Difference between revisions of "Timeline of anesthesiology"

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This is a '''timeline of anesthesiology'''.
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This is a '''timeline of anesthesiology''', listing important events in the development of the field.
  
 
==Big picture==
 
==Big picture==
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| Middle ages || Di-ethyl ether, the first agent to be demonstrated successfully in public, is originally synthesized (by the action of sulphuric acid on ethanol) in the 13th century, and there are early reports of both analgesic and soporific effects.<ref name="The History of Anaesthesiavvv">{{cite web |title=The History of Anaesthesia |url=https://www.rcoa.ac.uk/college-heritage/the-history-of-anaesthesia |website=rcoa.ac.uk |accessdate=21 August 2018}}</ref>
 
| Middle ages || Di-ethyl ether, the first agent to be demonstrated successfully in public, is originally synthesized (by the action of sulphuric acid on ethanol) in the 13th century, and there are early reports of both analgesic and soporific effects.<ref name="The History of Anaesthesiavvv">{{cite web |title=The History of Anaesthesia |url=https://www.rcoa.ac.uk/college-heritage/the-history-of-anaesthesia |website=rcoa.ac.uk |accessdate=21 August 2018}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 19th century || "During most of the nineteenth century, the vast majority of notable advances in the science of anesthesiology were achieved by basic scientists [10]. Among physiologists, Pierre Jean Marie Flourens, François Magendie, and Claude Bernard are respected for their work on the effects and site of action of anesthetic gases. Pharmacologists and chemists, including Joseph Friedrich von Mering, Hans Meyer, and Charles Overton, synthesized novel drugs and investigated the properties that enabled a chemical to function as an anesthetic. Surgeons, obstetricians, and dentists contributed the bulk of clinical advances in the field [10]. Most of the practicing anesthetists functioned primarily as technicians who made meager contributions to advancing the scientific underpinnings of the discipline. But in the late nineteenth century, this would begin to change."<ref name="The History of Professionalism in Anesthesiology"/> In the 1980s, a movement opposing all types of human suffering is promoted by surgeon English physician {{w|Henry Hill Hickman}}.<ref name="The History of Professionalism in Anesthesiology"/>
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| 19th century || During most of the century, the vast majority of notable advances in the science of anesthesiology are achieved by basic scientists. Among physiologists, {{w|Jean Pierre Flourens}}, {{w|François Magendie}}, and {{w|Claude Bernard}} are respected for their work on the effects and site of action of anesthetic gases. Pharmacologists and chemists, including {{w|Joseph von Mering}}, Hans Meyer, and Charles Overton, synthesize novel drugs and investigate the properties that enabled a chemical to function as an anesthetic. Surgeons, obstetricians, and dentists contribute the bulk of clinical advances in the field. Most of the practicing anesthetists function primarily as technicians who make meager contributions to advancing the scientific underpinnings of the discipline. This would begin to change in the late nineteenth century.<ref name="The History of Professionalism in Anesthesiology"/> In the 1980s, a movement opposing all types of human suffering is promoted by surgeon English physician {{w|Henry Hill Hickman}}.<ref name="The History of Professionalism in Anesthesiology"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 20th century || By 1950 all of the elements of modern anaesthesia are in place. Very few of the drugs of that time are still in use, but their modern successors are really only improvements on the same theme.<ref name="The History of Anaesthesiavvv"/>
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| 20th century || The {{w|anaesthetic machine}} is introduced. By 1950 all of the elements of modern anaesthesia are in place. Very few of the drugs of that time are still in use, but their modern successors are really only improvements on the same theme.<ref name="The History of Anaesthesiavvv"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
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== Numerical and visual data  ==
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=== Mentions on Google Scholar ===
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 +
The following table summarizes per-year mentions on Google Scholar as of May 18, 2021.
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{| class="sortable wikitable"
 +
! Year
 +
! anesthesiology
 +
! anesthesia
 +
! intensive care medicine
 +
! critical emergency medicine
 +
! pain medicine
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|-
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| 1980 || 4,690 || 17,100 || 7,900 || 3,430 || 14,500
 +
|-
 +
| 1985 || 6,330 || 23,300 || 9,790 || 4,810 || 21,400
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|-
 +
| 1990 || 10,200 || 41,900 || 13,400 || 6,680 || 38,200
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|-
 +
| 1995 || 15,300 || 57,500 || 21,600 || 11,900 || 71,300
 +
|-
 +
| 2000 || 26,600 || 104,000 || 58,100 || 25,500 || 144,000
 +
|-
 +
| 2002 || 28,400 || 117,000 || 79,000 || 32,500 || 177,000
 +
|-
 +
| 2004 || 35,600 || 131,000 || 103,000 || 44,100 || 226,000
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|-
 +
| 2006 || 41,300 || 144,000 || 134,000 || 56,800 || 287,000
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|-
 +
| 2008 || 46,200 || 152,000 || 160,000 || 68,000 || 346,000
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|-
 +
| 2010 || 47,600 || 161,000 || 199,000 || 85,200 || 409,000
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|-
 +
| 2012 || 55,500 || 181,000 || 226,000 || 103,000 || 512,000
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|-
 +
| 2014 || 59,900 || 156,000 || 227,000 || 111,000 || 484,000
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|-
 +
| 2016 || 58,200 || 133,000 || 172,000 || 105,000 || 361,000
 +
|-
 +
| 2017 || 56,000 || 118,000 || 151,000 || 98,700 || 311,000 
 +
|-
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| 2018 || 51,900 || 92,600 || 123,000 || 83,400 || 221,000 
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|-
 +
| 2019 || 46,200 || 77,000 || 93,400 || 71,100 || 184,000 
 +
|-
 +
| 2020 || 43,900 || 59,700 || 86,600 || 60,500 || 140,000 
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|-
 +
|}
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[[File:Anesthe tb.png|thumb|center|700px]]
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=== Google trends ===
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The image below shows {{w|Google Trends}} data for Anesthesiology (Medical specialty) from January 2004 to January 2021, when the screenshot was taken.<ref>{{cite web |title=Anesthesiology |url=https://trends.google.com/trends/explore?date=all&q=%2Fm%2F0_xp48q |website=trends.google.com |access-date=6 January 2021}}</ref>
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[[File:Anesthesiology (Medical specialty).jpeg|thumb|center|700px]]
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=== Google Ngram Viewer ===
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The chart below shows {{w|Google Ngram Viewer}} data for Anesthesiology from 1700 to 2019.<ref>{{cite web |title=Anesthesiology |url=https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=Anesthesiology&year_start=1700&year_end=2019&corpus=26&smoothing=1&case_insensitive=true |website=books.google.com |access-date=13 January 2021}}</ref>
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[[File:Anesthesiologyngram.jpeg|thumb|center|700px]]
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=== Wikipedia views ===
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The chart below shows pageviews of the English Wikipedia article {{w| Anesthesiology}} on desktop, mobile-web, desktop-spider, mobile-web-spider and mobile app, from July 2015; to December 2020.<ref>{{cite web |title=Anesthesiology |url=https://wikipediaviews.org/displayviewsformultiplemonths.php?page=Anesthesiology&allmonths=allmonths-api&language=en&drilldown=all |website=wikipediaviews.org |access-date=1 February 2021}}</ref>
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[[File:Anesthe wv.jpeg|thumb|center|600px]]
  
