Timeline of Tata Group
|Time period||Development summary||More details|
|1868–1947||British India||After a voyage to England and having discovered significant opportunities for Indian participation in a British-dominated textiles industry, Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata funds Tata as a private trading company. The firm enters the textile business in the first years achieving great success. However, business diversification begins already in this century. In 1898, Hotel Taj in Mumbai becomes the first hotel of such standard in India, and lays the foundation of Taj Group of hotels.|
|1947–1991||Independent India||After having won its independence from Britain, the Indian Government introduces legislation against monopoly industries and high tax dividends. As a result, Tata diversifies its activities into unrelated businesses in order to invest its revenues in different sectors rather than pay high taxes. This period also marks the beginning of attempts of nationalizations of companies. Tata Airlines is nationalized in 1953, while unsuccessful attempts to nationalize Tata Steel occur in 1971 and 1979. On the other hand, many British companies are sold to Indians. In 1976, Tata Finlay takes over the production and marketing operations of James Finlay.|
|1991 onwards||Liberal India||India liberalizes its economy, and Tata intinsifies its diversification strategy. By this time, the group is considered to be successful in leveraging its well-reorganized and admired brand name across a variety of unrelated business, and the liberalization of the economy creates new business sectors and oportunities leading Tata to diversify even further. Since the 2000s, Tata accelerates its international expansion strategy.|
|Year||Month and date||Category||Details|
|1839||March 3||Prelude||Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata is born in a rural town of Navsari in Gujarat to a family of Parsee Zoroastrian priests.|
|1859||Prelude||20 year old Jamsetji joins his father's small firm, in which Jamsetji gains knowledge about commodities, markets, trading, and banking.|
|1868||Founding||After a maiden voyage to England and having begun to understand what he saw as significant opportunities for Indian participation in a British-dominated textiles industry, 29-year-old Jamsetji starts the business as a private trading company with a capital of ₹21,000.|
|1869||Early development||Jamsetji moves into textiles, acquiring in Chinchpokli a bankrupt oil mill in the industrial heart of Bombay. Later on the property would be converted into the cotton mill and renamed as Alexandra Mill.|
|1871||Early development||Jamsetji sells Alexandra Mill for a significant profit to a local cotton merchant.|
|1874||Early development||Jamsetji establishes a textile mill in Nagpur, choosing this city over Bombay, the Indian textile hub. The Empress Mills experiment would prove to be very successful.|
|1877||Early development||Jamsetji establishes Empress Mills, the oldest and the largest composite textile mill in India.|
|1886||Policy||Empress Mills pioneers employee welfare initiatives, long before they are enacted by law.|
|1892||Education||Jamsetji establishes the JN Tata Endowment Fund with the purpose to help Indian students pursue higher studies abroad.|
|1898||Early development||Jamsetji opens the Hotel Taj in Mumbai, the first hotel of such standard in India, with German fans and English butlers. This lays the foundation of a multimillionaire venture known to be as Taj Group of hotels.|
|1902||Subsidiary||The Indian Hotels Company is incorporated to commission the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower, the first luxury hotel in India.|
|1903||December 16||Subsidiary||The Taj Mahal Palace Hotel opens as the first luxury hotel in India. It becomes also the first Taj Hotel, which would develop as a chain of luxury hotels.|
|1904||Leadership||Jamsetji passes away in Germany. His older son, Dorabji Tata, takes over as chairman of the Tata Group.|
|1907||August 26||Subsidiary||Fulfilling the dream of Jamshedji, Dorabji Tata establishes the Tata Iron and Steel company (TISCO) (later known as Tata Steel) in Sakchi, and builds a hospital for the village.|
|1909||May||Education||The Indian Institute of Science is established through the vision of Jamsetji Tata, 5 years after his death. |
