Timeline of Brookings Institution

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This is a timeline of Brookings Institution, a United States group which conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and economic development.[1]

Big picture

Time period Development summary
1970s Throughout the decade, Brookings is offered more federal research contracts than it can handle.[2]
1980s Brookings is exposed to increasingly competitive and ideologically charged intellectual environment.[3] The need to reduce the federal budget deficit becomes a major research theme in the 1980s, as well as investigating problems with national security and government inefficiency. The Center for Public Policy Education is established to develop workshop conferences and public forums to broaden the audience for research programs.[4][5]
1990s "In the 1990s, the federal government devolved many of its social programs back to cities and states, and Brookings shaped a new generation of urban policies to help build strong neighborhoods, cities and metropolitan regions."[6]
2010s The University of Pennsylvania's Global Go To Think Tank Index Report names Brookings "Think Tank of the Year" and "Top Think Tank in the World" every year since 2008.[7]

Full timeline

Year Month and date Event type Details
1916 In Washington, D.C. a group of leading educators, businessmen, attorneys, and financiers, including businessman and philanthropist Robert S. Brookings, found the Institute for Government Research (IGR), with the mission of becoming "the first private organization devoted to analyzing public policy issues at the national level."[8] IGR becomes the first private organization devoted to bettering the practices and performance of government with recommendations generated by outside experts. Its first research project, directed by economist William Willoughby, focuses on helping the Bureau of Internal Revenue revise the reporting of tax statistics for greater accuracy.[9][6]
1917 Robert Brookings is appointed by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson to the War Industries Board, a government agency which coordinates the purchase of military supplies. Later, Brookings is made chairman of the board’s Price Fixing Committee, to discourage profiteering.[9]
1919 IGR publishes A National Budget System: the Most Important of all Governmental Reconstruction Measures.[9]
1921 Landmark legislation Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 is crafted and passed with the lead of IGR recommendations. The legislation expands executive power in the federal budget process. President Warren Harding calls it “the beginning of the greatest reform in governmental practices since the beginning of the republic.”[9][6]
1922 IGR establishes the Institute of Economics, for the “sole purpose of ascertaining the facts about current economic problems and of interpreting these facts for the people of the United States.” Chicago University economist Harold G. Moulton is named its director.[9][6]
1923 "Harold Moulton and staff economist Constantine McGuire write of post-Great War Europe that “the reparation situation has gone from very bad to worse.” In their reports they study the ability of Germany and its allies on the losing side of World War I to pay the debts mandated by the Versailles Treaty."[9]
1923 IGR partners with Washington University in St. Louis to provide training in public service and establish the Robert S. Brookings Institute of Economics and Government for Teaching and Research (later the Robert S. Brookings Graduate School of Economics and Government). Between 1924 and 1930, 74 PhDs would be awarded by the school.[9]
1927 IGR merges with its recenlty created sister organizations, the Institute of Economics and the Robert Brookings Graduate School of Economics and Government, to form the Brookings Institution, named after Robert Brookings in recognition of his services to all three organizations. Its mission: “to promote, carry on, conduct and foster scientific research, education, training and publication in the broad fields of economics, government administration and the political and social sciences generally.”[9][6]
1927 Leadership The Brookings Trustees choose their first president: American economist Harold G. Moulton, who was previously director of the Institute of Economics and a member of the boards of the Graduate School and the Institute for Government Research.[9][6]
1928 United States Secretary of the Interior Hubert Work commissions IGR’s Lewis Meriam to undertake a comprehensive survey of the condition of Native Americans. The resulting report, titled The Problem of Indian Administration (known as Meriam Report) becomes influential in shaping American Indian affairs policies in the Herbert Hoover and Franklin D. Roosevelt administrations.[9][10][11][12]
1928 Institutional Brookings begins its own in-house publishing division, which precedes the Brookings Institution Press.[9]
1932 Leadership Robert Brookings dies in Washington, D.C. at the age of 82. His book The Way Forward is published just before his death, in which Brookings calls for the more equal distribution of wealth.[9]
