Difference between revisions of "Timeline of OpenAI"

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* What are some other significant events describing advances in research?
 
* What are some other significant events describing advances in research?
 
** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Research progress".
 
** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Research progress".
** You will see some discoveries and other significant results obtained in research.
+
** You will see some discoveries and other significant results obtained by OpenAI.
 
* What is the staff composition and what are the different roles in the organization?
 
* What is the staff composition and what are the different roles in the organization?
 
** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Staff".
 
** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Staff".

Revision as of 17:42, 5 April 2020

This is a timeline of OpenAI. OpenAI is a non-profit safety-conscious artificial intelligence capabilities company.

Sample questions

The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:

  • What are some significant events previous to the creation of OpenAI?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Prelude".
    • You will see some events involving key people like Elon Musk and Sam Altman, that would eventually lead to the creation of OpenAI.
  • What are the various papers and posts published by OpenAI?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Publication".
    • You will see mostly papers submitted to the ArXiv by OpenAI-affiliated researchers. Also blog posts.
  • What are the several toolkits, implementations, algorithms, systems and software in general released by OpenAI?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Software release".
    • You will see a variety of releases, some of them open-sourced.
  • What are some other significant events describing advances in research?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Research progress".
    • You will see some discoveries and other significant results obtained by OpenAI.
  • What is the staff composition and what are the different roles in the organization?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Staff".
  • What are the several partnerships between OpenAI and other organizations?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Partnership".
    • You will read collaborations with organizations like DeepMind and Microsoft.
  • What are some notable events hosted by OpenAI?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Event hosting".
  • What are some notable publications by third parties about OpenAI?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Coverage".

Big picture

Time period Development summary More details
2014–2015 Background Nick Bostrom's book Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies, about the dangers of superhuman machine intelligence, is published. Soon after the book's publication, Elon Musk and Sam Altman, the two people who would become co-chairs and initial donors of OpenAI, publicly state their concern of superhuman machine intelligence.
2015 Establishment OpenAI is founded as a nonprofit and begins producing research.
2019 Reorganization OpenAI shifts from nonprofit to ‘capped-profit’ with the purpose to attract capital.

Visual data

Wikipedia Views

The image below shows Wikipedia Views data for Open AI entry on English Wikipedia on desktop, mobile web, mobile app, desktop-spider, and mobile-web-spider; from July 2015 (see OpenAI creation around December 2015) to January 2020.[1]

OpenAI wikipedia views.png

Google Trends

The image below shows Google Trends data for OpenAI entry from December 2015 (OpenAI creation) to February 2020.[2]

