Timeline of Tata Group

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This is a timeline of Tata Group, an Indian multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered in Mumbai.

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Time period Development summary More details
1868–1947 British India After a voyage to England and having discovered significant opportunities for Indian participation in a British-dominated textiles industry[1], Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata funds Tata as a private trading company. The firm enters the textile business in the first years achieving great success. However, business diversification begins already in the 19th century. In 1898, Hotel Taj in Mumbai becomes the first hotel of such standard in India, and lays the foundation of Taj Group of hotels.
1947–1991 Independent India After having won its independence from Britain, the Indian Government introduces legislation against monopoly industries and high tax dividends. As a result, Tata diversifies its activities into unrelated businesses in order to invest its revenues in different sectors rather than pay high taxes.[2] This period also marks the beginning of attempts of nationalizations of companies. Tata Airlines is nationalized in 1953, while unsuccessful attempts to nationalize Tata Steel occur in 1971 and 1979. On the other hand, many British companies are sold to Indians.[3] In 1976, Tata Finlay takes over the production and marketing operations of James Finlay.
1991 onwards Liberal India India liberalizes its economy, and Tata intinsifies its diversification strategy. By this time, the group is considered to be successful in leveraging its well-reorganized and admired brand name across a variety of unrelated business, and the liberalization of the economy creates new business sectors and oportunities leading Tata to diversify even further. Since the 2000s, Tata accelerates its international expansion strategy.[2]

Full timeline

Year Month and date Category Details
1839 March 3 Prelude Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata is born in a rural town of Navsari in Gujarat to a family of Parsee Zoroastrian priests.[1]
1859 Prelude 20 year old Jamsetji joins his father's small firm, in which Jamsetji gains knowledge about commodities, markets, trading, and banking.[1]
1868 Founding After a maiden voyage to England and having begun to understand what he saw as significant opportunities for Indian participation in a British-dominated textiles industry[1], 29-year-old Jamsetji starts the business as a private trading company with a capital of ₹21,000.[4][5][6]
1869 Early development Jamsetji moves into textiles, acquiring in Chinchpokli a bankrupt oil mill in the industrial heart of Bombay. Later on the property would be converted into the cotton mill and renamed as Alexandra Mill.[6][1]
1871 Early development Jamsetji sells Alexandra Mill for a significant profit to a local cotton merchant.[6][1]
1874 Early development Jamsetji establishes a textile mill in Nagpur, choosing this city over Bombay, the Indian textile hub. The Empress Mills experiment would prove to be very successful.[5][6]
1877 Early development Jamsetji establishes Empress Mills, the oldest and the largest composite textile mill in India.[7][8]
1886 Policy Empress Mills pioneers employee welfare initiatives, long before they are enacted by law.[5]
1892 Education Jamsetji establishes the JN Tata Endowment Fund with the purpose to help Indian students pursue higher studies abroad.[5]
1898 Early development Jamsetji opens the Hotel Taj in Mumbai, the first hotel of such standard in India, with German fans and English butlers. This lays the foundation of a multimillionaire venture known to be as Taj Group of hotels.[6]
1902 Subsidiary The Indian Hotels Company is incorporated to commission the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower, the first luxury hotel in India.[4]
1903 December 16 Subsidiary The Taj Mahal Palace Hotel opens as the first luxury hotel in India.[4][5] It becomes also the first Taj Hotel, which would develop as a chain of luxury hotels.
