Difference between revisions of "Timeline of bioethics"

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This is a '''timeline of {{w|bioethics}}''', listing significant events in the development of the field.
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This is a '''timeline of {{w|bioethics}}''', attempting to describe significant events related to the development of the field. Its subfield {{w|medical ethics}} is described with more detail on the [[Timeline of medical ethics]].
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== Sample questions ==
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The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:
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*What are some of the multiple topics closely related to the field of bioethics?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Main topic".
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** You will see a variety of topics of interest, such as Biological agents, biopolitics, religion (Catholic, Budhist, and Jewish bioethics), cloning, environmental ethics, healthcare, human genetics,
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* What are some notable events describing the development of the concept of bioethics?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Concept development".
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** You will see events related to the development of the term "{{w|bioethics}}" as well as several other associated terms, such as "{{w|biopolitics}}" and "{{w|speciesism}}", etc.
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* What are some notable publications on the topic of bioethics?
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** For books, sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Literature (book)".
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** You will see some very early publications by authors such as {{w|Thomas Aquinas}}, as well as modern classics in the field, such as ''[[w:Animal Liberation (book)|Animal Liberation]]'', and other notable publications.
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** For {{w|academic journal}}s, sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Literature (journal)".
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* What are some events describing notable controversial cases pertaining to the field of bioethics?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Notable case"
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** You will see a variety of cases of interest mainly occurring within the scope of controversial scientific fields, as well as some cases involving {{w|biological agent}}s.
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* What are some notable organizations devoted to the topic of bioethics?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Organization".
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** You will mostly see a number of English speaking organizations esablished whether by educational institutions or national governments.
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* What are some notable policies issued by governments on issues pertaining to the field of bioethics?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Policy".
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** You will see a number of regulations introduced by governments and major organizations, many related to controversial cases in scientific research, and concerning the field of bioethics.
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* What are some notable treaties concerning bioethics?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Treaty".
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** You will see important treaties signed by {{w|UNESCO}}, concerning bioethics.
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* Other events are described under the following types: "Activism", "{{w|Genetic discrimination}}", "{{w|Genetic privacy}}", .
  
 
==Big picture==
 
==Big picture==
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| <1960s || Discussions of moral issues in medicine already happen in ancient times, with early contributions by {{w|Hippocrates}} and {{w|Plato}}.<ref name="Bioethicsbritannica.com"/> In the 20th century, German theologian Fritz Jahr publishes three articles in 1927, 1928, and 1934 using the German term “Bio-Ethik”, forcefully arguing an ethical approach to issues concerning human beings and the environment.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/>
 
| <1960s || Discussions of moral issues in medicine already happen in ancient times, with early contributions by {{w|Hippocrates}} and {{w|Plato}}.<ref name="Bioethicsbritannica.com"/> In the 20th century, German theologian Fritz Jahr publishes three articles in 1927, 1928, and 1934 using the German term “Bio-Ethik”, forcefully arguing an ethical approach to issues concerning human beings and the environment.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/>
 
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| 1960s || Bioethics as a distinct field of academic study is born in the United States, merging from a cluster of scientific and cultural developments in the country during that decade.<ref name="Bioethics - History Of Bioethics">{{cite web |title=Bioethics - History Of Bioethics |url=http://science.jrank.org/pages/8456/Bioethics-History-Bioethics.html |website=science.jrank.org |accessdate=1 September 2018}}</ref>
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| 1960s || Bioethics as a distinct field of academic study is born in the United States, merging from a cluster of scientific and cultural developments in the country during that decade.<ref name="Bioethics - History Of Bioethics">{{cite web |title=Bioethics - History Of Bioethics |url=http://science.jrank.org/pages/8456/Bioethics-History-Bioethics.html |website=science.jrank.org |accessdate=1 September 2018}}</ref> A wide range of new ethical problems emerge into view, all of them driven by spectacular advances in medicine and biology.<ref name="Bioethics and Policy—A History">{{cite web |title=Bioethics and Policy—A History |url=https://www.thehastingscenter.org/briefingbook/bioethics-and-policy-a-history/ |website=thehastingscenter.org |accessdate=11 October 2020}}</ref>  
 
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| 1970s–1980s || Many bioethics programs and degrees are established at universities in the {{w|United States}} in order to provide students{{snd}}most notably medical, law, and public policy students{{snd}}with some expertise in medical ethics to deal with complex cases.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/> Feminist bioethics develops from the early 1970s on and is initially focused on medical ethics; proponents later extend the areas of interest to issues in the fields of animal and environmental ethics.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/> In the late 1980s, the Russian school of bioethics originates.<ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present"/>  
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| 1970s || Many bioethics programs and degrees are established at universities in the {{w|United States}} in order to provide students{{snd}}most notably medical, law, and public policy students{{snd}}with some expertise in medical ethics to deal with complex cases.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/> Feminist bioethics develops from the early 1970s on and is initially focused on medical ethics; proponents later extend the areas of interest to issues in the fields of animal and environmental ethics.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/>  
 
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| 1990s || In the last decade of the 20th century, the contributions of social scientists to bioethical research become particularly important. Work of this type involves surveys of public attitudes to advances in the life sciences, including xenotransplantation and genetic modification.<ref name="Bioethicsbritannica.com"/>  
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| 1980s || Universities begin establishing human subjects review committees.<ref>{{cite web |title=Ethical timeline |url=https://www.radford.edu/spj/Timelinepage.html |website=radford.edu |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref> In the late decade, the Russian school of bioethics originates.<ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present"/> 
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|-
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| 1990s || The contributions of social scientists to bioethical research become particularly important. Work of this type involves surveys of public attitudes to advances in the life sciences, including xenotransplantation and genetic modification.<ref name="Bioethicsbritannica.com"/>  
 
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| 2000s || Ethics consultation begins to emerge as another, more enduring model of ethics and science interaction. The concept of research ethics consultation develops.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Kerasidou |first1=Angeliki |last2=Parker |first2=Michael |title=Does science need bioethicists? Ethics and science collaboration in biomedical research |doi=10.1177/1747016114554252 |pmid=26430467 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4587541/ |pmc=4587541}}</ref>
 
| 2000s || Ethics consultation begins to emerge as another, more enduring model of ethics and science interaction. The concept of research ethics consultation develops.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Kerasidou |first1=Angeliki |last2=Parker |first2=Michael |title=Does science need bioethicists? Ethics and science collaboration in biomedical research |doi=10.1177/1747016114554252 |pmid=26430467 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4587541/ |pmc=4587541}}</ref>
 