1934 Literature The Brookings Institution publishes the two first volumes of the four works titled The Distribution of Wealth and Income in Relation to Economic Progress (informally known as the “capacity studies”). The first volume is entitled America’s Capacity to Produce, the second, and the second America’s Capacity to Consume. The works focus on production and consumption capacity, capital, and market speculation in the 1920s. These studies would become a major guide to the United States economy for policymakers for much of the decade.[9][13]
1935 Literature The Brookings Institution publishes the two last volumes of the four works titled The Distribution of Wealth and Income in Relation to Economic Progress: The Formation of Capital and 'Income and Economic Progress. These two volumes are authored by Harold G. Moulton alone.[13]
1935 The brookings institution publishes a detailed analysis of the National Recovery Administration NRA, which was established by president Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933. The authors conclude that the NRA impeded economy recovery after the Depression.[14][9]
1939 The Brookings Institution publishes Reorganization of the National Government—What Does it Involve?, in which scholars and Lewis Meriam and Laurence F. Schmeckebier shed light on President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Reorganization Act of 1939, which permitted the president to reorganize certain aspects of the executive branch and created the Executive Office of the President.[9][15]
1939 "Supporting the War Effort. Throughout World War II, Brookings experts recommend policies on a variety of issues, including wartime price controls, military mobilization, German and U.S. manpower requirements, and later, postwar demobilization and preventing Germany and Japan from re-arming. Even before U.S. entry into the war, one Brookings researcher advised that “The United States should introduce the formula of the blitzkrieg in the armament production program” to defeat Germany."[9]
1941 A study by scholar Laurence Schmeckebier at Brookings Institution develops the system of apportioning congressional representation among the states that would become embodied in the Congressional Apportionment Act of 1911.[9]
1941 The United States enter into World War II. Brookings researchers turn their attention to aiding the administration with a series of studies on mobilization.[16]
1944 The Brookings Institution publishes a study by Joseph Mayer on Post-War National Income, Its Probably Magnitude.[17]
1946 Economist Leo Pasvolsky becomes first director of the International Studies Group at Brookings, which conducts research and education in international relations and is the precursor to what would become the Foreign Policy program at Brookings.[9]
1947 "At the request of Senator H. Alexander Smith, chairman of the Senate Subcommittee on Health of the Senate Labor and Public Welfare Committee, Brookings scholars take on a study of compulsory health insurance. Two proposals emerge: grants-in-aid to states that will ensure quality medical attention for those who need it; and the formation of a compulsory health insurance program by the national government. The study concludes that a national health insurance program would be too political, too expensive, and too detrimental to the nation’s economic health."[9]
1948 The Brookings Institution is asked by the United States Government to draft a proposal on how to manage the European Recovery Program Marshall Plan. The resulting organization scheme assures that the Marshall Plan is run carefully and on a businesslike basis.[16] Brookings experts play a pivotal role in the development of the program, providing valuable recommendations on the administrative organization.[9]
1948 "In 1948, the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Sen. Arthur Vandenberg (R-MI), praised Brookings for a report that would become “the Congressional ‘work-sheet’ in respect to this complex and critical problem.”"[6]
1949 "Brookings experts conduct research that forms the basis of a task force report on public welfare, prepared for the Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government, also known as the Hoover Commission."[9]
1949 "Brookings scholars Charles Dearing and Wilfred Owen publish “National Transportation Policy,” recommending the creation of a new department of transportation headed by a new cabinet secretary. In the 1950s, Owen continued to write about the nation’s infrastructure and transportation inefficiencies."[9] "The Transportation report was contracted to the Brookings Institution and was prepared by their in-house transportation experts, Charles Dearing and Wilfred Owen. The report recommended the establishment of a new, Cabinet-level Department of Transportation."[18]
1950 "Brookings scholars Lewis Meriam and Karl Schlotterbeck, in “The Cost and Financing of Social Security,” weigh in on legislation to change social security programs, arguing for a pay-as-you-go system. They criticize comparing social security programs to private insurance, and argue that “the situation which the country now faces thus suggests the wisdom of adopting a social security system that provides suitably for old persons and others now in need, pays the costs from current revenues, and makes no long-term commitments with respect to future payments.”"[9]
1952 Economist and educator Robert Calkins becomes the second president of the Brookings Institution.[9]
