Difference between revisions of "Timeline of bicycle sharing systems"
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Latest revision as of 06:31, 20 July 2019
This is a timeline of bicycle sharing systems, attempting to describe significant events related to the evolution of the systems, as well as their expansion worldwide.
|Time period||Development summary|
|1960s||Bike sharing dates back to this decade, with the introducction of the first system in Amsterdam. Considered first generation, the system comprises ordinary bikes without locks or racks. First generation systems are still used in closed areas such as national parks.|
|1970s||Many city governments and non-governmental organizations start attending the creation of bike sharing systems and begin to consider them as part of the public transport system.|
|1990s||The second and third generations of bicycle sharing systems are introduced in the decade. The second generation introduces bikes specially designed that can be picked up and returned at specific locations (racks) with a coin deposit (like super market trolleys). The third generation includes high tech solutions like electronically locking racks, or bike locks, chip cards, mobile phones and internet. The third generation system 'knows' who uses the bikes.|
|2000s||The fourth generation of bicycle sharing systems is introduced, incorporating mobile docking stations which allows them to be removed and transferred to different locations, thus enabling stations to be relocated according to usage patterns and user demands.|
|2010s||Today, bike-sharing services are ubiquitous in many major cities. An unprecedented growth has been fueled by the propagation of “dockless” systems, shared bicycles that can be parked nearly anywhere, increasing the number of publicly accessible bikes from 1.2 million worldwide in 2015 to more than 16 million in China alone in just two years.|
|Year||Month and date||Event type||Details||Country|
|1965||System launch||A group of activists in Amsterdam introduce the Wittefietsenplan (White Bikes), a set of dozens of regular bicycles painted in white and left unlocked for anyone to use and leave behind for the next person. This first generation program is not a business offering, but the result of a political statement of concern for pollution and against the growing number of cars in the city. It would eventually result into a massive failure and would be quickly shut down after many of the bikes are stolen or damaged. The main person behind the program, Luud Schimmelpennink, is considered the father of the bike share.||Netherlands (Amsterdam)|
|1974||System launch||Vélos Jaunes program in La Rochelle introduces 350 free bicycles for use. This first generation system would prove to be successful.||France (La Rochelle)|
|1975||The idea of a bicycle sharing system is illustrated in Ernest Callenbach's novel Ecotopia, a utopian novel of a society that does not use fossil fuels. Callenbach describes a system available to inhabitants and integrated as part of the public transportation system.||United States|
|1991||System launch||A second generation of bike-sharing program launches in Farsø and Grenå, Denmark. These bikes can be picked up and returned at specific locations (racks) with a coin deposit (like super market trolleys). These second generation bikes would still experience theft due to the anonymity of the users, though their advantage remains in their simplicity and low cost. The system is still in use in Denmark and other (Scandinavian) countries.||Denmark (Farsø, Grenå)|
|1993||System launch||"Green Bike Schemes" launches in Cambridge, England as a free byke system, with almost 300 shared bicycles that would be eventually stolen, resulting in program failure.||United Kingdom (Cambridge)|
|1994||System launch||The first North American bikesharing program is launched in Portland, Oregon, by the United Community Action Network. Sixty bicycles are left unlocked at Pioneer Square in Portland and are available for anyone to use. The program would close in 2001.||United States (Portland)|
