Timeline of 5G
- 1 Sample questions
- 2 Big picture
- 3 Visual data
- 4 Full timeline
- 5 Meta information on the timeline
- 6 See also
- 7 External links
- 8 References
The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:
- What are some important milestones in the development of 5G?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Milestone".
- You will see standout events like the first adoption of 5G by a country.
- Which are some developed network standards related to 5G?
- What are some of the many 5G tests and trials conducted around the world?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Testing".
- What are some important fundings and other events related to 5G R&D?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Research and development".
- What are some notable partnerships between countries and organizations related to the development of 5G?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Partnership".
- Which are some notable 5G-related products (handsets, modems) launched or to be released?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Product launch".
- Which are the most notable companies involved in the development and network launch of the 5G generation?
- Sort the full timeline by "Organization".
- This will help you make sense of the most notable organizations given their number of occurrences.
- Which countries are involved in the development and adoption of 5G so far?
- Which are some notable 5G-related products (handsets, modems) launched or to be released?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Product".
- What are some indicative figures on 5G userbase and market penetration?
- Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Userbase".
- You will see market penetration in pioneering countries.
Summary by year
|Key year||Development summary|
|2017||77 operators in 49 countries complete 5G trials. The non-standalone (NSA) mode of 5G NR specifications are approved by 3GPP.|
|2018||A number of countries start launching limited 5G networks in selected locations. Qatar launches its network, but 5G mobiles are not available at the time. Elisa launches commercial 5G networks in Tampere and Tallinn. South Korea rolls out a 5G trial at the 2018 Winter Olympics. 3GPP approves standard frozen.|
|2019||The first countrywide commercial 5G network deployment occurs in South Korea.|
|2020||5G services are expected to be launched in many major cities. Global 5G wireless network infrastructure revenue is expected to reach US$4.2 billion by this year. 5G smartphone shipments are estimated to number at around 260 million units in the year.|
|2021||By this year, mobile and network communications applications, products, and services would be built mostly around 5G. Smartphone shipments using this technology are estimated to number at around 540 million units in the year.|
Summary by country
|Key country||5G development|
|South Korea||South Korea is recognized as the world's first country to roll out 5G on a large scale. Samsung, SK Telecom, KT, and LG Uplus are South Korean companies involved in the development and deployment of the technology.|
|China||China is considered to be a leading country in telecommunications, as Japan was when it pioneered 3G in the early 2000s, and the United States in 2011 when the country dominated the launch of 4G. As of December 2019, China has the largest 5G userbase in the world. 5G deployment is strongly backed by the government. China Mobile, China Unicom, and China Telecom are major 5G network players.|
|United States||The United States is considered to be a well advanced country in terms of 5G. It is the leader in spectrum efficiency, permitting the repurposing of broadcast spectrum for broadband. AT&T, Verizon, Sprint Corporation, and T-Mobile US are important players in this country.|
|Japan||Japan is considered to be among the top 5G network developers. NTT Docomo, SoftBank, and KDDI stand among the top players developing 5G in the country.|
Summary of all cellular network generations
|Time period||Cellular network generation||Operating cellular frequencies||Speed||Development summary|
|1979–1991||1G||800 MHz–1900 MHz||Maximum 2.4 Kbps||Exclusive period of the first generation of wireless cellular technology, which features and supports voice only. It starts with the first commercially automated cellular network launched in Japan by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) in 1979. In 1981, the Nordic Mobile Telephone system simultaneously launches in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.|
|1991–onwards||2G||GSM: 900MHZ, 1800MHz. CDMA: 800MHz||50 Kbps||Second generation cellular network lifetime, which features multiple users on single channel, and supports voice and data. It is first commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja.|
|1998–onwards||3G||2100 MHz||2 Mbps on stationary or non-moving devices and 384 Kbps on devices in moving vehicles||Third generation lifetime of wireless mobile telecommunications technology, starting with the first commercial 3G networks introduced in 2000.|
|2009–onwards||4G||600 MHz–2.5 GHz||Maximum 400 Mbps||500 times faster than 3G, the fourth generation lifetime of wireless mobile telecommunications technology starts with the first-release Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard commercially deployed in Oslo and Stockholm in 2009.|
|2019||5G||Enables about 28 GHz||Maximum in the theoretical range 10 Gbps–20 Gbps||5G is first deployed in South Korea on a national basis.|
|2030||6G||?||1 Tbps?||NTT Docomo aims to launch 6G on a commercial basis by 2030. China has already two working groups overseeing research around 6G.|
The table and image below illustrate the evolution of worldwide wireless infrastructure revenue forecast in millions of dollars across different segments, for the years 2018 to 2021.