1904 Leadership Jamsetji passes away in Germany. His older son, Dorabji Tata, takes over as chairman of the Tata Group.[4][5][8]
1907 August 26 Subsidiary Fulfilling the dream of Jamshedji, Dorabji Tata establishes the Tata Iron and Steel company (TISCO) (later known as Tata Steel) in Sakchi, and builds a hospital for the village.[4][5][8][6]
1909 May Education The Indian Institute of Science is established through the vision of Jamsetji Tata, 5 years after his death. [5][9]
1910 Subsidiary Tata Group diversifies into electricity[4], establishing Western India's first hydropower plant. Tata Power is established.[5][8]
1911 Education The first batch of students is admitted to the Indian Institute of Science.[5][4]
1912 Research Sir Ratan Tata funds research into the causes of widespread poverty in India at the University of London.[5]
1917 Subsidiary Tata Group diversifies into consumer goods with the opening of Tata Oil Mills Co (TOMCO), known for popular soap brands, Hamam and Moti. It would be sold to Hindustan Lever in 1984.[5][4]
1917 Tata Sons is registered as a private limited company.[6]
1919 Leadership Sir Ratan Tata dies, and the first of the Tata Trusts, the Sir Ratanji Tata Trust & Allied Trusts, is set up in accordance with his will.[5]
1919 Subsidiary Tata Power is founded by Dorabji Tata.[10]
1920 Sport India sends its first Olympic team to the games in Antwerp, largely due to Dorabji Tata efforts. In 1924, he finances the Indian team headed to the Paris Summer Olympics.[5]
1922 Subsidiary Tata Coffee is founded.[11]
1929 Leadership 24-year-old Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata receives the first pilot licence in India.[5]
1932 Leadership J. R. D. Tata pilots the first flight of the subcontinent from Karachi to Mumbai. Tata Airlines (later, Air India) is founded.[5][4]
1932 June Leadership Dorabji Tata dies on June 3. Nowroji Saklatwala (son of Bapuji Saklatwala and Virbaiji Tata) becomes the third chairman of the Tata Group.[4]
1936 Education The Sir Dorabji Tata Graduate School of Social Work (later known as Tata Institute of Social Sciences) is established.[5]
1938 Leadership Sir Nowroji Saklatwala passes away in France. J. R. D. Tata assumes leading position in the group. At 34, he is the youngest Chairman in Tata Group's history.[5]
1939 Growth As of date, Tata Iron and Steel Company operates the largest steel plant in the British Empire.[6]
1939 Subsidiary J. R. D. Tata establishes Tata Chemicals in Mithapur, Gujarat.[12][8][4][5]
1941 February 28 Health The Tata Memorial Hospital is founded in Pune. It pioneers cancer treatment in India, and offers access to cancer care for all.[5][13]
1944 Education The Sir Dorabji Tata Graduate School of Social Work is renamed as Tata Institute of Social Sciences.[14]
1945 Subsidiary Tata Group establishes the Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company (TELCO) to manufacture engineering and locomotive products. It would be later renamed Tata Motors.[4] "The group's rapid business expansion continues with the establishment of Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company. By 2003, it is rechristened Tata Motors."[5][8]
1945 June 1 Education The Tata Institute of Fundamental Research is founded.[15]
1946 Leadership Naval Tata is named President of the Indian Hockey Association. Under his leadership, India would achieve Olympic medals, with golds in 1948, 1952 & 1956.[5]
1952 Brand Tata Group expands into cosmetics, and launches India's first cosmetics brand, Lakme. It would be sold to Hindustan Unilever, along with Tata Oil Mills Company, in 1984.[5][4]
1952 Research The Indian Cancer Research Centre is established as a pioneer research institute for basic research. It would later be called the Cancer Research Institute (CRI).[13]
1953 Nationalization Tata Airlines is nationalized and becomes Air India when the Indian Government passes the Air Corporations Act and purchases a majority stake in the carrier from Tata Sons.[16][17][8]
1954 Product Tata Engineering and Locomotive Co Ltd begins manufacturing medium commercial vehicles along with Daimler Benz.[18]
1954 September 6 Subsidiary Voltas Limited is incorporated as a collaboration between Tata Sons and Volkart Brothers. It would be soon associated with multiple prestigious projects, making it a leading engineering solutions provider and airconditioning brand.[5]
1956 Financial Tata Sons is termed as a deemed public holding company after the Companies Act 1956, with articles remaining unchanged.[6]
1957 Health The Ministry of Health takes over the Tata Memorial Hospital.[13]
1958 Subsidiary TRL Krosaki Refractories Limited is founded.[19]
1961 Subsidiary Tata Hitachi Construction Machinery is founded.[20]
1962 Subsidiary Tata Tea is incorporated as Tata Finlay Ltd with technical and financial collaboration with James Finlay & Co. Ltd. from Glasgow, a leading Scottish trading company in the British Empire.[5][4][21]
1964 Education The Tata Institute of Social Sciences is declared Deemed university under Section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act (UGC), 1956.[14]
1964 Subsidiary Tata Global Beverages is set up through a joint venture with James Finlay and the Tata Group for manufacturing tea and coffee.[22][23]
1966 Education The Tata Management Training Centre is founded by J. R. D. Tata.[24]
1968 Subsidiary Tata Consultancy Services is established as India's first software services company. It would grow to a global enterprise with a presence in 46 countries.[5][8]
1969 Education The National Centre for the Performing Arts is founded by J. R. D. Tata and Dr. Jamshed Bhabha, who envisioned a world-class performing arts centre to preserve India's heritage.[5]
1971 Nationalization A first unsuccessful attempt to nationalize Tata Steel is made.[6]
1974 Education The Tata Energy Research Institute is founded in New Delhi. It specializes in the fields of energy, environment and sustainable development. It would be renamed Energy and Resources Institute in 2003.