1952 The Brookings Institution conducts a landmark study of share ownership on behalf of the New York Stock Exchange. The survey shows that 6.5 million Americans (4 percent of the overall population), own stock directly.[19]
1953 "Shortly before his death in 1953, Leo Pasvolsky initiates a series of studies on the United Nations that looked at the features of the UN system to provide a better public understanding of its capabilities and limitations. The studies were published after his death under the direction of Robert Hartley, who succeeded Pasvolsky."[9]
1954 The Brookings Institution publishes Industrial Pensions by Charles L. Dearing, the research for which was begun shortly after the Inland Steel Company decision in 1949, which made pensions a bargainable subject under the Taft–Hartley Act. The study includes a survey as of 1950 of the plans of 412 companies employing 4,000,000 workers, reflecting costs and funding arrangements as well as benefit features.[20]
1957 "1957. Birth of Executive Education at Brookings. institutional milestone. Brookings President Robert Calkins spearheads a new program of education for senior government executives. The program contributes to passage of the Federal Training Act of 1958 that provides across-the-board federal employee training to improve government productivity. In 1962, the program is renamed the Advanced Study program, forerunner of today’s Brookings Executive Education, which continues to offer courses for federal employees on critical issues, the policymaking process, and public leadership."[9]
1957 Brookings headquarters move from Jackson Avenue to a new research center near Dupont Circle in Washington, D.C.[21]
1959 "1959. A Hard Look at the National Debt Ceiling. landmark research. In “The National Debt Ceiling: An Experiment in Fiscal Policy,” Brookings’s Marshall Robinson argues that the debt ceiling had not only failed, but backfired. The study is quoted in congressional debates during the 1960s, and again in 2013."[9]
1960 "1960. A New Home for Brookings. institutional milestone. After the federal government uses eminent domain in 1957 to take over Brookings’s Jackson Place headquarters, which it has occupied since 1931, the Institution builds a new headquarters on Massachusetts Avenue, just east of Dupont Circle."[9]
1960 "Smoothing the Transition between Administrations. Ahead of the 1960 presidential election, Brookings scholar Laurin Henry leads the Presidential Transitions project to help the winning presidential candidate—either John F. Kennedy or Richard M. Nixon—launch his administration smoothly. The book is followed by a series of confidential issues papers prepared by Brookings experts."[9]
1960 The Brookings Institution makes its second major study of overseas operations.[22]
1960 The Brookings Institution begins a four-year program with the Ford Foundation and the Government of South Vietnam to provide assistance in tax policy, fiscal policy, and economic planning to the national government in Saigon down to provinces and villages.[9]
1960 Brookings experts publish Proposed Studies on the Implications of Peaceful Space Activities for Human Affairs, preparing a report for NASA and giving advice to the New Space Program. The authors make dozens of recommendations for additional studies on the social, economic, political, legal, and international implications of the use of space.[9]
1960 Brookings governmental studies expert Laurin L. Henry publishes Presidential Transitions, designed to help the winning candidate (John F. Kennedy or Richard M. Nixon) launch his administration smoothly. The book is followed by a series of confidential issues papers prepared by Brookings experts.[6]
1961 "1961. India’s “Quiet Crisis”. Brookings scholar John Lewis publishes “The Quiet Crisis in India,” an in-depth study of India's rural development. Lewis makes the case for aid to India and the developing world as a component of U.S. foreign policy. The work is published in India just two years later, in the same year as the death of Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s founding prime minister. Lewis later becomes USAID/India Mission director."
1961 The Brookings Institution publishes a book by American economist Alice Rivlin entitled The Role of the Federal Government in Financing Higher Education.[23]
1963 "Economic Integration in Latin America. Brookings Foreign Policy and Governmental Studies programs, in conjunction with several Latin American research organizations, coordinate a program of studies on trade and investment policies in Latin America that lasts into the early 1980s. The program is said to have strengthened the economics profession in Latin America."[9]
1963 The Brookings Institution in Washington holds a conference on "quantitative planning of economic policy". Speakers (which in clude Dutch and French representatives) present their models.[24]
1963 The Brookings Institution advocates a shared federal library storage facility in its report Federal Departmental Libraries: A Summary Report of a Survey and a Conference. The authors suggest that such a facility could be a “cheap storage building, perhaps in a mountainside near Washington”. Major federal libraries would contribute to the management and administration on a cooperative basis, and requested materials would be delivered within a day. The imagined facility would maintain brief catalog entries that would be provided to cooperating libraries.[25]