|Year||5G||2G||3G||LTE and 4G||Small Cells||Mobile Core|
|Year||Month and date||Event type||Organization||Details||Country/location|
|2008||April||Partnership||NASA, Machine-to-Machine Intelligence (M2Mi) Corp||NASA partners with Geoff Brown and Machine-to-Machine Intelligence (M2Mi) Corp to develop 5G communications technology.||United States|
|2010||Research and development||NTT Docomo||NTT Docomo starts studying and experimenting with 5G.||Japan|
|2012||August||Research and development||NYU WIRELESS||New York University founds NYU WIRELESS, a multi-disciplinary academic research center that has conducted pioneering work in 5G wireless communications.||United States|
|2012||October 8||Research and development||University of Surrey||The UK's University of Surrey secures £35million for a new 5G research center, jointly funded by the British government's UK Research Partnership Investment Fund (UKRPIF) and a consortium of key international mobile operators and infrastructure providers, including Huawei, Samsung, Telefonica Europe, Fujitsu Laboratories Europe, Rohde & Schwarz, and Aircom International. It aims at offering testing facilities to mobile operators keen to develop a mobile standard that uses less energy and less radio spectrum while delivering speeds faster than current 4G with aspirations for the new technology to be ready within a decade.||United Kingdom|
|2012||November 1||Program launch||The EU project "Mobile and wireless communications Enablers for the Twenty-twenty Information Society" (METIS) starts its activity towards the definition of 5G. METIS achieves an early global consensus on these systems. In this sense, METIS plays an important role of building consensus among other external major stakeholders prior to global standardization activities. This is done by initiating and addressing work in relevant global fora (e.g. ITU-R), as well as in national and regional regulatory bodies.||European Union|
|2012||November||Program launch||The iJOIN EU project is launched, focusing on "small cell" technology, which is of key importance for taking advantage of limited and strategic resources, such as the radio wave spectrum. According to Günther Oettinger, the European Commissioner for Digital Economy and Society (2014–2019), "an innovative utilization of spectrum" is one of the key factors at the heart of 5G success. Oettinger further describes it as "the essential resource for the wireless connectivity of which 5G will be the main driver".||European Union|
|2013||May 12||Research and development||Samsung||Samsung Electronics announces development of a "5G" system. The core technology has a maximum speed of tens of Gbit/s (gigabits per second). In testing, the transfer speeds for the "5G" network sends data at 1.056 Gbit/s to a distance of up to 2 kilometers with the use of an 8*8 MIMO.||South Korea|
|2013||July||Partnership||India and Israel agree to work jointly on development of fifth generation (5G) telecom technologies.||India, Israel|
|2013||October 1||Recognition||Nippon Telegraph and Telephone||NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone) wins Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications Award at CEATEC for its 5G R&D efforts.||Japan|
|2013||November 6||Research and development||Huawei||Huawei announces plans to invest a minimum of $600 million into R&D for next generation 5G networks capable of speeds 100 times faster than modern LTE networks.||China|
|2013||Research and development||Chinese companies begin conducting research on 5G.||China|
|2015||March||Notable report||Next Generation Mobile Networks||The Next Generation Mobile Networks (NGMN) alliance publishes its 5G White Paper, a set of operator requirements intended to guide the development of future technology platforms and related standards.|
|2016||May 24||Testing||NTT Docomo, Nokia||In a trial jointly conducted with Nokia, NTT Docomo announces having achieved the world's first wireless real-time transmission of 8K video deploying radio access technology for 5G mobile communications systems.||Japan|
|2016||June 13||Testing||NTT Docomo, Ericsson||NTT Docomo and Ericsson announce successful completion of a joint Proof of Concept (PoC) of dynamic network slicing technology for 5G core networks. NTT Docomo is responsible the network slice creation and selection functions, and Ericsson developed technologies to perform network slice lifecycle and service management.|
|2016||July||Infrastructure||FCC||The United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) frees up vast amounts of bandwidth in underused high-band spectrum for 5G. The Spectrum Frontiers Proposal (SFP) doubles the amount of millimeter-wave unlicensed spectrum to 14GHz and creates four times the amount of flexible, mobile-use spectrum the FCC has licensed to date.||United States|
|2016||Testing||AT&T||AT&T starts conducting 5G field trials with mmWave spectrum.||United States|
|2016||Testing||Chinese companies begin conducting technical trials on 5G.||China|
|2016||Research and development||Federal Communications Commission||The U.S. Federal Communications Commission announces a US$400 million funding dedicated to research on 5G.||United States|
|2017||January||Testing||Turkcell||Turkcell, the largest mobile phone operator in Turkey, completes a 24.7 Gb/s 5G trial with Ericsson.||Turkey|
|2017||March 10||Partnership||Ericsson, Mobitel||Sri Lankan National Mobile Service Provider Mobitel partners with Ericsson with the signing of the 5G Island of Innovation Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to bring 5G to Sri Lanka.||Sri Lanka|
|2017||March||Testing||Telenor||Norwegian telecommunications provider Telenor successfully tests 5G in Norway.||Norway|
|2017||May||Infrastructure||Communications and Information Technology Commission (Saudi Arabia), Mobily, STC, Zain||The Saudi Communications and Information Technology Commission awards 160 MHz of additional IMT spectrum in 700 MHz, 800 MHz, and 1800 MHz bands to mobile operators Mobily, STC and Zain.||Saudi Arabia|
|2017||August||Telecom Regulatory Authority of India||The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India releases a PDF that outlines the 5G standard draft and shows a timeframe for when 5G should be deployed around the world.||India|
|2017||August||Testing||Ericsson, Softbank||Softbank and Ericsson in Japan perform 5G trials using 4.5 GHz frequencies.||Japan|
|2017||September||Testing||Ericsson, Irancell||Iranian telecommunications Irancell and Ericsson perform their first 5G test in Tehran and announce that 5G would be available in Iran in 2020.||Iran|
|2017||November||Infrastructure||Federal Communications Commission||The U.S. Federal Communications Commission makes available an additional 1700 MHz of high band spectrum for flexible terrestrial wireless use in the 24 GHz (24.25-24.45/24.74-25.25 GHz) and 47 GHz (47.2-48.2 GHz) bands.||United States|
|2017||Late year||Network launch||América Móvil||Mexican telecommunications company América Móvil announces the release of 4.5 networks in anticipation of a 5G release.||Mexico|
|2017||December||Network standard||3GPP||The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) approves NSA 5G NR specifications.|