1976 Tata Finlay takes over the production and marketing operations of James Finlay.[21]
1979 Nationalization A second unsuccessful attempt to nationalize Tata Steel is made.[6]
1979 Subsidiary Tata Projects Limited is established as an engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) company in the engineering sector of the Tata Group.[25]
1982 Acquisition Tata Group subsidiary Taj Hotels acquires Taj Sheba Hotel in Sana'a, Yemen, its first international hotel.[5]
1982 Acquisition Taj Hotels accelerates its international expansion with the acquisition of St. James Court in London.[5]
1983 Product Tata Chemicals launces Tata Salt as India's first packaged iodized salt brand.[5]
1982 Acquisition James Finlay sells their shareholding in the Tata Finlay, to Tata Group, passing the ownership of the company completely into the hands of the group, which renames it Tata Tea.[21][26]
1984 Joint venture Titan Industries is established as a joint venture between the Tata Group and Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation, and starts producing watches.[5][8].[27][28]
1984 Subsidiary Tata Housing Development Company is established.[29]
1984 Acquisition Tata Group cosmetics brand Lakme is sold to Hindustan Unilever, along with Tata Oil Mills Co (TOMCO).[5][4]
1985 Product Tata Group is granted a license to manufacture passenger cars.[30]
1989 Subsidiary Tata Technologies Limited is founded.[31]
1989 Subsidiary Tata Power Solar is founded as a joint venture between Tata Power and British Petroleum Solar (BP Solar). It is one of the largest manufacturers of solar modules in India.[32]
1989 Subsidiary Tata Elxsi is incorporated. It is the product design arm of Tata Group, and focuses on delivering outsourced product design and R&D services and solutions to customers worldwide.[33][34]
1990 Subsidiary Tata Steel starts expansion plan and establishes its subsidiary Tata Inc. in New York City.[6]
1991 Leadership J.R.D. Tata’s nephew Ratan Tata assumes as new chairman of the Tata Group. Upon assumption, Ratan would aggressively seek to expand the group, increasingly focussing on globalizing its businesses.[4][8]
1991 Product After its success with commercial vehicles, TELCO (later Tata Motors) launches Tata Sierra, a three-door sport utility vehicle.[35][5]
1991 January Education J.R.D. Tata launches Tata Central Archives (TCA) in Bombay. In 2001, the archives move to Pune. Housed in the lush green precincts of Tata Management Training Centre, TCA formal innauguration would happen on February 13, 2001.[36]
1992 Joint venture Tata Motors forms a 50/50 joint venture with Cummins Engine Company USA, called Tata Cummings Limited (TCL), to bring diesel technology solutions to India.[37]
1993 November 28 Leadership J.R.D. Tata dies in Geneva.[8]
1993 Subsidiary Tata Petrodyne Limited is incorporated and originally promoted by Tata Industries Ltd with the objective of leading the group's incursion into the upstream sector of the oil and gas industry.[38]
1993 November 11 Subsidiary TajAir is established as Megapode Airlines. It is an air charter company owned by the Tata Group.[39]
1994 Brand Tata Group subsidiary Titan Company launches jewellery brand Tanishq, revolutionizing the Indian jewellery market.[5]
1994 Subsidiary Tata-TIDCO joint venture Titan Company launches Tanishq, a jewellery brand which would grow to over 274 stores in more than 160 Indian cities.[40]
1995 Subsidiary Tata AutoComp Systems is incorporated as a supplier of automobile components and engineering services.[41]
1996 Subsidiary Tata Teleservices is founded.[42]
1997 Education Tata Central Archives (TCA) becomes a division of Tata Services.[36]
1998 Product TELCO launches Tata Indica, India's first indigenously designed and manufactured car, and Tata Safari, India's first SUV.[5][8]
1998 Subsidiary Trent starts operating as the retail hand of the Tata group.[43]
