Timeline of Brookings Institution

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This is a timeline of Brookings Institution, a United States group which conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and economic development.[1]

Big picture

Time period Development summary
1970s Throughout the decade, Brookings is offered more federal research contracts than it can handle.[2]
1980s Brookings is exposed to increasingly competitive and ideologically charged intellectual environment.[3] The need to reduce the federal budget deficit becomes a major research theme in the 1980s, as well as investigating problems with national security and government inefficiency. The Center for Public Policy Education is established to develop workshop conferences and public forums to broaden the audience for research programs.[4][5]
1990s "In the 1990s, the federal government devolved many of its social programs back to cities and states, and Brookings shaped a new generation of urban policies to help build strong neighborhoods, cities and metropolitan regions."[6]
2010s The University of Pennsylvania's Global Go To Think Tank Index Report names Brookings "Think Tank of the Year" and "Top Think Tank in the World" every year since 2008.[7]

Full timeline

Year Month and date Event type Details
1916 In Washington, D.C. a group of leading educators, businessmen, attorneys, and financiers, including businessman and philanthropist Robert S. Brookings, found the Institute for Government Research (IGR), with the mission of becoming "the first private organization devoted to analyzing public policy issues at the national level."[8] IGR becomes the first private organization devoted to bettering the practices and performance of government with recommendations generated by outside experts. Its first research project, directed by economist William Willoughby, focuses on helping the Bureau of Internal Revenue revise the reporting of tax statistics for greater accuracy.[9][6]
1917 Robert Brookings is appointed by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson to the War Industries Board, a government agency which coordinates the purchase of military supplies. Later, Brookings is made chairman of the board’s Price Fixing Committee, to discourage profiteering.[9]
1919 IGR publishes A National Budget System: the Most Important of all Governmental Reconstruction Measures.[9]
1921 Landmark legislation Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 is crafted and passed with the lead of IGR recommendations. The legislation expands executive power in the federal budget process. President Warren Harding calls it “the beginning of the greatest reform in governmental practices since the beginning of the republic.”[9][6]
1922 IGR establishes the Institute of Economics, for the “sole purpose of ascertaining the facts about current economic problems and of interpreting these facts for the people of the United States.” Chicago University economist Harold G. Moulton is named its director.[9][6]
1923 Research Harold G. Moulton and staff economist Constantine McGuire write of post-Great War Europe that “the reparation situation has gone from very bad to worse.” The report examines the ability of Germany and its allies on the losing side of World War I to pay the debts mandated by the Versailles Treaty.[9]
1923 IGR partners with Washington University in St. Louis to provide training in public service and establish the Robert S. Brookings Institute of Economics and Government for Teaching and Research (later the Robert S. Brookings Graduate School of Economics and Government). Between 1924 and 1930, 74 PhDs would be awarded by the school.[9]
1927 IGR merges with its recenlty created sister organizations, the Institute of Economics and the Robert Brookings Graduate School of Economics and Government, to form the Brookings Institution, named after Robert Brookings in recognition of his services to all three organizations. Its mission: “to promote, carry on, conduct and foster scientific research, education, training and publication in the broad fields of economics, government administration and the political and social sciences generally.”[9][6]
1927 Leadership The Brookings Trustees choose their first president: American economist Harold G. Moulton, who was previously director of the Institute of Economics and a member of the boards of the Graduate School and the Institute for Government Research.[9][6]
1928 United States Secretary of the Interior Hubert Work commissions IGR’s Lewis Meriam to undertake a comprehensive survey of the condition of Native Americans. The resulting report, titled The Problem of Indian Administration (known as Meriam Report) becomes influential in shaping American Indian affairs policies in the Herbert Hoover and Franklin D. Roosevelt administrations.[10][11][12]
1928 Institutional Brookings begins its own in-house publishing division, which precedes the Brookings Institution Press.[9]
1932 Leadership Robert Brookings dies in Washington, D.C. at the age of 82. His book The Way Forward is published just before his death, in which Brookings calls for the more equal distribution of wealth.[9]
