Timeline of Zika virus

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This is a timeline of Zika virus, attempting to describe important events in the history of the disease.

Big picture

Time period Development summary
1900< Sometime in the early 1900s, probably in Uganda, the ancestral Zika virus emerges. This virus would go undetected for decades.[1]
1969 – 1983 The known geographical distribution of Zika expands to equatorial Asia. As in Africa, sporadic human cases occur, with no outbreaks detected. The disease in humans continues to be regarded as rare, with mild symptoms.[2]
2007 < Zika virus is recognized as a human pathogen of importance for the first time since 2007, when an outbreak of rash and fever occurs on Yap Island and leads to 49 confirmed—and 59 probable—cases of Zika virus infection in human beings. A larger second outbreak occurs in 2013–14 in French Polynesia, involving 333 confirmed cases and 19 000–32 000 suspected cases. In 2015, Zika spreads to the Caribbean, South America, and Central America, where it causes epidemics. Since 2007, local transmission of Zika would be documented in 52 countries and territories, including the United States.[1]

Full timeline

Year Month and date Event type Details Country/region
1947 The Zika virus is discovered during a routine surveillance for yellow fever in the Zika forest in Uganda by Yellow Fever Research Institute scientists. The virus is isolated in samples taken from a captive, sentinel rhesus macaque. The term “ziika” means “overgrown” in Luganda.[3][2][1] Uganda
1948 Vector Zika virus is recovered from the mosquito Aedes africanus, caught on a tree platform in the Zika forest.[2]
1952 Zika is identified in humans. The first cases are detected in Uganda and Tanzania, in a study demonstrating the presence of neutralizing antibodies to Zika virus in sera.[2][1] Uganda, Tanzania
1964 Infection A researcher in Uganda is infected with Zika while working on the virus. The infection confirms that Zika virus causes human disease. He reports the illness as "mild".[4] Uganda
2007 Epidemiology The first large outbreak of disease caused by Zika infection is reported in Yap, an island in the Federated States of Micronesia.[2] Prior to this, no outbreaks and only 14 cases of human Zika virus disease have been documented anywhere in the world.[4] Micronesia
2008 Epidemiology An American scientist conducting field work in Senegal falls ill with Zika infection. On his return home to Colorado he infects his wife in what is the first documented case of sexual transmission of a disease usually transmitted by insects.[4] Senegal, United States
2012 Virology Researchers identify two distinct lineages of the Zika virus, African and Asian.[4]
2013 December Infection A Japanese tourist returning to Japan is diagnosed with Zika virus infection after visiting the French Polynesian island of Bora Bora, becoming the first imported case of Zika fever in Japan.[5] Japan
2014 January Epidemiology Indigenous cases of Zika virus infection are reported in New Caledonia.[6] The outbreak peaks in April, with the number of confirmed cases reaching 1,400 by 17 September.[7] New Caledonia
2014 March 20 Transmission During an outbreak of Zika virus in French Polynesia, two mothers and their newborns are found to be infected within four days of birth. The infants' infections appear to have been acquired by transplacental transmission or during delivery.[4][8] French Polynesia
2014 March 31 Epidemiology During the outbreak of Zika virus in French Polynesia 1,505 asymptomatic blood donors are reported to be positive for Zika by polymerase chain reaction. These findings alert authorities that Zika virus can be passed on through blood transfusion.[4] French Polynesia
2015 February – May Epidemiology An outbreak of Zika begins on the Solomon Islands, with 302 cases reported by 3 May.[9] Solomon Islands
2015 May 7 Epidemiology Brazil's National Reference Laboratory confirms Zika virus circulates in the country. This is the first report of locally acquired Zika disease in the Americas.[4] Brazil
2015 June < Vaccine Vaccine development for Zika starts in the second half of the year, with the determination of the genomic sequences of the virus isolates in Brazil and cloning of ZIKV genes in to a variety of vectors.[10]
