.com/2017/4/21/15370376/elon-musk-neuralink-brain-computer-ai-implant-neuroscience |website=theverge.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2009 || || Background Prelude || American inventor {{w|Raymond Kurzweil}} that by 2020 we’ll have "computers that are powerful enough to simulate the human brain. However, we won’t be finished yet with reverse engineering the human brain and understanding its methods".<ref name="Neuralink: How the Human Brain Will Download Directly from a Computer">{{cite web |title=Neuralink: How the Human Brain Will Download Directly from a Computer |url=https://interestingengineering.com/neuralink-how-the-human-brain-will-download-directly-from-a-computer |website=interestingengineering.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref><ref name="The Coming Singularity">{{cite web |title=Ray Kurzweil: The Coming Singularity |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1uIzS1uCOcE |website=youtube.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2011 || || Competition || {{w|Emotiv}} is founded as a US-based {{w|bioinformatics}} company which works in understanding the human brain using {{w|electroencephalography}} (EEG).<ref>{{cite web |title=Emotiv |url=https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/emotiv |website=crunchbase.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref> It is would later be listed among the top Neuralink competitors.<ref name="Top 8 Neuralink Competitors Everyone Should Track"/>
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| 2015 || || Competition || BrainCo is founded. The company develops brain-machine interface (BMI) technology products including sensors, hardware, software, and {{w|AI}}. It is would later be listed among the top Neuralink competitors.<ref name="Top 8 Neuralink Competitors Everyone Should Track">{{cite web |title=Top 8 Neuralink Competitors Everyone Should Track |url=https://www.analyticsindiamag.com/top-8-neuralink-competitors-everyone-should-track/ |website=analyticsindiamag.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2016 || June || Prelude || At Recode’s Code conference , South African entrepreneur {{w|Elon Musk}} discusses about his "{{w|neural lace}}" proposal, a {{w|brain–computer interface}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk Full interview Code Conference 2016 |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wsixsRI-Sz4 |website=youtube.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref><ref name="Etherington">{{cite web |last1=Etherington |first1=Darrell |title=Elon Musk-backed Neuralink to detail its progress on upgrading the brain to keep pace with AI |url=https://techcrunch.com/2019/07/12/elon-musk-backed-neuralink-to-detail-its-progress-on-upgrading-the-brain-to-keep-pace-with-ai/ |website=techcrunch.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2016 || July 11 || Launch || {{w|Neuralink}} is founded by {{w|Elon Musk}}, Ben Rapoport, Dongjin Seo, Max Hodak, Paul Merolla, Philip Sabes, Tim Gardner, Tim Hanson, and Vanessa Tolosa.<ref>{{cite web |title=Neuralink |url=https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/neuralink#section-lists-featuring-this-company |website=crunchbase.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref><ref name="LAT2017-04">{{cite web|url=http://www.latimes.com/business/technology/la-fi-tn-elon-musk-neuralink-20170421-htmlstory.html|title=A quick guide to Elon Musk's new brain-implant company, Neuralink|last=Masunaga|first=Samantha|date=21 April 2017|work={{w|Los Angeles Times}}}}</ref>
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| 2016 || || Competition || [[w:Kernel (neurotechnology company)|Kernel]] is founded. It builds advanced neural interfaces to treat disease, illuminate the mechanisms of intelligence, and extend cognition. It is would later be listed among the top Neuralink competitors.<ref name="Top 8 Neuralink Competitors Everyone Should Track"/>|-| 2017 || January || Company || {{w|Elon Musk}} buys the name Neuralink from a pair of {{w|neurotechnology}} researchers that owned the trademark on "NeuraLink" since 2015 after creating their own startup company.<ref>{{cite web |title=Meet the Guys Who Sold “Neuralink” to Elon Musk without Even Realizing It |url=https://www.technologyreview.com/s/604037/meet-the-guys-who-sold-neuralink-to-elon-musk-without-even-realizing-it/ |website=technologyreview.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref> |-| 2017 || February || Research || Neuralink executive Jared Birchall submits a letter to the city of {{w|San Francisco}}'s planning department giving some clues about the company’s plans and files permit to build biological research lab.