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|}
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== Visual data ==
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=== Wikipedia Views ===
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The chart below shows Wikipedia views for the article {{w|Bioethics}} for desktop, mobile-web, desktop-spider, mobile-web-spider and mobile app, from June 2015 to November 2020.<ref>{{cite web |title=Bioethics |url=https://wikipediaviews.org/displayviewsformultiplemonths.php?page=Bioethics&allmonths=allmonths-api&language=en&drilldown=all |website=wikipediaviews.org |access-date=12 December 2020}}</ref>
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[[File:Bioethicswikipediaviews.png|thumb|center|500px]]
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=== Google Trends ===
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The chart below shows Google Trends data comparing Bioethics (field of study) and Bioethics (search term), from January 1, 2004 to December 12, 2020, when the screenshot was taken. A declining interest is appreciated.<ref>{{cite web |title=Bioethics |url=https://trends.google.com/trends/explore?date=all&q=%2Fm%2F01b7t3,Bioethics |website=trends.google.com |access-date=12 December 2020}}</ref>
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[[File:Bioethicsgoogletrends.png|thumb|center|750px]]
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=== Google Ngram Viewer ===
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The chart below shows {{w|Google Ngram Viewer}} data comparing both "bioethics" and "medical ethics" search strings (case-insensitive), from 1700 to 2019. See how data for "bioethics" starts soaring at around 1960s, which correlates with the birth of bioethics as a distinct field of academic study in the United States.<ref>{{cite web |title=Bioethics,Medical ethics |url=https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=Bioethics%2CMedical+ethics&year_start=1700&year_end=2019&case_insensitive=on&corpus=26&smoothing=0&direct_url=t4%3B%2CBioethics%3B%2Cc0%3B%2Cs0%3B%3BBioethics%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bbioethics%3B%2Cc0%3B%3BBIOETHICS%3B%2Cc0%3B.t4%3B%2CMedical%20ethics%3B%2Cc0%3B%2Cs0%3B%3Bmedical%20ethics%3B%2Cc0%3B%3BMedical%20Ethics%3B%2Cc0%3B%3BMedical%20ethics%3B%2Cc0%3B%3BMEDICAL%20ETHICS%3B%2Cc0#t4%3B%2CBioethics%3B%2Cc0%3B%2Cs0%3B%3BBioethics%3B%2Cc0%3B%3Bbioethics%3B%2Cc0%3B%3BBIOETHICS%3B%2Cc0%3B.t4%3B%2CMedical%20ethics%3B%2Cc0%3B%2Cs0%3B%3Bmedical%20ethics%3B%2Cc0%3B%3BMedical%20Ethics%3B%2Cc0%3B%3BMedical%20ethics%3B%2Cc0%3B%3BMEDICAL%20ETHICS%3B%2Cc0 |website=books.google.com |access-date=26 December 2020}}</ref>
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[[File:Bioethics Ngram Viewer.png|thumb|center|750px]]
  
 
==Full timeline==
 
==Full timeline==
  
 
{| class="sortable wikitable"
 