|2017||December||Testing||KDDI, Samsung||KDDI and Samsung in Japan complete a successful 5G demo on a train moving at over 100km/h.||Japan|
|2018||March||Network standard||3GPP||The 3rd Generation Partnership Project approves standard frozen.|
|2018||May||Network launch||STC Group||STC Group launches its first live 5G network in Saudi Arabia (The first in the MENA region) after completing the testing and trial phase.||Saudi Arabia|
|2018||May||Testing||NTT Docomo||NTT Docomo achieves a 5G field trial at 28GHz, involving a 5G base station and a car travelling at around 293km/h.||Japan|
|2018||June||Network standard||3GPP||The 3rd Generation Partnership Project approves SA 5G NR specifications.|
|2018||June||Milestone (network launch)||Elisa||Finnish telecom operator Elisa launches the world’s first commercial 5G networks and starts selling subscriptions in Tampere and Tallinn.||Finland, Estonia|
|2018||June||Network launch||Vodafone Spain||Vodafone Spain launches 5G trials in Madrid, Valencia, Seville, and Barcelona.||Spain|
|2018||June||Research and development||Smart Communications||Filipino wireless communications provider Smart Communications announces the launch of 5G TehnoLab, their 5G innovation lab.||Philippines|
|2018||July||Ericsson, Telefónica Telecom||Ericsson and Telefónica Telecom demonstrate a 5G data transfer of 27 Gbps in Bogotá.||Colombia|
|2018||July||Network launch||Ooredoo||Doha–based Ooredoo announces launch of its 5G commercial network in Qatar. The company states it is waiting for manufacturers to produce 5G capable devices as these are not ready at the time.||Qatar|
|2018||September||Network standard||3GPP||The 3rd Generation Partnership Project approves Standard frozen.|
|2018||September||Program launch||FCC||The United States Federal Communications Commission announces its 5G FAST Plan in an effort to advance the country’s position among the countries that have deployed 5G networks. Part of this plan includes spectrum auctions.||United States|
|2018||September||Testing||NTT Docomo||NTT Docomo successfully achieves 25–27 Gbps download speeds in a 5G trial with Mitsubishi Electric.||Japan|
|2018||September||Partnership||Nokia, Turkcell||Turkish mobile phone operator Turkcell announces an agreement with Nokia to develop 5G technologies.||Turkey|
|2018||October 1||Network launch||Verizon||Verizon launches new 5G fixed–wireless access (FWA) service, starting in certain neighbourhoods of Houston, Indianapolis, Los Angeles and Sacramento. The company is the first to have a non-standards-based deployment, that is actually a fixed broadband network.||United States|
|2018||November||Testing||Samsung, Turkcell||Turkish mobile phone operator Turkcell trials 5G fixed wireless access solutions with Samsung in Istanbul.||Turkey|
|2018||November||Infrastructure||Smart Communications||Smart Communications rolls out their first 5G cell sites in the Philippines.||Philippines|
|2018||November||Testing||Nokia, StarHub||Singaporean telecommunications provider StarHub announces, in partnership with Nokia, the completion of their first outdoor pilot of 5G on the 3.5 GHz frequency band in Singapore.||Singapore|
|2018||November||Partnership||Ericsson, MTN Group||South African mobile telecommunications company MTN Group partners with Ericsson to deploy a fixed wireless access 5G site in Midrand, South Africa.||South Africa|
|2018||November||Infrastructure||Telenor||Norwegian Telenor launches three 5G base stations in Kongsberg.||Norway|
|2018||November 29||Testing||NTT Docomo, Toyota||NTT Docomo and Toyota announce having successfully controlled the Toyota-developed T-HR31 humanoid robot in trials using 5G under a test environment with control from a remote location (a distance of approximately 10 kilometers) using 5G in an area between two points.||Japan|
|2018||December||Testing||TeliaSonera, Ericsson, KTH Royal Institute of Technology||TeliaSonera, Ericsson, and KTH Royal Institute of Technology launch 5G testbed in Stockholm.||Sweden|
|2018||December||Network launch||AT&T||AT&T becomes the first United States carrier to launch a standards-based mobile 5G network servicing a dozen cities, albeit without any 5G-enabled devices.||United States|
|2018||December||Partnership||Ericsson, Tigo||Ericsson announces that telecommunications company Tigo has chosen the company to modernize its radio access network. The deal "includes the provision of a 5G-ready multi-standard network."||Honduras|
|2018||December||Testing||Telia Company||Telia Company opens its first 5G test network in Norway.||Norway|
|2018||December||Research and development||Nokia, Telefónica Germany||Broadband telecom provider Telefónica Germany announces that, in collaboration with Nokia, they finished building their "Early 5G Innovation Cluster" in Berlin.||Germany|
|2019||February||Milestone (technology)||Hospital Clinic Barcelona||A team of doctors at Hospital Clinic Barcelona carries out the world’s first 5G-powered telementored operation (removal of a cancerous tumor from a patient's colon), with surgeon overseeing the procedure at over three miles away.||Spain|
|2019||February||Partnership||Nokia, Saudi Telecom Company||Nokia and Saudi Telecom Company sign deal for 5G network launch and early rollout of services in Saudi Arabia.||Saudi Arabia|
|2019||February||Partnership||Nokia, Telecom Egypt||Telecom Egypt and Nokia agree to introduce a 5G network in Egypt.||Egypt|
|2019||March||Product launch||Global Mobile Suppliers Association||The Global Mobile Suppliers Association releases the industry's first database tracking worldwide 5G device.|
|2019||March||Partnership||Huawei, U Mobile, ZTE Corporation, Maxis Communications||Malaysian provider Maxis Communications, Huawei, U Mobile, and ZTE Corporation sign a memorandums of understanding to collaborate on 5G deployment in Malaysia.||Malaysia|
|2019||March||Network launch||Verizon||Verizon activates its standards-based 5G network in Minneapolis and Chicago, before mobile 5G devices are available.||United States|
|2019||March 30||Network launch||China Mobile||Shanghai starts both 5G coverage and broadband gigabit network trial runs, backed by Chinese telecom giant China Mobile.||China|
|2019||April 3||Milestone (network launch)||SK Telecom, KT, LG Uplus||South Korea becomes the first country to adopt 5G when three companies launch the world's first nationwide 5G mobile. The three main telecommunication companies (SK Telecom, KT and LG Uplus) add more than 40,000 users to their 5G network on the launch day.||South Korea|
|2019||April 3||Network launch||Verizon||Just hours later of 5G launch in South Korea, Verizon launches its 5G services in the United States.||United States|
|2019||April 17||Network launch||Ericsson, Swisscom||Ericsson and Swisscom launch 5G network in in 54 cities and communities in Switzerland. It is the first commercial 5G in Europe.||Switzerland|
|2019||April||Product launch||Samsung||Samsung announces having started mass production for its 5G chips. Among the new chip offerings is the Exynos Modem 5100, which contains a 5G multi-mode chipset.||South Korea|
|2019||May 16||Product launch||Verizon||Verizon begins selling Samsung Galaxy S10 5G.||United States|