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk’s Neuralink files permit to build biological research lab |url=https://www.teslarati.com/elon-musk-neuralink-permits-biological-testing-lab/ |website=teslarati.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref>|-| 2017 || February || Notable comment || {{w|Elon Musk}} claims that "people would need to become cyborgs to be relevant in an artificial intelligence age."<ref>{{cite web |last1=Isackson |first1=Peter |title=The Daily Devil’s Dictionary: Will “Everyone” Benefit? |url=https://www.fairobserver.com/region/north_america/elon-musk-artificial-intelligence-technology-news-headlines-96712/|website=fairobserver.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk says plan to merge humans with machines is aimed at stopping a ‘Terminator’-style scenario |url=https://www.cnbc.com/2017/04/24/elon-musk-neuralink-ai-human-machine-terminator-skynet.html |website=cnbc.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref>
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| 2017 || January March 28 || Company || {{w|Elon Musk}} buys confirms the name Neuralink to a pair existence of {{w|neurotechnologyNeuralink}} researchers , and reveals that owned the trademark a longer story about Neuralink would appear on "NeuraLink" since 2015 after creating their own startup companyexplainer website {{w|Wait But Why}} in a week.<ref>{{cite web |title=Meet Neuralink | url=https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/846580443797368832 |website=witter.com |accessdate=29 July 2019 |ref=Long Neuralink piece coming out on @waitbutwhy in about a week. Difficult to dedicate the Guys Who Sold “Neuralink” time, but existential risk is too high not to .}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=Constine |first1=Josh |title=Elon Musk without Even Realizing It Musk’s brain interface startup Neuralink files $27M fundraise |url=https://www.technologyreviewtechcrunch.com/s2017/60403708/meet25/elon-themusks-guysbrain-whointerface-soldstartup-neuralink-to-elon-musk-without-evenfiles-realizing27m-itfundraise/ |website=technologyreviewtechcrunch.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref>
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| 2017 || February April 20 || Review || Neuralink executive Jared Birchall submits a letter to {{w|Wait But Why}} editor Tim Urban posts the city of first deep look at {{w|San FranciscoNeuralink}}'s planning department giving some clues , after Musk petition from about a month and a half before.<ref>{{cite web |title=Neuralink and the company’s Brain’s Magical Future |url=https://waitbutwhy.com/2017/04/neuralink.html |website=waitbutwhy.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref> Musk confirms plans and files permit for the company, revealing he will be the chief executive of a startup that aims to build biological research labmerge computers with brains so humans could one day engage in “consensual telepathy.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk’s Neuralink files permit Musk Lays Out Plans to build biological research lab Meld Brains and Computers |url=https://www.teslaratiwsj.com/articles/elon-musk-neuralinklays-out-plans-to-meld-permitsbrains-biologicaland-testingcomputers-lab/ 1492738741 |website=teslaratiwsj.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref>
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| 2017 || March 28 June || Research || Neuralink scientists start researching at the {{w|Elon Musk}} confirms the existence University of {{w|Neuralink}}California, and reveals that a longer story about Neuralink would appear on explainer website {{w|Wait But WhyDavis}} in a weekcampus.<ref>{{cite web | title= Elon Musk's Neuralink | url=https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/846580443797368832 |website=witter.com |accessdate=29 July 2019 |ref=Long Neuralink piece coming out Startup Planned to Test on @waitbutwhy in about a week. Difficult to dedicate the timeAnimals, but existential risk is too high not to.}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=Constine |first1=Josh |title=Elon Musk’s brain interface startup Neuralink files $27M fundraise Report Claims |url=https://techcrunchwww.inverse.com/2017/08/25article/42994-elon-musks-brain-interface-startupmusk-neuralink-files-27m-fundraise/ testing |website=techcrunchinverse.com |accessdate=29 July 23 September 2019}}</ref>