{| class="sortable wikitable"
! Year !! Event type !! Details !! Location
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! Year !! Main topic || Event type !! Details !! Location
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|-
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| 380 BC || {{w|Eugenics}} || Field development || The ''[[w:Republic (Plato)|Republic]]'' of {{w|Plato}} advocates selective human breeding in anticipation of later programs of {{w|eugenics}}.<ref name="Bioethicsbritannica.com"/> || || [[File:Platon.png|thumb|center|120px|Plato]]
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|-
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| 1259 – 1265 || {{w|Abortion}} || Literature (book) || Italian philosopher {{w|Thomas Aquinas}} writes his ''{{w|Summa contra Gentiles}}'', which briefly discusses the permissibility of {{w|abortion}}.<ref name="Bioethicsbritannica.com">{{cite web |title=Bioethics |url=https://www.britannica.com/topic/bioethics |website=britannica.com |accessdate=18 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|Italy}} || [[File:St-thomas-aquinas.jpg|thumb|center|120px|Thomas Aquinas]]
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|-
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| 1620 || General || Literature (book) || English philosopher {{w|Francis Bacon}} publishes his ''{{w|Novum Organon}}'', in which he argues that scientific research should benefit humanity.<ref>{{cite web |title=Francis Bacon (1561—1626) |url=https://www.iep.utm.edu/bacon/ |website=iep.utm.edu |accessdate=12 July 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}} || [[File:Somer Francis Bacon.jpg|thumb|center|120px|Francis Bacon]]
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|-
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| 1830 || {{w|Scientific misconduct}} || Literature (book) || English polymath {{w|Charles Babbage}} writes ''Reflections on the Decline of Science in England'', which catalogs scientific misdeeds, and originates such terms as data trimming, data fudging, data falsification, and data cooking.<ref>{{cite web |title=REFLECTIONS ON THE DECLINE OF SCIENCE IN ENGLAND, AND ON SOME OF ITS CAUSES. |url=https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1216/1216-h/1216-h.htm |website=gutenberg.org |accessdate=7 November 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}} || [[File:Charles Babbage by Antoine Claudet c1847-51-crop.jpg|thumb|center|120px|Charles Babbage]]
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|-
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| 1859 || {{w|Human evolution}} || Literature (book) || English naturalist {{w|Charles Darwin}} publishes ''{{w|On the Origin of Species}}'', which proposes a theory of evolution of living things by {{w|natural selection}}. The book would generate much controversy because it proposes that human beings were not created by God (as most religions claimed) but descended from apes.<ref>{{cite web |title=Wallace and Darwin |url=https://www.jstor.org/stable/4448600?seq=1 |website=jstor.org |accessdate=12 July 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}} || [[File:Charles darwin.gif|thumb|center|120px|Charles Darwin]]
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|-
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| 1905 || {{w|Biopolitics}} || Concept development || Swedish political scientist {{w|Rudolf Kjellén}} coins the term "{{w|biopolitics}}".<ref name="Esposito2008">{{cite book|author={{w|Roberto Esposito}}|title=Bios: Biopolitics and Philosophy|url=https://books.google.com/?id=FIZS2GpUzGwC&pg=PA16|year=2008|publisher=U of Minnesota Press|isbn=978-0-8166-4989-1|page=16}}</ref> in his 1905 two-volume work ''The Great Powers''.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Gunneflo|first=Markus|year=2015|url=https://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/014e3f7b-0a6b-4535-8e83-d04a04d2008c|title=Rudolf Kjellén: Nordic biopolitics before the welfare state|journal={{w|Retfærd}}|volume=35|issue=3|issn=0105-1121}}</ref> || {{w|Sweden}} || [[File:Rudolfk.jpg|thumb|center|120px|Rudolf Kjellén]]
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|-
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| 1926 || General || Literature (article) || German theologian {{w|Fritz Jahr}}, referring to European and Oriental traditions, publishes an article entitled ''Natural sciences and teaching ethics'' where he gives the subtitle “Old Knowledge in new clothes” describing the function of natural sciences for education and teaching biological research ethics.<ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present"/> || {{w|Germany}}
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| 1927 || General || Concept development || {{w|Fritz Jahr}} publishes article using the German term “Bio-Ethik” (which translates as “Bio-Ethics”) and argues, both for the establishment of a new academic discipline, and for the practice of a new, more civilized, ethical approach to issues concerning human beings and the environment. Jahr would publish similar articles discussing bioethics in 1928, and 1934.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/> || {{w|Germany}}
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|-
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| 1931 || {{w|Reproductive rights}} || Policy || {{w|Mexico}} becomes the first country in the world to legalize abortion in cases of rape.<ref>{{cite web |title=Mexico City to Legalize Abortion Despite Protests |url=http://www.banderasnews.com/0704/nr-despiteprotests.htm |website=banderasnews.com |accessdate=1 July 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Mexico}}
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| 1938 || {{w|Biopolitics}} || Literature (book) || English writer {{w|Morley Roberts}} publishes ''Bio-politics: an essay in the physiology, pathology & politics of the social & somatic organism'', which argues that a correct model for [[w:Geopolitics|world politics]] is "a loose association of cell and protozoa colonies".<ref name="Liesen">Liesen, Laurette T. and Walsh, Mary Barbara, The Competing Meanings of 'Biopolitics' in Political Science: Biological and Post-Modern Approaches to Politics (2011). APSA 2011 Annual Meeting Paper {{ssrn|1902949}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}} || [[File:Morley Roberts 1907 Boston.jpg|thub|center|120px|{{w|Morley Roberts}}]]
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| 1947 || General || Literature (essay) || American ecologist {{w|Aldo Leopold}} publishes ''The Land Ethic'', a chapter in ''{{w|A Sand County Almanac}}''. Leopold argues that there is a critical need for a "new ethic," an "ethic dealing with human's relation to land and to the animals and plants which grow upon it".<ref name=Leopold1949>Leopold, A. 1949. ''A Sand County Almanac''. Oxford University Press, New York.</ref> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Aldo Leopold, 1946 (cropped).jpg|thumb|center|120px|{{w|Aldo Leopold}}]]
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| 1947 || {{w|Human experimentation}} || Policy || The {{w|Nuremberg Code}} is adopted as a set of {{w|research ethics}} principles for {{w|human experimentation}} created as a result of the [[w:subsequent Nuremberg trials|Nuremberg trials]] at the end of the [[w:World War II|Second World War]]. These principles are used as a set of research principles to be used to prosecute the Nazi scientists as war criminals.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Eaton |first1=Margaret L. |last2=Kennedy |first2=Donald |title=Innovation in Medical Technology: Ethical Issues and Challenges |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=lRXjAeGbnVcC&pg=RA1-PA38&dq=Nuremberg+Code+%221947%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjgtvfEnK3sAhVZDrkGHZ5QCJcQ6AEwCXoECAQQAg#v=onepage&q=Nuremberg%20Code%20%221947%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Nikolova |first1=Blagovesta |title=The RRI Challenge: Responsibilization in a State of Tension with Market Regulation |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=rHuSDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA123&dq=Nuremberg+Code+%221947%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjgtvfEnK3sAhVZDrkGHZ5QCJcQ6AEwBHoECAIQAg#v=onepage&q=Nuremberg%20Code%20%221947%22&f=false}}</ref> ||
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| 1948–1953 || {{w|Human sexuality}} || Literature (book) || American biologist {{w|Alfred Kinsey}} publishes ''{{w|Sexual Behavior in the Human Male}}''. Five years later, he publishes ''{{w|Sexual Behavior in the Human Female}}''. These books, known as the {{w|Kinsey Reports}} would become very controversial, because they examine topics which are regarded as taboo at the time, such as {{w|masturbation}}, {{w|orgasm}}, {{w|sexual intercourse}}, {{w|promiscuity}}, and {{w|sexual fantasies}}.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Charles Kinsey |first1=Alfred |last2=Baxter Pomeroy |first2=Wardell |last3=Eugene Martin |first3=Clyde |title=Sexual Behavior in the Human Male |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books/about/Sexual_Behavior_in_the_Human_Male.html?id=pfMKrY3VvigC&redir_esc=y}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Sexual Behavior in the Human Male |url=https://www.britannica.com/topic/Sexual-Behavior-in-the-Human-Male |website=britannica.com |accessdate=12 July 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Alfred Kinsey 1955.jpg|thumb|center|120px|{{w|Alfred Kinsey}}]]
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| 1965 || {{w|Science and technology studies}} || Literature (journal) || [[w:Peer review|Peer-reviewed]] {{w|academic journal}} ''{{w|Science, Technology, & Human Values}}'' is founded. It covers research on the relationship of [[w:science, technology and society|science and technology with society]].<ref>{{cite web |title=Editorial: "Science, Technology, & Human Values" at 40 |url=https://www.jstor.org/stable/23474402?seq=1 |website=jstor.org |accessdate=11 October 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1966 || {{w|Cryonics}} || Notable case || The first human body –a middle-aged woman from Los Angeles, is frozen by being placed in {{w|liquid nitrogen}} and stored at just above freezing. However, the body would be later thawed out and buried by relatives.<ref name=alcor>{{cite web|url=https://alcor.org/Library/html/suspensionfailures.html|title=Suspension Failures – Lessons from the Early Days |last= Perry|first=R. Michael|website=ALCOR: Life Extension Foundation|date=October 2014|accessdate=August 29, 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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|-
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| 1967 || {{w|Value studies}} || Literature (journal) || {{w|Peer-review}}ed [[w:philosophy|philosophical]] journal ''{{w|Journal of Value Inquiry}}'' is established. It focuses on {{w|value studies}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=The Journal of Value Inquiry |url=https://www.springer.com/journal/10790 |website=springer.com |accessdate=10 October 2020}}</ref> ||
 