|2019||May 24||Network launch||Telstra||Australian network operator Telstra launches limited 5G services in the country with a device that customers can use to connect other devices.||Australia|
|2019||May 30||Network launch||EE Limited||Mobile network operator EE Limited launches first 5G consumer mobile network in the United Kingdom in select locations in London, Cardiff, Edinburgh, Belfast, Birmingham and Manchester.||United Kingdom|
|2019||May 30||Network launch||Etisalat||Emirati multinational Etisalat launches 5G commercial service in the United Arab Emirates, along with ZTE 5G smartphone.||United Arab Emirates|
|2019||June 5||Network launch||Batelco||Batelco becomes the first to launch a commercial 5G network in Bahrain.||Bahrain|
|2019||June 5||Network launch||Vodafone||Vodafone launches 5G in Italy in five cities: Naples, Bologna, Milan, Turin, and Rome.||Italy|
|2019||June 6||Partnership||Huawei||Huawei signs a deal with Russian network provider MTS to develop a 5G network in the country over the next year.||China, Russia|
|2019||June 15||Network launch||Huawei, Vodafone||Huawei and Vodafone roll out in collaboration the first commercial 5G mobile services in Spain, making it one of the first European countries with the ultrafast mobile network in Europe.||Spain|
|2019||June 19||Network launch||STC Group||STC Group becomes the first operator to launch 5G commercial services in Saudi Arabia, making it available to customers in a number of cities in the Kingdom. The service uses Ericsson commercial hardware.||Saudi Arabia|
|2019||June 27||Network launch||Ericsson, RCS & RDS||Ericsson and Romanian operator RCS & RDS launch Romania’s first 5G commercial service in the busiest parts of Bucharest.||Romania|
|2019||June||Userbase||South Korea reaches over one million 5G subscribers.||South Korea|
|2019||June||Infrastructure||Qualcomm||American tech company Qualcomm starts construction of a 5G center in Taipei. 5G service is expected to be available in Taiwan by January 2020, according to Vice Premier Chen Chi-mai.||Taiwan|
|2019||Late June||Userbase||Over 1.6 million people are subscribed to 5G in South Korea, accounting for 77 per cent of the global population of 5G users. At the time, there are 14 times as many South Koreans using 5G as there are Americans.||South Korea|
|2019||July 9||Network launch||Huawei, Monaco Telecom||Monaco Telecom launches its 5G network covering the entire city area in conjunction with the presentation of the commercial offer. The microstate becomes the first in the world to have to have full, operational 5G coverage. The network is built by Huawei.||Monaco|
|2019||July 16||Network launch||SK Telecom, Swisscom||SK Telecom and Swisscom launch 5G roaming services for Koreans visiting Switzerland.||Switzerland|
|2019||July 16||Infrastructure||Vodafone||Vodafone activates its first 25 5G base stations in Germany.||Germany|
|2019||July 18||Product launch||Verizon||Verizon announces 5G hotspot, the Inseego 5G MiFi M1000, at a cost of around US$600.|
|2019||July 26||Infrastructure||Telecom Italia, Vodafone||Telecom Italia and Vodafone agree to merge their mobile tower infrastructure and to jointly roll out 5G in Italy.||Italy|
|2019||July||Testing||Smart Axiata||Cambodian telecommunications service provider Smart Axiata showcases the Cambodia's first 5G live trial.||Cambodia|
|2019||August 5||Product launch||ZTE||ZTE releases the first 5G phone in China with the launch of the Axon 10 Pro 5G t, which comes equipped with a 6.47-inch 1080p AMOLED display, and will use one of Qualcomm’s first generation X50 5G modems to connect to China’s upcoming 5G wireless network.||China|
|2019||August 5||Network launch||Ericsson, Vodafone||Ericsson and Vodafone launch in Germany a commercial 5G network using Ericsson products and solutions, with their sights set on bringing 5G to 20 million people in the country by the end of 2021.||Germany|
|2019||August 6||Network launch||AT&T||AT&T rolls out limited 5G in parts of New York City, but only accessible to business customers and developers. As of date, AT&T lags behind Verizon, which offers 5G services in nine cities.||United States|
|2019||August 8||Network launch||Ericsson, Tele2||Ericsson and Tele2 launch Russia's first 5G zone in central Moscow. Ericsson provides the equipment for the network, which is run by Tele2.||Russia|
|2019||August 13||Network launch||Vodafone||Vodafone launches 5G services in five Irish cities: Cork, Dublin, Galway, Limerick and Waterford.||Ireland|
|2019||August||Testing||Zong 4G||Pakistani mobile data network operator Zong 4G becomes the first company in Pakistan to test 5G services.||Pakistan|
|2019||September 1||Network launch||Huawei||Huawei deploys 5G In Russia.||Russia|
|2019||September 2||Partnership||Iliad SA, Nokia||French telecommunications provider Iliad SA announces partnership with Nokia as for 5G network deployments in France and Italy.||France, Italy|
|2019||September 3||Product launch||Samsung||Samsung announces the launch of its first SoC that integrates 5G connectivity. The device, called Exynos 980, combines a 5G modem and mobile application processor into one chip, thus increasing power efficiency and occupying less space within smartphones compared to older generation SoCs.|
|2019||September 5||Network launch||Verizon||Verizon launches 5G in National Football League stadiums across the United States, with 13 expected to be live by the start of the 2019-20 football season. Attendees would still need to have a 5G compatible phone to access the 5G networks, which can download data 10 to 100 times faster than the average 4G LTE connection.||United States|
|2019||September 6||Product launch||Qualcomm||American company Qualcomm announces expansion of its 5G modems across its Snapdragon 8 series, 7 series and 6 series processors.||United States|
|2019||September 9||Public reception||Several hundred people demonstrate in The Hague against the arrival of 5G mobile phone networks in the Netherlands, and call for the government to reduce the level of permitted radiation from the new generation mobile phones, improve privacy regulations and assess the effect on the climate.||Netherlands|
|2019||September 9||Partnership||Samsung, SK Telecom||Samsung announces partnership with SK Telecom to develop and commercialize the world's first 8K-5G TV. The device is expected to offer ultra-high resolution screen that is also capable of extremely fast connection speeds, enabling users to download VR and other data-heavy content.||South Korea|
|2019||September 10||Partnership||NTT Docomo, Omron, Nokia||NTT Docomo announces agreement with Omron and Nokia Networks to collaborate in trials of 5G mobile communication technology inside factories, "with the aim of significantly enhancing future manufacturing productivity". ||Japan|
|2019||September 16||Acquisition||Qualcomm||Qualcomm announces full acquisition of RF360 (a joint venture between TDK and Qualcomm) in order to boost content in 5G smartphones.|
|2019||September 18||Network launch||Rain||South African data-only operator Rain launches a commercial 5G wireless home broadband service in parts of Johannesburg and Tshwane, the first 5G network in the country.||South Africa|