1934 Literature The Brookings Institution publishes the two first volumes of the four works titled The Distribution of Wealth and Income in Relation to Economic Progress (informally known as the “capacity studies”). The first volume is entitled America’s Capacity to Produce, the second, and the second America’s Capacity to Consume. The works focus on production and consumption capacity, capital, and market speculation in the 1920s. These studies would become a major guide to the United States economy for policymakers for much of the decade.[13]
1935 Literature The Brookings Institution publishes the two last volumes of the four works titled The Distribution of Wealth and Income in Relation to Economic Progress: The Formation of Capital and 'Income and Economic Progress. These two volumes are authored by Harold G. Moulton alone.[13]
1935 The brookings institution publishes a detailed analysis of the National Recovery Administration NRA, which was established by president Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933. The authors conclude that the NRA impeded economy recovery after the Depression.[14][9]
1939 The Brookings Institution publishes Reorganization of the National Government—What Does it Involve?, in which scholars and Lewis Meriam and Laurence F. Schmeckebier shed light on President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Reorganization Act of 1939, which permitted the president to reorganize certain aspects of the executive branch and created the Executive Office of the President.[15]
1939 Assistance World War II begins. Brookings experts recommend policies on a variety of issues, including wartime price controls, military mobilization, German and U.S. manpower requirements, and later, postwar demobilization and preventing Germany and Japan from re-arming.[9]
1941 A study by scholar Laurence Schmeckebier at Brookings Institution develops the system of apportioning congressional representation among the states that would become embodied in the Congressional Apportionment Act of 1911.[9]
1941 The United States enter into World War II. Brookings researchers turn their attention to aiding the administration with a series of studies on mobilization.[16]
1944 The Brookings Institution publishes a study by Joseph Mayer on Post-War National Income, Its Probably Magnitude.[17]
1946 Economist Leo Pasvolsky becomes first director of the International Studies Group at Brookings, which conducts research and education in international relations and is the precursor to what would become the Foreign Policy program at Brookings.[9]
1947 Brookings scholars conduct a study of compulsory health insurance, which concludes that a national health insurance program would be too political, too expensive, and too detrimental to the nation’s economic health. Two proposals emerge: grants-in-aid to states that will ensure quality medical attention for those who need it; and the formation of a compulsory health insurance program by the national government.[9]
1948 The Brookings Institution is asked by the United States Government to draft a proposal on how to manage the European Recovery Program Marshall Plan. The resulting organization scheme assures that the Marshall Plan is run carefully and on a businesslike basis.[16] Brookings experts play a pivotal role in the development of the program, providing valuable recommendations on the administrative organization.[9]
1948 United States Senator Arthur Vandenberg praises Brookings for a report on post-war Europe assistance that would become “the Congressional ‘work-sheet’ in respect to this complex and critical problem.”[6]
1949 Research Experts at Brookings conduct research that forms the basis of a task force report on public welfare, prepared for the w:Hoover Commission:Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government (also known as the Hoover Commission).[9]
1949 Publication Charles Dearing and Wilfred Owen at Brookings publish National Transportation Policy, which recommends the creation of a new department of transportation headed by a new cabinet secretary.[9][18]
1950 Publication Scholars Lewis Meriam and Karl Schlotterbeck at Brookings publish The Cost and Financing of Social Security, which weighs in on legislation to change social security programs, arguing for a pay-as-you-go system.[9]
1952 Leadership Economist and educator Robert Calkins becomes the second president of the Brookings Institution.[9]
1952 Research The Brookings Institution conducts a landmark study of share ownership on behalf of the New York Stock Exchange. The survey shows that 6.5 million Americans (4 percent of the overall population), own stock directly.[19]
1953 Research Leo Pasvolsky at Brookings initiates a series of studies on the United Nations looking at the features of the UN system to provide a better public understanding of its capabilities and limitations. The studies are published after his death in the same year.[9]
1954 Publication The Brookings Institution publishes Industrial Pensions by Charles L. Dearing, the research for which was begun shortly after the Inland Steel Company decision in 1949, which made pensions a bargainable subject under the Taft–Hartley Act. The study includes a survey as of 1950 of the plans of 412 companies employing 4,000,000 workers, reflecting costs and funding arrangements as well as benefit features.[20]