|1910||Subsidiary||Tata Group diversifies into electricity, establishing Western India's first hydropower plant. Tata Power is established.|
|1911||Education||The first batch of students is admitted to the Indian Institute of Science.|
|1912||Research||Sir Ratan Tata funds research into the causes of widespread poverty in India at the University of London.|
|1917||Subsidiary||Tata Group diversifies into consumer goods with the opening of Tata Oil Mills Co (TOMCO), known for popular soap brands, Hamam and Moti. It would be sold to Hindustan Lever in 1984.|
|1917||Tata Sons is registered as a private limited company.|
|1919||Leadership||Sir Ratan Tata dies, and the first of the Tata Trusts, the Sir Ratanji Tata Trust & Allied Trusts, is set up in accordance with his will.|
|1919||Subsidiary||Tata Power is founded by Dorabji Tata.|
|1920||Sport||India sends its first Olympic team to the games in Antwerp, largely due to Dorabji Tata efforts. In 1924, he finances the Indian team headed to the Paris Summer Olympics.|
|1922||Subsidiary||Tata Coffee is founded.|
|1929||Leadership||24-year-old Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata receives the first pilot licence in India.|
|1932||Leadership||J. R. D. Tata pilots the first flight of the subcontinent from Karachi to Mumbai. Tata Airlines (later, Air India) is founded.|
|1932||June||Leadership||Dorabji Tata dies on June 3. Nowroji Saklatwala (son of Bapuji Saklatwala and Virbaiji Tata) becomes the third chairman of the Tata Group.|
|1936||Education||The Sir Dorabji Tata Graduate School of Social Work (later known as Tata Institute of Social Sciences) is established.|
|1938||Leadership||Sir Nowroji Saklatwala passes away in France. J. R. D. Tata assumes leading position in the group. At 34, he is the youngest Chairman in Tata Group's history.|
|1939||Growth||As of date, Tata Iron and Steel Company operates the largest steel plant in the British Empire.|
|1939||Subsidiary||J. R. D. Tata establishes Tata Chemicals in Mithapur, Gujarat.|
|1941||February 28||Health||The Tata Memorial Hospital is founded in Pune. It pioneers cancer treatment in India, and offers access to cancer care for all.|
|1944||Education||The Sir Dorabji Tata Graduate School of Social Work is renamed as Tata Institute of Social Sciences.|
|1945||Subsidiary||Tata Group establishes the Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company (TELCO) to manufacture engineering and locomotive products. It would be later renamed Tata Motors. "The group's rapid business expansion continues with the establishment of Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company. By 2003, it is rechristened Tata Motors."|
|1945||June 1||Education||The Tata Institute of Fundamental Research is founded.|
|1946||Leadership||Naval Tata is named President of the Indian Hockey Association. Under his leadership, India would achieve Olympic medals, with golds in 1948, 1952 & 1956.|
|1952||Brand||Tata Group expands into cosmetics, and launches India's first cosmetics brand, Lakme. It would be sold to Hindustan Unilever, along with Tata Oil Mills Company, in 1984.|
|1952||Research||The Indian Cancer Research Centre is established as a pioneer research institute for basic research. It would later be called the Cancer Research Institute (CRI).|
|1953||Nationalization||Tata Airlines is nationalized and becomes Air India when the Indian Government passes the Air Corporations Act and purchases a majority stake in the carrier from Tata Sons.|
|1954||Product||Tata Engineering and Locomotive Co Ltd begins manufacturing medium commercial vehicles along with Daimler Benz.|
|1954||September 6||Subsidiary||Voltas Limited is incorporated as a collaboration between Tata Sons and Volkart Brothers. It would be soon associated with multiple prestigious projects, making it a leading engineering solutions provider and airconditioning brand.|
|1956||Financial||Tata Sons is termed as a deemed public holding company after the Companies Act 1956, with articles remaining unchanged.|
|1957||Health||The Ministry of Health takes over the Tata Memorial Hospital.|
|1958||Subsidiary||TRL Krosaki Refractories Limited is founded.|
|1961||Subsidiary||Tata Hitachi Construction Machinery is founded.|
|1962||Subsidiary||Tata Tea is incorporated as Tata Finlay Ltd with technical and financial collaboration with James Finlay & Co. Ltd. from Glasgow, a leading Scottish trading company in the British Empire.|