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| 380 BC || Field development || The ''[[w:Republic (Plato)|Republic]]'' of {{w|Plato}} advocates selective human breeding in anticipation of later programs of {{w|eugenics}}.<ref name="Bioethicsbritannica.com"/> ||
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| 1969 || General || Organization || The Institute of Society, Ethics, and the Life Sciences (later {{w|The Hastings Center}}) is founded by American philosopher {{w|Daniel Callahan}}  and Professor {{w|Willard Gaylin}} as a bioethics research institute. Located in {{w|Garrison, New York}}<ref>{{cite web |title=The Hastings Center |url=https://www.thehastingscenter.org/who-we-are/ |website=thehastingscenter.org |accessdate=19 December 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=About The Hastings Center |url=https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hast.965 |website=onlinelibrary.wiley.com |accessdate=19 December 2019}}</ref>, it would be regarded as instrumental in establishing the field of bioethics and one of the most prestigious bioethics and health policy institutes in the world.<ref name="AutoFJ-3">{{cite web|url=http://www.pewforum.org/2004/12/07/bioethics-and-human-nature-exploring-some-background-issues/ |title=Pew Forum |publisher=Pew Research Center }}</ref><ref name="AutoFJ-4">{{cite journal|title= Public Health and Bioethics: The Benefits of Collaboration |publisher=US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health | pmc=1447034 | pmid=11818283 |volume=92 |year=2002 |journal=Am J Public Health |pages=165–7 |author=Levin BW, Fleischman AR |issue=2 |doi=10.2105/ajph.92.2.165}}</ref><ref name="AutoFJ-5">{{cite web|url=http://www.iep.utm.edu/home/about/ |title=Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy}}</ref> The Hastings Center publishes two journals, the ''{{w|Hastings Center Report}}'',<ref name="AutoFJ-12">{{cite web|url=http://medicalxpress.com/journals/hastings-center-report/|title=Medical Xpress - medical research advances and health news|website=medicalxpress.com|accessdate=1 December 2020}}</ref><ref name="AutoFJ-13">{{cite web|url=http://www.thehastingscenter.org/Publications/HCR/Default.aspx |title=Report |work=The Hastings Center |date= |accessdate=1 December 2020}}</ref> and ''{{w|Ethics & Human Research}}'' (formerly ''IRB: Ethics & Human Research'').<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.thehastingscenter.org/publications-resources/ethics-human-research/|title=Ethics & Human Research|website=The Hastings Center|language=en-US|access-date=1 December 2020}}</ref> A freestanding bioethics center, it is the first institution devoted to the study of bioethical questions.<ref name="Bioethics - History Of Bioethics"/><ref name="Handbook of Bioethics and Religion">{{cite book |last1=Guinn |first1=David E. |title=Handbook of Bioethics and Religion |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=WClvsJ03vWgC&pg=PA24&lpg=PA24&dq=%22bioethics%22+%22in+1960..1980%22&source=bl&ots=90_5uE3Lni&sig=Pmnj0QqfitlGi7XPw1ycVZH_sBk&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwinip-VwprdAhVChJAKHTNZB7AQ6AEwAnoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22bioethics%22%20%22in%201960..1980%22&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Woodlawn, Garrison, NY wide view.jpg|thumb|center|120px]]
 
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| 1259 – 1265 || Literature || Italian philosopher {{w|Thomas Aquinas}} writes his ''{{w|Summa contra Gentiles}}'', which briefly discusses the permissibility of {{w|abortion}}.<ref name="Bioethicsbritannica.com">{{cite web |title=Bioethics |url=https://www.britannica.com/topic/bioethics |website=britannica.com |accessdate=18 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|Italy}}
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| 1969 || [[w:Biological agent|Biological agent use]] || Policy || United States President {{w|Richard Nixon}} terminate production of biological weapons, allowing only scientific research for defensive measures.<ref>{{cite web |title=A Farewell to Germs: The U.S. Renunciation of Biological and Toxin Warfare, 1969-70 |url=https://www.jstor.org/stable/3092154?seq=1 |website=jstor.org |access-date=12 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
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| 1588 || || "In 1588, Pope Sixtus V adopted a papal bull adopting the position of St. Thomas Aquinas that contraception and abortion were crimes against nature and sins against marriage. " ||
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| 1970 || {{w|Environmental ethics}} || Literature (article) || American biochemist {{w|Van Rensselaer Potter}} publishes his article ''Bioethics, the Science of Survival'', which suggests viewing bioethics as a global movement in order to foster concern for the environment and ethics.<ref name="Bioethicsvv">{{cite web |title=Bioethics |url=https://www.iep.utm.edu/bioethic/ |website=iep.utm.edu |accessdate=1 September 2018}}</ref><ref name="Handbook of Bioethics and Religion"/> Van Rensselaer Potter defines the term "bioethics" to describe a new philosophy that seeks to integrate biology, ecology, medicine, and human values.<ref name="Global Bioethics: Building on t"/> ||
 
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| 1775 – 1780 || Field development || German philosopher {{w|Immanuel Kant}} in his lectures on ethics argues against the sale of human body parts.<ref name="Bioethicsbritannica.com"/> ||
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| 1970 || {{w|Speciesism}} || Concept development || English {{w|animal rights}} advocate {{w|Richard D. Ryder}} coins the term "{{w|speciesism}}" to describe the exclusion of nonhuman animals from the protections available to human beings.<ref>{{cite web |title=RICHARD RYDER ON SPECIESISM |url=https://www.veganism.com/richard-ryder-on-speciesism/ |website=veganism.com |access-date=26 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}} || [[File:Richard D Ryder in The Superior Human (2012).jpg|thumb|center|120px]]
 
