Talk:Timeline of brain preservation
|Date||Category||Type||Subtype||Organization or individual||Event|
|1965-10-30||cryonics||Dandridge M. Cole||Dandridge M. Cole suffers a fatal heart attack. Cole had read The Prospect of Immortality in 1963. In his more recent book, Beyond Tomorrow, he had devoted several pages to the subject. He had expressed a wish to be frozen after death. After some delay, a call was placed to Ettinger, who later would write, "I was consulted by long-distance telephone several hours after he died, but in the end, the family did what was to be expected – nothing."|
|1968||cryonics||social||book||Robert Nelson||Robert Nelson publishes the book We Froze the First Man telling the story of Bedford's cryopreservation. However, his description is largely inaccurate. A more accurate description would be written later on DEAR DR. BEDFORD (and those who will care for you after I do).|
|1972?||cryonics||organization||Alcor||Alcor advertises in direct mailings and offers seminars in order to attract members and brings attention to the cryonics movement. The first of these seminars attracts 30 people.|
|1977||cryonics||Alcor||Alcor changes its name to the Alcor Life Extension Foundation.|
|1979-1981 (?)||cryonics||organization||Manrise||Manrise merges with Trans Time|
|1981||cryonics||organization||Institute for Advanced Biological Studies||The Institute for Advanced Biological Studies relocates to California.|
|1981||cryonics||organization||Soma, Inc.||Somoa relocates to California.|
|1982||cryonics||organization||closing||Soma, Inc.||Soma is disbanded.|
|1983||cryonics||Jerry Leaf||Jerry Leaf is a research associate in the thoracic surgery department of the UCLA Medical Center. A small amount of his work time involves instruction of surgical residents in some aspects of thoracic surgery; however, the bulk of his work is as a researcher-technician in the laboratory of Dr. Robert Buckberg, a leading researcher in the field of myocardial protection myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.|
|1985||cryonics||organization||Cryovita||Cryovita doesn't renew their contract with Trans Time because it wasn't receiving enough money, and had mostly been paid in stocks so far.|
|1985-01-01||cryonics||Cryonics Institute||Andy Zawacki starts working for the Cryonics Institute. As of January 2019, Zawacki is still working there.|
|1986||cryonics||organization||Alcor||Some of Alcor's members form Symbex, a small investment company which funds a building in Riverside, California, for lease by Alcor.|
|1987||cryonics||organization||Alcor||Alcor moves from Fullerton, California, to the new building in Riverside.|
|1989-03||cryonics||organization||Cryonics Society of Canada||The Cryonics Society of Canada is officially founded by Douglas Quinn, Scott Maynard and Benjamin Best.|
|1990s (early)||cryonics||organization||New York Life||New York Life agrees that cryopreservation constitute an insurable interest and insurance agent Mary Naples moves to the forefront of cryonics life insurance sales person to eventually be replaced by Rudi Hoffman.|
|1991||cryonics||Jerry Leaf||Before his deanimation in 1991, Jerry Leaf is working to reduplicate Smith's hamster freezing study after first having subjected the animals to operant conditioning (learning) with the objective of demonstrating the persistence of memory after freezing. This research is carried out under the aegis of Cryovita Laboratories.|
|1993||cryonics||organization||protection from natural catastrophes||Alcor||Alcor purchases a building in Scottsdale, Arizona.|
|1998-04-30||cryonics||organization||status||Trans Time||Art Quaife resigns as president of Trans Time.|
|2002 (near the end of)||cryonics||organization||Alcor||Alcor embarks on an ambitious expansion project, taking over another unit in its Scottsdale building (where remaining units currently are rented to other tenants).|
|2003 August||cryonics||Technological development||Intermediate storage temperature||Alcor||Alcor Research Fellow Hugh Hixon begins to study a way to image stress in cryoprotectant glasses.|
|2003-05-12||cryonics||organization||KrioRus||KrioRus founder Igor Artyuhov cryopreserves the first human patient in Russia.|
|2004 March||cryonics||technological adoption||Intermediate storage temperature||Alcor||Alcor acquires a neuropod intermediate temperature storage unit for individual neuropatients.|