OpenAI Google Trends.png

Full timeline

Year Month and date Event type Details
2014 October 22–24 Prelude During an interview at the AeroAstro Centennial Symposium, Elon Musk, who would later become co-chair of OpenAI, calls artificial intelligence humanity's "biggest existential threat".[3][4]
2015 February 25 Prelude Sam Altman, president of Y Combinator who would later become a co-chair of OpenAI, publishes a blog post in which he writes that the development of superhuman AI is "probably the greatest threat to the continued existence of humanity".[5]
2015 May 6 Prelude Greg Brockman, who would become CTO of OpenAI, announces in a blog post that he is leaving his role as CTO of Stripe. In the post, in the section "What comes next" he writes "I haven't decided exactly what I'll be building (feel free to ping if you want to chat)".[6][7]
2015 June Prelude Sam Altman and Greg Brockman have a conversation about next steps for Brockman.[8]
2015 June 4 Prelude At Airbnb's Open Air 2015 conference, Sam Altman, president of Y Combinator who would later become a co-chair of OpenAI, states his concern for advanced artificial intelligence and shares that he recently invested in a company doing AI safety research.[9]
2015 July (approximate) Prelude Sam Altman sets up a dinner in Menlo Park, California to talk about starting an organization to do AI research. Attendees include Greg Brockman, Dario Amodei, Chris Olah, Paul Christiano, Ilya Sutskever, and Elon Musk.[8]
2015 December 11 Creation OpenAI is announced to the public. (The news articles from this period make it sound like OpenAI launched sometime after this date.)[10][11][12] Co-founders include Wojciech Zaremba[13],
2015 December Coverage The article "OpenAI" is created on Wikipedia.[14]
2015 December Staff OpenAI announces Y Combinator founding partner Jessica Livingston as one of its financial backers.[15]
2016 January Staff Ilya Sutskever joins OpenAI as Research Director.[16]
2016 January 9 Education The OpenAI research team does an AMA ("ask me anything") on r/MachineLearning, the subreddit dedicated to machine learning.[17]
2016 February 25 Publication "Weight Normalization: A Simple Reparameterization to Accelerate Training of Deep Neural Networks", a paper on optimization, is first submitted to the ArXiv. The paper presents weight normalization: a reparameterization of the weight vectors in a neural network that decouples the length of those weight vectors from their direction.[18]
2016 March 31 Staff A blog post from this day announces that Ian Goodfellow has joined OpenAI.[19]
2016 April 26 Staff A blog post from this day announces that Pieter Abbeel has joined OpenAI.[20]
2016 April Staff Shivon Zilis joins OpenAI as Advisor.[21]
2016 April 27 Software release The public beta of OpenAI Gym, an open source toolkit that provides environments to test AI bots, is released.[22][23][24]
2016 May 25 Publication "Adversarial Training Methods for Semi-Supervised Text Classification" is submitted to the ArXiv. The paper proposes a method that achieves better results on multiple benchmark semi-supervised and purely supervised tasks.[25]
2016 May 31 Publication "VIME: Variational Information Maximizing Exploration", a paper on generative models, is submitted to the ArXiv. The paper introduces Variational Information Maximizing Exploration (VIME), an exploration strategy based on maximization of information gain about the agent's belief of environment dynamics.[26]
2016 June 5 Publication "OpenAI Gym", a paper on reinforcement learning, is submitted to the ArXiv. It presents OpenAI Gym as a toolkit for reinforcement learning research.[27]
2016 June 10 Publication "Improved Techniques for Training GANs", a paper on generative models, is submitted to the ArXiv. It presents a variety of new architectural features and training procedures that OpenAI applies to the generative adversarial networks (GANs) framework.[28]
2016 June 12 Publication "InfoGAN: Interpretable Representation Learning by Information Maximizing Generative Adversarial Nets", a paper on generative models, is submitted to ArXiv. It describes InfoGAN, an information-theoretic extension to the Generative Adversarial Network that is able to learn disentangled representations in a completely unsupervised manner.[29]
2016 June 15 Publication "Improving Variational Inference with Inverse Autoregressive Flow", a paper on generative models, is submitted to the ArXiv. We propose a new type of normalizing flow, inverse autoregressive flow (IAF), that, in contrast to earlier published flows, scales well to high-dimensional latent spaces.[30]
2016 June 16 Publication OpenAI publishes post describing four projects on generative models, a branch of unsupervised learning techniques in machine learning.[31]
2016 June 21 Publication "Concrete Problems in AI Safety" is submitted to the arXiv. The paper explores practical problems in machine learning systems.[32]
2016 July Staff Dario Amodei joins OpenAI[33], working on the Team Lead for AI Safety.[34]
2016 July 8 Publication "Adversarial Examples in the Physical World" is published. One of the authors is Ian Goodfellow, who is at OpenAI at the time.[35]
2016 July 28 OpenAI publishes post calling for applicants to work in the following problem areas of interest:
  • Detect if someone is using a covert breakthrough AI system in the world.
  • Build an agent to win online programming competitions.
  • Cyber-security defense.
  • A complex simulation with many long-lived agents.[36]
2016 August 15 Donation The technology company Nvidia announces that it has donated the first Nvidia DGX-1 (a supercomputer) to OpenAI. OpenAI plans to use the supercomputer to train its AI on a corpus of conversations from Reddit.[37][38][39]
