Talk:Timeline of brain preservation

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Extended Timeline

Date Category Type Subtype Organization or individual Event
1965-10-30 cryonics Dandridge M. Cole Dandridge M. Cole suffers a fatal heart attack. Cole had read The Prospect of Immortality in 1963. In his more recent book, Beyond Tomorrow, he had devoted several pages to the subject. He had expressed a wish to be frozen after death. After some delay, a call was placed to Ettinger, who later would write, "I was consulted by long-distance telephone several hours after he died, but in the end, the family did what was to be expected  – nothing."[1]
1968 cryonics social book Robert Nelson Robert Nelson publishes the book We Froze the First Man telling the story of Bedford's cryopreservation. However, his description is largely inaccurate. A more accurate description would be written later on DEAR DR. BEDFORD (and those who will care for you after I do).[2]
1972? cryonics organization Alcor Alcor advertises in direct mailings and offers seminars in order to attract members and brings attention to the cryonics movement. The first of these seminars attracts 30 people.
1977 cryonics Alcor Alcor changes its name to the Alcor Life Extension Foundation.
1979-1981 (?) cryonics organization Manrise Manrise merges with Trans Time[3]
1981 cryonics organization Institute for Advanced Biological Studies The Institute for Advanced Biological Studies relocates to California.[4]
1981 cryonics organization Soma, Inc. Somoa relocates to California.[4]
1982 cryonics organization closing Soma, Inc. Soma is disbanded.
1983 cryonics Jerry Leaf Jerry Leaf is a research associate in the thoracic surgery department of the UCLA Medical Center. A small amount of his work time involves instruction of surgical residents in some aspects of thoracic surgery; however, the bulk of his work is as a researcher-technician in the laboratory of Dr. Robert Buckberg, a leading researcher in the field of myocardial protection myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.
1985-01-01 cryonics Cryonics Institute Andy Zawacki starts working for the Cryonics Institute. As of January 2019, Zawacki is still working there.[5]
1985 cryonics organization Cryovita Cryovita doesn't renew their contract with Trans Time because it wasn't receiving enough money, and had mostly been paid in stocks so far.[6]
1986 cryonics organization Alcor Some of Alcor's members form Symbex, a small investment company which funds a building in Riverside, California, for lease by Alcor.
1987 cryonics organization Alcor Alcor moves from Fullerton, California, to the new building in Riverside.
1989-03 cryonics organization Cryonics Society of Canada The Cryonics Society of Canada is officially founded by Douglas Quinn, Scott Maynard and Benjamin Best.
1990s (early) cryonics organization New York Life New York Life agrees that cryopreservation constitute an insurable interest and insurance agent Mary Naples moves to the forefront of cryonics life insurance sales person to eventually be replaced by Rudi Hoffman.[7]
1991 cryonics Jerry Leaf Before his deanimation in 1991, Jerry Leaf is working to reduplicate Smith's hamster freezing study after first having subjected the animals to operant conditioning (learning) with the objective of demonstrating the persistence of memory after freezing. This research is carried out under the aegis of Cryovita Laboratories.
1993 cryonics organization protection from natural catastrophes Alcor Alcor purchases a building in Scottsdale, Arizona.
2002 (near the end of) cryonics organization Alcor Alcor embarks on an ambitious expansion project, taking over another unit in its Scottsdale building (where remaining units currently are rented to other tenants).
2003-05-12 cryonics organization KrioRus KrioRus founder Igor Artyuhov cryopreserves the first human patient in Russia.
2003 August cryonics Technological development Intermediate storage temperature Alcor Alcor Research Fellow Hugh Hixon begins to study a way to image stress in cryoprotectant glasses.[8]
2004 March cryonics technological adoption Intermediate storage temperature Alcor Alcor acquires a neuropod intermediate temperature storage unit for individual neuropatients.[8]
2005-02 cryonics organization pre-founding Sociedad Crionica The website is created.[9]
2005-06 cryonics science review Fahy et al. The science review "Cryopreservation of organs by vitrification: perspectives and recent advances" is published.[10]
2005-08 cryonics organization KrioRus KrioRus preserves their first patient.
2005 November cryonics technological adoption Intermediate storage temperature Alcor Alcor places an order with 21st Century Medicine, Inc., for a custom ITS dewar large enough to hold 14 neuropatients at a stable intermediate temperature ("ITS Neurodewar").