|2005 November||cryonics||technological adoption||Intermediate storage temperature||Alcor||Alcor places an order with 21st Century Medicine, Inc., for a custom ITS dewar large enough to hold 14 neuropatients at a stable intermediate temperature ("ITS Neurodewar").|
|2005-02||cryonics||organization||pre-founding||Sociedad Crionica||The website crionica.org is created.|
|2005-06||cryonics||science review||Fahy et al.||The science review "Cryopreservation of organs by vitrification: perspectives and recent advances" is published.|
|2005-08||cryonics||organization||KrioRus||KrioRus preserves their first patient.|
|2006 January||cryonics||Technological development||Intermediate storage temperature||Mike Iarocci, Stephen Valentine, and Brian Wowk||US Patent 6,988,370, Cryogenic storage system with improved temperature control, is awarded to Mike Iarocci, Stephen Valentine, and Brian Wowk.|
|2006-04||cryonics||organization||KrioRus||KrioRus opens a facility in Alabushevo, Moscow region.|
|2006-05||cryonics||organization||KrioRus||KrioRus LLC is incorporated in Russia.|
|2006-08||cryonics||technological adoptoin||vitrification||Cryonics Institute||In August 2006 the Cryonics Institute filed a preliminary patent application for CI−VM−1 in anticipation of filing a complete patent application. Although a patent application was prepared, legal counsel advised that the chances of getting a patent were very slim because of commercial use more than one year prior to filing the preliminary patent application. We were advised to publish the CI vitrification and carrier solutions as a defensive measure so that others would not be able to prevent CI from using them.|
|2007 October||cryogenic||Technological development||Intermediate storage temperature||Brian Wowk and Mike Iarocci||US Patent 7,278,278, Cryogenic storage system, is awarded to Brian Wowk and Mike Iarocci.|
|2008 December||cryonics||technological adoption||Intermediate storage temperature||Alcor||Patient A-1034, and 3 cryopreserved brains that were stored by private individuals are accepted into a new ITS neurodewar.|
|2013||life extension||organization||founding||Church of Perpetual Life||The Church of Perpetual Life is founded. Their first service happens at the end of 2013.|
|2013||cryonics||Technological development||Advanced Neural Biosciences||Long Life magazine publishes the results of a series of experiments by Aschwin and Chana de Wolf in Long Life magazine that investigated the effect of warm ischemia. The experiments were supported by Cryonics Institute and LongeCity.|
|2014||cryonics||organization||Suspended Animation, Inc||Suspended Animation, Inc opens an office in California.|
|2015-11-17||cryonics||organization||OregonCryo||OregonCryo cryopreserves their first human patient.|
|2015-12-12||cryonics||organization||CryoCare||CryoCare preserves their first patient.|
|2016-07-30||cryonics||organization||founding||Sociedad Crionica||Sociedad Crionica is founded.|
|2016-09||cryonics||organization||Suspended Animation||Suspended Animation becomes certified as an ISO 9001:2015 compliant organization, indicating SA adheres to the International Standards of Organization quality management system.|
|2017-06-20||cryonics||organization||risk management||Alcor||The Alcor Care Trust Supporting Organization is approved by the IRS as a tax-exempt 501(c)(3) organization.|
|2017-10-14 to 15||cryonics||organization||first annual event||Sociedad Crionica||Sociedad Crionica has its first annual event.|
|2018-03-21||cryonics||organization||risk management||Alcor||$12,707,650.65 is transferred from the Patient Care Trust to the Alcor Care Trust Supporting Organization. As they have been for many years, the funds stay in the custody of Morgan Stanley Smith Barney, LLC, but are now managed by the ACT Trustees. The Patient Care Trust retains $700,000 in cash as a cushion for Patient Care expenses in 2018, as well as its ownership position in Cryonics Property, LLC (the company that owns the building that Alcor occupies), and its ownership of Patient dewars and related equipment.|
|2019-01-23||cryonics||writing||The initial timeline of cryonics is published on Timelines Wiki.|
This section was removed as it doesn't meaningfully track the progress of cryonics.
The following graph is an attempt to track the progress of cryopreservation techniques by tracking the biggest mass that was successfully cryopreserved, and is based on the table that follows it.