2016 August 29 Publication "Infrastructure for Deep Learning" is published. The post shows how deep learning research usually proceeds. It also describes the infrastructure choices OpenAI made to support it, and open-source kubernetes-ec2-autoscaler, a batch-optimized scaling manager for Kubernetes.[40]
2016 September Staff Alexander Ray joins OpenAI as Member of Technical Staff.[41]
2016 October 11 Publication "Transfer from Simulation to Real World through Learning Deep Inverse Dynamics Model", a paper on robotics, is submitted to the ArXiv. It investigates settings where the sequence of states traversed in simulation remains reasonable for the real world.[42]
2016 October 18 Publication "Semi-supervised Knowledge Transfer for Deep Learning from Private Training Data", a paper on safety, is submitted to the ArXiv. It shows an approach to providing strong privacy guarantees for training data: Private Aggregation of Teacher Ensembles (PATE).[43]
2016 October Staff Jack Clark joins OpenAI.[44]
2016 October Staff OpenAI Research Scientist Harri Edwards joins the organization.[45]
2016 November 2 Publication "Extensions and Limitations of the Neural GPU" is first submitted to the ArXiv. The paper shows that there are two simple ways of improving the performance of the Neural GPU: by carefully designing a curriculum, and by increasing model size.[46]
2016 November 8 Publication "Variational Lossy Autoencoder", a paper on generative models, is submitted to the ArXiv. It presents a method to learn global representations by combining Variational Autoencoder (VAE) with neural autoregressive models.[47]
2016 November 9 Publication "RL2: Fast Reinforcement Learning via Slow Reinforcement Learning", a paper on reinforcement learning, is first submitted to the ArXiv. It seeks to bridge the gap in number of trials between the machine learning process which requires a huge number of trials, and animals which can learn new tasks in just a few trials, benefiting from their prior knowledge about the world.[48]
2016 November 11 Publication "A Connection between Generative Adversarial Networks, Inverse Reinforcement Learning, and Energy-Based Models", a paper on generative models, is first submitted to the ArXiv.[49]
2016 November 14 Publication "On the Quantitative Analysis of Decoder-Based Generative Models", a paper on generative models, is submitted to the ArXiv. It introduces a technique to analyze the performance of decoder-based models.[50]
2016 November 15 Partnership A partnership between OpenAI and Microsoft's artificial intelligence division is announced. As part of the partnership, Microsoft provides a price reduction on computing resources to OpenAI through Microsoft Azure.[51][52]
2016 November 15 Publication "#Exploration: A Study of Count-Based Exploration for Deep Reinforcement Learning", a paper on reinforcement learning, is first submitted to the ArXiv.[53]
2016 December 5 Software release OpenAI's Universe, "a software platform for measuring and training an AI's general intelligence across the world's supply of games, websites and other applications", is released.[54][55][56][57]
2016 December 21 Publication "Faulty Reward Functions in the Wild" is published. The post explores a failed reinforcement learning algorithm, which leads to misspecifying the reward function.[58]
2016  ? Staff Tom Brown joins OpenAI as Member of Technical Staff.[59]
2017 January Staff Paul Christiano joins OpenAI to work on AI alignment.[60] He was previously an intern at OpenAI in 2016.[61]
2017 January 19 Publication "PixelCNN++: Improving the PixelCNN with Discretized Logistic Mixture Likelihood and Other Modifications", a paper on generative models, is submitted to the ArXiv.[62]
2017 February 8 Publication "Adversarial Attacks on Neural Network Policies" is submitted to the ArXiv. The paper shows that adversarial attacks are effective when targeting neural network policies in reinforcement learning.[63]
2017 February Staff OpenAI Research Scientist Prafulla Dhariwal joins the organization.[64]
2017 February Staff OpenAI Researcher Jakub Pachocki joins the organization.[65]
2017 March 6 Publication "Third-Person Imitation Learning", a paper on robotics, is submitted to the ArXiv. It presents a method for unsupervised third-person imitation learning.[66]
2017 March 10 Publication "Evolution Strategies as a Scalable Alternative to Reinforcement Learning" is submitted to the ArXiv. It explores the use of Evolution Strategies (ES), a class of black box optimization algorithms.[67]
2017 March 12 Publication "Prediction and Control with Temporal Segment Models", a paper on generative models, is first submitted to the ArXiv. It introduces a method for learning the dynamics of complex nonlinear systems based on deep generative models over temporal segments of states and actions.[68]
2017 March Donation The Open Philanthropy Project awards a grant of $30 million to OpenAI for general support.[69] The grant initiates a partnership between Open Philanthropy Project and OpenAI, in which Holden Karnofsky (executive director of Open Philanthropy Project) joins OpenAI's board of directors to oversee OpenAI's safety and governance work.[70] The grant is criticized by Maciej Cegłowski[71] and Benjamin Hoffman (who would write the blog post "OpenAI makes humanity less safe")[72][73][74] among others.[75]
2017 March 15 Publication "Emergence of Grounded Compositional Language in Multi-Agent Populations" is first submitted to ArXiv. The paper proposes a multi-agent learning environment and learning methods that bring about emergence of a basic compositional language.[76]
2017 March 20 Publication "Domain Randomization for Transferring Deep Neural Networks from Simulation to the Real World", a paper on robotics, is subitted to the ArXiv. It explores domain randomization, a simple technique for training models on simulated images that transfer to real images by randomizing rendering in the simulator.[77]