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| 2017 || April 20 July 19 || Company || {{w|Wait But WhyElon Musk}} editor Tim Urban posts the first deep look at talks about {{w|Neuralink}}, after Musk petition from about a month and a half before.<ref>in an interview at the ISS R&D Conference in {{cite web w|title=Neuralink and the Brain’s Magical Future |url=https://waitbutwhyWashington, DC.com/2017/04/neuralink.html |website=waitbutwhy.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref> Musk confirms plans for , and says the company, revealing reason he will be went to create Neuralink was primarily as an offset to the chief executive of a startup that aims to merge computers existencial risk associated with brains so humans could one day engage in “consensual telepathy{{w|artificial intelligence}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk Lays Out Plans to Meld Brains and Computers - A.I., Biology, Neuralink |url=https://www.wsjyoutube.com/articles/elon-musk-lays-out-plans-to-meld-brains-and-computers-1492738741 watch?v=MbzVdUwPnrI |website=wsjyoutube.com |accessdate=29 July 1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2017 || July 19 August 25 || Company || {{w|Elon Musk}} talks about {{w|tweets: "Neuralink}} in an interview at the ISS R&D Conference in {{w|Washington, DC.}}, and says the reason he went to create Neuralink was primarily as an offset to the existencial risk associated with {{w|artificial intelligence}}is not seeking investors."<ref>{{cite web |titlename=Elon Musk - A.I., Biology, Neuralink |url=https:/"neuralink d"/www.youtube.com/watch?v=MbzVdUwPnrI |website=youtube.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2017 2018 || February March || Notable comment || At a {{w|Elon MuskSouth by Southwest}} claims “that people would need to become cyborgs to be relevant tech conference in an artificial intelligence age.“<ref>{{cite web w|last1=Isackson Austin, Texas}}, {{w|first1=Peter Elon Musk}} calls {{w|title=The Daily Devil’s Dictionary: Will “Everyone” Benefit? |url=https://www.fairobserver.com/region/north_america/elon-musk-artificial-AI}} more dangerous than nuclear warheads and says there needs to be a regulatory body overseeing the development of super intelligence-technology-news-headlines-96712/|website=fairobserver.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk says plan to merge humans with machines : ‘Mark my words — A.I. is aimed at stopping a ‘Terminator’-style scenario far more dangerous than nukes’ |url=https://www.cnbc.com/20172018/0403/2413/elon-musk-neuralinkat-sxsw-a-i-is-aimore-humandangerous-machinethan-terminatornuclear-skynetweapons.html |website=cnbc.com |accessdate=29 July 1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2018 || March || Research || At a {{w|South by Southwest}} tech conference in {{w|Austin, Texas}}, {{w|Elon Musk}} calls {{w|AI}} more dangerous than nuclear warheads and says there needs Report communicates that Neuralink has plans to be a regulatory body overseeing the development of super intelligencetest products on animals.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk: ‘Mark my words — A.I. is far more dangerous than nukes’ Brain implants intended for humans to be tested on animals |url=https://wwwendtimeheadlines.cnbc.comorg/2018/03/13/elonbrain-muskimplants-atintended-sxswfor-ahumans-ito-isbe-moretested-dangerouson-than-nuclear-weapons.html animals/ |website=cnbcendtimeheadlines.com org |accessdate=1 August 23 September 2019}}</ref>
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| 2018 || May || Funding || Neuralink agrees to fund primate research at the {{w|University of California}}. The company i is expected to pay US$796,006 for research conducted at [[w:University of California, Davis|UC Davis]]' {{w|California National Primate Research Center}}, one of seven centers nationwide dedicated to the study of health and disease on primates.<ref>{{cite web |title=Neuralink Is Funding Primate Research at the University of California |url=https://gizmodo.com/neuralink-is-funding-primate-research-at-the-university-1826205424 |website=gizmodo.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Neuralink - UC Davis Primate Center - Services Agreement |url=https://www.scribd.com/document/379906285/Neuralink-UC-Davis-Primate-Center-Services-Agreement?campaign=SkimbitLtd&ad_group=33330X911642Xbd980c46b67dbe987520610dbcbb787d&keyword=660149026&source=hp_affiliate&medium=affiliate |website=scribd.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref>