1957 Program launch Brookings President Robert Calkins leads a new program of education for senior government executives. The program contributes to passage of the Federal Training Act of 1958 that provides across-the-board federal employee training to improve government productivity.[9]
1957 Administration The United States Government uses eminent domain to take over Brookings’s Jackson Place headquarters. Brookings headquarters move from Jackson Avenue to a new research center near Dupont Circle in Washington, D.C.[21][9]
1959 Publication Marshall Robinson at Brookings publishes The National Debt Ceiling: An Experiment in Fiscal Policy, which argues that the debt ceiling has not only failed, but backfired. The study would be quoted in congressional debates during the 1960s, and again in 2013.[9]
1960 Publication Brookings scholar Laurin Henry publishes Presidential Transitions, which would remain an influential and often-cited work on the history of presidential transitions.[22] The book is followed by a series of confidential issues papers prepared by Brookings experts.[9]
1960 Research The Brookings Institution makes its second major study of overseas operations.[23]
1960 Program launch The Brookings Institution begins a four-year program with the Ford Foundation and the Government of South Vietnam to provide assistance in tax policy, fiscal policy, and economic planning to the national government in Saigon down to provinces and villages.[9]
1960 Publication Brookings experts publish Proposed Studies on the Implications of Peaceful Space Activities for Human Affairs, preparing a report for NASA and giving advice to the New Space Program. The authors make dozens of recommendations for additional studies on the social, economic, political, legal, and international implications of the use of space.[9]
1960 Publication Brookings governmental studies expert Laurin L. Henry publishes Presidential Transitions, designed to help the winning candidate (John F. Kennedy or Richard M. Nixon) launch his administration smoothly. The book is followed by a series of confidential issues papers prepared by Brookings experts.[6]
1962 Publication Brookings scholar John Lewis publishes The Quiet Crisis in India, which studies India's rural development. Lewis makes the case for aid to India and the developing world as a component of U.S. foreign policy.[24]
1961 Publication The Brookings Institution publishes a book by American economist Alice Rivlin entitled The Role of the Federal Government in Financing Higher Education.[25]
1963 Program launch Brookings Foreign Policy and Governmental Studies programs, in conjunction with several Latin American research organizations, coordinate a program of studies on trade and investment policies in Latin America that would last into the early 1980s. The program would be said to have strengthened the economics profession in Latin America.[9]
1963 The Brookings Institution in Washington holds a conference on "quantitative planning of economic policy". Speakers (which in clude Dutch and French representatives) present their models.[26]
1963 The Brookings Institution advocates a shared federal library storage facility in its report Federal Departmental Libraries: A Summary Report of a Survey and a Conference. The authors suggest that such a facility could be a “cheap storage building, perhaps in a mountainside near Washington”. Major federal libraries would contribute to the management and administration on a cooperative basis, and requested materials would be delivered within a day. The imagined facility would maintain brief catalog entries that would be provided to cooperating libraries.[27]
1965 April 7 Leadership Isabel Vallé Brookings, wife of Robert S. Brookings, dies aged 89, and leaves the Institution an US$8 million bequest.[9]
1965 Research The Brookings Institution creates a task force to study bankruptcy administration.[28]
1965 The Brookings Institution holds a conference to address the major problems of intergovernmental finance and to propose solutions to those problems.[29]
1966 The Brookings Institution enters the compuer age by establishing the Social Science Computation Center for Research, which offers computational research support for scholars, including use of a mainframe computer.[9]
1966 The Brookings Institution publishes a book by Charles Frankel entitled The Neglected Aspect of Foreign Affairs. Frankel argues that “in comparison with the sophisticated analysis devoted to U.S. military, economic, and diplomatic policy, little intellectual attention has been given to international cultural exchange”.[30]
1967 Leadership Kermit Gordon becomes the third president of Brookings. Gordon previously served as the director of the United States Bureau of the Budget.[6]
1967 The Brookings Institution launches a major initiative on the economic impact of regulation, backed by US$1.8 million from the Ford Foundation and directed by a panel that includes George Stigler.[31]
1968 Brookings publishes the first in a series of Agenda for the Nation volumes, which are collections of papers on domestic and foreign policy issues.[9]
1969 Program launch Under the leadership of Kermit Gordon and Foreign Policy Program Director Henry Owen, Brookings establishes the Defense Analysis Project to study issues such as defense support costs and the force structures of the United States, NATO, and Soviet Union. Work from the project would become influential among congressional decision-makers.[9]