 
==Full timeline==
 
==Full timeline==
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| 1916 || Literature || Paluel J. Flagg publishes ''The Art of Anaesthesia''.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Flagg |first1=Paluel Joseph |title=The Art of Anaesthesia |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books/about/The_Art_of_Anaesthesia.html?id=j0CM1rnp93MC&redir_esc=y}}</ref> ||
 
| 1916 || Literature || Paluel J. Flagg publishes ''The Art of Anaesthesia''.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Flagg |first1=Paluel Joseph |title=The Art of Anaesthesia |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books/about/The_Art_of_Anaesthesia.html?id=j0CM1rnp93MC&redir_esc=y}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1917 || Field development || British anesthetist {{w|Henry Edmund Gaskin Boyle}} first describes the {{w|anaesthetic machine}} (also known as Boyle's machine).<ref name="History of anaesthesia"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
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| 1917 || Instrumental || British anesthetist {{w|Henry Edmund Gaskin Boyle}} first describes the {{w|anaesthetic machine}} (also known as Boyle's machine).<ref name="History of anaesthesia"/><ref name="The basic anaesthesia machine">{{cite web |title=The basic anaesthesia machine |url=http://medind.nic.in/iad/t13/i5/iadt13i5p438.htm |website=medind.nic.in |accessdate=26 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1920 || Field development || Arthur Guedel first describes four stages of general anesthesia as induced by ether in humans. His stages can be loosely applied to anesthesia produced by inhalants other than ether and injectables.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Hameroff |first1=S.R. |title=Ultimate Computing: Biomolecular Consciousness and NanoTechnology |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=-uC54_DD0tMC&pg=PA188&dq=%22in+1920%22+%22Arthur+Guedel%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi9jMOEirzdAhXLHJAKHQfuDOgQ6AEILTAB#v=onepage&q=%22in%201920%22%20%22Arthur%20Guedel%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society |edition=IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=6vRVAAAAMAAJ&q=%22in+1920%22+%22Arthur+Guedel%22&dq=%22in+1920%22+%22Arthur+Guedel%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi9jMOEirzdAhXLHJAKHQfuDOgQ6AEIQzAF}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals |edition=Dennis F. Kohn, Sally K. Wixson, William J. White, G. John Benson |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=xJWCnuy2kE4C&pg=PR15&dq=%22in+1920%22+%22Arthur+Guedel%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi9jMOEirzdAhXLHJAKHQfuDOgQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=%22in%201920%22%20%22Arthur%20Guedel%22&f=false}}</ref> ||
 
| 1920 || Field development || Arthur Guedel first describes four stages of general anesthesia as induced by ether in humans. His stages can be loosely applied to anesthesia produced by inhalants other than ether and injectables.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Hameroff |first1=S.R. |title=Ultimate Computing: Biomolecular Consciousness and NanoTechnology |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=-uC54_DD0tMC&pg=PA188&dq=%22in+1920%22+%22Arthur+Guedel%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi9jMOEirzdAhXLHJAKHQfuDOgQ6AEILTAB#v=onepage&q=%22in%201920%22%20%22Arthur%20Guedel%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society |edition=IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=6vRVAAAAMAAJ&q=%22in+1920%22+%22Arthur+Guedel%22&dq=%22in+1920%22+%22Arthur+Guedel%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi9jMOEirzdAhXLHJAKHQfuDOgQ6AEIQzAF}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals |edition=Dennis F. Kohn, Sally K. Wixson, William J. White, G. John Benson |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=xJWCnuy2kE4C&pg=PR15&dq=%22in+1920%22+%22Arthur+Guedel%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi9jMOEirzdAhXLHJAKHQfuDOgQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=%22in%201920%22%20%22Arthur%20Guedel%22&f=false}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1920 || Field development || British anesthetist {{w|Ivan Magill}} and Stanley Rowbotham develop endotracheal anesthesia.<ref name="History of anaesthesia"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
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| 1920 || Field development || British anesthetist {{w|Ivan Magill}} and Stanley Rowbotham develop endotracheal anesthesia,<ref name="History of anaesthesia"/> a technic in which the administration of an anesthetic may be facilitated and the patient benefited by an artificial extension of the tracheobronchial tree by means of a tube through which the patient's respiratory exchange takes place.<ref>{{cite web |title=ENDOTRACHEAL ANESTHESIA |url=https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamasurgery/article-abstract/547793 |website=jamanetwork.com |accessdate=26 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
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|-
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| 1920 || Instrumental || The ether bottle is added to the {{w|anaesthetic machine}}.<ref name="Anaesthesia machinev">{{cite web |title=Anaesthesia machine |url=https://www.slideshare.net/drdkmamc/anaesthesia-machine-28815136 |website=slideshare.net |accessdate=26 September 2018}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1922 || Literature || ''Current Researches in Anesthesia and Analgesia'' is launched in {{w|Cleveland}} by Francis H. McMechan  as the world's first journal published by an anesthesia society, the International Anesthesia Research Society.<ref name="History of Anesthesia"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 1922 || Literature || ''Current Researches in Anesthesia and Analgesia'' is launched in {{w|Cleveland}} by Francis H. McMechan  as the world's first journal published by an anesthesia society, the International Anesthesia Research Society.<ref name="History of Anesthesia"/> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1923 || Field development || The first ethylene-oxygen surgical anesthetic is administered by Dr. Isabella Herb, who demonstrates the remarkable trance-like state that low-dose ethylene can induce in human subjects.<ref name="History of Anesthesia"/> ||
 