|Year||Taxon||tissue, organ or whole body?||Approx. mass, kg||Lowest temperature (°C) after which a successful reanimation was achieved||Healthy brain activity/behavior after reanimation?||Reference|
|1876||Guinea pig (C. porcellus)||whole||1||18||Unknown||Bernard, 1876|
|1881||Marmots (Marmota)||whole||3||0||Likely yes (adapted to hibernation)||Horvath, 1881|
|1912||Schreibers' bat (M. schreibersii)||whole||0.02||-4||Unknown||Bachmetiev, 1912|
|1933||Bats (Chiroptera)||whole||0.004||0||Unknown||Eisentraut, 1933|
|1949||Human: unnamed donors||red blood cells||9E-14||-79||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Smith et al, 1949|
|1949||Human: unnamed donors||spermatozoa||3E-15||-79||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Polge et al, 1949|
|1950||Tardigrades (Tardigrada)||whole||2E-11||-272||Unknown||Becquerel, 1950|
|1950||Mammals (Mammalia)||skin||<0,1||-79||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Kreyberg, Hanssen, 1950 (via Fahy, 1980)|
|1951||Human: unnamed 23yo woman||whole||60||16||Yes (no abnormalities observed)||Laufmann, 1951|
|1951||Brown rat (R. norvegicus)||whole||0.2||0||Unknown||Andjus, 1951|
|1952||European rabbit (O. cuniculus)||skin||<0,1||-150||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Billingham, Medawar, 1952|
|1953||Primate: lemur C. major||whole||0.4||19||Unknown||Bourliere et al, 1953|
|1955||House mouse (M. musculus)||spleen||0.0001||-79||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Barnes,Loutit, 1955|
|1955||Brown rat (R. norvegicus)||whole||0.2||-3||Unknown||Andjus, 1955|
|1956||Brown rat (R. norvegicus)||whole||0.2||0||Yes (no abnormalities observed)||Andjus, 1956|
|1956||Golden hamster (M. auratus)||whole||0.1||-1||Yes (no abnormalities observed)||Lovelock, Smith, 1956|
|1957||Mammals (Mammalia)||ovarian tissue||0.0000000005||-79||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Parkes, 1957 (via Fahy, 1980)|
|1957||Primate: some Simiiformes||whole||4||11||Yes (habits preserved, no abnormalities)||Niazi and Lewis, 1957|
|1957||Brown rat (R. norvegicus)||sup. сervic. ganglion||0.0000005||-79||full recovery of synaptic function||Pascoe, Parkes, 1957|
|1958||Mammals (Mammalia)||renal tissue||<0,1||-79||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Vieuchange, 1958 (via Fahy, 1980)|
|1958||Leisler's bat (N. leisleri)||whole||0.01||-7||Unknown||Kalabukhov, 1958|
|1959||Mammals (Mammalia)||thyroid tissue||<0,1||-79||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Parkes, 1959 (via Fahy, 1980)|
|1959||Golden hamster (M. auratus)||whole||0.1||-5||Unknown||Andjus, 1959|
|1959||European rabbit (O. cuniculus)||whole||2||14||Unknown||Andjus, 1959|
|1959||Human: brain surgery patients||whole||60||28||Likely yes (a standard praxis in 2018)||Soleimanpour et al, 2014|
|1961||Mammals (Mammalia)||adrenal cortex||<0,1||-79||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980)|
|1961||Mammals (Mammalia)||epididymis||<0,1||-79||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980)|
|1961||Mammals (Mammalia)||fallopian tube||<0,1||-79||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980)|
|1961||Mammals (Mammalia)||hypophysis||<0,1||-79||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980)|
|1961||Mammals (Mammalia)||parathyroid glands||<0,1||-79||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Russell et al, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980)|
|1961||Mammals (Mammalia)||prostate gland (ps.)||<0,1||-79||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980)|
|1961||Mammals (Mammalia)||seminal vesicles||<0,1||-79||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980)|
|1961||Mammals (Mammalia)||testicular tissue||<0,1||-79||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980)|
|1961||Golden hamster (M. auratus)||heart||0.001||-20||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Smith, 1961|
|1961||European rabbit (O. cuniculus)||heart||0.04||-21||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Connaughton, Lewis, 1961|
|1961||Guinea pig (C. porcellus)||uteri||0.002||-79||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Smith, 1961|
|1963||Domestic dog (C. lupus f.)||ureters||<0,1||-79||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Barner et al, 1963|
|1964||House mouse (M. musculus)||thymus glands||0.00005||-79||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Playfair et al, 1964|
|1966||Cat (Felis catus)||brain (in vitro)||0.03||-20||EEG similar to the control||I. Suda et al, 1966|