|2019||September 19||Product launch||Huawei||Huawei launches a new 5G flagship smartphone lineup without pre-installed Google-licensed apps.||China|
|2019||September||Network launch||NTT Docomo||NTT Docomo launches pre-commercial 5G services.||Japan|
|2019||September||Network launch||Deutsche Telekom||Deutsche Telekom rolls out 5G in Germany in Berlin, Darmstadt, Munich, Bonn, and Cologne.||Germany|
|2019||October 8||Partnership||Ericsson, Telia||Ericsson is selected by service provider Telia as its sole 5G radio access network (RAN) vendor for Telia's next-generation nationwide network in Norway. 5G rollouts are expected to start in 2020 and extend through 2023.||Norway|
|2019||October 11||Network launch||BT Mobile||BT Mobile launches 5G services in the United Kingdom, in 20 cities.||United Kingdom|
|2019||October||Network launch||Eir||Irish broadband telecommunications company Eir launches 5G in Ireland with help from Ericsson’s 5G core. The network is expected to cover up to 110 towns and cities around the country in a number of weeks.||Ireland|
|2019||October||Testing||VEON||VEON launches a 5G trial on a live network in Kazakhstan.||Kazakhstan|
|2019||November 1||Network launch||China Mobile, China Telecom, China Unicom||China state carriers China Mobile (CHL), China Telecom (CHA) and China Unicom (CHU) formally announce the rollout of 5G service, laying out their price plans and data speeds. All three offer 5G plans that start at 128 yuan (US$18) for 30 GB of data per month.||China|
|2019||November 11||Partnership||Zain Group, Ericsson||Kuwaiti mobile telecommunications company Zain Group announces having selected Ericsson to build its 5G network in Bahrain, with the first commercial 5G services expected to go live before the end of 2019.||Bahrain|
|2019||November 14||Partnership||Ericsson, MTN South Africa||MTN South Africa selects Ericsson as a 5G network modernization vendor. Ericsson would supply 5G products and solutions from its Radio Access Network (RAN), transport and Core portfolios, with commercial rollout expected to start in 2020.||South Africa|
|2019||November 15||Technology||Samsung, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Openet||Samsung Electronics, Hewlett Packard Enterprise and software vendor Openet announce the successful integration of a cloud-native 5G standalone (SA) Core with multivendor interoperability. The test features the integration of Samsung’s control, user plane network function, and orchestrator with HPE’s shared data environment and network functions, and Openet’s cloud-native network functions software. A 5G SA core would allow operators to offer many of the new services considered paramount to 5G, including network slicing, mobile edge computing, analytics driven by artificial intelligence, and ultra-low latency networks.||South Korea|
|2019||November 19||Network launch||Verizon||Verizon ads 5G network to Boston, Houston and Sioux Falls, bringing the total number of cities with the carrier’s next-generation network to 18.||United States|
|2019||November 20||Network launch||EE Limited||EE Limited announces having switched on 5G technology in 14 new cities and towns across the United Kingdom, adding the service to Castlereagh, Guildford, Hamilton, Harlow, Hoddesdon, Kimberley, Lisburn, Maidstone, Sydenham, Watford and Wolverhampton, as well as Liverpool, Glasgow and Huddersfield.||United Kingdom|
|2019||November 21||Infrastructure||As of date, China has 113,000 5G base stations.||China|
|2019||December 3||Network launch||T-Mobile||T-Mobile announces the launch of its nationwide 5G network in the United States, becoming the first American carrier to offer 5G access across the country. The network is expected to cover more than 200 million people and more than 1 million square miles.||United States|
|2019||December 10||Milestone (technology)||Ericsson||Australian telecommunications company Optus claims to have made the world’s first 5G data call using lower frequency 2.3 GHz spectrum in a trial completed in Sydney using kit from Ericsson. The lower frequency is expected ultimately to offer even greater speeds as well as providing greater coverage depth enabling even more customers to benefit from 5G services.||Australia|
|2019||December 11||Partnership||Nokia||Nokia announces development of a strategic partnership ecosystem to bring local 5G/private wireless LTE to industrial and government customers in Japan. These five Nokia partners span multiple segments, including NS Solutions for factory IoT, Marubeni for global IoT, Internet Initiative Japan for Full MVNO, Equinix for multi-cloud and global data centers, and Hitachi Kokusai Electric.||Japan|
|2019||December 11||Research and development||SK Telecom, Samsung Heavy Industries||South Korean SK Telecom and Samsung Heavy Industries announce joint development of a 5G-based autonomous platform for testing of the technology. The test ship, built by SHI, is equiped with remote control capabilities, 5G-based Lidar, a cloud-based IoT platform and real-time video monitoring from SK Telecom.||South Korea|
|2019||December 11||Network launch||Deutsche Telekom||Deutsche Telekom launches commercial 5G services in Hamburg.||Germany|
|2019||December||Userbase||Chinese 5G smartphone users are reported to outperform South Korean users, following 5G commercial launch in November in China.||China|
|2020||January 16||Infrastructure||Galaxy Space||227-kilogram Yinhe–1 (Galaxy-1) technology verification satellite for Beijing-based communications satellite producer Galaxy Space launches. It is the first private 5G low-orbit broadband satellite China successfully puts in orbit.||China|
|2020||January 17||Testing||ZTE Corporation, MTN Uganda||ZTE Corporation and MTN Uganda successfully roll out 5G technology trial in Uganda, which becomes the first country in East Africa to adopt 5G technology.||Uganda|
|2020||January||Research and development||Ericsson||Ericsson announces a new R&D site in France with up to 300 employees. The site would focus initially on 5G software development and security.||France|
|2020||February 17||Education||Nokia||Nokia launches a 5G certification program with the purpose to train and certify business and technology professionals at communications service providers and enterprises.|
|2020||June||Network launch||Viettel||Vietnamese telecommunication company Viettel plans to launch commercial 5G mobile services by this time.||Vietnam|
|2020||July||Network launch||NTT Docomo||NTT Docomo plans to have 5G base stations in all 47 Japanese prefectures by this time.||Japan|
|2021||Spring||Network launch||NTT Docomo||NTT Docomo plans to reach a total of 10,000 5G base stations by this time.||Japan|
|2023||Network launch||China Tower||State-owned telecommunication provider China Tower expects to reach 5G national coverage by this year.||China|
|2024||Userbase||5G subscriptions are expected to reach 1.5 billion by this time, with US$301 billion in revenue, driven predominantly by high demand for faster speeds, according to September 2019 research from GlobalData. The Asia Pacific region is expected to be the biggest market.|
Meta information on the timeline
How the timeline was built
The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.