2017 March 21 Publication "One-Shot Imitation Learning", a paper on robotics, is first submitted to the ArXiv. The paper proposes a meta-learning framework for optimizing imitation learning.[78]
2017 March 24 Research progress OpenAI announces having discovered that evolution strategies rival the performance of standard reinforcement learning techniques on modern RL benchmarks (e.g. Atari/MuJoCo), while overcoming many of RL’s inconveniences.[79]
2017 March Reorganization Greg Brockman and a few other core members of OpenAI begin drafting an internal document to lay out a path to artificial general intelligence. As the team studies trends within the field, they realize staying a nonprofit is financially untenable.[80]
2017 March Staff Christopher Berner joins OpenAI as Head of Infrastructure.[81]
2017 April Coverage An article entitled "The People Behind OpenAI" is published on Red Hat's Open Source Stories website, covering work at OpenAI.[82][83][84]
2017 April 6 Software release OpenAI unveils an unsupervised system which is able to perform a excellent sentiment analysis, despite being trained only to predict the next character in the text of Amazon reviews.[85][86]
2017 April 6 Research progress OpenAI unveils reuse of an old field called “neuroevolution”, and a subset of algorithms from it called “evolution strategies,” which are aimed at solving optimization problems. In one hour training on an Atari challenge, an algorithm is found to reach a level of mastery that took a reinforcement-learning system published by DeepMind in 2016 a whole day to learn. On the walking problem the system took 10 minutes, compared to 10 hours for DeepMind's approach.[87]
2017 April Staff Matthias Plappert joins OpenAI as Researcher.[88]
2017 May 15 Software release OpenAI releases Roboschool, an open-source software for robot simulation, integrated with OpenAI Gym.[89]
2017 May 16 Software release OpenAI introduces a robotics system, trained entirely in simulation and deployed on a physical robot, which can learn a new task after seeing it done once.[90]
2017 May 24 Software release OpenAI releases Baselines, a set of implementations of reinforcement learning algorithms.[91][92]
2017 May Staff Kevin Frans joins OpenAI as Research Intern.[93]
2017 June 7 Publication "Multi-Agent Actor-Critic for Mixed Cooperative-Competitive Environments" is submitted to the ArXiv. The paper explores deep reinforcement learning methods for multi-agent domains.[94]
2017 June 12 Publication "Deep reinforcement learning from human preferences" is first uploaded to the arXiv. The paper is a collaboration between researchers at OpenAI and Google DeepMind.[95][96][97]
2017 June 28 Open sourcing OpenAI open sources a high-performance Python library for robotic simulation using the MuJoCo engine, developed over OpenAI research on robotics.[98]
2017 June Partnership OpenAI partners with DeepMind’s safety team in the development of an algorithm which can infer what humans want by being told which of two proposed behaviors is better. The learning algorithm uses small amounts of human feedback to solve modern reinforcement learning environments.[99]
2017 July Staff OpenAI Research Scientist Joshua Achiam joins the organization.[100]
2017 July 27 Research progress OpenAI announces having found that adding adaptive noise to the parameters of reinforcement learning algorithms frequently boosts performance.[101]
2017 August 12 Achievement OpenAI's Dota 2 bot beats Danil "Dendi" Ishutin, a professional human player, (and possibly others?) in one-on-one battles.[102][103][104]
2017 August 13 Coverage The New York Times publishes a story covering the AI safety work (by Dario Amodei, Geoffrey Irving, and Paul Christiano) at OpenAI.[105]
2017 August 18 Software release OpenAI releases two implementations: ACKTR, a reinforcement learning algorithm, and A2C, a synchronous, deterministic variant of Asynchronous Advantage Actor Critic (A3C).[106]
2017 September 13 Publication "Learning with Opponent-Learning Awareness" is first uploaded to the ArXiv. The paper presents Learning with Opponent-Learning Awareness (LOLA), a method in which each agent shapes the anticipated learning of the other agents in an environment.[107][108]
2017 September Staff OpenAI Research Scientist Bowen Baker joins the organization.[109]
2017 October 11 Software release RoboSumo, a game that simulates sumo wrestling for AI to learn to play, is released.[110][111]
2017 October 17 Publication "Domain Randomization and Generative Models for Robotic Grasping", a paper on robotics, is first submitted to the ArXiv. It explores a novel data generation pipeline for training a deep neural network to perform grasp planning that applies the idea of domain randomization to object synthesis.[112]
2017 October 18 Publication "Sim-to-Real Transfer of Robotic Control with Dynamics Randomization", a paper on robotics, is first submitted to ArXiv. It describes a solution for strategies that are successful in simulation but may not transfer to their real world counterparts due to modeling error.[113]
2017 October 26 Publication "Meta Learning Shared Hierarchies", a paper on reinforcement learning, is submitted to the ArXiv. The paper describes the development of a metalearning approach for learning hierarchically structured policies, improving sample efficiency on unseen tasks through the use of shared primitives.[114]
2017 October 31 Publication "Backpropagation through the Void: Optimizing control variates for black-box gradient estimation", a paper on reinforcement learning, is first submitted to the ArXiv. It introduces a general framework for learning low-variance, unbiased gradient estimators for black-box functions of random variables.[115]