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| 1847 || || The {{w|American Medical Association}} adopts its first [[w:ethical code|code of ethics]], with this being based in large part upon the work of {{w|Thomas Percival}}.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.uab.edu/reynolds/MajMedFigs/Percival.htm |title=Archived copy |accessdate=2007-10-16 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20060704201058/http://www.uab.edu/reynolds/MajMedFigs/Percival.htm |archivedate=2006-07-04 }}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1971 || General || Literature (book) || {{w|Van Rensselaer Potter}} publishes book ''Bioethics: Bridge to the Future''.<ref name="Handbook of Bioethics and Religion"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1926 || Literature || German theologian {{w|Fritz Jahr}}, referring to European and Oriental traditions, publishes an article entitled ''Natural sciences and teaching ethics'' where he gives the subtitle “Old Knowledge in new clothes” describing the function of natural sciences for education and teaching biological research ethics.<ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present"/> || {{w|Germany}}
+
| 1971 || General || Literature (journal) || [[w:Peer review|Peer-reviewed]] {{w|academic journal}} ''{{w|Hastings Center Report}}'' is first issued.<ref>{{cite web |title=The Hastings Center Report |url=https://www.jstor.org/journal/hastcentrepo |website=jstor.org |accessdate=10 October 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1927 || Literature || {{w|Fritz Jahr}} publishes article using the German term “Bio-Ethik” (which translates as “Bio-Ethics”) and argues, both for the establishment of a new academic discipline, and for the practice of a new, more civilized, ethical approach to issues concerning human beings and the environment. Jahr would publish similar articles discussing bioethics in 1928, and 1934.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/> || {{w|Germany}}
+
| 1971 || {{w|Biomedicine}} || Concept development || {{w|Georgetown University}} researcher Andre Hellegers uses the term ''bioethics'' to refer to interdisciplinary research moral problems of {{w|biomedicine}}, primarily associated with the need to protect the dignity and rights of patients.<ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present"/> || {{w|United States}}  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1932 || Literature || {{w|The Linacre Quarterly}} || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1971 || {{w|Medicine}} || Organization || The [[w:Kennedy Institute of Ethics|Joseph and Rose Kennedy Center for the Study of Human Reproduction and Bioethics]] (now known as Kennedy Center) opens at {{w|Georgetown University}}. With similar goals to those of {{w|The Hastings Center}}, the Kennedy Institute is however placed inside the traditional academy.<ref name="Bioethics - History Of Bioethics"/><ref name="Handbook of Bioethics and Religion"/> Founded by Andre Hellegers, it is the first in the world to establish an institute of bioethics on the basis of interdisciplinary research and approaches.<ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present"/> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:KIEJ Cover.png|thumb|center|130px]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1932 || || {{w|Tuskegee syphilis experiment}} || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1972 || Catholic bioethics || Organization || The {{w|National Catholic Bioethics Center}} is established. Based in {{w|Philadelphia}}, it states its mission as "promoting and safeguarding the dignity of the human person, thereby sharing in the ministry of {{w|Jesus Christ}} and his Church."<ref>[http://www.ncbcenter.org/page.aspx?pid=245 Mission of the NCBC]</ref>.<ref>{{cite web |title=National Catholic Bioethics Center |url=https://www.ncbcenter.org/ |website=ncbcenter.org |accessdate=12 July 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=NCBC - National Catholic Bioethics Center |url=http://inters.org/websites/ncbc |website=inters.org |accessdate=12 July 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Curran |first1=Charles E. |title=Catholic Moral Theology in the United States: A History |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=enB4otKhEFwC&pg=PA230&lpg=PA230&dq=1972+Organization+National+Catholic+Bioethics+Center&source=bl&ots=rH9AHqZDbp&sig=ACfU3U1imkJ5kLse1gAjljZiLf2kmthC2w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiVxcPTmMjqAhXgKLkGHXeCCbsQ6AEwBHoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=1972%20Organization%20National%20Catholic%20Bioethics%20Center&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1943–1944 || || {{w|Nazi human experimentation}}. "The central leader of the experiments was [[Josef Mengele]], who from 1943 to 1944 performed experiments on nearly 1,500 sets of imprisoned twins at Auschwitz. About 200 people survived these studies."<ref>[http://www.longwood.k12.ny.us/lhs/science/mos/twins/mengele.html Josef Mengele and Experimentation on Human Twins at Auschwitz] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150414074936/http://www.longwood.k12.ny.us/lhs/science/mos/twins/mengele.html |date=14 April 2015 }}, ''Children of the Flames; Dr. Josef Mengele and the Untold Story of the Twins of Auschwitz'', Lucette Matalon Lagnado and Sheila Cohn Dekel, and ''Mengele: the Complete Story'' by Gerald Posner and John Ware.</ref> ||
+
| 1973 || General || Literature (article) || American philosopher {{w|Daniel Callahan}} writes essay ''Bioethics as a Discipline'', whose title is the first entry of the word "bioethics" in the catalogue of the National Library of Congress.<ref name="Handbook of Bioethics and Religion"/> In the article, Callahan argues for the establishment of a new academic discipline.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/> || {{w|United States}} 
 