1970 Publication American economist Arthur Melvin Okun and George Perry at Brookings introduce the first edition of the Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, which remains a highly influential and respected economics journal.[9]
1971 Experts at Brookings begin a new series of studies on the federal budget and congressional spending choices. These studies would eventually lead to the creation of the Congressional Budget Office.[9]
1971 Publication Brookings releases the first report in the Setting National Priorities series, a cross-program initiative focused on evaluating annual White House budgets as they are released and examining the domestic and foreign policy choices that confront the United States. These series would become highly acclaimed and influential.[9]
1973 The Brookings Institution holds a conference on variation of the Head Start program (launched in 1965) and presents a program for planned variation studies development.[32]
1974 The Brookings Institution declares that the after-tax profit rate for United States corporations has fallen since 1948, from just under eight percent to just under five percent.[33]
1975 The Brookings Institution publishes a little book by Arthur Okun entitled Equality and Efficiency: The Big Tradeoff, which would consideded a classic in its field. The book explores “the big tradeoff” between society’s desire to reduce inequality and the risk of impairing economic efficiency. It also examines how redistributing income affects economic growth.[9][34]
1975 Assistance Following the Yom Kippur War, Brookings releases recommendations of the Middle East Study Group, an assembly of Americans tasked with considering how the United States might help in the achievement of a workable, fair, and enduring settlement to the Arab-Israeli conflict.[9]
1976 Gilbert Y. Steiner.[6]
1976 Publication Stephen H. Hess at Brookings publishes Organizing the Presidency, which examines how various presidents have organized their offices and staff and "sheds light on how the presidency has become an institution unto itself".[9]
1976 The Brookings Institution publishes Asia's New Giant, an extensive analysis by a team of US and Japanese social scientists that explains Japan's extraordinary economic performance over the previous twenty-five years.[35]
1977 Bruce MacLaury.[6] "Fourth President Comes to Brookings. The Board of Trustees names Bruce MacLaury the fourth president of Brookings. Before coming to Brookings, he served as president of the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis."[9] "Fourth President Comes to Brookings. The Board of Trustees names Bruce MacLaury the fourth president of Brookings. Before coming to Brookings, he served as president of the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis."[9]
1977 "1977. Studies on Soviet Military Power. In 1977 and 1981, Barry Blechman and Stephen Kaplan author books on the Soviet military buildup. Blechman, then head of the defense analysis staff at Brookings, discusses how the U.S. should respond to Soviet strengthening of military forces and defense programs. Kaplan, a Brookings research associate, presents case studies on Soviet use of military power to attain political objectives outside of its borders."[9]
1978 Brookings researcher Gary Orfield publishes Must We Bus? Segregated Schools and National Policy, which argues that American schools have a legal and moral obligation to practice desegregation busing. Orfield calls out school and government officials for intentionally dragging their feet through this process and asserts that more must be done to achieve the goal of desegregation than simply busing students to different schools.[9][36]
1979 "1979. American Decision-Making in Vietnam. Brookings scholar Leslie Gelb (now president emeritus of the Council on Foreign Relations) and then-Brookings research associate Richard Betts (later a Harvard and Columbia professor) conclude in a study of America’s role in Vietnam that while the foreign policy outcome of America’s involvement was a failure, the decision-making system worked as designed. Yale historian Gaddis Smith wrote that “If an historian were allowed but one book on the American involvement in Vietnam, this would be it.”"[9]
1980 Publication Norman Ornstein from American Enterprise Institute and Thomas E. Mann at Brookings jointly publish Vital Statistics on Congress, detailing the election and composition of the United States Congress membership, party structure, and staff. Mann and Ornstein also document the growing partisan divide in Congress and track the demographics of senators and representatives. The book would be published entirely online in 2013.[9]
Early 1980s "Joseph Pechman, director of the Economic Studies program at Brookings, pushed hard for comprehensive reform of the U.S. tax code in the early 1980s. His research led to the Tax Reform Act of 1986—a major bill that had a profound impact on the U.S. economy."[6] Research by Joseph Pechman at