Funding information for this timeline is available.
Feedback and comments
Feedback for the timeline can be provided at the following places:
What the timeline is still missing
Timeline update strategy
- "The 5G era in the US". gsmaintelligence.com. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- "The Top Countries Most Likely to Launch 5G First". sdxcentral.com. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
- "5G network infrastructure to reach $4.2bn in revenues by 2020". capacitymedia.com. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- "Chinese 5G Smartphone Users Outperform Korean Users Following 5G Commercial Launch in November". en.ctimes.com.tw. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
- "China is racing ahead in 5G. Here's what that means". technologyreview.com. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
- "USA, Japan, South Korea and China are the leading countries in terms of 5G readiness. A number of Gulf countries claim to have launched 5G mid-2018.". 5gobservatory.eu. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- "Generations in Telecommunication (1G, 2G, 3G, 4G)". zseries.in. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
- "What frequency is 5G?". verizon.com. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
- "1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, & 5G Explained". lifewire.com. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
- "What is the difference between 3G, 4G and 5G?". verizon.com. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
- Charny, Ben (2001-10-01). "World's first 3G phone network goes live". ZDNet. Retrieved 2019-08-16.
- McCarthy, Kieren (2001-10-01). "World's first 3G network live today". theregister.co.uk. Retrieved 2019-08-16.
- "THE EVOLUTION TO 3G MOBILE — STATUS REPORT". itu.int. 2003-07-29. Retrieved 12 December 2019.
- "First 3G mobiles launched in Japan". 2001-10-01. Retrieved 12 December 2019.
- "What Is 5G, and How Fast Will It Be?". howtogeek.com. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
- "6G: SPEEDS COULD INCREASE UP TO 1 TB/S, 8000 TIMES THE SPEED OF 5G". gizchina.com. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
- "DOCOMO Releases White Paper Promoting 6G Communication System". nttdocomo.co.jp. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
- "Wikipedia views". wikipediaviews.org. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
- "Wikipedia views". wikipediaviews.org. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
- "Google Trends". trends.google.com. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
- jim. "NASA - NASA Ames Partners With M2MI For Small Satellite Development". nasa.gov.
- "5G Availability Around the World". lifewire.com. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- "The world's first academic research center combining Wireless, Computing, and Medical Applications". Nyu Wireless. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- "NYU Wireless' Rappaport envisions a 5G, millimeter-wave future - FierceWirelessTech". Fiercewireless.com. 2014-01-13. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- Alleven, Monica (2015-01-14). "NYU Wireless says U.S. falling behind in 5G, presses FCC to act now on mmWave spectrum". Fiercewireless.com. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- Kelly, Spencer (13 October 2012). "BBC Click Programme - Kenya". BBC News Channel. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
Some of the world biggest telecoms firms have joined forces with the UK government to fund a new 5G research center. The facility, to be based at the University of Surrey, will offer testing facilities to operators keen to develop a mobile standard that uses less energy and less radio spectrum, while delivering faster speeds than current 4G technology that's been launched in around 100 countries, including several British cities. They say the new tech could be ready within a decade.
- "The University Of Surrey Secures £35M For New 5G Research Centre". University of Surrey. 8 October 2012. Archived from the original on 14 October 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- "5G research centre gets major funding grant". BBC News. BBC News Online. 8 October 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- Philipson, Alice (9 October 2012). "Britain aims to join mobile broadband leaders with £35m '5G' research centre". The Daily Telegraph. London: Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- "METIS projet presentation" (PDF). November 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 2014-02-14.
- "Speech at Mobile World Congress: The Road to 5G". March 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-11-10. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- "삼성전자, 5세대 이동통신 핵심기술 세계 최초 개발". 12 May 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- "General METIS presentations available for public". Archived from the original on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- "India and Israel have agreed to work jointly on development of 5G". The Times Of India. 25 July 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- "DoCoMo Wins CEATEC Award for 5G". 3 October 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- Embley, Jochan (6 November 2013). "Huawei plans $600m investment in 10Gbps 5G network". The Independent. London. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- "5G White Paper". ngmn.org. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
- "DOCOMO and Nokia Achieves World's First Real Time 8K Video Transmission Using 5G Radio Access Technology". nttdocomo.co.jp. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
- "DOCOMO and Ericsson Perform Successful Proof of Concept of Dynamic 5G Network Slicing". nttdocomo.co.jp. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
- "FCC Spectrum Frontier Proposal | NYU WIRELESS". NYU WIRELESS. 2016-07-15. Retrieved 2017-05-18.
- "Mobitel & Ministry of Telecommunication and Digital Infrastructure partners with Ericsson for the first 5G Island of Innovation in South Asia". mobitel.lk. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- "The first steps towards 5G in Norway". telenor.com. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- "STC launches commercial 5G services in Saudi Arabia". arabnews.com. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
- "Race To 5G: What We know About 5G From Countries That Have Already Started Adopting It". startupeuropenews.eu. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- "Elisa first in world to launch commercial 5G". epressi.com. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- "Elisa launches world's first commercial 5G". goodnewsfinland.com. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- "Elisa first in world to launch commercial 5G". elisaautomate.com. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- "Elisa 'First' to Launch Commercial 5G Network with 5G-ready Subscription Plan". thefastmode.com. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- "5G commercial network world coverage map". worldtimezone.com. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
- "The Top Countries with 5G Deployments and Trials". sdxcentral.com. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- "Verizon's new 5G fixed–wireless access proposition aims to attract cable cord-cutters". analysysmason.com. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- "MTN, Ericsson and Netstar record 5G first for South Africa". ericsson.com. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- "5G First Steps" (PDF). telenor.com. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- "DOCOMO and Toyota Conduct Successful Remote Control of T-HR3 Humanoid Robot Using 5G". nttdocomo.co.jp. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
- "5G HITS NORWAY: THE WORLD'S FIRST 5G CINEMA". teliacompany.com. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- "New cellular sites will enable developing and testing new 5G services". telefonica.de. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- "Doctor performs first 5G surgery". japantimes.co.jp. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
- "Doctor uses 5G to direct surgery live from a stage at Mobile World Congress". edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
- "Nokia and Saudi Telecom Co. (STC) sign deal for 5G network launch and early rollout of services". nokia.com. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- "Telecom Egypt and Nokia sign Memorandum of Understanding to introduce 5G network and test use cases". nokia.com. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- "GSA launches first global database of commercial 5G devices". totaltele.com. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- "Shanghai world's first district with 5G coverage, broadband gigabit network". business-standard.com. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
- "Shanghai's 5G network starts test runs". xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
- "South Korea to seize on world's first full 5G network". Nikkei Asian Review.