|-
 
|-
| 1947 || || The {{w|Nuremberg Code}} is adopted as a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation. It is set as a result of the {{w|Subsequent Nuremberg trials}} at the end of the {{w|Second World War}}.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/> || {{w|Germany}}
+
| 1974 || {{w|Human subject research}} || Policy || The {{w|93rd United States Congress}} enacts the {{w|National Research Act}}, which authorizes federal agencies to develop human research regulations.<ref>{{cite web |title=Research Implications |url=https://www.cdc.gov/tuskegee/after.htm |website=cdc.gov |accessdate=11 October 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Belmont Report |url=https://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/regulations-and-policy/belmont-report/index.html |website=hhs.gov |accessdate=11 October 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=The Tuskegee Timeline |url=https://www.cdc.gov/tuskegee/timeline.htm |website=cdc.gov |accessdate=12 July 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Tuskegee Experiment: The Infamous Syphilis Study |url=https://www.history.com/news/the-infamous-40-year-tuskegee-study |website=history.com |accessdate=12 July 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1948 || || {{w|Declaration of Geneva}} || {{w|Switzerland}}
+
| 1975 || {{w|Cruelty to animals}} || Literature (book) || Australian {{w|moral philosopher}} {{w|Peter Singer}} publishes ''[[w:Animal Liberation (book)|Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals]]'', which raises concern on {{w|cruelty to animals}}. The book exposes the realities of {{w|factory farm}}s and product-testing procedures. It is widely considered within the {{w|animal liberation movement}} to be the founding philosophical statement of its ideas. Singer claims that human beings must consider the equal interests of human beings and animals alike.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Animal liberation: A new ethics for our treatment of animals |url=https://www.amazon.com/Animal-liberation-ethics-treatment-animals/dp/0394400968/ref=sr_1_1?dchild=1&keywords=Animal+Liberation%3A+A+New+Ethics+for+Our+Treatment+of+Animals&qid=1606942003&s=books&sr=1-1 |website=amazon.com |access-date=2 December 2020}}</ref> Activist {{w|Ingrid Newkirk}} would later write of ''Animal Liberation'', "It forever changed the conversation about our treatment of animals. It made people—myself included—change what we ate, what we wore, and how we perceived animals."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.peta.org/about-peta/learn-about-peta/ingrid-newkirk/animal-liberation/ |title=What Is Animal Liberation? Philosopher Peter Singer’s Groundbreaking Work Turns 40 &#124; A Message From PETA’s President &#124; All About PETA &#124; About |publisher=PETA |date=2015-04-14 |access-date=13 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Peter Singer no Fronteiras do Pensamento Porto Alegre (9619604688) (cropped).jpg|thumb|center|120px|{{w|Peter Singer}}]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1954 || Literature || Joseph F. Fletcher publishes ''Morals and Medicine: The Moral Problems of the Patient’s Right to Know the Truth, Contraception, Artificial Insemination, Sterilization, and Euthanasia''.<ref>{{cite web |title=Morals and Medicine |url=https://press.princeton.edu/titles/549.html |website=press.princeton.edu |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref><ref name="Bioethicsvv"/> ||
+
| 1975 || {{w|Genetics}} || Field development || At a gathering at the {{w|Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA}} at {{w|Asilomar, California}}, scientists discuss the benefits and risks of {{w|recombinant DNA}} research. The  Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee is formed by the {{w|National Institutes of Health}} to provide guidance for researchers and institutions. The Institutional Biosafety Committees (IBCs) is also formed to review and oversee research involving hazardous biological materials.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)">{{cite web |title=Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present) |url=https://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/bioethics/timeline/index.cfm |website=niehs.nih.gov |accessdate=18 September 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Historical Events in the rDNA Debate |url=https://www.ndsu.edu/pubweb/~mcclean/plsc431/debate/debate3.htm |website=ndsu.edu |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Asilomar Conference on Laboratory Precautions When Conducting Recombinant DNA Research – Case Summary |url=https://scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1023&context=edethicsinscience |website=scholarworks.umass.edu |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1964 || || The {{w|Declaration of Helsinki}} is created in order to provide researchers and physicians with ethical guidelines. It is developed for the medical community by the {{w|World Medical Association}}.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/><ref>{{cite web |title=DECLARATION OF HELSINKI |url=https://www.wma.net/what-we-do/medical-ethics/declaration-of-helsinki/ |website=wma.net |accessdate=27 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|Finland}}
+
| 1977 || General || Literature (book) || British philosopher {{w|Jonathan Glover}} publishes ''Causing Death and Saving Lives'', which addresses practical moral questions about life and death decisions in the areas of {{w|abortion}}, {{w|infanticide}}, {{w|suicide}}, {{w|euthanasia}}, choices between people, {{w|capital punishment}}, and issues of war and peace.<ref>{{cite web |title=Causing Death and Saving Lives |url=https://www.amazon.com/Causing-Death-Saving-Lives-Pelican/dp/0140220038 |website=amazon.com |access-date=13 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|nited Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1978 || General || Literature (encyclopedia) || The ''Encyclopedia of Bioethics'' launches its first edition, becoming the first reference book to focus exclusively on the field of bioethics.<ref>{{cite web |title=The new edition (4th) of the Encyclopedia of Bioethics |url=http://www.saocamilo-sp.br/pdf/bioethikos/155567/Editorialen.pdf |website=saocamilo-sp.br |accessdate=20 December 2019}}</ref><ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1978 || {{w|Biopolitics}} || Concept development || French philosopher {{w|Michel Foucault}} elaborates further his concept of {{w|biopower}} in his lecture courses delivered at the Collège de France.<ref>{{cite web |title=Security, Territory, Population |url=https://www.palgrave.com/gp/book/9781403986528 |website=palgrave.com |access-date=1 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|France}} || [[File:Michel Foucault 1974 Brasil.jpg|thumb|center|120px]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1979 || [[w:Biological agent|Biological agent use]] || Notable case || An [[w:Sverdlovsk Anthrax leak|anthrax outbreak in Sverdlovsk]] ({{w|Soviet Union}}) occurs when spores of {{w|anthrax}} are accidentally released from a Soviet military research facility. In what would be considered among the largest biological weapons accident, approximately 100 people die. Sheep become ill with anthrax as far as 200 kilometers from the release point.<ref>The Soviet Biological Weapons Program: A History. Politics & The Life Sciences, Guillemin J</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Sverdlovsk Anthrax leak |url=https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/plague/sverdlovsk/ |website=pbs.org |access-date=12 December 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Anthrax |url=http://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/bioter/sverd/sverd_intro_a.html |website=ph.ucla.edu |access-date=12 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Russia}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1980 || {{w|Genetic engineering}} || Policy || In the {{w|Diamond v. Chakrabarty}} case the {{w|United States Supreme Court}} rules that a genetically modified bacterium can be patented because it is the product of human ingenuity. This sets a precedent for patents on other life forms and helps to establish solid intellectual property protection for the new biotechnology industry.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1966 || Organization || The [[W:Schlesinger Institute|Schlesinger Institute for Medical-Halachic Research]] is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute for Medical-Halachic Research |url=http://www.medethics.org.il/website/index.php/en/ |website=medethics.org.il |accessdate=3 September 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Partnership with the Dr. Falk Schlesinger Institute for Medical-Halachic Research and the International Responsa Project |url=https://www.israelrabbis.org/about-barkai-practical-rabbinics/newsletter-articles/90-bulletin/96-partnership-with-the-dr-falk-schlesinger-institute-for-medical-halachic-research-and-the-international-responsa-project |website=israelrabbis.org |accessdate=3 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|Israel}}
