Timeline of bicycle transportation

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This is a timeline of FIXME.

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Time period Development summary
1900s–1950s ". Golden Age of Bicycles lasted from 1900s to 1950s in which bicycles became one of the primary means of public road transportation. Early bicycle clubs popularized recreational driving across America and Europe. During the years their manufacturing costs came down significantly, which increased their use all over the world."[1]
1960s–1970s "Modern age of bicycles started in the 1960s and 70s with the increase of North American consciousness of the benefits of exercise and energy efficient transport."[1] "During the 1970's the so-called Bike Boom occurred in America as the general public became aware of the value of exercise and energy-efficient transportation."[2]

Full timeline

Year Event type Details Location
3500 BC–1700s AD The wheel is invented.[2]
500 BC "Back in 2010 a Chinese historian produced a recreation of what, he believes, might have been invented 2500 years ago by a Chinese inventor Lu Ban. This is supposed to have been a large wooden device with complicated gears and pedals to make it move and was technically speaking a tricycle."[2]
1493 "Codex Atlanticus". Bicycle drawing was not attributed to Da Vinchi himself but is speculated to be made by his student Gian Giacomo Caprotti in 1493. His designs could be made with materials that were widely available in those times, but no working prototype of the device was ever made. Some historians claim that traveling with bicycle was not socially acceptable in during that period." Sketches in Leonardo da Vinci's Codex Atlanticus include simple designs for bicycle.[3][1] Italy
1649 "German inventor Johann Hautsch created an automated carriage that could transport one passenger over 500m with the use of the complicated mechanical drive. His device reminded more of a motorcar than a bicycle."[3]
1680 "German inventor Stephan Farffler created a first known tricycle. This model did not feature pedals, but it was propelled with the use of hand crank."[3]
1790 "Although not strictly speaking a bicycle, the Celerifere was an early precursor to them. It was supposedly developed by Comte Mede de Sivrac in 1790 in France - but it may have been a hoax."[2] France
1818 "the dandy horse or “running machine” invented by Karl von Drais This contraption was propelled by the rider pushing himself along with this feet on the ground. Lacking pedals, a steering mechanism and brakes, it was difficult and even dangerous to maneuver."[4] Germany
1820 "Few years after Laufmaschine, English inventor Denis Johnson improved version of Baron Karl von Drais’ design. His “Dandy Horse” had much larger wheels, which improved the stability during the ride."[3]
1850 "First three-wheeler, allowing for a more stable ride."[4]
1858 "The Boneshaker This terrifying-sounding thing is actually the first bicycle to have front-wheel pedals. It is also sometimes known as the first Velocipede."[5]
1860s " During the 1860s decade bicycle one of the most important improvements of all time. Pierre Michaux patented bicycle pedal in 1861 and he started using rubber tires and ball bearings for faster and easier use. First recorded bicycle race happened on May 31, 1868."[4]
1860 "First true bicycle invented by Ernest Michaux and Pierre Lallement, known as the velocipede"[4]
1861 "Included crank and pedals but not yet brakes, resulting in many dangerous “headers”"[4]
1866 "1866 – The High WheelerThe Penny-Farthing, also known as the High Wheeler or the Ordinary, looks ridiculous by today’s standards, however when they were first released, they were all the rage."[5]
1868 Bicycles start to be mass produced.[5]
1868 "The Roper Steam Velocipede was the first steam-powered bicycle, coming out around the same time that bicycles began exploding on the market."[5]
1869 "1869 is when the first rubber tires were used for bicycles, which was a major game changer in the development and production as well as the capabilities of bikes."[5]
1870 "Penny Farthing bicycle invented. The name came from the idea that the wheels resembled two coins, the penny and the farthing next to each other, the former significantly larger than the latter. It was unstable, extremely difficult to get on and off and the front wheel was used for power and steering. Considering, it was not an ideal or efficient machine."[4]
1870 "1870 – Frenchman Eugene Meyer made a bicycle with very large front wheel and smaller back wheel. Popular model of that type was mass-produced by Englishman James Starley who improved the comfort of the ride but added more danger in some situations (riding downhill, increased injuries after the fall)."[3]
1872 "The Penny-Farthing was popular for decades following its inception. In 1872, it was first manufactured in Britain"[5]
1874 " H.J. Lawson made the first bicycle with a chain."[3]
1878 " 1878 inventor William Henry James Grout created a portable version which could be easily assembled and disassembled as needed."[5]
1879 " Lawson did patent his chain-driven bicycle that year although this was actually anticipated by earlier patents and chain-driven bicycles"[5]
1880 "1880 – League of American WheelmenThe league of American Wheelmen is one of the most well-known cycling associations in history."[5]