1999 Brand Tata Tea launches Agni as an economy brand.[44]
2000 February Acquisition Tata Tea acquires British firm Tetley Tea for US$407 million[45][4][5] It is the first major acquisition of an international brand by an Indian business group.[8]
2001 Education Tata Central Archives (TCA) is formally inaugurated by Ratan Tata.[36]
2001 Partnership Tata Group partners with American International Group to create the insurance company Tata AIG.[4][5]
2001 January Subsidiary TATA AIG starts operations.[46]
2002 Acquisition Tata Group acquires a controlling stake in Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL), establishing Tata Communications.[5]
2002 Acquisition Daewoo Commercial Vehicle is acquired by Tata Motors.[47]
2003 Renaming Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company (TELCO) is renamed Tata Motors.[4]
2003 Tata Consultancy Services becomes the first Indian software company to cross one billion dollars in revenues.[5]
2003 Subsidiary Tata Power Trading Company Limited is incorporated. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of The Tata Power Company Limited.[48]
2004 February Acquisition Tata Motors acquires the commercial vehicle unit of South Korea’s Daewoo Group for US$102 million.[49] In the same year, the company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange.[5][4][8]
2004 May Acquisition Tata Consultancy Services acquires Phoenix Global Solutions, a unit of The Phoenix Companies, to improve its expertise in the insurance sector.[49]
2004 August Acquisition Tata Steel acquires Singaporean NatSteel Ltd. for $286 million.[50][49]
2004 Financial Tata Consultancy Services goes public in the largest IPO in India, raising nearly US$1.2 billion.[5][8]
2004 Subsidiary Tata Business Support Services is founded.[51]
2004 November Acquisition Tata Communications acquires Tyco Global Network for US$130 million.[52]
2004 Tata Motors establishes some franchise/joint venture assemblies in Kenya, Bangladesh, Ukraine, Russia, And Senegal.[53]
2005 February Acquisition Tata Steel completes acquisition of Singapore-based NatSteel.[54][55][56]
2005 February Acquisition Tata Motors acquires control of Spanish bus and coach manufacturer Hispano Carrocera, after purchasing a 21% stake in the company. By 2009, full acquisition would be completed by acquiring the remaining 79%.[57] "Feb 2005 - The board of Tata Motors Ltd. approves the purchase of 21 percent of Spanish bus maker Hispano Carrocera S.A. in a deal worth 12 million euros ($16 million) with an option to acquire a 100 percent holding later."[49]
2005 July Acquisition Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited acquires Teleglobe International Holdings for US$239 million.[49]
2005 Renaming TISCO changes its name to Tata Steel.[6]
2005 Subsidiary Tata AutoComp Systems Limited (TACO) is founded. Based in Pune, Maharashtra, It is a provider of telematics solutions and Mobile Resource Management (MRM) services in India.[58]
2005 Subsidiary The Tata Motors European Technical Centre PLC (TMETC) is founded as a UK-based center for automotive design and engineering. Based in Coventry, England, it is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Tata Motors Ltd. TMETC provides research and development principally for Tata Motors but also for selected partners in the automotive industry.[59]
2005 October Acquisition Tata Tea announces acquisition of U.S. specialty tea brand Good Earth.[49]
2005 October Acquisition Tata Consultancy Services announces acquisition of Sydney-based Financial Network Services (FNS) for US$26 million.[49]
2005 December Acquisition Tata Steel acquires Millennium Steel from Thailand, for US$165 million.[60]
2005 December Acquisition Tata Chemicals agrees to acquire 63.5 percent stake in UK-based soda ash maker Brunner Mond Chemicals and renames it Tata Chemicals Europe.[49]