| 1923 || Field development || The first ethylene-oxygen surgical anesthetic is administered by Dr. Isabella Herb, who demonstrates the remarkable trance-like state that low-dose ethylene can induce in human subjects.<ref name="History of Anesthesia"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1924 || || Dr. Ralph Waters develops the first simple and easily transportable absorber, known as the "Waters Canister" and the "Waters To-and-Fro."<ref name="History of Anesthesia"/> ||
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| 1924 || Instrumental || Dr. Ralph Waters develops the first simple and easily transportable absorber, known as the "Waters Canister" and the "Waters To-and-Fro."<ref name="History of Anesthesia"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1930 || Field development || Brian Sword introduces the circle absorption system.<ref name="History of Anesthesia"/> ||
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| 1926 || Instrumental || The chloroform bottle is added to the {{w|anaesthetic machine}}.<ref name="Anaesthesia machinev"/> ||
 +
|-
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| 1927 || Instrumental || The back bar is added to the {{w|anaesthetic machine}}.<ref name="Anaesthesia machinev"/> ||
 +
|-
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| 1930 || Instrumental || Brian Sword introduces the circle absorption system.<ref name="History of Anesthesia"/> ||
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|-
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| 1930 || Instrumental || Plungers and cowls in ether and chloroform bottles are added to the {{w|anaesthetic machine}}.<ref name="Anaesthesia machinev"/> ||
 +
|-
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| 1931 || Organization || The {{w|American Association of Nurse Anesthetists}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=About the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists |url=https://www.aana.com/news/press-releases/about-the-american-association-of-nurse-anesthetists |website=aana.com |accessdate=1 November 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1932 || Organization || The Association of anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland is formed.<ref name="History of anaesthesia"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}, {{w|Ireland}}
 
| 1932 || Organization || The Association of anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland is formed.<ref name="History of anaesthesia"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}, {{w|Ireland}}
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|-
 +
| 1933 || Instrumental || Dry bobbin flow meters replace water sight feed bottles in the {{w|anaesthetic machine}}.<ref name="Anaesthesia machinev"/><ref name="The basic anaesthesia machine"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1934 || Drug || {{w|Thiopentone}} is introduced into clinical use.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Webster |first1=Nigel R. |last2=Galley |first2=Helen F. |title=Landmark Papers in Anaesthesia |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=cTxoAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA73&dq=%22in+1934%22+%22Thiopentone%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjlmJCvl7vdAhWCFZAKHR6MD1IQ6AEIOTAD#v=onepage&q=%22in%201934%22%20%22Thiopentone%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Agasti |first1=TK |title=Textbook of Anesthesia for Postgraduates |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=f2YOpCMNFD4C&pg=PA342&dq=%22in+1934%22+%22Thiopentone%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjlmJCvl7vdAhWCFZAKHR6MD1IQ6AEINDAC#v=onepage&q=%22in%201934%22%20%22Thiopentone%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Thiopentone anaphylaxis |url=https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1365-2044.1967.tb02730.x |website=onlinelibrary.wiley.com |accessdate=14 September 2018}}</ref><ref name="History of anaesthesia"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 1934 || Drug || {{w|Thiopentone}} is introduced into clinical use.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Webster |first1=Nigel R. |last2=Galley |first2=Helen F. |title=Landmark Papers in Anaesthesia |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=cTxoAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA73&dq=%22in+1934%22+%22Thiopentone%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjlmJCvl7vdAhWCFZAKHR6MD1IQ6AEIOTAD#v=onepage&q=%22in%201934%22%20%22Thiopentone%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Agasti |first1=TK |title=Textbook of Anesthesia for Postgraduates |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=f2YOpCMNFD4C&pg=PA342&dq=%22in+1934%22+%22Thiopentone%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjlmJCvl7vdAhWCFZAKHR6MD1IQ6AEINDAC#v=onepage&q=%22in%201934%22%20%22Thiopentone%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Thiopentone anaphylaxis |url=https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1365-2044.1967.tb02730.x |website=onlinelibrary.wiley.com |accessdate=14 September 2018}}</ref><ref name="History of anaesthesia"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1935 || Field development || The first diploma in anesthesia in {{w|England}} is awarded.<ref name="A Dictionary of the History of Medicine"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
| 1935 || Field development || The first diploma in anesthesia in {{w|England}} is awarded.<ref name="A Dictionary of the History of Medicine"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1937 || Instrumental || The rotameter displaces dry bobbin flowmeters in the {{w|anaesthetic machine}}.<ref name="Anaesthesia machinev"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1942 || Drug || Muscle relaxants are introduced.<ref name="History of anaesthesia"/> ||
 
| 1942 || Drug || Muscle relaxants are introduced.<ref name="History of anaesthesia"/> ||
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|-
 