1884 "1884 – The safety bicycleThe safety bicycle was the first to resemble he bicycles we ride today; two wheels of equal size with a similar frame. The Rover Safety, designed by John Kemp Starley, was the official alternative to the Penny-Farthing."[5]
1885 "In 1876 one Englishman, Harry John Lawson, invented the revolutionary Safety bicycle. This bike featured a strong metal chain powered by two pedals, two wheels and a frame very similar to modern bicycles." "safety bicycle invented by John Kemp Starley characterized by two wheels of the same size and a rear wheel connected and driven by a chain. This made for a more efficient bicycle that could use smaller wheels. This invention was named for the obvious reason that it was safer than the penny-farthing because of the lower center of gravity."[4][2]
1885 " James Starley started production of his safety bicycle “Rover” which is today regarded as the first model of “modern” bicycle. This model was very and comfortable to use and it started the era known as “Golden Age of Bicycles”."[3]
1885 "1885 – The first motorcycle"[5]
1887 "In 1887 American immigrant Thomas Stevens became the first person to travel around the world on a bicycle. His bike of choice? The Penny-Farthing."[5]
1888 "In 1888 an Irish inventor, John Boyd Dunlop, came up with the clever idea of filling rubber tires with air to provide a smoother ride than existing solid-rubber tires." "1888 – Inflatable tyresThe inflatable or pneumatic tyres of bicycles have humble origins. John Boyd Dunlop, who had extensive knowledge regarding working with rubber, originally developed inflatable tyres for his son’s tricycle."[5][2]
1889 "1889 – The back-pedal brakeThe back-pedal brake, designed to brake the bicycle by simply pedalling in the opposite direction, had been around for a while, first appearing in the Penny-Farthing, and then returning in the Safety Bicycle."[5]
1890 "1890 – Alumnium bikesAs bicycles became more and more common, the idea to use aluminum rose. Alumnium is a light metal, making it very useful for building bicycles."[5]
1891 "1891 – The two-seaterThe Tandem Velocipede patented in 1891 is the world’s first two-seater bike."[5]
1893 "1893 – The folding bike"[5]
1894 "Betty Bloomers became popular. Women were no longer limited to tricycles and could ride comfortably in their long skirts"[4]
1895 "1895 – Battery powerOgden Bolton Jr.’s patented battery powered bicycle gained a lot of attention when it came out."[5]
1896 "1896 – Olympics1896 was a huge year in bicycling history; it marked the first time that competitive cycling appeared in the Olympic games."[5]
1898 "1898 – FreewheelingThis one isn’t a bike, but it changed the design of almost every bicycle made after its invention. The idea is simple; this change allowed for bicycles to continue moving without being pedaled."[5]
1900 "The bicycle design became standardized (basic diamond shape made from metal, pneumatic rubber tires, roller chain, one gear, coaster brakes) and was unchanged for more than 50 years. At that time, many cycling clubs formed in America and Europe, which gave much more popularity to that way of transport. Until the appearance of mass production cars, bicycles and horses were the only way private transportation."[3]
1901 "1901 – Recumbent bicyclesThe first recumbent bikes were made in 1901. These things look like a recliner on two wheels."[5]
1903 "1903 – Tour De FranceThe world’s most well-known cycling event is the Tour De France."[5]
1903 "Internal hub gears invented"[4]
1920 "The Kids Bike invented. This design, weighing in at around 65 pounds, mimicked aspects of the motor vehicle as the automobile became more desirable than bikes."[4]
1921 "1921 – Shimano IncToday, Shimano controls 50% of the world’s bicycle component market, selling everything from brake parts to pedal components."[5]
1924 "1924 – The Velocarsome velocars were simply a recumbent bike with a full frame/shell around it."[5]
1930 "Schwinn adds spring fork and fat tire to handle the abuse of teenage boys. This later became the preliminary design for the mountain bike."[4]
1930 "1930 – Bicycle hub quick releaseTo put it simply, this invention was designed to allow for the wheels of a bicycle to be easily removed and re-installed."[5]
1933 "1933 – The cruiser bikeAlso known as the beach cruiser, these bikes weren’t made for sport or speed. They weren’t made for doing jumps or cool tricks. They were made for one thing and one thing only; going on a leisurely bike ride"[5]
1934 "1934 – Recumbent bike banRecumbent bicycles, as mentioned before, were surprisingly fast. So fast, in fact, that in 1934 the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) banned them from being used in cycling races under their name."[5]
1937 "1937 – Derailleur gears allowed in Tour de FrancePrior to 1937, derailleur gears were not used in the Tour De France, meaning that in order to change gears, riders would have to dismount, remove the wheel from their bicycle, change its gear, put it back on, and continue riding."[5]
1955 "1955 – The Huffy Radio BicycleSometime in the 1950’s, cycling companies looked at their various lines of bicycles and thought to themselves, “you know what this needs? A radio!” And thus the radio bikes were born."[5]
1956 "1956 – The first BMX raceBMX was created as a mimicking of motocross, originating when children began using bicycles to try and copy motocross stunts. The idea is that racers perform a series of stunts, tricks and jumps either during a race or freestyle.