2006 Joint venture Tata Group launches direct broadcast satellite television provider Tata Sky as a joint venture with The Walt Disney Company.[5]
2006 May Acquisition Tata Tea (GB) signs an agreement to acquire the assets of Jemca, the largest tea company in the Czech Republic from food processing company, Alima Znackova Potravina.[49]
2006 May Facility Tata Motors announces Nano car plant at Singur in West Bengal.[61] The plant is announced on 997 acres of multi-crop farmland forcibly acquired through eminend tomain by the ruling party under the colonial Land Acquisition Act 1894. Protests would raise among the local population who depend on agriculture for their livelihood, and also among environmental activists protesting against degradation of fertile land.[62]
2006 June Acquisition Tata Tea acquires Eight O'Clock Coffee for US$220 million.[63] "June 2005 - Tata Coffee Ltd. agrees to buy the U.S.-based Eight O’Clock Coffee Company for $220 million from private equity firm Gryphon Investors."[49]
2006 July Controversy The Singur Tata Nano controversy begins. Indian politician Mamata Banerjee opposes the Nano car plant at Singur on fertile land.[61]
2006 August 10 Subsidiary Direct broadcast satellite television provider Tata Sky is founded.[64]
2006 August Acquisition Tata Tea announces plans to buy 30 percent of Energy Brands, the maker of fast-growing brand Glaceau vitamin water, for US$677 million.[49]
2006 October Acquisition Tata Tea acquires a 33 percent stake in South African Joekels Tea Packers for US$60 million.[49]
2006 November Acquisition Taj Hotels acquires the Ritz Carlton Boston, for US$170 million.[65]
2006 December Controversy Singur Tata Nano controversy. Protests against the acquisition of land for the Nano car plant at Singur take place. Mamata Banerjee holds 26-day hunger strike against the land acquisition.[61][66][67]
2007 January Acquisition Tata Steel acquires Corus Group for US$12 billion.[63][49]
2007 April Acquisition Tata Group subsidiary Taj Hotels acquires Campton Place, San Francisco for US$58 million. Campton Place is subsequently renamed Taj Campton Place.[68]
2007 Acquisition Tata Steel completes the biggest corporate takeover by an Indian company with the acquisition of the giant Anglo-Dutch steel manufacturer Corus Group.[4] "Tata Steel acquires Corus (now, Tata Steel Europe). It is Europe's second largest steel producer serving construction, automotive, packaging & engineering industries."[5] "and becomes the fifth largest steel producer"[8][6]
2007 September Subsidiary Tata Capital is established as a financial and investment service provider.[69]
2007 Subsidiary Tata Advanced Systems is founded.[70] It is the lead systems integration company for delivering weapons from the Tata Group to the Indian security forces.[71]
2008 January 10 Product Tata Motors officially launches the Tata Nano, a tiny, rear-engine, pod-shaped vehicle that eventually sells at a base price (excluding options, tax, and transportation fees) equivalent to US$1,500 to US$3,000.[4]
2008 February Acquisition Tata Chemical acquires acquires General Chemical Industrial Products, a U.S.-based soda ash firm, for US$1 billion.[72]
2008 February 13 Acquisition Tata Group completely acquires Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL) and renames it as Tata Communications Limited.[73] VSNL is credited to have brought internet into India.[74]
2008 Joint venture Tata Motors and Brazilian bus maker Marcopolo S.A. found Tata Marcopolo, giving Tata Motors access to the Brazilian marketplace.[53]
2008 March Acquisition Tata Motors acquires Jaguar Cars and Land Rover from the Ford Motor Company for $2.3 billion.[4][8][5][75]
2008 April Acquisition Telco Construction Equipment Company Limited]] (TELCON), a joint venture between Tata Motors and Japanese Hitachi Construction Machinery, acquires Comoplesa Lebrero SA, from Spain.