|1964||Education||The Tata Institute of Social Sciences is declared Deemed university under Section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act (UGC), 1956.|
|1964||Subsidiary||Tata Global Beverages is set up through a joint venture with James Finlay and the Tata Group for manufacturing tea and coffee.|
|1966||Education||The Tata Management Training Centre is founded by J. R. D. Tata.|
|1968||Subsidiary||Tata Consultancy Services is established as India's first software services company. It would grow to a global enterprise with a presence in 46 countries.|
|1969||Education||The National Centre for the Performing Arts is founded by J. R. D. Tata and Dr. Jamshed Bhabha, who envisioned a world-class performing arts centre to preserve India's heritage.|
|1971||Nationalization||A first unsuccessful attempt to nationalize Tata Steel is made.|
|1974||Education||The Tata Energy Research Institute is founded in New Delhi. It specializes in the fields of energy, environment and sustainable development. It would be renamed Energy and Resources Institute in 2003.|
|1976||Tata Finlay takes over the production and marketing operations of James Finlay.|
|1979||Nationalization||A second unsuccessful attempt to nationalize Tata Steel is made.|
|1979||Subsidiary||Tata Projects Limited is established as an engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) company in the engineering sector of the Tata Group.|
|1982||Acquisition||Tata Group subsidiary Taj Hotels acquires Taj Sheba Hotel in Sana'a, Yemen, its first international hotel.|
|1982||Acquisition||Taj Hotels accelerates its international expansion with the acquisition of St. James Court in London.|
|1983||Product||Tata Chemicals launces Tata Salt as India's first packaged iodized salt brand.|
|1982||Acquisition||James Finlay sells their shareholding in the Tata Finlay, to Tata Group, passing the ownership of the company completely into the hands of the group, which renames it Tata Tea.|
|1984||Joint venture||Titan Industries is established as a joint venture between the Tata Group and Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation, and starts producing watches..|
|1984||Subsidiary||Tata Housing Development Company is established.|
|1984||Acquisition||Tata Group cosmetics brand Lakme is sold to Hindustan Unilever, along with Tata Oil Mills Co (TOMCO).|
|1985||Product||Tata Group is granted a license to manufacture passenger cars.|
|1989||Subsidiary||Tata Technologies Limited is founded.|
|1989||Subsidiary||Tata Power Solar is founded as a joint venture between Tata Power and British Petroleum Solar (BP Solar). It is one of the largest manufacturers of solar modules in India.|
|1989||Subsidiary||Tata Elxsi is incorporated. It is the product design arm of Tata Group, and focuses on delivering outsourced product design and R&D services and solutions to customers worldwide.|
|1990||Subsidiary||Tata Steel starts expansion plan and establishes its subsidiary Tata Inc. in New York City.|
|1991||Leadership||J.R.D. Tata’s nephew Ratan Tata assumes as new chairman of the Tata Group. Upon assumption, Ratan would aggressively seek to expand the group, increasingly focussing on globalizing its businesses.|
|1991||Product||After its success with commercial vehicles, TELCO (later Tata Motors) launches Tata Sierra, a three-door sport utility vehicle.|
|1991||January||Education||J.R.D. Tata launches Tata Central Archives (TCA) in Bombay. In 2001, the archives move to Pune. Housed in the lush green precincts of Tata Management Training Centre, TCA formal innauguration would happen on February 13, 2001.|
|1992||Joint venture||Tata Motors forms a 50/50 joint venture with Cummins Engine Company USA, called Tata Cummings Limited (TCL), to bring diesel technology solutions to India.|
|1993||November 28||Leadership||J.R.D. Tata dies in Geneva.|
|1993||Subsidiary||Tata Petrodyne Limited is incorporated and originally promoted by Tata Industries Ltd with the objective of leading the group's incursion into the upstream sector of the oil and gas industry.|
|1993||November 11||Subsidiary||TajAir is established as Megapode Airlines. It is an air charter company owned by the Tata Group.|