|-
 
| 1951 || Drug || Charles Suckling in {{w|Manchester}} first synthesizes {{w|Halothane}}, a general inhalation anesthetic used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.<ref name="Medical Toxicology of Drug Abuse: Synthesized Chemicals and Psychoactive Plants">{{cite book |last1=Barceloux |first1=Donald G. |title=Medical Toxicology of Drug Abuse: Synthesized Chemicals and Psychoactive Plants |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=9JLiJcjdqkcC&pg=PA653&dq=%22in+1951%22+%22halothane%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiq3IyG67rdAhXFjpAKHfDlAzAQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=%22in%201951%22%20%22halothane%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Agasti |first1=TK |title=Textbook of Anesthesia for Postgraduates |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=f2YOpCMNFD4C&pg=PA414&dq=%22in+1951%22+%22halothane%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiq3IyG67rdAhXFjpAKHfDlAzAQ6AEILjAB#v=onepage&q=%22in%201951%22%20%22halothane%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Wylie Churchill-Davidson's A Practice of Anesthesia 7th Edition |edition=Thomas EJ Healy, Paul R Knight |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=Uh-0XJkj-C8C&pg=PA524&dq=%22in+1951%22+%22halothane%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiq3IyG67rdAhXFjpAKHfDlAzAQ6AEIMzAC#v=onepage&q=%22in%201951%22%20%22halothane%22&f=false}}</ref><ref name="History of anaesthesia"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
| 1951 || Drug || Charles Suckling in {{w|Manchester}} first synthesizes {{w|Halothane}}, a general inhalation anesthetic used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.<ref name="Medical Toxicology of Drug Abuse: Synthesized Chemicals and Psychoactive Plants">{{cite book |last1=Barceloux |first1=Donald G. |title=Medical Toxicology of Drug Abuse: Synthesized Chemicals and Psychoactive Plants |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=9JLiJcjdqkcC&pg=PA653&dq=%22in+1951%22+%22halothane%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiq3IyG67rdAhXFjpAKHfDlAzAQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=%22in%201951%22%20%22halothane%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Agasti |first1=TK |title=Textbook of Anesthesia for Postgraduates |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=f2YOpCMNFD4C&pg=PA414&dq=%22in+1951%22+%22halothane%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiq3IyG67rdAhXFjpAKHfDlAzAQ6AEILjAB#v=onepage&q=%22in%201951%22%20%22halothane%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Wylie Churchill-Davidson's A Practice of Anesthesia 7th Edition |edition=Thomas EJ Healy, Paul R Knight |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=Uh-0XJkj-C8C&pg=PA524&dq=%22in+1951%22+%22halothane%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiq3IyG67rdAhXFjpAKHfDlAzAQ6AEIMzAC#v=onepage&q=%22in%201951%22%20%22halothane%22&f=false}}</ref><ref name="History of anaesthesia"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1952 || Instrumental || Woodbridge introduces the pin index safety system (PISS) into the {{w|anaesthetic machine}}.<ref name="The basic anaesthesia machine"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1955 || Organization || The World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists (WFSA) is established in {{w|Scheveningen}}, {{w|Netherlands}}, at the first World Congress of Anaesthesiologists (WCA).<ref name="History of Anesthesia"/> || {{w|Netherlands}}
 
| 1955 || Organization || The World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists (WFSA) is established in {{w|Scheveningen}}, {{w|Netherlands}}, at the first World Congress of Anaesthesiologists (WCA).<ref name="History of Anesthesia"/> || {{w|Netherlands}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1958 || Instrumental || The Bodok seal is introduced into the {{w|anaesthetic machine}}.<ref name="The basic anaesthesia machine"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1960 || Drug || {{w|Methoxyflurane}} is introduced into clinical practice.<ref name="Medical Toxicology of Drug Abuse: Synthesized Chemicals and Psychoactive Plants"/> ||
 
| 1960 || Drug || {{w|Methoxyflurane}} is introduced into clinical practice.<ref name="Medical Toxicology of Drug Abuse: Synthesized Chemicals and Psychoactive Plants"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1963 || Field development || American physician {{w|Edmond I. Eger, II}} describes minimum alveolar concentration (MAC), later characterized as "the concentration [of inhaled anesthetic] producing immobility in 50% of patients subjected to a noxious stimulus."<ref name="History of Anesthesia"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1963 || Field development || American physician {{w|Edmond I. Eger, II}} describes minimum alveolar concentration (MAC), later characterized as "the concentration of inhaled anesthetic producing immobility in 50% of patients subjected to a noxious stimulus."<ref name="History of Anesthesia"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1964 || Drug || Team led by Günter Corssen begins human trials of the dissociative intravenous anesthetic ketamine.<ref name="History of Anesthesia"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 1964 || Drug || Team led by Günter Corssen begins human trials of the dissociative intravenous anesthetic ketamine.<ref name="History of Anesthesia"/> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1964 || Drug || Janssen in Belgium synthesizes {{w|etomidate}}, a carboxylated imidazole derivative.<ref name="Pharmacology - Volume II">{{cite book |last1=Majewski |first1=Harry |title=Pharmacology - Volume II |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=nCNVCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA301&dq=%22in+1964%22+%22Corssen%22+%22ketamine%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwitiKWEjbvdAhVJipAKHXYbAJ0Q6AEIQDAE#v=onepage&q=%22in%201964%22%20%22Corssen%22%20%22ketamine%22&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|Belgium}}
 
| 1964 || Drug || Janssen in Belgium synthesizes {{w|etomidate}}, a carboxylated imidazole derivative.<ref name="Pharmacology - Volume II">{{cite book |last1=Majewski |first1=Harry |title=Pharmacology - Volume II |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=nCNVCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA301&dq=%22in+1964%22+%22Corssen%22+%22ketamine%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwitiKWEjbvdAhVJipAKHXYbAJ0Q6AEIQDAE#v=onepage&q=%22in%201964%22%20%22Corssen%22%20%22ketamine%22&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|Belgium}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1966 || || Robert Virtue begins human trials of the inhalational anesthetic {{w|enflurane}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=History of Anesthesia - Enflurane |url=https://www.dailyrounds.org/rounds/history-of-anesthesia---enflurane |website=dailyrounds.org |accessdate=21 August 2018}}</ref><ref name="History of Anesthesia"/> ||
+
| 1966 || Drug || Robert Virtue begins human trials of the inhalational anesthetic {{w|enflurane}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=History of Anesthesia - Enflurane |url=https://www.dailyrounds.org/rounds/history-of-anesthesia---enflurane |website=dailyrounds.org |accessdate=21 August 2018}}</ref><ref name="History of Anesthesia"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1970 || Field development || Mexican anesthesiologist J. Antonio Aldrete publishes his "Postanesthetic Recovery Score."<ref name="History of Anesthesia"/> ||
 