+
| 1980 || {{w|Philosophy of medicine}}, general bioethics || Literature (journal) || {{w|Peer-reviewed}} {{w|medical journal}} ''{{w|Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics}}'' is first issued.<ref name="tandfonline.comss">{{cite web |title=How Philosophy of Medicine Has Changed Medical Ethics |url=https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03605310601009315 |website=tandfonline.com |accessdate=10 October 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1966 || Organization || The first medical ethics committees in Europe emerge in the United Kingdom and Sweden.<ref name="Bioethics in a European Perspective">{{cite book |last1=Have |first1=Ten |last2=Gordijn |first2=Bert |title=Bioethics in a European Perspective |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=6kf8CAAAQBAJ&pg=PA242&lpg=PA242&dq=%22bioethics%22+%22in+1980..1990%22&source=bl&ots=EqKIhtbEXd&sig=nouvRbqMAo4_002jQdhY4WH_GSE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwih_fi8yJrdAhXHQZAKHaJGCI8Q6AEwAXoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22bioethics%22%20%22in%201980..1990%22&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}, {{w|Sweden}}
+
| 1982 || {{w|Scientific misconduct}} || Literature (book) || {{w|William Broad}} and {{w|Nicholas Wade}} publish ''{{w|Betrayers of the Truth}}'', which attempts to reveal much of the scientific misconduct that happens at this time.<ref>{{cite web |title=Review: Betrayers of the Truth: A Fraudulent and Deceitful Title from the Journalists of Science |url=https://www.jstor.org/stable/690385?seq=1 |website=jstor.org |accessdate=6 August 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1966 || Field development || American anesthesiologist {{w|Henry K. Beecher}} publishes an article in ''{{w|The New England Journal of Medicine}}'' exposing 22 unethical studies in biomedicine, including the {{w|Tuskegee syphilis experiment}} and the [[w:Willowbrook State School|Willowbrook hepatitis study]].<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)">{{cite web |title=Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present) |url=https://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/bioethics/timeline/index.cfm |website=niehs.nih.gov |accessdate=18 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1986 || General || Literature (journal) || Peer-reviewed academic journal ''{{w|Biology and Philosophy}}'' is launched.<ref>{{cite web |title=Biology and Philosophy |url=https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10539-016-9559-6 |website=link.springer.com |accessdate=3 September 2018}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1969 || Organization || {{w|The Hastings Center}} is founded as a bioethics research institute. It is located in {{w|Garrison, New York}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=The Hastings Center |url=https://www.thehastingscenter.org/who-we-are/ |website=thehastingscenter.org |accessdate=19 December 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=About The Hastings Center |url=https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hast.965 |website=onlinelibrary.wiley.com |accessdate=19 December 2019}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1986 || [[w:Biocentrism (ethics)|Biocentrism]] || Literature (book) || American philosopher {{w|Paul W. Taylor}} publishes ''Respect for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics'' which discusses [[w:Biocentrism (ethics)|biocentrism]]. Taylor maintains that biocentrism is an "attitude of respect for nature", whereby one attempts to make an effort to live one's life in a way that respects the welfare and inherent worth of all {{w|living creature}}s.<ref name="case-studies-derr-21">{{cite book|last=Derr|first=Patrick George|author2=Edward M. McNamara|title=Case studies in environmental ethics|publisher=Rowman & Littlefield|year=2003|pages=21|isbn=978-0-7425-3137-6|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=oLu5C4sYa_kC&pg=PP21&dq=biocentrism+ethics&lr=&ei=aHB3S77IFoTmlASH_5i5BA&cd=12#v=onepage&q=biocentrism%20ethics&f=false}}</ref><ref name="eco-ethics-60">{{cite book|last=Curry|first=Patrick|title=Ecological ethics: an introduction|publisher=[[w:Polity (publisher)|Polity]]|year=2006|pages=[https://archive.org/details/ecologicalethics0000curr/page/60 60]|isbn=978-0-7456-2908-7|url=https://archive.org/details/ecologicalethics0000curr|url-access=registration|quote=biocentrism ethics.}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1970 || Literature || Paul Ramsey publishes ''The Patient as Person: Explorations in Medical Ethics''.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Ashley |first1=Benedict M. |title=Health Care Ethics: A Catholic Theological Analysis, Fifth Edition |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=jEEErLTiOz8C&pg=PA9&dq=%22in+1970%22+The+Patient+as+Person:+Explorations+in+Medical+Ethics&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjnqZ__scLdAhUFGJAKHXt5Cp8Q6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=%22in%201970%22%20The%20Patient%20as%20Person%3A%20Explorations%20in%20Medical%20Ethics&f=false}}</ref><ref name="Bioethicsvv"/> ||  
+
| 1987 || General || Literature (book) || Ren-zong Qiu's ''Bioethics'' is published as the first bioethics book in {{w|China}}.<ref name="Annals of Bioethics: Regional Perspectives in Bioethics">{{cite book |last1=Cherry |first1=Mark J. |last2=Peppin |first2=John F. |title=Annals of Bioethics: Regional Perspectives in Bioethics |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=CUB5AgAAQBAJ&pg=PA248&dq=%22in+1987%22+Journal+Bioethics&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiWuKHx_8DdAhVGlZAKHQ2DArwQ6AEILjAB#v=onepage&q=%22in%201987%22%20Journal%20Bioethics&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|China}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1970 || Organization || The [[w:The Hastings Center|Institute of Society, Ethics and the Life Sciences]] (later Hastings Center) is founded. A freestanding bioethics center, it is the first institution devoted to the study of bioethical questions.<ref name="Bioethics - History Of Bioethics"/><ref name="Handbook of Bioethics and Religion">{{cite book |last1=Guinn |first1=David E. |title=Handbook of Bioethics and Religion |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=WClvsJ03vWgC&pg=PA24&lpg=PA24&dq=%22bioethics%22+%22in+1960..1980%22&source=bl&ots=90_5uE3Lni&sig=Pmnj0QqfitlGi7XPw1ycVZH_sBk&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwinip-VwprdAhVChJAKHTNZB7AQ6AEwAnoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22bioethics%22%20%22in%201960..1980%22&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1987 || General || Literature (journal) || Peer-reviewed academic journal ''[[w:Bioethics (journal)|Bioethics]]'' is launched.<ref>{{cite web |title=Bioethics |url=https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/toc/14678519/1987/1/1 |website=onlinelibrary.wiley.com |accessdate=12 July 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1970 || Literature || American biochemist {{w|Van Rensselaer Potter}} publishes his article ''Bioethics, the Science of Survival'', which suggests viewing bioethics as a global movement in order to foster concern for the environment and ethics.<ref name="Bioethicsvv">{{cite web |title=Bioethics |url=https://www.iep.utm.edu/bioethic/ |website=iep.utm.edu |accessdate=1 September 2018}}</ref><ref name="Handbook of Bioethics and Religion"/> ||
+