|1994||Brand||Tata Group subsidiary Titan Company launches jewellery brand Tanishq, revolutionizing the Indian jewellery market.|
|1994||Subsidiary||Tata-TIDCO joint venture Titan Company launches Tanishq, a jewellery brand which would grow to over 274 stores in more than 160 Indian cities.|
|1995||Subsidiary||Tata AutoComp Systems is incorporated as a supplier of automobile components and engineering services.|
|1996||Subsidiary||Tata Teleservices is founded.|
|1997||Education||Tata Central Archives (TCA) becomes a division of Tata Services.|
|1998||Product||TELCO launches Tata Indica, India's first indigenously designed and manufactured car, and Tata Safari, India's first SUV.|
|1998||Subsidiary||Trent starts operating as the retail hand of the Tata group.|
|1999||Brand||Tata Tea launches Agni as an economy brand.|
|2000||February||Acquisition||Tata Tea acquires British firm Tetley Tea for US$407 million It is the first major acquisition of an international brand by an Indian business group.|
|2001||Education||Tata Central Archives (TCA) is formally inaugurated by Ratan Tata.|
|2001||Partnership||Tata Group partners with American International Group to create the insurance company Tata AIG.|
|2001||January||Subsidiary||TATA AIG starts operations.|
|2002||Acquisition||Tata Group acquires a controlling stake in Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL), establishing Tata Communications.|
|2002||Acquisition||Daewoo Commercial Vehicle is acquired by Tata Motors.|
|2003||Renaming||Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company (TELCO) is renamed Tata Motors.|
|2003||Tata Consultancy Services becomes the first Indian software company to cross one billion dollars in revenues.|
|2003||Subsidiary||Tata Power Trading Company Limited is incorporated. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of The Tata Power Company Limited.|
|2004||February||Acquisition||Tata Motors acquires the commercial vehicle unit of South Korea’s Daewoo Group for US$102 million. In the same year, the company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange.|
|2004||May||Acquisition||Tata Consultancy Services acquires Phoenix Global Solutions, a unit of The Phoenix Companies, to improve its expertise in the insurance sector.|
|2004||August||Acquisition||Tata Steel acquires Singaporean NatSteel Ltd. for $286 million.|
|2004||Financial||Tata Consultancy Services goes public in the largest IPO in India, raising nearly US$1.2 billion.|
|2004||Subsidiary||Tata Business Support Services is founded.|
|2004||November||Acquisition||Tata Communications acquires Tyco Global Network for US$130 million.|
|2004||Tata Motors establishes some franchise/joint venture assemblies in Kenya, Bangladesh, Ukraine, Russia, And Senegal.|
|2005||February||Acquisition||Tata Steel completes acquisition of Singapore-based NatSteel.|
|2005||February||Acquisition||Tata Motors acquires control of Spanish bus and coach manufacturer Hispano Carrocera, after purchasing a 21% stake in the company. By 2009, full acquisition would be completed by acquiring the remaining 79%. "Feb 2005 - The board of Tata Motors Ltd. approves the purchase of 21 percent of Spanish bus maker Hispano Carrocera S.A. in a deal worth 12 million euros ($16 million) with an option to acquire a 100 percent holding later."|
|2005||July||Acquisition||Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited acquires Teleglobe International Holdings for US$239 million.|
|2005||Renaming||TISCO changes its name to Tata Steel.|
|2005||Subsidiary||Tata AutoComp Systems Limited (TACO) is founded. Based in Pune, Maharashtra, It is a provider of telematics solutions and Mobile Resource Management (MRM) services in India.|
|2005||Subsidiary||The Tata Motors European Technical Centre PLC (TMETC) is founded as a UK-based center for automotive design and engineering. Based in Coventry, England, it is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Tata Motors Ltd. TMETC provides research and development principally for Tata Motors but also for selected partners in the automotive industry.|
|2005||October||Acquisition||Tata Tea announces acquisition of U.S. specialty tea brand Good Earth.|
|2005||October||Acquisition||Tata Consultancy Services announces acquisition of Sydney-based Financial Network Services (FNS) for US$26 million.|
|2005||December||Acquisition||Tata Steel acquires Millennium Steel from Thailand, for US$165 million.|