| 1970 || Field development || Mexican anesthesiologist J. Antonio Aldrete publishes his "Postanesthetic Recovery Score."<ref name="History of Anesthesia"/> ||
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| 1972 || Drug || {{w|Isoflurane}} is introduced as an inhalational anesthetic.<ref name="History of Anesthesia"/> ||
 
| 1972 || Drug || {{w|Isoflurane}} is introduced as an inhalational anesthetic.<ref name="History of Anesthesia"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1973 || || Japanese physiologist and bioengineer Takuo Aoyagi introduces the pulse oximeter.<ref>{{cite web |title=Pulse oximetry: Its invention, contribution to medicine, and future tasks |url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/11463912_Pulse_oximetry_Its_invention_contribution_to_medicine_and_future_tasks |website=researchgate.net |accessdate=20 August 2018}}</ref><ref name="History of anaesthesia"/> ||  
+
| 1973 || Instrumental || Japanese physiologist and bioengineer Takuo Aoyagi introduces the pulse oximeter.<ref>{{cite web |title=Pulse oximetry: Its invention, contribution to medicine, and future tasks |url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/11463912_Pulse_oximetry_Its_invention_contribution_to_medicine_and_future_tasks |website=researchgate.net |accessdate=20 August 2018}}</ref><ref name="History of anaesthesia"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1974 || Organization || The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) is established.<ref name="Urological and Gynaecological Chronic Pelvic Pain: Current Therapies">{{cite book |last1=Moldwin |first1=Robert M. |title=Urological and Gynaecological Chronic Pelvic Pain: Current Therapies |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=l8gmDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA11&lpg=PA11&dq=European+Association+of+Urology+%22founded+in+1920..2017%22&source=bl&ots=7EritgbOzC&sig=u8CQl1N3ZmFPMk_po5pXvmldPEo&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj24f_lpZPeAhWBfZAKHbNoBkMQ6AEwAHoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=European%20Association%20of%20Urology%20%22founded%20in%201920..2017%22&f=false}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1979 || Instrumental || Standards for {{w|anaesthetic machine}} are introduced.<ref name="Anaesthesia machinev"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1983 || Field development || The {{w|laryngeal mask airway}} is introduced.<ref name="History of anaesthesia"/> ||
 
| 1983 || Field development || The {{w|laryngeal mask airway}} is introduced.<ref name="History of anaesthesia"/> ||
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===What the timeline is still missing===
 
===What the timeline is still missing===
 +
 +
* [[Total intravenous anesthesia]] (TIVA)
 +
* [[Nurse anesthetist]]
 +
* [[Helsinki Declaration for Patient Safety in Anaesthesiology]]
  
 
===Timeline update strategy===
 
===Timeline update strategy===
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 +
 +
* [[Timeline of palliative care]]
 +
* [[Timeline of nursing]]
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==

Latest revision as of 19:40, 31 May 2021

This is a timeline of anesthesiology, listing important events in the development of the field.

Big picture

Time period Development summary
Ancient times Attempts to alleviate the pain of disease, injury or simple surgical procedures by inducing unconsciousness are almost as old as civilization itself. Most involve ingestion of ethanol and or herbal mixtures, but ‘knock-out’ blows to the head and carotid artery compression (carotid derives from the Greek for stupor) are also described.[1]
Middle ages Di-ethyl ether, the first agent to be demonstrated successfully in public, is originally synthesized (by the action of sulphuric acid on ethanol) in the 13th century, and there are early reports of both analgesic and soporific effects.[1]
19th century During most of the century, the vast majority of notable advances in the science of anesthesiology are achieved by basic scientists. Among physiologists, Jean Pierre Flourens, François Magendie, and Claude Bernard are respected for their work on the effects and site of action of anesthetic gases. Pharmacologists and chemists, including Joseph von Mering, Hans Meyer, and Charles Overton, synthesize novel drugs and investigate the properties that enabled a chemical to function as an anesthetic. Surgeons, obstetricians, and dentists contribute the bulk of clinical advances in the field. Most of the practicing anesthetists function primarily as technicians who make meager contributions to advancing the scientific underpinnings of the discipline. This would begin to change in the late nineteenth century.[2] In the 1980s, a movement opposing all types of human suffering is promoted by surgeon English physician Henry Hill Hickman.[2]
20th century The anaesthetic machine is introduced. By 1950 all of the elements of modern anaesthesia are in place. Very few of the drugs of that time are still in use, but their modern successors are really only improvements on the same theme.[1]

Numerical and visual data

Mentions on Google Scholar

The following table summarizes per-year mentions on Google Scholar as of May 18, 2021.

Year anesthesiology anesthesia intensive care medicine critical emergency medicine pain medicine
1980 4,690 17,100 7,900 3,430 14,500
1985 6,330 23,300 9,790 4,810 21,400
1990 10,200 41,900 13,400 6,680 38,200
1995 15,300 57,500 21,600 11,900 71,300
2000 26,600 104,000 58,100 25,500 144,000
2002 28,400 117,000 79,000 32,500 177,000
2004 35,600 131,000 103,000 44,100 226,000
2006 41,300 144,000 134,000 56,800 287,000
2008 46,200 152,000 160,000 68,000 346,000
2010 47,600 161,000 199,000 85,200 409,000
2012 55,500 181,000 226,000 103,000 512,000
2014 59,900 156,000 227,000 111,000 484,000
2016 58,200 133,000 172,000 105,000 361,000
2017 56,000 118,000 151,000 98,700 311,000
2018 51,900 92,600 123,000 83,400 221,000
2019 46,200 77,000 93,400 71,100 184,000
2020 43,900 59,700 86,600 60,500 140,000
Anesthe tb.png

Google trends

The image below shows Google Trends data for Anesthesiology (Medical specialty) from January 2004 to January 2021, when the screenshot was taken.[3]

Anesthesiology (Medical specialty).jpeg

Google Ngram Viewer

The chart below shows Google Ngram Viewer data for Anesthesiology from 1700 to 2019.[4]