2017 October Staff Jonathan Raiman joins OpenAI as Research Scientist.[116]
2017 November 2 Publication "Interpretable and Pedagogical Examples", a paper on language, is first submitted to the ArXiv. It shows that training the student and teacher iteratively, rather than jointly, can produce interpretable teaching strategies.[117]
2017 November 6 Staff The New York Times reports that Pieter Abbeel (a researcher at OpenAI) and three other researchers from Berkeley and OpenAI have left to start their own company called Embodied Intelligence.[118]
2017 December 4 Publication "Learning Sparse Neural Networks through L0 Regularization", a paper on reinforcement learning, is submitted to the ArXiv. It describes a method which allows for straightforward and efficient learning of model structures with stochastic gradient descent.[119]
2017 December 6 Software release OpenAI releases highly-optimized GPU kernels for networks with block-sparse weights, an underexplored class of neural network architectures. Depending on the chosen sparsity, these kernels can run orders of magnitude faster than cuBLAS or cuSPARSE.[120]
2017 December Publication The 2017 AI Index is published. OpenAI contributed to the report.[121]
2017 December Staff David Luan joins OpenAI as Director of Engineering.[122]
2018 January Staff Christy Dennison joins OpenAI as Machine Learning Engineer.[123]
2018 January Staff David Farhi joins OpenAI as Researcher.[124]
2018 January Staff Mathew Shrwed joins OpenAI as Software Engineer.[125]
2018 February 3 Publication "DeepType: Multilingual Entity Linking by Neural Type System Evolution" a paper on reinforcement learning, is submitted to the ArXiv.[126]
2018 February 13 Publication "Evolved Policy Gradients", a reinforcement learning paper, is first submitted to the ArXiv. It proposes a metalearning approach for learning gradient-based reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms.[127]
2018 February 20 Publication The report "The Malicious Use of Artificial Intelligence: Forecasting, Prevention, and Mitigation" is submitted to the ArXiv. It forecasts malicious use of artificial intelligence in the short term and makes recommendations on how to mitigate these risks from AI. The report is authored by individuals at Future of Humanity Institute, Centre for the Study of Existential Risk, OpenAI, Electronic Frontier Foundation, Center for a New American Security, and other institutions.[128][129][130][131][132]
2018 February 20 Donation OpenAI announces changes in donors and advisors. New donors are: Jed McCaleb, Gabe Newell, Michael Seibel, Jaan Tallinn, and Ashton Eaton and Brianne Theisen-Eaton. Reid Hoffman is "significantly increasing his contribution". Pieter Abbeel (previously at OpenAI), Julia Galef, and Maran Nelson become advisors. Elon Musk departs the board but remains as a donor and advisor.[133][131]
2018 February 26 Software release OpenAI releases eight simulated robotics environments and a Baselines implementation of Hindsight Experience Replay, all developed for OpenAI research over the previous year. These environments were to train models which work on physical robots.[134]
2018 February 26 Publication "Multi-Goal Reinforcement Learning: Challenging Robotics Environments and Request for Research" is first submitted to the ArXiv. The paper introduces a suite of challenging continuous control tasks based on currently existing robotics hardware, and presents a set of concrete research ideas for improving reinforcement learning algorithms.[135]
2018 February Staff Lilian Weng joins OpenAI as Research Scientist.[136]
2018 March 3 Publication "Some Considerations on Learning to Explore via Meta-Reinforcement Learning", a paper on reinforcement learning, is first submitted to ArXiv. It considers the problem of exploration in meta reinforcement learning.[137]
2018 March 3 Event hosting OpenAI hosts its first hackathon. Applicants include high schoolers, industry practitioners, engineers, researchers at universities, and others, with interests spanning healthcare to AGI.[138][139]
2018 March 8 Publication "On First-Order Meta-Learning Algorithms", a paper on reinforcement learning, is submitted to ArXiv. It analyzes meta-learning problems, where there is a distribution of tasks.[140]
2018 March 15 Publication "Improving GANs Using Optimal Transport", a paper on generative models, is first submitted to the ArXiv. It presents Optimal Transport GAN (OT-GAN), a variant of generative adversarial nets minimizing a new metric measuring the distance between the generator distribution and the data distribution.[141]
2018 March 20 Publication "Variance Reduction for Policy Gradient with Action-Dependent Factorized Baselines", a paper on reinforcement learning, is submitted to the ArXiv. The paper shows that the general idea of including additional information in baselines for improved variance reduction can be extended to partially observed and multi-agent tasks.[142]
2018 March Staff Diane Yoon joins OpenAI as Operations Manager.[143]
2018 April 5 – June 5 Event hosting The OpenAI Retro Contest takes place.[144][145] As a result of the release of the Gym Retro library, OpenAI's Universe become deprecated.[146]
2018 April 9 Commitment OpenAI releases a charter stating that the organization commits to stop competing with a value-aligned and safety-conscious project that comes close to building artificial general intelligence, and also that OpenAI expects to reduce its traditional publishing in the future due to safety concerns.[147][148][149][150][151]