1986 Research by Brookings Senior Fellow Joseph A. Pechman leads to the Tax Reform Act of 1986, a major bill that would have a profound impact on the economy of the United States.[6] The act is designed to simplify the tax code, broaden the tax base, and eliminate many tax shelters and preferences.[37] Pechman’s Federal Tax Policy is essential to those reforms.[9]
1990 Publication John E. Chubb and Terry M. Moe at Brookings publish Politics, Markets, and America's Schools, which examines the growing dissatisfaction with the school system in the United States. They propose a new system of public education constructed around competition among schools, parent-student choice, and agency within the system.[9]
1992 Norman Ornstein from American Enterprise Institute and Thomas E. Mann at Brookings publish reports from the Renewing Congress Project, which focuses on ways to improve congressional debate and action on legislation, enhance relationships between parties, and fix the campaign finance system. Their work makes a significant contribution to the debate about congressional reform.[9]
1994 Brookings Senior Fellow Raymond L. Garthoff authors The Great Transition: American-Soviet Relations and the End of the Cold War, which shows that the United States did not win the Cold War with President Reagan’s military buildup, but instead, “‘victory’ came when a new generation of Soviet leaders realized how badly their system at home and their policies abroad had failed.”[9]
1994 Anthony Downs at Brookings authors New Visions for Metropolitan America, which discusses the problem of rapid expansion of cities and suburban areas. In 1998, Bruce Katz’s “Reviving Cities: Think Metropolitan,” examines problems caused by explosive urban sprawl and emphasizes the necessity of a federal metropolitan agenda. Katz later becomes founding director of the Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings."[9]
1995 Brookings launches its website, located at www.brook.edu.[9]
1995 Leadership Foreign Policy Veteran Michael Armacost becomes the fifth president of Brookings.[9][6]
1995 Publication Brookings scholar Susan Woodward publishes Balkan Tragedy: Chaos and Dissolution After the Cold War, which studies the impact of collapsing state authority and worsening economic conditions in triggering the Breakup of Yugoslavia.[9]
1996 Brookings scholars Joshua M. Epstein and Robert Axtell publish Growing Artificial Societies which applies agent-based computer modelling in their groundbreaking study of human social interactions. The authors model an artificial society “from the bottom up” that can account for evolutionary change.[9]
1997 Recognition Brookings ranks as the first-most influential and first in credibility among 27 think tanks considered in a survey of congressional staff and journalists.[38]
1998 Francis Deng and Roberta Cohen at Brookings publish Masses in Flight: The Global Crisis of Internal Displacement, which analyzes the causes and consequences of internal displacement. The book is called “a landmark study” by diplomat Richard Holbrooke.[9]
2001 Political scientist Ron Haskins and economist Isabel Sawhill at Brookings, team to study the United States policies on children and families. A proposal by Sawhill and researcher Adam Thomas for a child tax credit becomes part of major tax legislation.[6]
2001 Exactly one week before the September 11 attacks Brookings’s TV and radio studio opens for business. The first live television feed occurs on the afternoon of 9/11 with CNN.[9]
2001 After the September 11 attacks, with remarkable speed, Brookings experts produce influential proposals for homeland security and intelligence operations.[6] Protecting the American Homeland is published on October 25.[39][9]
2001 Brookings scholar Isabel Sawhill writes a roposal that would help forge bi-partisan support in Congress to extend the benefits of the child tax credit in the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 to lower- and middle-income families.[9]
2002 January 9 Urban-Brookings Tax Policy Center
2002 Leadership American foreign policy analyst Strobe Talbott becomes the sixth president of Brookings.[9][40][6]
2002 Brookings establishes the Center for Middle East Policy "to promote a better understanding of the policy choices facing American decision makers in the Middle East.[41]
2003 Led by former Paul Volcker, the second National Commission on the Public Service (a project of a Brookings policy center) releases a set of recommendations for government reform, entitled Urgent Business for America. The Commission offers rationales and ideas for reorganizing the federal government that stem from the work of the center.[9]
2003 A joint effort between Brookings and the American Enterprise Institute issues The Continuity of Congress, the first of a set of reports on how to carry on the functions of government in the event of a massive and catastrophic attack on the main institutions of the United States Government.[9]
2004 Brookings scholars William Gale, Mark Iwry, and Peter Orszag attempt to influence legislation by making the case that helping Americans save for retirement requires financial incentives for low- and middle-income workers coupled with new corporate practices to make saving easier.[9]
2004 (July 6) The Brookings Institution announces that the former Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy (founded in 1966) will become the Brookings Metropolitan Policy Program.[42][9]