Anesthesiologyngram.jpeg

Wikipedia views

The chart below shows pageviews of the English Wikipedia article Anesthesiology on desktop, mobile-web, desktop-spider, mobile-web-spider and mobile app, from July 2015; to December 2020.[5]

Anesthe wv.jpeg

Full timeline

Year Event type Details Location
c.4000 BC Drug Opium poppy is depicted in Sumerian artifacts.[6]
c.2250 BC Field development Babylonians relieve toothache with henbane (Hyoscyamus niger).[6]
c.1600 BC Field development Acupuncture is practiced in China.[6] China
c.600 BC Drug Indian physician Sushruta uses cannabis vapors to sedate surgical patients. Over ensuing centuries, other herbs like aconitum would supplement that sedation in India and eventually in China.[6] India
c.400 BC Field development Assyrians use carotid compression to produce brief unconsciousness before circumcision or cataract surgery. Egyptians employ the same technique for eye surgery.[6]
64 AC Drug Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides recommends mandrake boiled in wine to "cause the insensibility of those who are to be cut or cauterized."[6]
c.160 AC Field development Chinese physician Hua Tuo performs surgery with his general anesthetic Mafeisan, a wine and herbal mixture.[6] China
500 Field development Hippocrates describes BC Opium analgesia.[7]
c.800 – 1200s Field development Herbal mixtures including opium, mandrake, henbane, and/or hemlock are introduced and steeped into a soporific or sleep-bearing sponge ("spongia somnifera"). The sponge is dampened so that anesthetic vapors or drippings can be applied to a patient's nostrils. These sponges are likely historical cousins to the so-called Roman or Arabic sponges (used during crucifixions, surgeries, and other painful events).[6]
c.1350 Field development Inca shamans chew coca leaves mixed with vegetable ash and drip their cocaine-laden saliva into the wounds of patients.[6] South America
1540 Field development German physician Valerius Cordus describes a revolutionary technique to synthesize ether, which involves adding sulfuric acid to ethyl alcohol.[2] Cordus synthesizes diethyl ether by distilling ethanol and sulphuric acid into what he calls "sweet oil of vitriol."[6]
1596 Field development The South American arrow poison is described.[7]
1628 Literature English physician William Harvey publishes in Frankfurt his completed treatise on the circulatory system, Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus, establishing the circulation of the blood.[7][8] Germany
1659 Field development Anglo-Irish chemist Robert Boyle pioneers intravenous therapy by injecting opium through a goose quill into a dog's vein.[6] United Kingdom
1665 Field development The first injection of opium is performed into a dog.[7]
1754 Scientific development Joseph Black discovers carbon dioxide.[1]
1771 Scientific development English chemist and natural philosopher Joseph Priestley discovers "airs" of oxygen. Priestley becomes the first to isolate oxygen.[2][1] United Kingdom
1772 Scientific development Joseph Priestley discovers nitrous oxide.[7][1] United Kingdom
1779 Field development German doctor Franz Mesmer describes using magnets and hypnosis to cure many ailments.[6]
1796 Field development James Moore compresses nerves to produce local anesthesia.[7]
1796 German pharmacist Wilhelm August Lampadius discovers carbon disulfide, which is later used as treatment for a variety of diseases and is tried as an anesthetic agent before the advent of chloroform.[9] Germany
1799 Field development British chemist Humphry Davy introduces nitrous oxide into medical practice.[2] United Kingdom
1800 Field development Humphry Davy observes "As nitrous oxide in its extensive operation appears capable of destroying physical pain, it may probably be used with advantage during surgical operations in which no great effusion of blood takes place."[6] United Kingdom
1804 Drug Japanese surgeon Hanaoka Seishū formulates his general anesthetic tsusensan.[6] Japan
1805 Drug German pharmacist Friedrich Sertürner isolates a new substance from opium, which he later names "morphium" after Morpheus, the god of dreams.[6] Germany
1818 Field development British scientist Michael Faraday, after studying the inhalation of ether, publishes his findings, including soporific and analgesic effects.[1] United Kingdom
1824 Field development English physician Henry Hill Hickman describes carbon dioxide anesthesia for animals.[6][9] United Kingdom
1829 Field development French physician Jules Germain Cloquet in Paris uses hypnosis for mastectomy.[7][10] France
1831 Drug Chloroform is discovered independently by American physician Samuel Guthrie, French scientist Eugène Soubeiran, and German chemist Justus von Liebig.[6][11][12][13] United States, France, Germany
1845 Field development American dentist Horace Wells demonstrates nitrous oxide anesthesia for a tooth extraction near Massachusetts General Hospital.[6] United States
1846 Field development American dentist William T. G. Morton becomes the first in the world to publicly and successfully demonstrate the use of ether anesthesia for surgery.[6] United States
1847 Scottish obstetrician James Young Simpson begins administering chloroform to women for pain during childbirth. Chloroform quickly becomes a popular anesthetic for surgery and dental procedures as well. [6] United Kingdom
1847 Field development The first veterinary treatment using anaesthesia begins at Veterinary College London.[7] United Kingdom
1848 Fifteen-year-old Hannah Greener dies after chloroform administration (for toenail removal), in the first anesthetic death.[7]
1853 Field development Charles Pravaz and Alexander Wood independently invent the hollow hypodermic needle, which is attached to an earlier invention, the syringe, popularized in 1845 by Francis Rynd from Ireland[6]
1853 – 1857 Field development English physician John Snow popularizes obstetric anesthesia by chloroforming Queen Victoria for the birth of Prince Leopold (1853) and Princess Beatrice (1857). Snow books On the Inhalation of the Vapour of Ether and On Chloroform and Other Anaesthetics enlighten physician-anesthetists.[6] United Kingdom
1857 Field development French physiologist Claude Bernard shows that a strongly paralysing poison such as curare (the first isolated neuromuscular blocking agent) blocks the passage of nerve impulses through the junction of a nerve and muscle.[14][15][16][2]
1860 Drug Cocaine is isolated.[7]
1863 Field development American medicine man Gardner Quincy Colton of the Cooper Institute in New York reintroduces nitrous oxide.[6] United States
1867 Literature British surgeon Joseph Lister publishes paper On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery, thus introducing antiseptic surgery.[7][17][18] United Kingdom
1868 Field development Edmund Andrews (1824-1904) of Chicago introduces use of a nitrous oxide mixed with oxygen as an anesthetic.[19][6] United States
1884 Drug Viennese ophthalmologist Karl Koller introduces cocaine as an anesthetic for eye surgery.[6] Austria