2015 July 17 Pathology Brazil reports neurological disorders associated with a history of infection, primarily from the north-eastern state of Bahia. Among these reports, 49 cases are confirmed as Guillain–Barré syndrome. Of these cases, all but 2 had a prior history of infection with Zika, chikungunya or dengue.[4] Brazil
2015 October 16 Epidemiology Colombia confirms its first autochthonous Zika cases.[11] Colombia
2015 October 21 Epidemiology The first outbreak of Zika infection in Cape Verde is reported.[4][12] Cape Verde
2015 October 30 Pathology An unusual increase in the number of cases of microcephaly among newborns is reported in Brazil.[4] Brazil
2015 November 2 Epidemiology Suriname reports its first two autochthonous cases of Zika virus.[13] Suriname
2015 ovember 27 Epidemiology Venezuela reports its first seven cases of Zika virus.[14] Venezuela
2015 November Epidemiology El Savador reports its first three autochthonous cases of Zika virus.[15] El Salvador
2015 November Epidemiology Lab confirmed cases of locally acquired Zika infection are reported in Suriname, El Salvador, Guatamala, Mexico, Paraguay, and Venezuela.[4]
2015 November 11 Policy Brazil declares a national public health emergency as cases of suspected microcephaly continue to increase.[4] Brazil
2015 November26 Epidemiology The first three cases of Zika infection are reported in Mexico, two autochthonous and one travel related (from Colombia).[16] Mexico
2015 November 28 Pathology The Zika virus genome in the blood and tissue samples of a baby with microcephaly and other congenital anomalies is detected in Brazil. The baby died within 5 minutes of birth. Brazil reports 3 deaths among 2 adults and a newborn associated with Zika infection.[4] Brazil
2016 December 31 Epidemiology Puerto Rico reports its first case of Zika virus.[3][17] Puerto Rico
2016 January 5 Transmission Researchers report the first diagnoses of intrauterine transmission of the Zika virus in 2 pregnant women in Brazil whose fetuses were diagnosed with microcephaly, including severe brain abnormalities. Although tests of blood samples from both women are negative, Zika virus is detected in amniotic fluid.[4] Brazil
2016 January 15 Policy Because of the "growing evidence of a link between Zika and microcephaly" the United States Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC) issues a travel warning advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to Brazil as well as the following countries and territories where Zika fever had been reported: Colombia, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Martinique, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Suriname, Venezuela, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.[18]
2016 January 19 Epidemiology A man from Thailand becomes the first imported case of Zika virus in Taiwan.[19] Taiwan
2016 January 31 Epidemiology Curaçao reports its first confirmed autochthonous case of Zika.[20] Curaçao
2016 February 1 Policy The World Health Organization declares that the recent association of Zika infection with clusters of microcephaly and other neurological disorders constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern,[2] and calls on the global research and product development communities to prioritize the development of vaccines together with improved diagnostics, and innovative vector control strategies for Zika virus research and development.[21]
2016 February 2 Transmission A case of sexual transmission of Zika infection is reported in Texas.[4] United States
2016 February 4 Transmission Brazilian health officials confirm a case of Zika virus infection transmitted by transfused blood from an infected donor.[4] Brazil
2016 March Epidemiology First locally acquired cases of Zika virus are reported from Kosrae Micronesia, Dominica and Cuba.[4]
2016 March 15 Pathology The first case of Guillain-Barré syndrome with confirmed Zika virus infection in a 13-year-old girl is reported in Panama.[4] Panama
2016 March 26 Transmission Chile reports a case of sexually transmitted Zika virus, first case acquired in continental Chilean territory where Aedes mosquitoes are not present.[4] Chile
2016 April 5 Epidemiology The first 2 confirmed cases of locally-acquired Zika virus infection in Viet Nam are reported.[22][4] Viet Nam