Though the first official BMX race was held in 1956, the sport didn’t catch on until the 70’s."[5] ||

1962 "1962 – Moulton Bicycle Company"[5]
1968 "1968 – Raleigh ChopperThe Raleigh Bicycle Company is one of the oldest cycling companies in the world, their founding dating back to 1885. In 1968, they created the coolest looking children’s bike to date: the Raleigh Chopper"[5]
1970 "1970 – MoMountain bikesWith cycling for sport becoming more and more popular, it was obvious that mountain biking would become a thing sooner or later.

In 1970, Charlie Kelly and Gary Fisher came up with a bike built for hard-core terrain. It had heavy-duty wheels and a suspension system, allowing it to climb steep inclines, ride over logs, rocks, dirt roads and anything else you’ll find on a mountain."[5] ||

1974 "1974 – Titanium BikesTitanium is probably the most expensive metal used for mass-produced bicycle frames. In 1974, cycling companies started to use titanium for their bikes because it possesses many key traits."[5]
1976 "1976 – Repack Downhill RaceThe world’s first major organized mountain biking race took place in 1976."[5]
1979 "1979 – Speed recordIn 1979 Freddie Markham, also known as Fast Freddie, set the world speed record of 81.8 Kilometres Per Hour, riding a Human Powered Vehicle." [5]
1980 "During 1980s, use of Mountain Bikes and BMX became popular. They introduced multiple gears and much lighter construction frames made from aluminum alloy or carbon fiber."[3]
1981 "1981 – Specialized StumpjumperWith the increase in mountain biking’s popularity, it became clear that more and more people were interested in trying it out. To that end, Specialized Bicycle Components released the Specialized Stumpjumper; the first mass produced mountain bike."[5]
1983 "1983 – Bike ComputerThese neat devices, sometimes called cyclocomputers, are small digital displays attached to your bicycle that displays information like speed, distance travelled and the current time.

The devices first appeared in 1983, and today they continue to be a popular cycling accessory."[5] ||

1987 "1987 – An upgrade for mountain bikesFrom their inception, mountain bikes were designed for a more heavy duty style of cycling.

However in 1987, Paul Turner, founder of the now defunct cycling company RockShox, made a big improvement on the existing models with his full-suspension mountain bike"[5] ||

1989 "1989 – HelmetsIn 1989, to curb serious injuries and deaths associated with bicycle accidents, the Australian government passed the world’s first helmet laws, ordering all cyclists to wear a helmet."[5]
1993 "1993 – Electric DerailleursAnother improvement on the gear-shifting mechanisms, the electric derailleur works by having a small battery on the bike attached to a motor that controls the derailleur, and is triggered via a wired or wireless control switch."[5]
1994 "1994 – Disc brakesDisc brakes are primarily intended for off-road bikes, however they have made appearances on other models. A disc brake is a metal disc that is attached to the wheel. When the brakes are trigger, the disc slows down, thus forcing the wheel to also slow."[5]
2000 "Electric bike"[4]
2000 "Solar powered Bike- designed by Miroslav Miljevic to include a solar powered battery. Intended for commuters so when they leave their bike outside all day, they won't have to pedal home."[4]
2010 Worldwide production of bicycles is in the range of 125 to 130 billion units.[1]

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by FIXME.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

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See also

External links

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "History of the Bicycle". bicyclehistory.net. Retrieved 21 June 2019. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 "The Long and Fascinating History of the Bicycle". interestingengineering.com. Retrieved 21 June 2019. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 "Timeline of the Bicycle History". bicyclehistory.net. Retrieved 20 June 2019. 
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 "History of the Bicycle: A timeline". brown.edu. Retrieved 20 June 2019. 
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28 5.29 5.30 5.31 5.32 5.33 5.34 5.35 5.36 5.37 5.38 5.39 5.40 5.41 Hiles, Dillon. "58 Milestones from Bicycle History You Must Know". icebike.org. Retrieved 20 June 2019.