2006 January cryonics Technological development Intermediate storage temperature Mike Iarocci, Stephen Valentine, and Brian Wowk US Patent 6,988,370, Cryogenic storage system with improved temperature control, is awarded to Mike Iarocci, Stephen Valentine, and Brian Wowk.[11]
2006-04 cryonics organization KrioRus KrioRus opens a facility in Alabushevo, Moscow region.
2006-05 cryonics organization KrioRus KrioRus LLC is incorporated in Russia.
2006-08 cryonics technological adoptoin vitrification Cryonics Institute In August 2006 the Cryonics Institute filed a preliminary patent application for CI−VM−1 in anticipation of filing a complete patent application. Although a patent application was prepared, legal counsel advised that the chances of getting a patent were very slim because of commercial use more than one year prior to filing the preliminary patent application. We were advised to publish the CI vitrification and carrier solutions as a defensive measure so that others would not be able to prevent CI from using them.
2007 October cryogenic Technological development Intermediate storage temperature Brian Wowk and Mike Iarocci US Patent 7,278,278, Cryogenic storage system, is awarded to Brian Wowk and Mike Iarocci.[12]
2008 December cryonics technological adoption Intermediate storage temperature Alcor Patient A-1034, and 3 cryopreserved brains that were stored by private individuals are accepted into a new ITS neurodewar.[8]
2013 life extension organization founding Church of Perpetual Life The Church of Perpetual Life is founded. Their first service happens at the end of 2013.[13][14]
2013 cryonics Technological development Advanced Neural Biosciences Long Life magazine publishes the results of a series of experiments by Aschwin and Chana de Wolf in Long Life magazine that investigated the effect of warm ischemia. The experiments were supported by Cryonics Institute and LongeCity.[15]
2014 cryonics organization Suspended Animation, Inc Suspended Animation, Inc opens an office in California.[16]
2015-12-12 cryonics organization CryoCare CryoCare preserves their first patient.[17]
2016-07-30 cryonics organization founding Sociedad Crionica Sociedad Crionica is founded.[9]
2016-09 cryonics organization Suspended Animation Suspended Animation becomes certified as an ISO 9001:2015 compliant organization, indicating SA adheres to the International Standards of Organization quality management system.[18]
2017-06-20 cryonics organization risk management Alcor The Alcor Care Trust Supporting Organization is approved by the IRS as a tax-exempt 501(c)(3) organization.
2017-10-14 to 15 cryonics organization first annual event Sociedad Crionica Sociedad Crionica has its first annual event.[19]
2015-11-17 cryonics organization OregonCryo OregonCryo cryopreserves their first human patient.
2018-03-21 cryonics organization risk management Alcor $12,707,650.65 is transferred from the Patient Care Trust to the Alcor Care Trust Supporting Organization. As they have been for many years, the funds stay in the custody of Morgan Stanley Smith Barney, LLC, but are now managed by the ACT Trustees. The Patient Care Trust retains $700,000 in cash as a cushion for Patient Care expenses in 2018, as well as its ownership position in Cryonics Property, LLC (the company that owns the building that Alcor occupies), and its ownership of Patient dewars and related equipment.
2019-01-23 cryonics writing The initial timeline of cryonics is published on Timelines Wiki.


This section was removed as it doesn't meaningfully track the progress of cryonics.