- "5G 첫날부터 4만 가입자…3가지 가입포인트" [From the first day of 5G, 40,000 subscribers ... 3 subscription points]. The Asia Business Daily. 2019-04-06.
- "US dismisses South Korea's launch of world-first 5G network as 'stunt' - 5G - The Guardian". amp.theguardian.com.
- "Ericsson and Swisscom in European commercial 5G first". ericsson.com. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
- "Ericsson and Swisscom in European Commercial 5G First". microwavejournal.com. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
- "Swisscom Among the First with Commercial 5G in Europe — But is the Real Story Here About 2G and 3G?". blog-idcuk.com. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
- Mu-Hyun, Cho. "Samsung begins mass production of its own 5G chips". zdnet.com. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
- "Telstra Launches Limited 5G Service in Australia". sdxcentral.com. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
- Lomas, Natasha. "UK's first 5G network taster goes live in six cities tomorrow". techcrunch.com. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- Garcia, Ahiza. "The UK gets its first but limited 5G network". edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- "EE launches UK's first 5G service". ft.com. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- Warren, Tom. "5G has arrived in the UK, and it's fast". theverge.com. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- "Etisalat 5G service launched in the UAE along with ZTE 5G smartphone". techradar.com. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
- "Etisalat first to market with 5G smartphones". gulfnews.com. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
- "Etisalat, Huawei announce 5G partnership". khaleejtimes.com. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
- "Batelco launches first commercial 5G network in Bahrain". telegeography.com. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
- "Batelco 1st to Launch Commercial 5G Network in the Kingdom of Bahrain". batelco.com. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
- "Batelco first to launch commercial 5G in Bahrain". commsmea.com. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
- "Vodafone it ". twitter.com. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
- "China's Huawei signs deal to develop 5G network in Russia". theguardian.com. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- "Huawei signs deal with Russian telecoms firm to develop 5G". bbc.com. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- Griffiths, James. "Huawei is building 5G in Russia and China. We may be seeing the start of the internet break up". Analysis. CNN.
- "Vodafone launches first 5G network in Spain in cooperation with Huawei". xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
- "Vodafone estrenará el 5G en España el 15 de junio con la red de Huawei". elpais.com. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
- "STC Group Launches 5G Commercial Services in Saudi Arabia after Kuwait and Soon in Bahrain as the First Operator in the MENA Region to Offer such Services". stc.com.sa. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
- "STC and Ericsson launch 5G network in Saudi Arabia". ericsson.com. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
- "STC officially launches 5G service". saudigazette.com.sa. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
- "DIGI RCS & RDS and Ericsson go live with 5G mobile service in Romania". ericsson.com. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
- "South Korea hits 1 million 5G subscribers in 69 days, beating 4G record". June 12, 2019.
- Huang Tzu-ti (27 April 2019). "Qualcomm 5G center breaks ground in Taiwan". Taiwan News. Taipei. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
- Drillsma, Ryan (19 April 2019). "5G could be available in Taiwan as early as January 2020". Taiwan News. Taipei. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
- "South Koreans complain at poor quality of 5G network". ft.com. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- "Huawei, rete 5G nel Principato di Monaco". ANSA (in italiano). 11 July 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- Charleston Lim (11 July 2019). "Monaco Telecom Rolls Out Full 5G Coverage Using Huawei Gear In European First". Business Times. Beijing. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- "Huawei makes Monaco world's first fully 5G country". livemint.com. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- "Monaco debuts Europe's first nationwide 5G network using Huawei gear". venturebeat.com. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- "Principality of Monaco is world's first country to have full, operational 5G coverage!". extendedmonaco.com. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- "SK Telecom and Swisscom launch 5G roaming service". zdnet.com. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
- "Swisscom, SK Telecom, Elisa and BICS claim world's first 5G roaming services". telecoms.com. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
- "SK Telecom Launches the World's First 5G Roaming Service With Swisscom". lightreading.com. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
- "Das erste 5G-Handy-Netz ist da: Ab morgen auf den Smartphones". vodafone.de. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- "Verizon launches its first 5G hotspot for $650". theverge.com. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- "Verizon's first 5G hotspot is $500 with a two-year contract". engadget.com. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- "TIM, Vodafone agree merger of mobile masts, 5G partnership in Italy". reuters.com. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
- "TIM to announce towers deal, 5G partnership with Vodafone on July 26: source". reuters.com. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
- "Empowering Cambodia for the Future of Connectivity and Digital Lifestyle". smart.com. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- Porter, Jon. "ZTE releases first 5G phone in China". theverge.com. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- Yujie, Xue. "China's First 5G Phone Owner Is a 78-Year-Old Retiree". sixthtone.com. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- "Ericsson and Vodafone bring 5G to Germany". ericsson.com. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- "AT&T's 5G network comes to NYC, but not for regular customers". theverge.com. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- Heater, Brian. "AT&T rolls out (limited) 5G in (parts of) New York City". techcrunch.com. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- "AT&T turns on 5G in New York, but it still isn't available to consumers". cnet.com. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- "AT&T's 5G network is now live in New York City for business customers". androidcentral.com. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
- "Russia's first 5G zone deployed in Moscow". ericsson.com. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
- "Russia enters super-fast communication era with launch of first 5G zone in Moscow". rt.com. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
- "Russia's First 5G Zone Deployed in Moscow". aglmediagroup.com. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