|1967||Domestic dog (C. lupus f.)||small intestine||<0,1||-79||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Hailmton, Lehr, 1967|
|1972||Mammals (Mammalia)||heart (fetal)||<0,1||-79||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||David, 1972 (via Fahy, 1980)|
|1973||Domestic dog (C. lupus f.)||kidney||0.02||-22||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Dietzman et al, 1973|
|1974||Mammals (Mammalia)||bone marrow||<0,1||-79||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Karow et al, 1974 (via Fahy, 1980)|
|1974||Cat (Felis catus)||brain (in vitro)||0.03||-20||activity, but some EEG abnormalities||I. Suda et al, 1974|
|1974||Mammals (Mammalia)||cornea||<0,1||-79||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Karow et al, 1974 (via Fahy, 1980)|
|1977||Mammals (Mammalia)||embryos||0.0000000005||-79||Unknown||Elliot, Whelan, 1977 (via Fahy, 1980)|
|1977||Brown rat (R. norvegicus)||pancreases (fetal)||<0,1||-79||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Kemp et al, 1977 (via Fahy, 1980)|
|1980||Brown rat (R. norvegicus)||fetal brain tissue||<0,1||-90||Successful transplantation into a rat brain||Houle, Das, 1980|
|1983||Human: unnamed donors||brain tissue||<0,1||-70||Metabolically, functionally active synapses||Hardy et al, 1983|
|1984||Salamander S. keyserlingii||whole||0.01||-32||Unknown||Berman et al, 1984|
|1984||Human: unnamed donors||astrocytes (culture)||<0,1||-70||Astrocytes were growing in culture||Kim et al, 1984|
|1986||Brown rat (R. norvegicus)||fetal brain cells||<0,1||-90||cultures indistinguishable from controls||Kawamoto, Barrett, 1986|
|1986||Human: unnamed donors||oocytes||0.0000000005||-196||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Chen, 1986|
|1986||Human: a 9-14 week abortus||fetal brain tissue||<0,1||-80||Brain cells were growing in culture||Groscurth et al., 1986|
|1986||House mouse (M. musculus)||brain cells (culture)||<0,1||-15||Normal electrical activity, regeneration||Scott, Lew, 1986|
|1986||Human: unnamed||whole (embryo)||0.0000000005||-196||Likely yes (a standard praxis in 2018)||Graham, 2005|
|1986||Human: Michelle Funk||whole||10||19||Yes (no abnormalities observed)||Clawson, 2013|
|1989||Squirrel S. parryii||whole||0.9||-3||Unknown||Barnes, 1989|
|1989||Brown rat (R. norvegicus)||Pancreas (islets)||0.00000003||-196||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Warnock, Rajotte, 1989|
|1994||Domestic dog (C. lupus f.)||whole||10||7||Yes (no abnormalities observed)||Taylor et al, 1994|
|1999||Human: Anna Bågenholm||whole||70||14||Yes (no abnormalities observed)||Gilbert et al, 2000|
|2000||European rabbit (O. cuniculus)||kidney||0.000008||-3||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Kheirabadi, Fahy, 2000|
|2001||Human: Erika Nordby||whole||9||16||Yes (no abnormalities observed)||Greaves et al, 2002|
|2002||Brown rat (R. norvegicus)||ovaries||0.00001||-79||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Wang et al, 2002|
|2003||Domestic dog (C. lupus f.)||whole||20||10||Yes (no abnormalities observed)||Behringer et al, 2003|
|2003||Domestic sheep (Ovis aries)||ovaries||0.0001||-140||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Bedaiwy et al, 2003|
|2004||European rabbit (O. cuniculus)||kidney||0.000008||-45||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Fahy, 2004|
|2006||Domestic pig (S. domesticus)||whole||50||10||Yes (no abnormalities observed)||Alam et al, 2006, 2008|
|2007||Human: aortic surgery patients||whole||70||17||Yes (no abnormalities observed)||Hayashida et al, 2007|
|2008||Domestic pig (S. domesticus)||liver||2||-40||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Gavish, 2008|
|2009||Beetle Upis ceramboides||whole||0.0002||-60||Unknown||Walters, 2009|
|2012||Nematodes frozen for 26 years||whole||0.0000003||-20||Unknown||Kagoshima et al, 2012|
|2015||Nematode C. elegans||whole||0.0000003||-79||Yes (long-term memory preserved)||Vita-More, Barranco, 2015|
|2016||Human: trauma patients||whole||80||10||Likely yes (ongoing clinical trial)||Kutcher et al, 2016|
|2017||Human: Tayyab Jafar||whole||80||21||Yes (no abnormalities observed)||Ormsby, 2017|
|2018||Nematodes frozen for 30+ tsd yrs||whole||0.0000003||-10||Unknown||Shatilovich et al, 2018|
|2018||Human: unnamed donors||liver||2||5||Irrelevant - no brain tissue||Buchholz et al, 2018|
- Cite error: Invalid
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