2006 Brookings establishes in Beijing the Brookings-Tsinghua Center (BTC) for Public Policy as a partnership between the Brookings Institution in Washington, DC and Tsinghua University's School of Public Policy and Management in Beijing. The Center seeks to produce research in areas of fundamental importance for China's development and for US-China relations.[43] The BTC is directed by Qi Ye.[44]
2006 Brookings' Global Economy and Development program is founded. The program aims "to shape the policy debate on how to improve global economic cooperation and fight global poverty and sources of social stress."[9][45]
2006–2007 Brookings scholars provide analysis and recommendations throughout the Iraq War. Michael O’Hanlon, William Quant, and Shibley Telhami at Brookings, participated in the Iraq Study Group in 2006, which recommends an increase in U.S. combat troops in Iraq that occurs in 2007.[9]
2008 International expansion The Brookings Doha Center is established in Doha as an overseas center of the Brookings Institution.[46]
2009 December United States President Barack Obama chooses Brookings as the venue for announcing his plan for creating jobs and spurring economic growth.[9]
2009 The Brookings' Engelberg Center for Health Care Reform report Bending the Curve: Effective steps to address long-term healthcare spending growth is published. It would become widely credited as being the most constructive contribution to the conversation on addressing long-term growth in health care spending.n[9]
2009 Scholars Warwick McKibbin, Adele Morris, and Peter Wilcoxen at Brookings recommend how carbon price agreements can strengthen international emissions targets.[9]
2009 A joint effort between Brookings and the American Enterprise Institute issues The Continuity of the Presidency, the second of a set of reports on how to carry on the functions of government in the event of a massive and catastrophic attack on the main institutions of the United States Government.[9]
2009 Brookings experts contribute with ideas on how best to recover from the Great Recession with a steady stream of analysis and recommendations on fiscal and monetary stimulus plans, as well as the automotive and banking bailouts.[9]
2010 Brookings expert and former United States Ambassador to the United Nations Susan Rice, serves as an editor for the book Confronting Poverty: Weak States and U.S. National Security, which highlights how the effects of poverty in fragile states can spill over borders and threaten U.S. national security.[9]
2011 E.J. Dionne and William Galston at Brookings play an influential role with their report A Half-Empty Government Can't Govern, which informs the United States Senate the passage of the Presidential Appointment Efficiency and Streamlining Act of 2011, which becomes law in the same year.[9]
2011 A joint effort between Brookings and the American Enterprise Institute issues The Continuity of the Supreme Court, the third of a set of reports on how to carry on the functions of government in the event of a massive and catastrophic attack on the main institutions of the United States Government.[9]
2012 Brookings scholar Carol Graham publishes Happiness around the World: The Paradox of Happy Peasants and Miserable Millionaires, in which she studies happiness across developed and developing countries.[9]
2012 The Brookings Institution launches the Global Cities Initiative as a joint project with JPMorgan Chase. The five-year project aims to help leaders in U.S. metropolitan areas reorient their economies toward greater engagement in world markets.[9]
2013 Assistance Experts at Brookings assist on the development of the next generation of the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals, contributing to their mission to improve the lives of people worldwide.[9]
2013 International expansion Brookings opens in India its third overseas office, the New Delhi Center. Organized and staffed in large part by Indian nationals, it serves as a platform for relevant and productive research centered on India’s changing role in the world.[9][47][48]
2015 The Brookings' Center for Universal Education joins the Michelle Obama's initiative Let Girls Learn, which aims at helping adolescent girls attain "a quality education that empowers them to reach their full potential".[9]
2015 United States President Barack Obama promotes the Automatic IRA to increase workers' retirement security. The idea originates in research by the Retirement Security Project at Brookings.[9]
2017 October Former general John R. Allen becomes the seventh president of Brookings.[49][6]
2017 Financial Brookings reports assets of US$524.2 million.[50]

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See also

External links


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  2. "Brookings History: National Doubts and Confusion". Archived from the original on August 14, 2007. 
  3. Easterbrook, Gregg (1986-01-01). "Ideas Move Nations". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2 October 2019. 
  4. "Brookings History: Setting New Agendas". Archived from the original on July 12, 2007. 
  5. "Bruce K. MacLaury". federalreservehistory.org. 
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 "BROOKINGS INSTITUTION HISTORY". brookings.edu. Retrieved 6 September 2019. 