|2005||December||Acquisition||Tata Chemicals agrees to acquire 63.5 percent stake in UK-based soda ash maker Brunner Mond Chemicals and renames it Tata Chemicals Europe.|
|2006||Joint venture||Tata Group launches direct broadcast satellite television provider Tata Sky as a joint venture with The Walt Disney Company.|
|2006||May||Acquisition||Tata Tea (GB) signs an agreement to acquire the assets of Jemca, the largest tea company in the Czech Republic from food processing company, Alima Znackova Potravina.|
|2006||May||Facility||Tata Motors announces Nano car plant at Singur in West Bengal. The plant is announced on 997 acres of multi-crop farmland forcibly acquired through eminend tomain by the ruling party under the colonial Land Acquisition Act 1894. Protests would raise among the local population who depend on agriculture for their livelihood, and also among environmental activists protesting against degradation of fertile land.|
|2006||June||Acquisition||Tata Tea acquires Eight O'Clock Coffee for US$220 million. "June 2005 - Tata Coffee Ltd. agrees to buy the U.S.-based Eight O’Clock Coffee Company for $220 million from private equity firm Gryphon Investors."|
|2006||July||Controversy||The Singur Tata Nano controversy begins. Indian politician Mamata Banerjee opposes the Nano car plant at Singur on fertile land.|
|2006||August 10||Subsidiary||Direct broadcast satellite television provider Tata Sky is founded.|
|2006||August||Acquisition||Tata Tea announces plans to buy 30 percent of Energy Brands, the maker of fast-growing brand Glaceau vitamin water, for US$677 million.|
|2006||October||Acquisition||Tata Tea acquires a 33 percent stake in South African Joekels Tea Packers for US$60 million.|
|2006||November||Acquisition||Taj Hotels acquires the Ritz Carlton Boston, for US$170 million.|
|2006||December||Controversy||Singur Tata Nano controversy. Protests against the acquisition of land for the Nano car plant at Singur take place. Mamata Banerjee holds 26-day hunger strike against the land acquisition.|
|2007||January||Acquisition||Tata Steel acquires Corus Group for US$12 billion.|
|2007||April||Acquisition||Tata Group subsidiary Taj Hotels acquires Campton Place, San Francisco for US$58 million. Campton Place is subsequently renamed Taj Campton Place.|
|2007||Acquisition||Tata Steel completes the biggest corporate takeover by an Indian company with the acquisition of the giant Anglo-Dutch steel manufacturer Corus Group. "Tata Steel acquires Corus (now, Tata Steel Europe). It is Europe's second largest steel producer serving construction, automotive, packaging & engineering industries." "and becomes the fifth largest steel producer"|
|2007||September||Subsidiary||Tata Capital is established as a financial and investment service provider.|
|2007||Subsidiary||Tata Advanced Systems is founded. It is the lead systems integration company for delivering weapons from the Tata Group to the Indian security forces.|
|2008||January 10||Product||Tata Motors officially launches the Tata Nano, a tiny, rear-engine, pod-shaped vehicle that eventually sells at a base price (excluding options, tax, and transportation fees) equivalent to US$1,500 to US$3,000.|
|2008||February||Acquisition||Tata Chemical acquires acquires General Chemical Industrial Products, a U.S.-based soda ash firm, for US$1 billion.|
|2008||February 13||Acquisition||Tata Group completely acquires Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL) and renames it as Tata Communications Limited. VSNL is credited to have brought internet into India.|
|2008||Joint venture||Tata Motors and Brazilian bus maker Marcopolo S.A. found Tata Marcopolo, giving Tata Motors access to the Brazilian marketplace.|
|2008||March||Acquisition||Tata Motors acquires Jaguar Cars and Land Rover from the Ford Motor Company for $2.3 billion.|
|2008||April||Acquisition||Telco Construction Equipment Company Limited]] (TELCON), a joint venture between Tata Motors and Japanese Hitachi Construction Machinery, acquires Comoplesa Lebrero SA, from Spain.|
|2008||May||Acquisition||Tata Group acquires one-third stake of Italian Piaggio Aerospace.|
|2008||June||Acquisition||Tata Communications acquires 50% of China Enterprise Communications.|
|2008||August 24||Controversy||Singur Tata Nano controversy: Mamata Banerjee starts indefinite dharna (a non-violent sit-in protest) at Singur outside the car plant.|