2016 April 26 Epidemiology The first confirmed cases of local vector-borne transmission of Zika virus disease in Peru are reported.[4] Peru
2016 May 16 Epidemiology The first case of Zika infection in Belize is confirmed.[23][24] Belize
2016 July 1 Epidemiology The first cases of mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission in Guinea-Bissau are reported.[4] Guinea Bissau
2016 July 22 Vector The Fiocruz Institute Pernambuco announces that it detected Zika virus in Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected in houses in the city of Recife, Brazil.[4] Brazil
2016 July Vaccine The World Health Organization publishes a Target Product Profile for Zika vaccines which defines the desired characteristics for optimal vaccines, such as safety, period of protection, shelf life and number of doses required to protect against the virus.[4][25][10]
2016 July Vaccine Inovio Pharmaceuticals starts a phase 1 clinical trial of its DNA-based vaccine.[1]
2016 July Vaccine United States Army researchers agree to give French multinational Sanofi an exclusive license to complete testing and bring to market their development of a ZPIV vaccine, made from inactivated Zika virus particles.[26]
2016 August 2 Prevention The World Health Organization releases educational videos on Zika risk communication and community engagement. The videos are an educational resource for local, national and international personnel responding to Zika.[4]
2016 August 25 Vaccine At least 30 entities, including 8 public sector institutions, are involved in the development of a Zika vaccine.[4]
2016 August 27 Epidemiology The first case of locally transmitted Zika infections in Singapore is confirmed.[27][28] Singapore
2016 August Vaccine The DNA-based Zika vaccine candidate enters a Phase 1 clinical trial at the United States National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.[29] United States
2016 September 7 Pathology The World Health Organization concludes that Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of congenital brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, and that Zika virus infection is a trigger of Guillain-Barré syndrome.[4]
2016 October 25 Program launch The World Health Organization launches the Zika Virus Research Agenda, which identifies critical areas of research where the Organization is uniquely placed to implement or coordinate global activities.[4]
2017 January Vaccine The United States National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the World Health Organization cohost a Scientific Consultation on Zika Virus Vaccine Development that provides a state-of-science review on Zika epidemiology and vaccine development.[25]
2017 February 1 Vaccine The World Health Organization updates information on vaccine research and development. More than 40 Zika vaccine candidates are in the pipeline and 5 are reported to enter Phase I trials, where the vaccine's safety and ability to produce an immune response would be evaluated.[4]
2017 March 10 Epidemiology As of date, people in 84 countries and territories had been infected with Zika virus.[1]
2017 early Vaccine The World Health Organization publishes an updated Target Product Profile (TPP) for a Zika vaccine to be used in an outbreak response scenario.[10]
2017 March Vaccine The United States National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases launches a Phase 2 clinical trial of its DNA-based Zika vaccine candidate, which aims to enroll at least 2,490 healthy adult and adolescent participants in areas of confirmed or potential active mosquito-transmitted Zika infection. Sites are located in Houston, Puerto Rico, Brazil, Peru, Costa Rica, Panama and Mexico.[29][30] United States
2017 June Vaccine The World Health Organization convenes a group of about 30 experts in epidemiology, regulatory, preclinical and clinical vaccine trials, and mathematical modelling, in a workshop on planning for Zika vaccine efficacy trials.[25]
2017 October 4 Vaccine Article published online in the New England Journal of Medicine reports preliminary data from the first trial of a Zika virus (ZIKV) vaccine in human subjects, ZIKA-001, showing that three doses of the synthetic GLS-5700 DNA vaccine led to binding antibody production in all subjects and neutralizing antibodies in more than half of samples tested.[31]