2018 April 10 Publication "Gotta Learn Fast: A New Benchmark for Generalization in RL", a paper on reinforcement learning, is first submitted to the ArXiv. The report presents a new reinforcement learning benchmark intended to measure the performance of transfer learning and few-shot learning algorithms in the reinforcement learning domain.[152]
2018 April 19 Financial The New York Times publishes a story detailing the salaries of researchers at OpenAI, using information from OpenAI's 2016 Form 990. The salaries include $1.9 million paid to Ilya Sutskever and $800,000 paid to Ian Goodfellow (hired in March of that year).[153][154][155]
2018 April Staff Peter Zhokhov joins OpenAI as Member of the Technical Staff.[156]
2018 May 2 Publication The paper "AI safety via debate" by Geoffrey Irving, Paul Christiano, and Dario Amodei is uploaded to the arXiv. The paper proposes training agents via self play on a zero sum debate game, in order to adress tasks that are too complicated for a human to directly judge.[157][158]
2018 May 16 Publication OpenAI releases an analysis showing that since 2012, the amount of compute used in the largest AI training runs has been increasing exponentially with a 3.4-month doubling time.[159]
2018 May Staff Susan Zhang joins OpenAI as Research Engineer.[160]
2018 May Staff Daniel Ziegler joins OpenAI as Member Of Technical Staff.[161]
2018 June 2 Publication OpenAI publishes "GamePad: A Learning Environment for Theorem Proving" in arXiv. The paper introduces a system called GamePad that can be used to explore the application of machine learning methods to theorem proving in the Coq proof assistant.[162]
2018 June 11 Research progress OpenAI announces having obtained significant results on a suite of diverse language tasks with a scalable, task-agnostic system, which uses a combination of transformers and unsupervised pre-training.[163]
2018 June 17 Publication OpenAI publishes paper on learning policy representations in multiagent systems. The paper proposes a general learning framework for modeling agent behavior in any multiagent system using only a handful of interaction data.[164]
2018 June 25 Software release OpenAI announces set of AI algorithms able to hold their own as a team of five and defeat human amateur players at Dota 2, a multiplayer online battle arena video game popular in e-sports for its complexity and necessity for teamwork.[165] In the algorithmic A team, called OpenAI Five, each algorithm uses a neural network to learn both how to play the game, and how to cooperate with its AI teammates.[166][167]
2018 June 26 Notable comment Bill Gates comments on Twitter:
AI bots just beat humans at the video game Dota 2. That’s a big deal, because their victory required teamwork and collaboration – a huge milestone in advancing artificial intelligence.
[168]
2018 June Staff Yilun Du joins OpenAI as Research Fellow.[169]
2018 June Staff Christine McLeavey Payne joins OpenAI's Deep Learning Scholars Program.[170]
2018 June Staff Johannes Otterbach joins OpenAI as Member Of Technical Staff (Fellow).[171]
2018 June Staff Karl Cobbe joins OpenAI as Machine Learning Fellow.[172]
2018 July 9 Publication "Glow: Generative Flow with Invertible 1x1 Convolutions" is first submitted to the ArXiv. The paper proposes a method for obtaining a significant improvement in log-likelihood on standard benchmarks.[173]
2018 July 18 Commitment Elon Musk, along with other tech leaders, sign a pledge promising to not develop “lethal autonomous weapons.” They also call on governments to institute laws against such technology. The pledge is organized by the Future of Life Institute, an outreach group focused on tackling existential risks.[174][175][176]
2018 July 26 Publication OpenAI publishes paper on variational option discovery algorithms. The paper highlights a tight connection between variational option discovery methods and variational autoencoders, and introduces Variational Autoencoding Learning of Options by Reinforcement (VALOR), a new method derived from the connection.[177]
2018 July 30 Software release OpenAI announces a robotics system that can manipulate objects with humanlike dexterity. The system is able to develop these behaviors all on its own. It uses a reinforcement model, where the AI learns through trial and error, to direct robot hands in grasping and manipulating objects with great precision.[178][179]
2018 August 1 Publication OpenAI publishes paper describing the use of reinforcement learning to learn dexterous in-hand manipulation policies which can perform vision-based object reorientation on a physical Shadow Dexterous Hand.[180]
2018 August 7 Achievement Algorithmic team OpenAI Five defeats a team of semi-professional Dota 2 players ranked in the 99.95th percentile in the world, in their second public match in the traditional five-versus-five settings, hosted in San Francisco.[181][182][183][184]
2018 August Staff Ingmar Kanitscheider joins OpenAI as Research Scientist.[185]
2018 August Staff Miles Brundage joins OpenAI as Research Scientist (Policy).[186]
2018 August Staff Jeffrey Wu joins OpenAI as Member of Technical Staff.[187]
2018 August 16 Publication OpenAI publishes paper on constant arboricity spectral sparsifiers. The paper shows that every graph is spectrally similar to the union of a constant number of forests.[188]
2018 September Staff Christopher Olah joins OpenAI as Member Of Technical Staff.[189]
2018 September Staff Taehoon Kim joins OpenAI as Research Engineer.[190]
2018 September Staff Dario Amodei becomes OpenAI's Research Director.[34]
2018 October 2 Publication OpenAI publishes paper on FFJORD (free-form continuous dynamics for scalable reversible generative models), aiming to demonstrate their approach on high-dimensional density estimation, image generation, and variational inference.[191]