2008 May Acquisition Tata Group acquires one-third stake of Italian Piaggio Aerospace.[76]
2008 June Acquisition Tata Communications acquires 50% of China Enterprise Communications.[77]
2008 August 24 Controversy Singur Tata Nano controversy: Mamata Banerjee starts indefinite dharna (a non-violent sit-in protest) at Singur outside the car plant.[61]
2008 September 2 Controversy Singur Tata Nano controversy: Tata Motors suspends work on w:tata nano:Nano Plant at Singur.[61]
2008 October Acquisition TATA Motors acquires 50.3% majority stake in Norway's Miljo Grenland Innovasjon.[78][79]
2008 October Controversy Singur Tata Nano controversy: Tata Motors decides to move out its w:tata nano:Nano Plant at Singur, and announces new plant at Sanand in Gujarat.[61]
2008 November Acquisition NTT Docomo acquires 26.5% stake in Tata Teleservices and offers services under the Tata Docomo brand.[80]
2009 Product The first Tata Nano circulates the streets in India.[4]
2009 Mid-year Foreign investment NTT Docomo invests US$2.7 billion in Tata Teleservices wireless business on the understanding that if certain targets aren’t met in the next five years, the Tata would either discover a purchaser for the Japanese organization’s 26.5% stake at equitable esteem, or pay 50% portion of the first venture, whichever was higher. Expectations would not be met, with Tata faring badly in the next five years and unable to earn half of the profits expected. The partnership would end in a lawsuit.[6]
2010 April Acquisition Tata Group acquires Hewitt Robins International, a British manufacturer of bulk material handling vibratory equipments including screens and crushers.[81]
2010 Joint venture Tata Tea announces joint venture with PepsiCo for health drinks.[23]
2011 May 16 Health Ratan Tata innaugurates in Kolkata the Tata Medical Center, a comprehensive cancer care and treatment facility designed especially to serve the poor in the region.[82][5]
2011 Recognition Tata is recognized as one of the 50 global brands.[8]
2012 January 30 Joint venture Tata Global Beverages and Starbucks announce the creation of a 50:50 joint venture called Tata Starbucks Limited, which would own and operate Starbucks outlets branded as Starbucks Coffee "A Tata Alliance" in India. The stores, starting operations in the same year, launch initially in Delhi and Mumbai[83][23]
2012 Leadership Ratan Tata retires. Cyrus Mistry assumes position of chairman of Tata Group.[4][8]
2012 October 19 Joint venture Tata Starbucks Limited launches as a 50/50 joint venture between Starbucks Coffee Company and Tata Global Beverages Limited; and opens the first Starbucks store in India.[84][5]
2013 July Acquisition Tata Consultancy Services acquires French enterprise solutions provider Alti SA.[85]
2014 June 12 Joint venture Bengaluru-headquartered airline AirAsia India starts operations as a joint venture between Tata and Malaysia's AirAsia Berhad.[86]
2014 April Legal NTT Docomo decides to exit the Tata Docomo venture but the Tatas oppose initially which leads to a legal battle between the two groups. On June 24, DOCOMO wins the ruling that orders Tata Sons to pay it US$1.3 billion to buy its stake in the mobile phone joint venture, Tata Teleservices.[6] [80]
2014 December Acquisition Tata Power acquires Indian company Energy Products Limited.[87]
2015 January 9 Joint venture Vistara is founded as a joint venture between Tata Sons and Singapore Airlines.[88][5]
2016 May 26 Subsidiary E-commerce marketplace Tata Cliq launches.[89]
2016 June Acquisition Tata Power acquires Indian power company Welspun Renewables Energy.[90]
2016 October Leadership Cyrus Mistry is abruptly dismissed as chairman of Tata Group over disagreements with members of the Tata family regarding business strategy. Ratan Tata returns to the position on an interim basis.[4][8]
2017 January Leadership Natarjan Chandrasekaran becomes new chairman of the Tata Group.[8][4][5]
2017 June 12 Sport Indian professional football club Jamshedpur FC is created. It is owned by Tata Steel.[91]
2017 Recognition Tata Chemicals is ranked 1st in 2017 Responsible Business Rankings developed by IIM Udaipur.[92]
2018 Joint venture Tata Steel and Thyssenkrupp sign deal to launch a joint venture with the plan to merge their steel businesses in Europe.[5] In 2019, the plan would be rejected by EU antitrust regulators.[93][94]
2018 May Acquisition Tata acquires Bhushan Steel Limited and renames it Tata Steel BSL.[95]
2018 Financial Tata Consultancy Services becomes the first Indian Information technology to reach US$100 billion market capitalization.[8]

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