|1995||System launch||Having taken 30 years for another major city to attempt a large-scale public bike program, Bycyklen, or City Bikes, launches in Copenhagen as the first large-scale second generation bike-sharing program, with many improvements over the previous generation. This system allows users to access sturdy, shared bicycles at specific locations throughout the city via a coin-operated system. Despite clear improvements over Amsterdam’s White Bikes, thefts and vandalism still plague the program, in addition to problems in funding. The system eventually flourish, featuring fixed docks, where riders deposit money to unlock the bikes. Riders would then get their deposit back after returning the bike to a dock.||Denmark (Copenhagen)|
|1996||System launch||Bikeaboutin launches at Portsmouth University in England as the third generation of bike-sharing programs, where students can use a magnetic stripe card to rent a bike. It is the first to come up with a solution to the theft problem. The magnetic-stripe card to borrow a bike, allows it to be tracked when it isn't returned.||United Kingdom (University of Portsmouth)|
|1996||System launch||"Olympia Bike Library" launches in Olympia, Washington as a second generation coin-deposit model system.||United States (Olympia, Washington)|
|1996||Organization||8D Technologies is founded in Canada. It develops bicycle-sharing systems and automated parking management systems.||Canada|
|1996||System launch||Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota launch the "Yellow Bike Project", a second generation coin-deposit system.||United States (Minneapolis, Saint Paul|
|1996||System launch||"Bycycler", a second generation bikesharing system, launches in Sandness, Norway.||Norway (Sandness)|
|1997||System launch||"Yellow Bike" launches in Austin, Texas as a second generation coin-deposit model system.||United States|
|1998||System launch||"Freewheels" launches in Princeton, New Jersey, as a second generation coin-deposit model system.||United States (Princeton)|
|1998||System launch||“Vélos à la carte” launches in Rennes, France, introducing to a city the third-generation of bike-sharing replacing coin-access with smart card access. It is the first city-scale bike-share program to use magnetic-stripe cards and RFID technology. The bikes are free to use, and have fixed docks in certain location.||France (Rennes)|
|1999||System launch||"TownBike" launches in Singapore as the first bikesharing program in Asia. A third generation program, it would end in 2007.||Singapore|
|2000||Research||A number of researchers publishing studies relative to bicycle-sharing schemes emerges.|
|2000||April||System launch||The Buga system launches in Aveiro, Portugal, as a free public bike scheme, with 200 bikes made available through 33 bike parks.||Portugal (Aveiro)|
|2000||System launch||Second generation "City Bikes" launches in Helsinki, offering clunky and heavy, single speed bikes in green, which can be rent with a 2 euro coin. No registration is required and since the bikes have no GPS-system to locate their whereabouts, a lot of the bikes would be stolen and vandalized.||Finland (Helsinki)|
|2002||System launch||"Decatur Yellow Bikes" launches in Decatur, Georgia, as a second generation coin-deposit model system.||United States (Decatur, Georgia)|
|2002||November||System launch||Third generation "Taito Bicycle Sharing Experiment" launches in Tokyo as the second bikesharing program in Asia. It is the first bikesharing pilot in the country, employing 130 bivyvles at twelve locations.. It operates for about three months.||Japan (Tokyo)|
|2003||June||System launch||Citybike Wien launches in Vienna, and from the beginning it can be used with Austrian ATMs. The system would prove successful, and would be exported from Vienna to 60 major world cities.||Austria (Vienna)|
|2003||System launch||Oslo Bysykkel is launched, with around 1,000 bikes in 100 stations.||Norway (Oslo)|
|2005||System launch||“Lyon Vélo’v” is introduced in Lyon, France with bikes equipped with electronic components allowing for the bike to be identified by the stations, the distance traveled and conditions of the bikes (lights, dynamo, brakes, etc.) to be tracked, and detailed statistics about bike usage collected.||France (Lyon)|
|2005||System launch||Second generation "Bycykel" launches in Arhus, Denmark.||Denmark (Arhus)|
|2006||April||System launch||Stockholm City bikes is introduced as a rental system.||Sweden (Stockholm)|
|2007||March 22||System launch||Bicing is launched in Barcelona. It is similar to the Vélo'v service in Lyon or Vélib' in Paris. It uses the same bicycles and stations as used in Stockholm, Oslo, and Zaragoza.||Spain (Barcelona)|