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

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See also

External links


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Poland, Gregory A; Kennedy, Richard B; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Palacios, Ricardo; Ho, Paulo Lee; Kalil, Jorge. "Development of vaccines against Zika virus". The Lancet. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 "The history of Zika virus". who.int. Retrieved 11 June 2018. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "A Brief History Of Zika Virus, From Its Discovery In The Zika Forest To The Global Outbreak Today". medicaldaily.com. Retrieved 11 June 2018. 
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 4.21 4.22 4.23 4.24 4.25 4.26 4.27 4.28 "The History of Zika Virus". who.int. Retrieved 11 June 2018. 
  5. {{cite web | first1=Dr. Satoshi | last1=Kutsuna | url=http://www.promedmail.org/post/20131219.2126046 | title=Zika Virus - Japan: ex French Polynesia | publisher=International Society for Infectious Diseases | date=18 December 2013 | accessdate=16 June 2018 | website=ProMED-mail
  6. "Zika Virus - Pacific (03): New Caledonia". ProMED-mail. International Society for Infectious Diseases. 22 January 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2016. 
  7. Roth, A; Mercier, A; Lepers, C; et al. (2014). "Concurrent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections – an unprecedented epidemic wave of mosquito-borne viruses in the Pacific 2012–2014". Eurosurveillance. 19 (41): 20929. ISSN 1560-7917. PMID 25345518. doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES2014.19.41.20929. 
  8. Besnard, M; Lastère, S; Teissier, A; Cao-Lormeau, V M; Musso, D. "Evidence of perinatal transmission of Zika virus, French Polynesia, December 2013 and February 2014". 
  9. "Zika virus infection outbreak, Brazil and the Pacific region" (PDF). Rapid Risk Assessment. Stockholm: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. 25 May 2015. pp. 4–5. Retrieved 16 June 2018. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Barrett, Alan D. T. "Current status of Zika vaccine development: Zika vaccines advance into clinical evaluation". 
  11. Kindhauser, Mary Kay; Allen, Tomas; Frank, Veronika; Santhana, Ravi; Dye, Christopher. "Zika: the origin and spread of a mosquito-borne virus". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Retrieved 17 June 2018. 
  12. "Zika virus infection – Cape Verde". who.int. Retrieved 6 July 2018. 
  13. "Zika virus infection – Suriname". Disease Outbreak News. WHO. 11 November 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2018. 
  14. "Zika virus infection – Venezuela". Disease Outbreak News. WHO. 3 December 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2018. 
  15. "Zika virus infection – El Salvador". Disease Outbreak News. WHO. March 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2018. 
  16. "Zika virus infection – Mexico". Disease Outbreak News. WHO. March 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2018. 
  17. "First case of Zika virus reported in Puerto Rico". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 17 June 2016. Retrieved 18 June 2018. 
  18. Lowes, Robert (January 15, 2016). "CDC Issues Zika Travel Alert". Medscape Medical News. 
  19. Silver, Marc (5 February 2016). "Mapping Zika: From A Monkey In Uganda To A Growing Global Concern". NPR. Retrieved 17 June 2018. 
  20. "Zika Country List Expands; Curaçao Reports, Colombia Sees GBS Spike". Curaçao Chronicle. Core Communications. 17 June 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2016. 
  21. "Zika virus vaccine product development". who.int. Retrieved 12 June 2018. 
  22. "Zika virus infection – Viet Nam". who.int. Retrieved 11 June 2018. 
  23. "Belize Confirms First Case of Zika - The San Pedro Sun News". The San Pedro Sun. 17 June 2018. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  24. "1ST ZIKA CASE IS NORTH SIDE BELIZE CITY WOMAN". amandala.com.bz. Retrieved 6 July 2018. 
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 "Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals". who.int. Retrieved 12 June 2018. 
  26. "Trial results of Zika vaccine Sanofi dropped show promise". reuters.com. Retrieved 6 July 2018. 
  27. Lee, Nicole; Branddick, Imogen (29 August 2016). "Singapore steps up Zika prevention effort as confirmed cases rise to 56". Reuters. Singapore. Retrieved 29 August 2016. 
  28. "Tracking Singapore's Zika outbreak". Retrieved 17 June 2018. 
  29. 29.0 29.1 "Zika Virus Vaccines". niaid.nih.gov. Retrieved 16 June 2018. 
  30. "Phase 2 Zika Vaccine Trial Begins in U.S., Central and South America". niaid.nih.gov. Retrieved 16 June 2018. 
  31. "Zika Vaccine Looks Safe, Promising in First Human Trial". medscape.com. Retrieved 6 July 2018.