- "Vodafone launches 5G services in Cork, Dublin, Galway, Limerick and Waterford". rte.ie. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- "Huawei Just Launched 5G In Russia With Putin's Support: 'Hello Splinternet'". forbes.com. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- "Iliad selects Nokia for 5G infrastructure rollout in France and Italy". telecompaper.com. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- Kelly, Chris. "Iliad reveals Nokia as its 5G network partner in France and Italy". totaltele.com. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- "Eurobites: Nokia Lands 5G Deal With Iliad". lightreading.com. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- Gartenberg, Chaim. "Samsung's new Exynos 980 processor has a 5G modem built in". theverge.com. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- "Samsung launches 5G-integrated Exynos 980 mobile processor". cnet.com. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- "Samsung's Exynos 980 chip is a processor and 5G modem in one". engadget.com. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- "Samsung launches 5G integrated Exynos 980 SoC". zdnet.com. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- "Verizon launches 5G in NFL stadiums across the US". cnet.com. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- "Which NFL Stadiums Will Get 5G Connections Next". fortune.com. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- "13 NFL Stadiums Install Verizon 5G Ultra Wideband Service". sportsvideo.org. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- "Verizon and AT&T bring 5G connectivity to 13 NFL stadiums in time for kickoff". usatoday.com. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- "Verizon Launches 5G in 13 NFL Stadiums". pcmag.com. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
- "Qualcomm's expanding 5G to cheaper smartphones with new chips". cnet.com. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- "Qualcomm confirms 5G capable 6 and 7 series Snapdragon chipsets coming next year". gsmarena.com. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- "Hundreds protest in The Hague against 5G mobile networks". dutchnews.nl. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
- "Samsung, SK Telecom Team for 8K TV Powered by 5G". lightreading.com. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
- "Samsung and SK Telecom partner to build a 5G-capable 8K TV". engadget.com. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
- "DOCOMO to Commence 5G Trials at Manufacturing Sites in Partnership with OMRON and Nokia". nttdocomo.co.jp. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
- "Qualcomm acquires RF360, hires staff to scale 5G". rcrwireless.com. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
- "Qualcomm buys out joint venture partner to boost content in 5G smartphones". sandiegouniontribune.com. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
- "Qualcomm pays TDK $3.1 billion to fully own 5G RF front-end venture". venturebeat.com. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
- "Qualcomm and TDK collaborate to deliver a more complete 4G/5G system". notebookcheck.net. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
- "South Africa's first 5G network is now live in parts of Johannesburg and Tshwane – here's what you'll pay". businessinsider.co.za. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
- "Rain launches 5G in South Africa – pricing and coverage". businesstech.co.za. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
- "Rain launches uncapped 5G broadband at R1 000/month". techcentral.co.za. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
- "Huawei unveils its new 5G flagship phone without Google-licensed apps". cnbc.com. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
- Frumusanu, Andrei. "Home>Mobile Huawei Launches Mate 30 & Mate 30 Pro 4G and 5G Variants: First Step Away From Google". anandtech.com. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
- "5G goes live in five cities". telekom.com. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- "Telia Norway selects Ericsson as sole 5G RAN provider". ericsson.com. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- "Telia picks Ericsson for 5G in Norway, plans to deploy spectrum sharing tech". fiercewireless.com. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- "100 additional locations will be covered in the 5G network in coming weeks". rcrwireless.com. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- "VEON launches large-scale 5G trial on live network in Kazakhstan". veon.com. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- "China races U.S. pressure as it launches massive 5G mobile network". marketwatch.com. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- "China just launched the world's largest 5G network". edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- "China switches on superfast 5G network". france24.com. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- "Zain selects Ericsson for 5G in Bahrain". ericsson.com. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- "MTN South Africa selects Ericsson for commercial 5G Core and Radio". ericsson.com. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- "Samsung Completes Multivendor Interoperability of Cloud-Native 5G Standalone Core with HPE and Openet". news.samsung.com. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- "Samsung completes multi-vendor interoperability of cloud-native 5G standalone core with HPE, Openet". telecompaper.com. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- "Samsung Taps HPE, Openet for Multi-Vendor 5G SA Core Test". sdxcentral.com. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- "Verizon 5G network now in Boston, Houston and Sioux Falls". rcrwireless.com. Retrieved 12 December 2019.
- "EE expands 5G to 14 new cities in the UK". rcrwireless.com. Retrieved 12 December 2019.
- "China has 113,000 5G base stations: MIIT minister". xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 12 December 2019.
- "T-Mobile has launched nationwide 5G. Here's what that means". edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
- "T-Mobile 5G: It's On!". businesswire.com. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
- "Optus completes 5G data call using 2.3 GHz spectrum". rcrwireless.com. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
- "5G and IoT comes to enterprises in Japan". smart-energy.com. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
- "SK Telecom and Samsung partner on 5G autonomous ship". gigabitmagazine.com. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
- "Deutsche Telekom launches 5G services in Hamburg". rcrwireless.com. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
- "China Launches First Private 5G Low-orbit Broadband Satellite". republicworld.com. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
- "China's first LEO 5G broadband satellite moves into orbit". ecns.cn. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
- "Uganda becomes East Africa's first country to adopt 5G technology". pd.co.ke. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
- "Uganda outsmarts, Kenya and Rwanda to become the first country in East Africa to roll out 5G technology". pulselive.co.ke. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- "Ericsson Says It Will Now Open A 5G R&D Site In France". data-economy.com. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- "Ericsson to ramp European 5G with new R&D site in France". computerweekly.com. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- "Ericsson opens new R&D site in France". evertiq.com. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- "Nokia launches certification programme to boost enterprise 5G". computerweekly.com. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
- "Nokia claims it's breaking new ground with a 5G certification programme". telecomtv.com. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
- "Vietnam's largest mobile carrier to launch commercial 5G services in June". reuters.com. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
- "NTT Docomo moves up Japan-wide 5G to June 2020, offers early access". venturebeat.com. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
- "5G subscriptions will reach 1.5 billion by 2024". 5gradar.com. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
- "Global 5G subscriptions will reach 1.5 billion by 2024, says GlobalData". globaldata.com. Retrieved 2 October 2019.