1965 "1965. Death of Mrs. Brookings, Key Supporter. Isabel Vallé January Brookings, wife of Robert S. Brookings, dies on April 7, aged 89, and leaves the Institution an $8 million bequest. She was a dedicated supporter of the Brookings Institution, having also contributed money to build Brookings’s building on Lafayette Square near the White House."[9]
1965 The Brookings Institution creates a task force to study bankruptcy administration.[26]
1965 The Brookings Institution holds a conference to address the major problems of intergovernmental finance and to propose solutions to those problems.[27]
1966 The Brookings Institution enters the compuer age by establishing the Social Science Computation Center for Research, which offers computational research support for scholars, including use of a mainframe computer.[9]
1966 The Brookings Institution publishes a book by Charles Frankel entitled The Neglected Aspect of Foreign Affairs. Frankel argues that “in comparison with the sophisticated analysis devoted to U.S. military, economic, and diplomatic policy, little intellectual attention has been given to international cultural exchange”.[28]
1967 Kermit Gordon.[6] "1967. Third President Hails from Budget Bureau. In 1967, Kermit Gordon becomes the third president of Brookings. Prior to his tenure at Brookings, he served as the director of the U.S. Bureau of the Budget during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations."[9]
1967 The Brookings Institution launches a major initiative on the economic impact of regulation, backed by US$1.8 million from the Ford Foundation and directed by a panel that includes George Stigler.[29]
1968 "1968. Agenda for the Nation. Brookings publishes the first in a series of “Agenda for the Nation” volumes, which are collections of papers on domestic and foreign policy issues. In 1970, a pair of reviews appear: one by former Vice President Hubert Humphrey —then a professor at the University of Minnesota—and another by current Vice President Spiro Agnew. “In ‘Agenda for the Nation,’” writes Humphrey, “the Brookings Institution has once again been of substantial assistance.” Agnew writes that the volume’s authors and others “who are assisting the contemporary search for improved governmental machinery and for a clarification of goals and priorities, must be considered to be an indispensable part of our governmental process.”"[9]
1969 "1969. Cold War Defense Analyses. Under the leadership of Kermit Gordon and Foreign Policy Program Director Henry Owen, Brookings establishes the Defense Analysis Project to study issues such as defense support costs and U.S., NATO, and Soviet force structures. Work from the project is influential among congressional decision-makers."[9]
1970 "1970. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity. landmark research. Brookings scholars Arthur Okun and George Perry introduce the first edition of the “Brookings Papers on Economic Activity,” which remains a highly influential and respected economics journal."[9]
1971 "1971. Creation of the Congressional Budget Office. Brookings experts begin a new series of studies on the federal budget and congressional spending choices, which eventually lead to the creation of the Congressional Budget Office; Brookings scholar Alice Rivlin becomes the founding director of the CBO in 1975."[9]
1971 "Setting National Priorities. Brookings releases the first report in the highly acclaimed and influential “Setting National Priorities” series, a cross-program initiative focused on evaluating annual White House budgets as they are released and examining the domestic and foreign policy choices that confront the U.S. The report is published annually from 1971 -1983 and then in 1990, 1997, and 1999."[9]
1971 "“Blow the safe and get it!” “Goddamn it, get in and get those files. Blow the safe and get it,” President Richard Nixon says to aides on June 17, believing that a safe in a Brookings office contains a copy of secret files on the 1968 Vietnam bombing halt that Nixon believed he could use to blackmail former President Johnson with. The files are not at Brookings. Legend holds that Brookings security guard Roderick Warren turns away two suspicious men who attempt to get into the building."[9]
1973 The Brookings Institution holds a conference on variation of the Head Start program (launched in 1965) and presents a program for planned variation studies development.[30]
1974 The Brookings Institution declares that the after-tax profit rate for United States corporations has fallen since 1948, from just under eight percent to just under five percent.[31]
1975 The Brookings Institution publishes a little book by Arthur Okun entitled Equality and Efficiency: The Big Tradeoff, which would consideded a classic in its field. The book explores “the big tradeoff” between society’s desire to reduce inequality and the risk of impairing economic efficiency. It also examines how redistributing income affects economic growth.[9][32]