|2007||July 15||System launch||Vélib’ bicycle sharing system launches in Paris, with a fleet of 6,000 bikes. Managed by JCDecaux, the system would prove successful. It would end in December 2017, being replaced by Vélib' Métropole.||France (Paris)|
|2007–2017||Expansion||Bicycle-sharing schemes experience a major breakthrough in cities at a global scale during this period. Of the estimated 1,600 schemes in operation in 2017, approximately 95 percent were launched since 2007, with more than 200 in 2017 alone.|
|2007||December||Expansion||There are about 60 third generation programs globally by the time.|
|2008||System launch||SmartBike DC launches in Washington, D.C. as a 10-station, 120-bike pilot program, the first modern bike-share system in the United States. The system uses the same Clear Channel technology developed for Rennes’s Vélo à la Carte.||United States (Washington, D.C.)|
|2008||System launch||Government-owned company Bixi in Montréal pilots its own system with innovative, robust bicycles and a modular docking system.||Canada (Montréal)|
|2008||Organization||Smoove is founded in France. It designs, manufactures and markets products related to bike-sharing.||France|
|2008||July 31||System launch||Cicloteque launches in Bucharest.||Romania (Bucharest)|
|2008||Expansion||A rise of bikes in experienced in the United States with similar features, so-called commuter bikes, which are geared directly at riders looking to use bicycles for daily work and study travel.||United States|
|2008||Expansion||Bike-sharing finally begins to take hold outside Europe, with new programs in Brazil, Chile, China, New Zealand, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. Each is the first third generation bike-sharing program for the countries.|
|2008||October||System launch||Hangzhou Public Bicycle launches. It is one of the world’s largest, with more than 78,000 bicycles.||China (Hangzhou)|
|2008||December 8||System launch||BikeMi launches in Milan in connection with urban road pricing. Users are charged on credit card.||Italy (Milan)|
|2008||Expansion||An estimated 92 programs worldwide are calculated for the end of the year.|
|2008||System launch||Brazil launches two bikesharing programs: "UseBike" in Sao Paulo and "Samba" in Rio de Janeiro.||Brazil (Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro)|
|2008||System launch||Third generation system "Nubija" launches in Chongwan as the first bikesharing program in South Korea.||South Korea (Chongwan)|
|2009||May 19||System launch||Villo! launches in Brussels. The system is composed of fully automated bike stations that can be used with an annual card with pincode, or with a weekly or day ticket that can be purchased at some of the stations by bank card. ||Belgium (Brussels)|
|2009||May||System launch||BIXI launches in Canada. This system marks the beginning of bikesharing’s fourth generation. The scheme incorporates mobile docking stations which allows stations to be removed and transferred to different locations. This enables stations to be relocated according to usage patterns and user demands. Another feature that could enhance future programs is the use of solar-powered stations.||Canada|
|2009||System launch||Third generation system "C-Bike" launches in Kaohsiung City as the first bikesharing program in Taiwan.||Taiwan (Kaohsiung City)|
|2009||September||System launch||Dublin Bikes launches. The system would be considered a huge success for the city. It is operated by JCDecaux.||Ireland (Dublin)|
|2009||November||System launch||YouBike is launched in Taipei as a public bicycle rental system.||Taiwan (Taipei)|
|2010||March 22||System launch||Cyclocity Toyama is launched by JCDecaux, including 150 bicycles available for self-service rental divided between 15 stations in the city center.||Japan (Toyama)|
|2010||June||System launch||Melbourne Bike Share is introduced as the first bikesharing program in Australia.||Australia (Melbourne)|
|2010||July 30||System launch||Santander Cycles launches in London, with an initial 400 docking stations and 6600 bikes, which would expand to 11,000 bikes and over 800 stations, making it the largest cycle hire scheme in Europe.||United Kingdom (London)|
|2010||System launch||EcoBici launches in Buenos Aires, with an initial 3 stations and 72 bicycles, which would grow to 200 and 3.000 respectively.||Argentina (Buenos Aires)|