The following graph is an attempt to track the progress of cryopreservation techniques by tracking the biggest mass that was successfully cryopreserved, and is based on the table that follows it.[20]

Biggest mass cryopreserve.png

Year Taxon tissue, organ or whole body? Approx. mass, kg Lowest temperature (°C) after which a successful reanimation was achieved Healthy brain activity/behavior after reanimation? Reference
1876 Guinea pig (C. porcellus) whole 1 18 Unknown Bernard, 1876
1881 Marmots (Marmota) whole 3 0 Likely yes (adapted to hibernation) Horvath, 1881
1912 Schreibers' bat (M. schreibersii) whole 0.02 -4 Unknown Bachmetiev, 1912
1933 Bats (Chiroptera) whole 0.004 0 Unknown Eisentraut, 1933
1949 Human: unnamed donors red blood cells 9E-14 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith et al, 1949
1949 Human: unnamed donors spermatozoa 3E-15 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Polge et al, 1949
1950 Tardigrades (Tardigrada) whole 2E-11 -272 Unknown Becquerel, 1950
1950 Mammals (Mammalia) skin <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Kreyberg, Hanssen, 1950 (via Fahy, 1980)
1951 Human: unnamed 23yo woman whole 60 16 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Laufmann, 1951
1951 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) whole 0.2 0 Unknown Andjus, 1951
1952 European rabbit (O. cuniculus) skin <0,1 -150 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Billingham, Medawar, 1952
1953 Primate: lemur C. major whole 0.4 19 Unknown Bourliere et al, 1953
1955 House mouse (M. musculus) spleen 0.0001 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Barnes,Loutit, 1955
1955 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) whole 0.2 -3 Unknown Andjus, 1955
1956 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) whole 0.2 0 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Andjus, 1956
1956 Golden hamster (M. auratus) whole 0.1 -1 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Lovelock, Smith, 1956
1957 Mammals (Mammalia) ovarian tissue 0.0000000005 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Parkes, 1957 (via Fahy, 1980)
1957 Primate: some Simiiformes whole 4 11 Yes (habits preserved, no abnormalities) Niazi and Lewis, 1957
1957 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) sup. сervic. ganglion 0.0000005 -79 full recovery of synaptic function Pascoe, Parkes, 1957
1958 Mammals (Mammalia) renal tissue <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Vieuchange, 1958 (via Fahy, 1980)
1958 Leisler's bat (N. leisleri) whole 0.01 -7 Unknown Kalabukhov, 1958
1959 Mammals (Mammalia) thyroid tissue <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Parkes, 1959 (via Fahy, 1980)
1959 Golden hamster (M. auratus) whole 0.1 -5 Unknown Andjus, 1959
1959 European rabbit (O. cuniculus) whole 2 14 Unknown Andjus, 1959
1959 Human: brain surgery patients whole 60 28 Likely yes (a standard praxis in 2018) Soleimanpour et al, 2014
1961 Mammals (Mammalia) adrenal cortex <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980)
1961 Mammals (Mammalia) epididymis <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980)
1961 Mammals (Mammalia) fallopian tube <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980)
1961 Mammals (Mammalia) hypophysis <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980)
1961 Mammals (Mammalia) parathyroid glands <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Russell et al, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980)
1961 Mammals (Mammalia) prostate gland (ps.) <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980)
1961 Mammals (Mammalia) seminal vesicles <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980)
1961 Mammals (Mammalia) testicular tissue <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980)
1961 Golden hamster (M. auratus) heart 0.001 -20 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961
1961 European rabbit (O. cuniculus) heart 0.04 -21 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Connaughton, Lewis, 1961
1961 Guinea pig (C. porcellus) uteri 0.002 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961
1963 Domestic dog (C. lupus f.) ureters <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Barner et al, 1963
1964 House mouse (M. musculus) thymus glands 0.00005 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Playfair et al, 1964
1966 Cat (Felis catus) brain (in vitro) 0.03 -20 EEG similar to the control I. Suda et al, 1966
1967 Domestic dog (C. lupus f.) small intestine <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Hailmton, Lehr, 1967
1972 Mammals (Mammalia) heart (fetal) <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue David, 1972 (via Fahy, 1980)
1973 Domestic dog (C. lupus f.) kidney 0.02 -22 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Dietzman et al, 1973
1974 Mammals (Mammalia) bone marrow <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Karow et al, 1974 (via Fahy, 1980)
1974 Cat (Felis catus) brain (in vitro) 0.03 -20 activity, but some EEG abnormalities I. Suda et al, 1974
1974 Mammals (Mammalia) cornea <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Karow et al, 1974 (via Fahy, 1980)
1977 Mammals (Mammalia) embryos 0.0000000005 -79 Unknown Elliot, Whelan, 1977 (via Fahy, 1980)
1977 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) pancreases (fetal) <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Kemp et al, 1977 (via Fahy, 1980)