1975 "Middle East Study Group Recommendations. Following the fourth war between Arab states and Israel in 1973, Brookings releases recommendations of the Middle East Study Group, a diverse assembly of distinguished Americans tasked with considering how the U.S. might help in the achievement of a workable, fair, and enduring settlement to the Arab-Israeli conflict."[9]
1976 Gilbert Y. Steiner.[6]
1976 "1976. Organizing the Presidency. Brookings scholar Stephen Hess, a former White House staff member, publishes “Organizing the Presidency.” In it, he conducts an examination of how various presidents have organized their offices and staff and sheds light on how the presidency has become an institution unto itself."[9]
1976 The Brookings Institution publishes Asia's New Giant, an extensive analysis by a team of US and Japanese social scientists that explains Japan's extraordinary economic performance over the previous twenty-five years.[33]
1977 Bruce MacLaury.[6] "Fourth President Comes to Brookings. The Board of Trustees names Bruce MacLaury the fourth president of Brookings. Before coming to Brookings, he served as president of the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis."[9] "Fourth President Comes to Brookings. The Board of Trustees names Bruce MacLaury the fourth president of Brookings. Before coming to Brookings, he served as president of the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis."[9]
1977 "1977. Studies on Soviet Military Power. In 1977 and 1981, Barry Blechman and Stephen Kaplan author books on the Soviet military buildup. Blechman, then head of the defense analysis staff at Brookings, discusses how the U.S. should respond to Soviet strengthening of military forces and defense programs. Kaplan, a Brookings research associate, presents case studies on Soviet use of military power to attain political objectives outside of its borders."[9]
1978 Brookings researcher Gary Orfield publishes Must We Bus? Segregated Schools and National Policy, which argues that American schools have a legal and moral obligation to practice desegregation busing. Orfield calls out school and government officials for intentionally dragging their feet through this process and asserts that more must be done to achieve the goal of desegregation than simply busing students to different schools.[9][34]
1979 "1979. American Decision-Making in Vietnam. Brookings scholar Leslie Gelb (now president emeritus of the Council on Foreign Relations) and then-Brookings research associate Richard Betts (later a Harvard and Columbia professor) conclude in a study of America’s role in Vietnam that while the foreign policy outcome of America’s involvement was a failure, the decision-making system worked as designed. Yale historian Gaddis Smith wrote that “If an historian were allowed but one book on the American involvement in Vietnam, this would be it.”"[9]
1980 "1980. Tracking Vital Stats on Congress. Brookings’s Thomas Mann and AEI’s Norm Ornstein jointly publish “Vital Statistics on Congress,” detailing the election and composition of its membership, party structure, and staff. Mann and Ornstein also document the growing partisan divide in Congress and track the demographics of senators and representatives. The book, updated regularly, is published entirely online in 2013."[9]
Early 1980s "Joseph Pechman, director of the Economic Studies program at Brookings, pushed hard for comprehensive reform of the U.S. tax code in the early 1980s. His research led to the Tax Reform Act of 1986—a major bill that had a profound impact on the U.S. economy."[6]
1986 "Joseph Pechman, director of the Economic Studies program at Brookings, pushed hard for comprehensive reform of the U.S. tax code in the early 1980s. His research led to the Tax Reform Act of 1986—a major bill that had a profound impact on the U.S. economy."[6] "1986. Informing the Tax Reform Act of 1986. landmark research. Brookings initiates a multi-year project on tax reform led by experts Henry Aaron and Harvey Galper, under the supervision of Economic Studies Program Director Joe Pechman. Their research helps inform the Tax Reform Act of 1986, a major bill that had a profound impact on the U.S. economy. Pechman’s “Federal Tax Policy” is essential to those reforms."[9]
1990 "1990. New Thinking about School Competition. In “Politics, Markets, and America's Schools,” Brookings’s John Chubb and Terry Moe examine the growing dissatisfaction with the school system in America. They identify its maladies and propose a new system of public education constructed around competition among schools, parent-student choice, and agency within the system."[9]
1992 "1992. Reforming and Renewing Congress. Brookings’s Thomas Mann and AEI’s Norm Ornstein continue their collaboration, publishing reports from the Renewing Congress Project, which focuses on ways to improve congressional debate and action on legislation, enhance relationships between parties, and fix the campaign finance system. Their work makes a significant contribution to the debate about congressional reform."[9]
1994 "1994. Another View on the Cold War’s End. Raymond Garthoff authors “The Great Transition: American-Soviet Relations and the End of the Cold War.” His research shows that the U.S. did not win the Cold War with President Reagan’s military buildup, but instead, “‘victory’ came when a new generation of Soviet leaders realized how badly their system at home and their policies abroad had failed.”"[9]