1889 Field development Henry I. Dorr is appointed as the world's 1st Professor of the Practice of Dentistry, Anaesthetics and Anaesthesia at the Philadelphia College of Dentistry.[6] United States
1891 Literature The Dental and Surgical Microcosm is published in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, as the world's first journal "devoted chiefly to the science of Anaesthesia and Anaesthetics."[6] United States
1893 Organization The London Society of Anaesthetists, the world's first anesthesia society, is formed in London.[6] United Kingdom
1894 Field development Medical students Ernest Amory Codman and Harvey Cushing develop the first anesthesia record using observed respiratory rate and palpated pulse rate. By 1901, Cushing would add blood pressure measurement by Riva Rocci sphygmomanometry; by 1903, respiratory rate and heart rate as auscultated by precordial stethoscope.[6] United States
1894 Field development Harvey Cushing advocates the use of anaesthetic record charts.[20][9][21][7] United States
1898 Field development German surgeon August Bier performs the first operation under spinal anaesthesia.[6]
1901 Field development Jean-Anthanase Sicard and Fernand Cathelin from France describe independently caudal epidural analgesia.[6] France
1902 Field development Mathias J. Seifert in Chicago coins the words "anesthesiology" and "anesthesiologist." Seifert asserts that an "anesthetist" is a technician and an "anesthesiologist" is the scientific authority on anesthesia and anesthetics."[6] United States
1905 Organization The Long Island Society of Anesthetists (LISA) is founded as the first professional anesthesia society in the United States.[6] United States
1905 Drug German chemist Alfred Einhorn first synthesizes procaine and names the substance "novocain".[6] Germany
1909 Field development Endotracheal anesthesia is introduced by Samuel James Meltzer and John Auer.[9]
1914 Literature The American Journal of Surgery begins publication of the Quarterly Supplement of Anesthesia and Analgesia, which would endure until 1926.[2] United States
1914 Field development Dr. Dennis E. Jackson develops a carbon dioxide (CO2) absorbing anesthesia system, allowing for a patient to re-breathe their exhaled air containing the anesthetic, cleansed of the carbon dioxide, resulting in the use of less anesthetic and the avoidance of waste. [6]
1916 Literature Paluel J. Flagg publishes The Art of Anaesthesia.[22]
1917 Instrumental British anesthetist Henry Edmund Gaskin Boyle first describes the anaesthetic machine (also known as Boyle's machine).[7][23] United Kingdom
1920 Field development Arthur Guedel first describes four stages of general anesthesia as induced by ether in humans. His stages can be loosely applied to anesthesia produced by inhalants other than ether and injectables.[24][25][26]
1920 Field development British anesthetist Ivan Magill and Stanley Rowbotham develop endotracheal anesthesia,[7] a technic in which the administration of an anesthetic may be facilitated and the patient benefited by an artificial extension of the tracheobronchial tree by means of a tube through which the patient's respiratory exchange takes place.[27] United Kingdom
1920 Instrumental The ether bottle is added to the anaesthetic machine.[28]
1922 Literature Current Researches in Anesthesia and Analgesia is launched in Cleveland by Francis H. McMechan as the world's first journal published by an anesthesia society, the International Anesthesia Research Society.[6] United States
1923 Field development The first ethylene-oxygen surgical anesthetic is administered by Dr. Isabella Herb, who demonstrates the remarkable trance-like state that low-dose ethylene can induce in human subjects.[6]
1924 Instrumental Dr. Ralph Waters develops the first simple and easily transportable absorber, known as the "Waters Canister" and the "Waters To-and-Fro."[6]
1926 Instrumental The chloroform bottle is added to the anaesthetic machine.[28]
1927 Instrumental The back bar is added to the anaesthetic machine.[28]
1930 Instrumental Brian Sword introduces the circle absorption system.[6]
1930 Instrumental Plungers and cowls in ether and chloroform bottles are added to the anaesthetic machine.[28]
1931 Organization The American Association of Nurse Anesthetists is founded.[29] United States
1932 Organization The Association of anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland is formed.[7] United Kingdom, Ireland
1933 Instrumental Dry bobbin flow meters replace water sight feed bottles in the anaesthetic machine.[28][23]
1934 Drug Thiopentone is introduced into clinical use.[30][31][32][7] United States
1935 Field development The first diploma in anesthesia in England is awarded.[9] United Kingdom
1937 Instrumental The rotameter displaces dry bobbin flowmeters in the anaesthetic machine.[28]
1942 Drug Muscle relaxants are introduced.[7]
1945 Organization The American Society of Anesthesiologists is established.[7] United States
1951 Drug Charles Suckling in Manchester first synthesizes Halothane, a general inhalation anesthetic used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.[33][34][35][7] United Kingdom
1952 Instrumental Woodbridge introduces the pin index safety system (PISS) into the anaesthetic machine.[23]
1955 Organization The World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists (WFSA) is established in Scheveningen, Netherlands, at the first World Congress of Anaesthesiologists (WCA).[6] Netherlands
1958 Instrumental The Bodok seal is introduced into the anaesthetic machine.[23]
1960 Drug Methoxyflurane is introduced into clinical practice.[33]
1963 Field development American physician Edmond I. Eger, II describes minimum alveolar concentration (MAC), later characterized as "the concentration of inhaled anesthetic producing immobility in 50% of patients subjected to a noxious stimulus."[6] United States
1964 Drug Team led by Günter Corssen begins human trials of the dissociative intravenous anesthetic ketamine.[6] United States
1964 Drug Janssen in Belgium synthesizes etomidate, a carboxylated imidazole derivative.[36] Belgium
1966 Drug Robert Virtue begins human trials of the inhalational anesthetic enflurane.[37][6]
1970 Field development Mexican anesthesiologist J. Antonio Aldrete publishes his "Postanesthetic Recovery Score."[6]
1972 Drug Isoflurane is introduced as an inhalational anesthetic.[6]
1973 Instrumental Japanese physiologist and bioengineer Takuo Aoyagi introduces the pulse oximeter.[38][7]
1974 Organization The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) is established.[39]
1979 Instrumental Standards for anaesthetic machine are introduced.[28]
1983 Field development The laryngeal mask airway is introduced.[7]
1985 Organization The Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation (APSF) is established by the American Society of Anesthesiologists.[40][41][42] United States
1987 Drug Desflurane is introduced for clinical use.[6]
1994 Drug Abbot introduces sevoflurane as an inhalational anesthetic.[43][44] [6]