1980 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) fetal brain tissue <0,1 -90 Successful transplantation into a rat brain Houle, Das, 1980
1983 Human: unnamed donors brain tissue <0,1 -70 Metabolically, functionally active synapses Hardy et al, 1983
1984 Salamander S. keyserlingii whole 0.01 -32 Unknown Berman et al, 1984
1984 Human: unnamed donors astrocytes (culture) <0,1 -70 Astrocytes were growing in culture Kim et al, 1984
1986 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) fetal brain cells <0,1 -90 cultures indistinguishable from controls Kawamoto, Barrett, 1986
1986 Human: unnamed donors oocytes 0.0000000005 -196 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Chen, 1986
1986 Human: a 9-14 week abortus fetal brain tissue <0,1 -80 Brain cells were growing in culture Groscurth et al., 1986
1986 House mouse (M. musculus) brain cells (culture) <0,1 -15 Normal electrical activity, regeneration Scott, Lew, 1986
1986 Human: unnamed whole (embryo) 0.0000000005 -196 Likely yes (a standard praxis in 2018) Graham, 2005
1986 Human: Michelle Funk whole 10 19 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Clawson, 2013
1989 Squirrel S. parryii whole 0.9 -3 Unknown Barnes, 1989
1989 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) Pancreas (islets) 0.00000003 -196 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Warnock, Rajotte, 1989
1994 Domestic dog (C. lupus f.) whole 10 7 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Taylor et al, 1994
1999 Human: Anna Bågenholm whole 70 14 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Gilbert et al, 2000
2000 European rabbit (O. cuniculus) kidney 0.000008 -3 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Kheirabadi, Fahy, 2000
2001 Human: Erika Nordby whole 9 16 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Greaves et al, 2002
2002 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) ovaries 0.00001 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Wang et al, 2002
2003 Domestic dog (C. lupus f.) whole 20 10 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Behringer et al, 2003
2003 Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) ovaries 0.0001 -140 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Bedaiwy et al, 2003
2004 European rabbit (O. cuniculus) kidney 0.000008 -45 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Fahy, 2004
2006 Domestic pig (S. domesticus) whole 50 10 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Alam et al, 2006, 2008
2007 Human: aortic surgery patients whole 70 17 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Hayashida et al, 2007
2008 Domestic pig (S. domesticus) liver 2 -40 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Gavish, 2008
2009 Beetle Upis ceramboides whole 0.0002 -60 Unknown Walters, 2009
2012 Nematodes frozen for 26 years whole 0.0000003 -20 Unknown Kagoshima et al, 2012
2015 Nematode C. elegans whole 0.0000003 -79 Yes (long-term memory preserved) Vita-More, Barranco, 2015
2016 Human: trauma patients whole 80 10 Likely yes (ongoing clinical trial) Kutcher et al, 2016
2017 Human: Tayyab Jafar whole 80 21 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Ormsby, 2017
2018 Nematodes frozen for 30+ tsd yrs whole 0.0000003 -10 Unknown Shatilovich et al, 2018
2018 Human: unnamed donors liver 2 5 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Buchholz et al, 2018
  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named BedfordSuspension
  2. Nelson, Robert F., (1968). We froze the first man. [Dell Pub. Co.] OCLC 434744. 
  3. admin. "The Armories of the Latter Day Laputas, Part 7". CHRONOSPHERE. Retrieved 2019-02-15. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Cryonics Newsletter of: The Institute For Advanced Biological Studies, Inc." (PDF). March 1981. 
  5. "A HISTORY OF CRYONICS". Retrieved 2019-02-15. 
  6. "Interview with Jerry Leaf". Retrieved 2019-02-15. 
  7. "Yahoo! Groups". Retrieved 2019-02-15. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 "Systems for Intermediate Temperature Storage for Fracture Reduction and Avoidance". Retrieved 2019-02-15. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Tripplett, Donald (2017). "Sociedad Crionica" (PDF). Cryonics Institute Newsletter (4): 27. 
  10. Fahy, Gregory M (June 2005). "Cryopreservation of organs by vitrification: perspectives and recent advances". Cryobiology. 50 (3): 344. 
  11. Iarocci, Michael; Valentine, Stephen; Wowk, Brian (2004). "Cryogenic storage system with improved temperature control". 
  12. Wowk, Brian; Iarocci, Michael (2004). "Cryogenic storage system". 
  13. "Church of Perpetual Life". Church of Perpetual Life. Retrieved 2019-01-22. 
  14. Perpetual Life, COPL Grand Opening - part 1, retrieved 2019-01-22 
  15. de Wolf, Aschwin; de Wolf, Chana (Winter 2012). "Blood Substitution and Reperfusion Injury in Cryonics" (PDF). Long Life. 45 (1): p.20–24. 
  16. "Cryonics Magazine March-April 2018". Issuu. Retrieved 2019-01-22. 
  17. Darwin, M. "Cryopreservation of James Gallagher, CryoCare patient #C-2150". 
  18. "Cryonics Magazine March-April 2018". Issuu. Retrieved 2019-02-15. 
  19. "Cryonics Institute Newsletter" (PDF). 2017. 
  20. RomanPlusPlus (2019-01-11), SPTCR: curated repository of scientific papers on cryonics: RomanPlusPlus/scientific-progress-towards-cryonics, retrieved 2019-01-23