1994 "A Metropolitan Agenda. In 1994, Anthony Downs authors “New Visions for Metropolitan America,” a discussion of the problem of rapid expansion of cities and suburban areas. In 1998, Bruce Katz’s “Reviving Cities: Think Metropolitan,” examines problems caused by explosive urban sprawl and emphasizes the necessity of a federal metropolitan agenda. Katz later becomes founding director of the Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings."[9]
1995 Brookings launches its website, located at www.brook.edu.[9]
1995 Leadership Foreign Policy Veteran Michael Armacost becomes the fifth president of Brookings.[9][6]
1995 "Causes of Yugoslavia’s Breakup. In her book, “Balkan Tragedy: Chaos and Dissolution After the Cold War,” Brookings scholar Susan Woodward studies the impact of collapsing state authority and worsening economic conditions in triggering Yugoslavia’s breakup. The book presents a challenge to conventional modes of thought and is released to positive reviews."[9]
1996 "1996. Agent-Based Computer Models. In “Growing Artificial Societies,” Brookings scholars Josh Epstein and Rob Axtell apply agent-based computer modelling in their groundbreaking study of human social interactions. They model an artificial society “from the bottom up” that can account for evolutionary change."[9]
1997 Recognition Brookings ranks as the first-most influential and first in credibility among 27 think tanks considered in a survey of congressional staff and journalists.[35]
1998 "1998. Crisis of the Internally Displaced. In “Masses in Flight: The Global Crisis of Internal Displacement,” Brookings’s Francis Deng and Roberta Cohen analyze the causes and consequences of internal displacement. The late U.S. diplomat Richard Holbrooke, a former ambassador to the United Nations, called the book “a landmark study.”"[9]
2001 "As President Bill Clinton prepared to sign historic welfare reform legislation, Ron Haskins, a former Republican congressional staffer, and Isabel Sawhill, a former official in the Office of Management and Budget for President Clinton, teamed up at Brookings to study the nation’s policies on children and families. In 2001, a proposal by Sawhill and researcher Adam Thomas for a child tax credit became part of major tax legislation."[6]
2001 Exactly one week before the September 11 attacks Brookings’s TV and radio studio opens for business. The first live television feed occurs on the afternoon of 9/11 with CNN.[9]
2001 After the September 11 attacks, with remarkable speed, Brookings experts produce influential proposals for homeland security and intelligence operations.[6] Protecting the American Homeland is published on October 25.[36][9]
2001 Brookings scholar Isabel Sawhill writes a roposal that would help forge bi-partisan support in Congress to extend the benefits of the child tax credit in the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 to lower- and middle-income families.[9]
2002 January 9 Urban-Brookings Tax Policy Center
2002 Leadership American foreign policy analyst Strobe Talbott becomes the sixth president of Brookings.[9][37][6]
2002 Brookings establishes the Center for Middle East Policy "to promote a better understanding of the policy choices facing American decision makers in the Middle East.[38]
2003 Led by former Paul Volcker, the second National Commission on the Public Service (a project of a Brookings policy center) releases a set of recommendations for government reform, entitled Urgent Business for America. The Commission offers rationales and ideas for reorganizing the federal government that stem from the work of the center.[9]
2003 "How to Carry on Government Functions. The Continuity of Government Commission, a joint effort between Brookings and AEI, issues the first of a set of reports on how to carry on the functions of government in the event of a massive and catastrophic attack on the main institutions of the U.S. government. These reports are: “The Continuity of Congress” (2003), “The Continuity of the Presidency” (2009), and “The Continuity of the Supreme Court” (2011)."[9]
2004 "2004. Influencing Legislation on Retirement Saving. landmark research. Brookings scholars William Gale, Mark Iwry, and Peter Orszag make the case that helping Americans save for retirement requires financial incentives for low- and middle-income workers coupled with new corporate practices to make saving easier. Legislation inspired by their work makes them three of the most-quoted and most-influential economists in the U.S."[9]
2004 "A Program in Metropolitan Policy Is Established. In 2004, the Metropolitan Policy Program is established at Brookings. Emerging from the Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy (founded in 1996), it becomes the Institution’s fourth research program. Bruce Katz is the program's founder and Amy Liu is the co-founder."[9]
2006 Brookings establishes in Beijing the Brookings-Tsinghua Center (BTC) for Public Policy as a partnership between the Brookings Institution in Washington, DC and Tsinghua University's School of Public Policy and Management in Beijing. The Center seeks to produce research in areas of fundamental importance for China's development and for US-China relations.[39] The BTC is directed by Qi Ye.[40]