|2010||System launch||EcoBici is launched in Mexico City, with an initial phase including 85 stations across the city and over 1,000 bikes.||Mexico (Mexico City)|
|2010||Infrastructure||Oliver O'Brien, a researcher at University College London creates a Bike Share Map digital using cartography and data visualization. Updated in real time, the map shows the location of bike share stations in 150 cities across the world, and would become one of the easiest ways for users to get updated on information on their local bike programs.||United Kingdom|
|2010||Organization||Jump Bikes is founded in the United States. It is a dockless scooter and electric bicycle sharing system operating in the United States, Germany, Portugal and the United Kingdom.||United States|
|2011||March||System launch||Ecovolis launches in Tirana as a small-scale, low-tech public bicycle system.||Albania (Tirana)|
|2011||May||Expansion||There are around 375 bike-sharing systems worldwide, comprising 236,000 bicycles.|
|2011||May 12||System launch||BicikeLJ is introduced in Ljubljana with an initial fleet of 300 bicycles at 30 stations available to users. The first hour of use is free of charge, which is very well received among users since 98 percent of all journeys are free.||Slovenia (Ljubljana)|
|2011||October||System launch||EnCicla launches in Medellin with six stations and 105 bicycles.||Colombia (Medellin)|
|2011||March||Expansion||As of date, there are approximately 135 bikesharing programs operating in an estimated 160 cities around the world, with over 236,000 shared bicycles.||Worldwide|
|2011||July||System launch||NS Bike launches in Novi Sad as a rental system.||Serbia (Novi Sad)|
|2011||October||System launch||EasyBike launches in Nicosia by Greek company easyBike and French Smoove. The system has a fleet of 300 bikes distributed through 27 stations.||Cyprus (Nicosia)|
|2012||System launch||Bikesampa launches in Sao Paulo as a bicycle rental system.||Brazil (Sao Paulo)|
|2012||May||System launch||Houston B-cycle launches in Houston, with 3 bike stations that would grow to 66 in 2017.||United States (Houston)|
|2012||August 1||System launch||Veturilo is launched in Warsaw. The system would become one of the most thriving networks worldwide.||Poland (Warsaw)|
|2012||System launch||BiciQ launches in Quito, with 425 bicycles and 21 stations.||Ecuador (Quito)|
|2012||November||System launch||Pun Pun Bike Share is introduced in Bangkok with an initial two, of a planned fifty stations.||Thailand (Bangkok)|
|2012||Expansion||As of date, the biggest sharing system peograms are in Wuhan and Hangzhou, with around 90,000 and 60,000 bikes respectively.||China|
|2013||March||Research||A study published in the American Journal of Public Health reports observing an increase in cycling and health benefits where bicycle sharing systems are run.||United States|
|2013||April||Expansion||There are around 535 bike-sharing systems, made of an estimated fleet of 517,000 bicycles.||Worldwide|
|2013||May 27||System launch||Citi Bike launches in New York City, with 6,000 bikes and a novel funding model that uses no public dollars, but is fully paid for by corporate sponsorships.||United States (New York City)|
|2013||June||System launch||Velobike is launched in Moscow as pilot bike rental scheme. Having proved to be successful, by 2018 it would grow to 430 parking stations with 4300 bicycles.||Russia (Moscow)|
|2013||June||System launch||Divvy launches in Chicago as the first large-scale bike share program in the city.||United States (Chicago)|
|2013||July||Expansion||As of date, the systems with the higher market penetration are Vélib' in Paris with 1 bike per 97 inhabitants, Vélo'v in Lyon with 1 bike per 121 residents, and Hangzou in China with 1 per 145.|
|2013||System launch||Rekola launches in Prague as a small project. By 2018, it would operate in 8 Czech cities and in Finnish city Vaasa.||Czechia (Prague)|
|2013||August||System launch||Weifang Public Bicycle launches.||China|
|2013||System launch||Bikesantiago launches in Santiago as a metropolitan system operating across different communes or municipalities. The public bicycle system starts with a fleet of 300 bikes in 30 stations.||Chile (Santiago)|
|2013||Expansion||A 60 percent increase in the number of programs is experienced globally, with 65 new bike-share launches in China alone. The number of bike-share bikes worldwide hits 700,000.|