2018 October 19 Publication OpenAI publishes paper proposing Iterated Amplification, an alternative training strategy which progressively builds up a training signal for difficult problems by combining solutions to easier subproblems.[192]
2018 October Staff Daniela Amodei joins OpenAI as NLP Team Manager and Head of People Operations.[193]
2018 October Staff Lei Zhang joins OpenAI as Research Fellow.[194]
2018 October Staff Mark Chen joins OpenAI as Research Scientist.[195]
2018 October 31 Software release OpenAI unveils its Random Network Distillation (RND), a prediction-based method for encouraging reinforcement learning agents to explore their environments through curiosity, which for the first time exceeds average human performance on videogame Montezuma’s Revenge.[196]
2018 November 1 Publication OpenAI publishes research paper detailing AI able to defeat humans at the retro platformer Montezuma’s Revenge. The top-performing iteration found 22 of the 24 rooms in the first level, and occasionally discovered all 24.[197][198]
2018 November 5 Publication OpenAI publishes paper proposing a plan online and learn offline (POLO) framework for the setting where an agent, with an internal model, needs to continually act and learn in the world.[199]
2018 November 8 Education OpenAI launches Spinning Up, an educational resource designed to teach anyone deep reinforcement learning. The program consists of crystal-clear examples of RL code, educational exercises, documentation, and tutorials.[200][201][202]
2018 November 9 Notable comment Ilya Sutskever gives speech at the AI Frontiers Conference in San Jose, and declares:
We (OpenAI) have reviewed progress in the field over the past six years. Our conclusion is near term AGI should be taken as a serious possibility.
[203]
2018 November 18 Staff Clemens Winter joins OpenAI as Member Of Technical Staff.[204]
2018 November 19 Partnership OpenAI partners with DeepMind in a new paper that proposes a new method to train reinforcement learning agents in ways that enables them to surpass human performance. The paper, titled Reward learning from human preferences and demonstrations in Atari, introduces a training model that combines human feedback and reward optimization to maximize the knowledge of RL agents.[205]
2018 November Staff Amanda Askell joins OpenAI as Research Scientist (Policy).[206]
2018 December 4 Researh progress OpenAI announces having discovered that the gradient noise scale, a simple statistical metric, predicts the parallelizability of neural network training on a wide range of tasks.[207]
2018 December 6 Software release OpenAI releases CoinRun, a training environment designed to test the adaptability of reinforcement learning agents.[208][209]
2018 December 14 Publication OpenAI publishes paper demonstrating that a simple and easy-to-measure statistic called the gradient noise scale predicts the largest useful batch size across many domains and applications, including a number of supervised learning datasets, reinforcement learning domains, and even generative model training.[210]
2018 December Staff Mateusz Litwin joins OpenAI as Member Of Technical Staff.[211]
2019 January Staff Bianca Martin joins OpenAI as Special Projects Manager.[212]
2019 February 4 Publication OpenAI publishes paper showing computational limitations in robust classification and win-win results.[213]
2019 February 14 Software release OpenAI unveils its language-generating system called GPT-2, a system able to write the news, answer reading comprehension problems, and is beginning to show promise at tasks like translation.[214] However, the data or the parameters of the model are not released, under expressed concerns about potential abuse.[215]
2019 February 19 Publication "AI Safety Needs Social Scientists" is published. The paper argues that long-term AI safety research needs social scientists to ensure AI alignment algorithms succeed when actual humans are involved.[216][217]
2019 February Staff Danny Hernandez joins OpenAI as Research Scientist.[218]
2019 March 2 Publication OpenAi publishes paper presenting an artificial intelligence research environment that aims to simulate the natural environment setting in microcosm.[219]
2019 March 4 Software release OpenAI releases a Neural MMO (massively multiplayer online), a multiagent game environment for reinforcement learning agents. The platform supports a large, variable number of agents within a persistent and open-ended task.[220]
2019 March 6 Software release OpenAI introduces activation atlases, created in collaboration with Google researchers. Activation atlases comprise a new technique for visualizing what interactions between neurons can represent.[221]
2019 March 11 Reorganization OpenAI announces the creation of OpenAI LP, a new “capped-profit” company owned and controlled by the OpenAI nonprofit organization’s board of directors. The new company is purposed to allow OpenAI to rapidly increase their investments in compute and talent while including checks and balances to actualize their mission.[222][223]
2019 March 20 Publication OpenAI publishes paper presenting techniques to scale MCMC based energy base models training on continuous neural networks.[224]
2019 March 21 Software release OpenAI announces progress towards stable and scalable training of energy-based models (EBMs) resulting in better sample quality and generalization ability than existing models.[225]
2019 March Staff Ilge Akkaya joins OpenAI as Member Of Technical Staff.[226]
2019 March Staff Sam Altman leaves his role as the president of Y Combinator to become the Chief executive officer of OpenAI.[227][228]
2019 March Staff Alex Paino joins OpenAI as Member of Technical Staff.[229]
2019 March Staff Karson Elmgren joins OpenAI at People Operations.[230]