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| 2018 || November || Company || In an interview with podcaster {{w|Joe Rogan}}, {{w|Elon Musk}} says {{w|Neuralink}} aspires to symbiotically merge human brains with a super digital intelligence that will serve as a tertiary cognition layer augmenting the human cortex and limbic systems.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk on Joe Rogan - what is Neuralink |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x5pgAM26wuM&t=63s |website=youtube.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk’s Neuralink Plans to Put Chips in Human Brains by 2020 |url=https://syncedreview.com/2019/07/17/elon-musks-neuralink-plans-to-put-chips-in-human-brains-by-2020/ |website=syncedreview.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2018 || November || Company || In an interview, {{w|Elon Musk}} hints that {{w|Neuralink}} would first introduce {{w|microcontroller}}s to further advance computer-brain interface technology, i.e., possibly unveiling an initial version of what will eventually become a “neural lace.”<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk’s Neuralink to livestream special project update on July 16 |url=https://www.teslarati.com/neuralink-project-demo-event-livestream-july-16/ |website=teslarati.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=ELON MUSK LATEST INTERVIEW WITH AXIOS 25 NOVEMBER |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yQjUw16Mu_0 |website=youtube.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2018 || November 26 || Employment || {{w|Elon Musk}} tweets mentioning {{w|Neuralink}} for the first time in 20 months, inviting people to apply for jobs at the firm alongside three of his other companies.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk Breaks Twitter Silence on Secretive A.I.-Brain Firm Neuralink |url=https://www.inverse.com/article/51228-elon-musk-breaks-twitter-silence-on-secretive-a-i-brain-firm-neuralink |website=inverse.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Neuralink |url=https://twitter.com/elonmusk/status/1067173241800650752 |website=twitter.com |accessdate=29 July 2019}}</ref>
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| 2019 || May || Funding || {{w|Bloomberg}} reports on Neuralink having raised US$39 million of its planned US$51 million funding target.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk's Neuralink startup raises $39 MILLION as it seeks to develop tech that will connect the human brain with computers |url=https://bak.megam.info/sciencetech/article-7025075/Elon-Musks-Neuralink-startup-raises-39-MILLION-seeks-develop-brain-computer-tech.html |website=bak.megam.info |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2019 || July 16 || Presentation Company || {{w|Elon Musk}} and {{w|Neuralink}} president Max Hodak host a presentation of the company in {{w|San Francisco}}, informing publicly on the latest news about the technology.<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk’s Neuralink Presentation: Live Recap of What Happened |url=https://heavy.com/tech/2019/07/elon-musk-neuralink-presentation-recap/ |website=heavy.com |accessdate=1 August 2019}}</ref>
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| 2019 || July 18 || Growth Company || {{w|Elon Musk}} tweets about Neuralink: "Addressing {{w|epilepsy}} is likely one of the more near-term applications".<ref name="neuralink d">{{cite web |title=elonmusk neuralink twitter |url=https://twitter.com/search?f=tweets&q=from%3Aelonmusk+neuralink&src=typd&vertical=default |website=twitter.com |accessdate=23 September 2019}}</ref>|-| 2019 || July || Funding || {{w|Neuralink}} cumulates US$158 million in funding (of which $100 million comes from Musk) and employs a staff of 90 employees.<ref name=":0">{{Cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/16/technology/neuralink-elon-musk.html|title=Elon Musk’s Company Takes Baby Steps to Wiring Brains to the Internet|last=Markoff|first=John|date=2019-07-16|work=The New York Times|access-date=2019-07-17|language=en-US|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
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| 2019 || August 28 || Notable comment || Elon Musk says during interview that computers are getting smarter, so much so that they could quickly surpass human intelligence "in every single way".<ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk says computers will eventually surpass us in every single way |url=https://www.digitaltrends.com/computing/elon-musk-computers-will-surpass-us-jack-ma/ |website=digitaltrends.com |accessdate=23 September 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Elon Musk: Computers will surpass us ‘in every single way’ |url=https://www.cnbc.com/2019/08/28/elon-musk-computers-will-surpass-us-in-every-single-way.html |website=cnbc.com |accessdate=23 September 2019}}</ref>
==External links==
 
[https://www.neuralink.com/ Official site]
==References==
{{Reflist|30em}}
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