|2014||April||System launch||BuBi launches in Budapest. As of May 2019 the network would grow to 143 docking stations and 1,846 bicycles.||Hungary (Budapest)|
|2014||June||Expansion||Public bike-sharing systems operate in 50 countries on five continents, including 712 cities, operating approximately 806,200 bicycles at 37,500 stations.||Worldwide|
|2014||July 16||System launch||Orania Openbare Fietsprojek is introduced in Orania, South Africa. It is arguably the first bicycle sharing system in Africa.||South Africa (Orania)|
|2014||December||System launch||ADCB Bikeshare launches in Abu Dhabi with 11 bicycle stations across Yas Island and Al Raha.||United Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi)|
|2014||Infrastructure||Madrid becomes the first European city to offer an all-electric bicycle program.||Spain (Madrid)|
|2015||January 27||Organization||Mobike is founded. It is, by the number of bicycles, the world's largest shared (for hire) bicycle operator.||China|
|2015||Expansion||The number of bike-share bicycles hits an estimated 1,000,000 worldwide. China is by far the leader in the sheer number of bicycles, followed by France with almost 43,000 bikes in 38 cities.|
|2015||April 23||System launch||Indego launches in Philadelphia, with 70 parking stations. A 30-day membership costs US$ 15 and provides those who sign up with unlimited one-hour rides.||United States (Philadelphia)|
|2015||October 15||System launch||Ddareungi launches in Seoul with an initial fleet of 2,000 bicycles.||South Korea (Seoul)|
|2015||Research||A study published in the journal Transportation concludes that bike sharing systems can be grouped into behaviourally similar categories based upon their size, where larger systems display greater behavioural heterogeneity amongst their stations, and smaller systems generally have stations which all behave similarly in terms of their daily utilization patterns.|
|2016||April||System launch||Tel-O-Fun launches in Tel Aviv, with hundreds of bicycles for rent scattered around the city. The user can choose a daily or weekly subscription with credit card, approach to one of the stations around the city, and rent the bike. After using, return the bike to any station so they’re ready for the next rider.||Israel (Tel Aviv)|
|2016||May||System launch||Helsinki City Bikes launches as a second attempt in the city after the former and failed system. The new program is launched with 500 bikes and 50 parking stations. The system would prove to be successful.||Finland (Helsinki)|
|2016||June||System launch||Almatybike launches in Almaty as an automated bike rental system with an initial 50 bike stations with the capacity for 270 bikes.||Kazakhstan (Almaty)|
|2016||July 7||System launch||Metro Bike Share is introduced in Los Angeles, starting with 1,000 bicycles available at 65 strategically placed locations in downtown.||United States (Los Angeles)|
|2016||Research||A positive environmental impact is found in Shanghai, where bike sharing systems are found to cut down carbon dioxide (CO2) by 25,240 tons.||China (Shanghai)|
|2016||December||Research||Publication claim that bike-share programs fail to reach more low-income communities.|
|2017||December||Expansion||An estimated 16 million bikes on China’s streets transport about 130 million registered users.||China|
|2017||Research||It is found that bicycle sharing annual memberships in the United States make up for more than 96% of total trips made in the country.||United States|
|2017||Research||Studies in Beijing and Shanghai link the massive increase of dockless bike shares to the decrease in the number of private automobile trips that are less than five kilometers.||China (Beijing, Shanghai)|
|2018||January 1||System launch||Vélib' Métropole launches in Paris, replacing the previous successful Vélib' system. It is one of the largest public bike-share systems outside of China with 14 000 bikes and 1000 stations.||France (Paris)|
|2018||System launch||JoBike launches in Dhaka as the first bicycle sharing app in the country. The app enables users to find bicycles for rent.||Bangladesh (Dhaka)|
|2018||August 15||System launch||Germany-based international bicycle rental company Nextbike launches dockless bicycle sharing service in Kiev.||Ukraine (Kiev)|
|2018||August||Expansion||Chinese Mobike now operates in over 200 cities and 19 countries around the world.|
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