2019 April 23 Publication OpenAI publishes paper announcing Sparse Transformers, a deep neural network for learning sequences of data, including text, sound, and images. It utilizes an improved algorithm based on the attention mechanism, being able to extract patterns from sequences 30 times longer than possible previously.[231][232][233]
2019 April 25 Software release OpenAI announces MuseNet, a deep neural network able to generate 4-minute musical compositions with 10 different instruments, and can combine multiple styles from country to Mozart to The Beatles. The neural network uses general-purpose unsupervised technology.[234]
2019 April 27 Event hosting OpenAI hosts the OpenAI Robotics Symposium 2019.[235]
2019 April Staff Todor Markov joins OpenAI as Machine Learning Researcher.[236]
2019 May 3 Publication OpenAI publishes study on the transfer of adversarial robustness of deep neural networks between different perturbation types.[237]
2019 May Software release OpenAI releases a limited version of its language-generating system GPT-2. This version is more powerful (though still significantly limited compared to the whole thing) than the extremely restricted initial release of the system, citing concerns that it’d be abused.[238] The potential of the new system is recognized by various experts.[239]
2019 May 28 Publication OpenAI publishes study on the dynamics of Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) in learning deep neural networks for several real and synthetic classification tasks.[240]
2019 June Staff Long Ouyang joins OpenAI as Research Scientist.[241]
2019 July 10 Publication OpenAI publishes paper arguing that competitive pressures could incentivize AI companies to underinvest in ensuring their systems are safe, secure, and have a positive social impact.[242]
2019 July 22 Partnership OpenAI announces an exclusive partnership with Microsoft. As part of the partnership, Microsoft invests $1 billion in OpenAI, and OpenAI switches to exclusively using Microsoft Azure (Microsoft's cloud solution) as the platform on which it will develop its AI tools. Microsoft will also be OpenAI's "preferred partner for commercializing new AI technologies."[243][244][245][246]
2019 July Staff Irene Solaiman joins OpenAI as Policy Researcher.[247]
2019 August 20 Software release OpenAI announces plan to release a version of its language-generating system GPT-2, which stirred controversy after it release in February.[248][249][250]
2019 August Staff Melanie Subbiah joins OpenAI as Member Of Technical Staff.[251]
2019 August Staff Cullen O'Keefe joins OpenAI as Research Scientist (Policy).[252]
2019 September 17 Research progress OpenAI announces having observed agents discovering progressively more complex tool use while playing a simple game of hide-and-seek. Through training, the agents were able to build a series of six distinct strategies and counterstrategies, some of which were unknown to be supported by the environment.[253][254]
2019 October 16 Research progress OpenAI announces having trained a pair of neural networks to solve the Rubik’s Cube with a human-like robot hand. The experiment demonstrates that models trained only in simulation can be used to solve a manipulation problem of unprecedented complexity on a real robot.[255][256]
2019 November 5 Software release OpenAI releases the largest version (1.5B parameters) of its language-generating system GPT-2 along with code and model weights to facilitate detection of outputs of GPT-2 models.[257]
2019 November Staff Ryan Lowe joins OpenAI as Member Of Technical Staff.[258]
2019 November 21 Software release OpenAI releases Safety Gym, a suite of environments and tools for measuring progress towards reinforcement learning agents that respect safety constraints while training.[259]
2019 December 3 Software release OpenAI releases Procgen Benchmark, a set of 16 simple-to-use procedurally-generated environments (CoinRun, StarPilot, CaveFlyer, Dodgeball, FruitBot, Chaser, Miner, Jumper, Leaper, Maze, BigFish, Heist, Climber, Plunder, Ninja, and BossFight) which provide a direct measure of how quickly a reinforcement learning agent learns generalizable skills. Procgen Benchmark prevents AI model overfitting.[260][261][262]
2019 December 4 Publication "Deep Double Descent: Where Bigger Models and More Data Hurt" is submitted to the ArXiv. The paper shows that a variety of modern deep learning tasks exhibit a "double-descent" phenomenon where, as the model size increases, performance first gets worse and then gets better.[263]
2019 December Staff Dario Amodei is promoted as OpenAI's Vice President of Research.[34]
2020 January 30 Software adoption OpenAI announces migration to the social network’s PyTorch machine learning framework in future projects, setting it as its new standard deep learning framework.[264][265]
2020 February 17 Coverage AI reporter Karen Hao at MIT Technology Review publishes review on OpenAI titled The messy, secretive reality behind OpenAI’s bid to save the world, which suggests the company is surrendering its declaration to be transparent in order to outpace competitors. As a response, Elon Musk criticizes OpenAI, saying it lacks transparency.[266] On his Twitter account, Musk writes "I have no control & only very limited insight into OpenAI. Confidence in Dario for safety is not high", alluding OpenAI Vice President of Research Dario Amodei.[267]
2020 January 23 Publication OpenAI publishes study on empirical scaling laws for language model performance on the cross-entropy loss.[268]

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by Issa Rice.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

What the timeline is still missing

Timeline update strategy

See also

External links

References

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