|2008||September 2||Controversy||Singur Tata Nano controversy: Tata Motors suspends work on w:tata nano:Nano Plant at Singur.|
|2008||October||Acquisition||TATA Motors acquires 50.3% majority stake in Norway's Miljo Grenland Innovasjon.|
|2008||October||Controversy||Singur Tata Nano controversy: Tata Motors decides to move out its w:tata nano:Nano Plant at Singur, and announces new plant at Sanand in Gujarat.|
|2008||November||Acquisition||NTT Docomo acquires 26.5% stake in Tata Teleservices and offers services under the Tata Docomo brand.|
|2009||Product||The first Tata Nano circulates the streets in India.|
|2009||Mid-year||Foreign investment||NTT Docomo invests US$2.7 billion in Tata Teleservices wireless business on the understanding that if certain targets aren’t met in the next five years, the Tata would either discover a purchaser for the Japanese organization’s 26.5% stake at equitable esteem, or pay 50% portion of the first venture, whichever was higher. Expectations would not be met, with Tata faring badly in the next five years and unable to earn half of the profits expected. The partnership would end in a lawsuit.|
|2010||April||Acquisition||Tata Group acquires Hewitt Robins International, a British manufacturer of bulk material handling vibratory equipments including screens and crushers.|
|2010||Joint venture||Tata Tea announces joint venture with PepsiCo for health drinks.|
|2011||May 16||Health||Ratan Tata innaugurates in Kolkata the Tata Medical Center, a comprehensive cancer care and treatment facility designed especially to serve the poor in the region.|
|2011||Recognition||Tata is recognized as one of the 50 global brands.|
|2012||January 30||Joint venture||Tata Global Beverages and Starbucks announce the creation of a 50:50 joint venture called Tata Starbucks Limited, which would own and operate Starbucks outlets branded as Starbucks Coffee "A Tata Alliance" in India. The stores, starting operations in the same year, launch initially in Delhi and Mumbai|
|2012||Leadership||Ratan Tata retires. Cyrus Mistry assumes position of chairman of Tata Group.|
|2012||October 19||Joint venture||Tata Starbucks Limited launches as a 50/50 joint venture between Starbucks Coffee Company and Tata Global Beverages Limited; and opens the first Starbucks store in India.|
|2013||July||Acquisition||Tata Consultancy Services acquires French enterprise solutions provider Alti SA.|
|2014||June 12||Joint venture||Bengaluru-headquartered airline AirAsia India starts operations as a joint venture between Tata and Malaysia's AirAsia Berhad.|
|2014||April||Legal||NTT Docomo decides to exit the Tata Docomo venture but the Tatas oppose initially which leads to a legal battle between the two groups. On June 24, DOCOMO wins the ruling that orders Tata Sons to pay it US$1.3 billion to buy its stake in the mobile phone joint venture, Tata Teleservices. |
|2014||December||Acquisition||Tata Power acquires Indian company Energy Products Limited.|
|2015||January 9||Joint venture||Vistara is founded as a joint venture between Tata Sons and Singapore Airlines.|
|2016||May 26||Subsidiary||E-commerce marketplace Tata Cliq launches.|
|2016||June||Acquisition||Tata Power acquires Indian power company Welspun Renewables Energy.|
|2016||October||Leadership||Cyrus Mistry is abruptly dismissed as chairman of Tata Group over disagreements with members of the Tata family regarding business strategy. Ratan Tata returns to the position on an interim basis.|
|2017||January||Leadership||Natarjan Chandrasekaran becomes new chairman of the Tata Group.|
|2017||June 12||Sport||Indian professional football club Jamshedpur FC is created. It is owned by Tata Steel.|
|2017||Recognition||Tata Chemicals is ranked 1st in 2017 Responsible Business Rankings developed by IIM Udaipur.|
|2018||Joint venture||Tata Steel and Thyssenkrupp sign deal to launch a joint venture with the plan to merge their steel businesses in Europe. In 2019, the plan would be rejected by EU antitrust regulators.|
|2018||May||Acquisition||Tata acquires Bhushan Steel Limited and renames it Tata Steel BSL.|
|2018||Financial||Tata Consultancy Services becomes the first Indian Information technology to reach US$100 billion market capitalization.|
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