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

Feedback and comments

Feedback for the timeline can be provided at the following places:

  • FIXME

What the timeline is still missing

Timeline update strategy

See also

External links

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 "The History of Anaesthesia". rcoa.ac.uk. Retrieved 21 August 2018. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 "The History of Professionalism in Anesthesiology". journalofethics.ama-assn.org. Retrieved 20 August 2018. 
  3. "Anesthesiology". trends.google.com. Retrieved 6 January 2021. 
  4. "Anesthesiology". books.google.com. Retrieved 13 January 2021. 
  5. "Anesthesiology". wikipediaviews.org. Retrieved 1 February 2021. 
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 6.19 6.20 6.21 6.22 6.23 6.24 6.25 6.26 6.27 6.28 6.29 6.30 6.31 6.32 6.33 6.34 6.35 6.36 6.37 6.38 6.39 6.40 6.41 6.42 6.43 6.44 6.45 6.46 "History of Anesthesia". woodlibrarymuseum.org. Retrieved 20 August 2018. 
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 7.18 7.19 7.20 "History of anaesthesia". anaesthesiasociety.org.nz. Retrieved 20 August 2018. 
  8. "'De Motu Cordis', by William Harvey, Frankfurt, Germany, 1628". sciencemuseum.org.uk. Retrieved 21 August 2018. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Sebastian, Anton. A Dictionary of the History of Medicine. 
  10. Gravitz, Melvin A. "Early Uses of Hypnosis as Surgical Anesthesia". American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. 
  11. Wawersik, J. "[History of chloroform anesthesia].". 
  12. Frost, Elizabeth A.M. Comprehensive Guide to Education in Anesthesia. 
  13. Barceloux, Donald G. Medical Toxicology of Drug Abuse: Synthesized Chemicals and Psychoactive Plants. 
  14. Schoffeniels, E.; Margineanu, D. G. Molecular Basis and Thermodynamics of Bioelectrogenesis. 
  15. Donnerer, Josef. The Chemical Languages of the Nervous System: History of Scientists and Substances. 
  16. Essential Clinical Anesthesia (Charles Vacanti, Scott Segal, Pankaj Sikka, Richard Urman ed.). 
  17. B, Jessney. "Joseph Lister (1827-1912): a pioneer of antiseptic surgery remembered a century after his death.". 
  18. "JUNE 17, 1867: LISTER CUTS CLEAN, SAVES LIVES". wired.com. Retrieved 21 August 2018. 
  19. Dormandy, Thomas. The Worst of Evils: The Fight Against Pain. 
  20. Perioperative Considerations and Positioning for Neurosurgical Procedures: A Clinical Guide (y Adam Arthur, Kevin Foley, C. Wayne Hamm ed.). 
  21. Bliss, Michael. Harvey Cushing: A Life in Surgery. 
  22. Flagg, Paluel Joseph. The Art of Anaesthesia. 
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 "The basic anaesthesia machine". medind.nic.in. Retrieved 26 September 2018. 
  24. Hameroff, S.R. Ultimate Computing: Biomolecular Consciousness and NanoTechnology. 
  25. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference ed.). 
  26. Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals (Dennis F. Kohn, Sally K. Wixson, William J. White, G. John Benson ed.). 
  27. "ENDOTRACHEAL ANESTHESIA". jamanetwork.com. Retrieved 26 September 2018. 
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.5 28.6 "Anaesthesia machine". slideshare.net. Retrieved 26 September 2018. 
  29. "About the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists". aana.com. Retrieved 1 November 2018. 
  30. Webster, Nigel R.; Galley, Helen F. Landmark Papers in Anaesthesia. 
  31. Agasti, TK. Textbook of Anesthesia for Postgraduates. 
  32. "Thiopentone anaphylaxis". onlinelibrary.wiley.com. Retrieved 14 September 2018. 
  33. 33.0 33.1 Barceloux, Donald G. Medical Toxicology of Drug Abuse: Synthesized Chemicals and Psychoactive Plants. 
  34. Agasti, TK. Textbook of Anesthesia for Postgraduates. 
  35. Wylie Churchill-Davidson's A Practice of Anesthesia 7th Edition (Thomas EJ Healy, Paul R Knight ed.). 
  36. Majewski, Harry. Pharmacology - Volume II. 
  37. "History of Anesthesia - Enflurane". dailyrounds.org. Retrieved 21 August 2018. 
  38. "Pulse oximetry: Its invention, contribution to medicine, and future tasks". researchgate.net. Retrieved 20 August 2018. 
  39. Moldwin, Robert M. Urological and Gynaecological Chronic Pelvic Pain: Current Therapies. 
  40. Eichhorn, JH. "The Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation at 25: a pioneering success in safety, 25th anniversary provokes reflection, anticipation.". PMID 22253277. doi:10.1213/ANE.0b013e3182427536. 
  41. "FOUNDATION HISTORY". apsf.org. Retrieved 22 August 2018. 
  42. Stoelting, Robert K. "Anesthesia Patient Safety—Past, Present, and Future". 
  43. Slatter, John. 100 Best Stocks You Can Buy: 1999 Edition. 
  44. Pederson, Jay P. International Directory of Company Histories, Volume 93.