  7. "TTCSP GLOBAL GO TO THINK TANK INDEX REPORTS". UPenn.edu. University of Pennsylvania. 2017-01-31. Retrieved 2 October 2019. 
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  10. Lawson, Russell M. Encyclopedia of American Indian Issues Today [2 volumes]. 
  11. The Encyclopedia of Native American Legal Tradition (Bruce Elliott Johansen ed.). 
  12. Szasz, Margaret. Education and the American Indian: The Road to Self-determination Since 1928. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Brookings's analysis and recommendations on the Great Depression of the 1930s". brookings.edu. Retrieved 4 November 2019. 
  14. Hurtgen, James R. The Divided Mind of American Liberalism. 
  15. "Reorganization of the National Government—What Does it Involve? By Lewis Meriam and Laurence F. Schmeckebier. (Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. 1939. Pp. 272. $2.00.)". doi:10.2307/1948805. Retrieved 4 November 2019. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 "Brookings History: War and Readjustment". Archived from the original on July 12, 2007. 
  17. Railroad Retirement: Hearings Before the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives, Seventy-ninth Congress, First Session on H.R. 1362, a Bill to Amend the Railroad Retirement Acts, the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act, and Subchapter B of Chapter 9 of the Internal Revenue Code, and for Other Purposes (United States. Congress ed.). 
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  20. "LERA Communities". 
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  22. "What Brookings did for the 1960 presidential transition". brookings.edu. Retrieved 20 November 2019. 
  23. Harr, John Ensor. The Professional Diplomat. 
  24. Staley, Eugene. "Quiet Crisis in India. Economic development and American policy. John P. Lewis. Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C., 1962. xiv + 350 pp. $5.75". science.sciencemag.org. Retrieved 6 November 2019. 
  25. Higher Education: A Bibliographic Handbook, Volume 1 (D. Kent Halstead ed.). 
  26. "Monographs of official statistics" (PDF). ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 5 November 2019. 
  28. An Evaluation of the U.S. Trustee Pilot Program for Bankruptcy Administration: Findings and Recommendations. Executive Office for U.S. Trustees. 
  29. Monthly Labor Review, Volume 104, Issues 7-12. 
  30. "The Power of Cultural Diplomacy – Why does the United States Neglect It?". publicdiplomacycouncil.org. Retrieved 5 November 2019. 
  31. Appelbaum, Binyamin. The Economists' Hour: How the False Prophets of Free Markets Fractured Our Society. 
  32. "Head Start in an Era of Standards and Accountability" (PDF). acf.hhs.gov. Retrieved 5 November 2019. 
  33. "Economic rationalism, 20 years on". evatt.org.au. Retrieved 5 November 2019. 
  34. Smith, Harlan M. Understanding Economics. 
  35. Glosserman, Brad. Peak Japan: The End of Great Ambitions. 
  36. "Must We Bus? Segregated Schools and National Policy.". eric.ed.gov. Retrieved 5 November 2019. 
  37. "Tax Reform Act of 1986". britannica.com. Retrieved 20 November 2019. 
  38. Rich, Andrew (Spring 2006). "War of Ideas: Why Mainstream and Liberal Foundations and the Think Tanks they Support are Losing in the War of Ideas in American Politics" (PDF). Stanford Social Innovation Review. Stanford University. 
  39. Protecting the American Homeland: One Year On. Brookings Institution Press. 
  40. "Strobe Talbott to be first distinguished visitor at Buffett Institute". Northwestern University. 2017-10-13. Retrieved 2 October 2019. 
  41. "ABOUT THE CENTER FOR MIDDLE EAST POLICY". brookings.edu. Retrieved 2 October 2019. 
  42. "Brookings Institution Launches Metropolitan Policy Program". brookings.edu. Retrieved 6 November 2019. 
  43. "About the Brookings-Tsinghua Center for Public Policy". Brookings.edu. Brookings Institution. Retrieved 2 October 2019. 
  44. "Brookings-Tsinghua Center". Brookings.edu. Brookings Institution. Retrieved 2 October 2019. 
  45. "ABOUT GLOBAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT". brookings.edu. Retrieved 6 November 2019. 
  46. "ABOUT THE BROOKINGS DOHA CENTER". brookings.edu. Retrieved 5 November 2019. 
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