2006 "Fifth Research Program, on Global Economics and Development. The Global Economy and Development program is officially established as the fifth Brookings research program. The program originated in the Global Poverty Reduction Initiative, founded three years before. Lael Brainard is the program's first vice president and director. She later serves as undersecretary of the Treasury for International Affairs and a Federal Reserve governor."[9]
2006–2007 Brookings scholars provide analysis and recommendations throughout the Iraq War. Michael O’Hanlon, William Quant, and Shibley Telhami at Brookings, participated in the Iraq Study Group in 2006, which recommends an increase in U.S. combat troops in Iraq that occurs in 2007.[9]
2008 International expansion The Brookings Doha Center is established in Doha as an overseas center of the Brookings Institution.[41]
2009 December United States President Barack Obama chooses Brookings as the venue for announcing his plan for creating jobs and spurring economic growth.[9]
2009 "Bending the Health Care Cost Curve. The Engelberg Center for Health Care Reform’s report, “ Bending the Curve: Effective steps to address long-term healthcare spending growth,” is widely credited as being the most constructive contribution to the conversation on addressing long-term growth in health care spending."[9]
2009 "The Carbon Pricing Idea. Brookings scholars Warwick McKibbin, Adele Morris, and Peter Wilcoxen recommend how carbon price agreements can strengthen international emissions targets."[9]
2009 "Recovery from the Great Recession. Brookings experts shape the debate on how best to recover from the Great Recession with a steady stream of analysis and recommendations on fiscal and monetary stimulus plans, as well as the automotive and banking bailouts."[9]
2010 Brookings expert and former United States Ambassador to the United Nations Susan Rice, serves as an editor for the book Confronting Poverty: Weak States and U.S. National Security, which highlights how the effects of poverty in fragile states can spill over borders and threaten U.S. national security.[9]
2011 "2011. Fixing Presidential Appointments. landmark research. In 2010, E.J. Dionne, Jr. and Bill Galston convene a bipartisan working group of experts to address problems and solutions with the broken presidential appointments process. Their efforts and report, “A Half-Empty Government Can't Govern,” inform Senate passage of the Presidential Appointment Efficiency and Streamlining Act of 2011, which becomes law in 2011."[9]
2012 Brookings scholar Carol Graham publishes Happiness around the World: The Paradox of Happy Peasants and Miserable Millionaires, in which she studies happiness across developed and developing countries.[9]
2012 The Brookings Institution launches the Global Cities Initiative as a joint project with JPMorgan Chase. The five-year project aims to help leaders in U.S. metropolitan areas reorient their economies toward greater engagement in world markets.[9]
2013 "2013. Input on Sustainable Development Goals. landmark research. Brookings experts provide formative input on the development of the next generation of the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals, contributing to their mission to improve the lives of people worldwide. Expert Homi Kharas is appointed lead author and executive secretary for the UN High Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda, whose report provides a road map for the future of global development efforts."[9]
2013 Brookings opens in India its third overseas office, the New Delhi Center. Organized and staffed in large part by Indian nationals, it serves as a platform for relevant and productive research centered on India’s changing role in the world.[9][42][43]
2015 "2015. Let Girls Learn. landmark research. The Center for Universal Education at Brookings joins the Let Girls Learn Initiative, which is championed by First Lady Michelle Obama. The center has for a long time been at the forefront of research on best practices and tools for educating girls worldwide."[9]
2015 "A New Retirement Security Vehicle. In his State of the Union address, President Obama promotes the Automatic IRA to increase workers’ retirement security. The idea originated in research by the Retirement Security Project at Brookings."[9]
2016 Brookings celebrates its 100th year and begins its second century.[9]
2017 October Former general John R. Allen becomes the seventh president of Brookings.[44][6]
2017 Financial Brookings reports assets of US$524.2 million.[45]

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What the timeline is still missing

[1], [2],

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See also

External links


  1. "Brookings Institution". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 4 November 2019. 
  2. "Brookings History: National Doubts and Confusion". Archived from the original on August 14, 2007. 
  3. Easterbrook, Gregg (1986-01-01). "Ideas Move Nations". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2 October 2019. 
  4. "Brookings History: Setting New Agendas". Archived from the original on July 12, 2007. 
  5. "Bruce K. MacLaury". federalreservehistory.org. 
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 "BROOKINGS INSTITUTION HISTORY". brookings.edu. Retrieved 6 September 2019. 
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