| 1988 || {{w|Environmental ethics}} || Literature (journal) || The ''{{w|Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics}}'' is established.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Barnhill |first1=Anne |last2=Doggett |first2=Tyler |title=The Oxford Handbook of Food Ethics |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=_QpDDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA265&lpg=PA265&dq=%22Journal+of+Agricultural+and+Environmental+Ethics%22+%221988%22&source=bl&ots=Itg7VnQ2P_&sig=dVayGEAUB-u386zoCY2kAx0p7iE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjE7L7SwZ_dAhUEWpAKHYcUCqkQ6AEwB3oECAQQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22Journal%20of%20Agricultural%20and%20Environmental%20Ethics%22%20%221988%22&f=false}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1971 || Literature || {{w|Van Rensselaer Potter}} publishes book ''Bioethics: Bridge to the Future''.<ref name="Handbook of Bioethics and Religion"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1988 || [[w:Genetically modified mouse|Genetically modified mice]] || Notable case || {{w|Harvard University}} and {{w|Dow Chemical Company}} patent a genetically engineered mouse used to study cancer. This invention would become highly controversial as it involves the [[w:genetic engineering|genetic manipulation]] of animals, particularly {{w|mammals}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Bioethics and Patent Law: The Case of the Oncomouse |url=https://www.wipo.int/wipo_magazine/en/2006/03/article_0006.html |website=wipo.int |accessdate=12 July 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Harvard Gets Mouse Patent, A World First |url=https://www.nytimes.com/1988/04/13/us/harvard-gets-mouse-patent-a-world-first.html |website=nytimes.com |accessdate=12 July 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=The Mouse That Changed Science |url=https://www.sciencehistory.org/distillations/podcast/the-mouse-that-changed-science |website=sciencehistory.org |accessdate=12 July 2020}}</ref><ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1971 || Concept development || {{w|Georgetown University}} researcher Andre Hellegers uses the term ''bioethics'' to refer to interdisciplinary research moral problems of biomedicine, primarily associated with the need to protect the dignity and rights of patients.<ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present"/> || {{w|United States}}  
+
| 1988 || General || Literature (book) || {{w|Van Rensselaer Potter}} publishes ''Global bioethics'',<ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present">{{cite web |title=Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present |url=https://www.intechopen.com/books/reflections-on-bioethics/russian-school-of-bioethics-history-and-the-present- |website=intechopen.com |accessdate=20 December 2019}}</ref> which defines bioethics as "Biology combined with diverse humanistic knowledge forging a science that sets a system of medical and environmental priorities for acceptable survival."<ref name="Global Bioethics: Building on t">{{cite web |title=Global Bioethics: Building on the Leopold Legacy |url=https://www.amazon.com/Global-Bioethics-Building-Leopold-Legacy/dp/0870132644 |website=amazon.com |access-date=2 December 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1971 || Organization || The [[w:Kennedy Institute of Ethics|Joseph and Rose Kennedy Center for the Study of Human Reproduction and Bioethics]] (now known as Kennedy Center) opens at {{w|Georgetown University}}. With similar goals to those of {{w|The Hastings Center}}, the Kennedy Institute is however placed inside the traditional academy.<ref name="Bioethics - History Of Bioethics"/><ref name="Handbook of Bioethics and Religion"/> Founded by Andre Hellegers, it is the first in the world to establish an institute of bioethics on the basis of interdisciplinary research and approaches.<ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present"/> || {{w|United States}}  
+
| 1989 || Research ethics || Literature (book) || The United States {{w|National Academy of Sciences}} publishes ''On Being A Scientist'', a free, short book on research ethics for scientists in training.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/><ref>{{cite web |title=ON BEING A SCIENTIST |url=https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/cconroy/files/nas_on_being_a_scientist.pdf |website=scholar.harvard.edu |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |title=On Being a Scientist: A Guide to Responsible Conduct in Research |doi=10.17226/12192 |pmid=25009901 |url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25009901/}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=On Being a Scientist: A Guide to Responsible Conduct in Research: Third Edition |url=http://biblioteca.ucv.cl/site/colecciones/manuales_u/12192.pdf |website=biblioteca.ucv.cl |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1972 || Organization || {{w|National Catholic Bioethics Center}} || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1990 || General || Literature (column) || American medical ethicist {{w|Sigrid Fry-Revere}} starts the column ''{{w|Legal Trends in Bioethics}}'' for the ''Journal of Clinical Ethics''.<ref>{{cite web |title=Legal trends in bioethics. |url=https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Legal-trends-in-bioethics.-Fry-Revere/fccb045033e49e6bf380b0c8bb94a368cb7efff9 |website=semanticscholar.org |accessdate=12 July 2020}}</ref> The column "tracks bioethics related issues through all stages of litigation, legislation, and regulation at both the federal and state levels, as well as occasionally mentioning exceptional legal developments in other countries."<ref name="CATO">Fry-Revere, S.: [http://www.cato-at-liberty.org/2007/09/23/legal-trends-in-bioethics/], "Legal Trends in Bioethics." Cato-at-Liberty Blog. September 23, 2007. Accessed August 27, 2009.</ref> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Sigrid Fry-Revere Portrait.jpg|thumb|center|120px|{{w|Sigrid Fry-Revere}}]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1973 || Concept development || Dan Callahan writes essay ''Bioethics as a Discipline'', whose title is the first entry of the word "bioethics" in the catalogue of the National Library of Congress.<ref name="Handbook of Bioethics and Religion"/> In the article, Callahan argues for the establishment of a new academic discipline.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1990 || {{w|Genetic discrimination}} || Notable case || The {{w|Human Genome Project}} is launched by the {{w|United States}} as a US$20 billion effort to map and sequence the {{w|human genome}}. At the onset of this project, several ethical, legal, and social concerns would be raised in regard to how increased knowledge of the human genome could be used to discriminate against people.<ref>{{cite web |title=1990: Launch of the Human Genome Project |url=https://www.genome.gov/25520329/online-education-kit-1990-launch-of-the-human-genome-project |website=genome.gov |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=The Human Genome Project (1990-2003) |url=https://embryo.asu.edu/pages/human-genome-project-1990-2003 |website=embryo.asu.edu |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Logo HGP.jpg|thumb|center|120px]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1975 || Literature || The ''{{w|Journal of Medical Ethics}}'' is launched.<ref>{{cite web |title=Editor-in-Chief Journal of Medical Ethics |url=https://blogs.bmj.com/medical-ethics/2017/07/05/editor-in-chief-journal-of-medical-ethics/ |website=blogs.bmj.com |accessdate=3 September 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=VEATCH |first1=ROBERT M. |title=How Philosophy of Medicine Has Changed Medical Ethics |url=https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03605310601009315 |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> ||
+
| 1991 || General || Organization || London-based {{w|Nuffield Council on Bioethics}} is established by the {{w|Nuffield Foundation}}, with the purpose to adress numerous bioethical issues in need of analysis.<ref>{{cite book |title=National bioethics committees in action |publisher=UNESCO |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=8JtYCgAAQBAJ&pg=PP8&dq=%22in+1991%22+%22Nuffield+Council+on+Bioethics%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjk2fS-5cLdAhXBE5AKHaqlCOQQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=%22in%201991%22%20%22Nuffield%20Council%20on%20Bioethics%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Weir |first1=Robert F. |last2=Olick |first2=Robert S. |last3=Murray |first3=Jeffrey C. |title=The Stored Tissue Issue: Biomedical Research, Ethics, and Law in the Era of Genomic Medicine |publisher= |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=_1ASDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA105&dq=%22in+1991%22+%22Nuffield+Council+on+Bioethics%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjk2fS-5cLdAhXBE5AKHaqlCOQQ6AEIMzAC#v=onepage&q=%22in%201991%22%20%22Nuffield%20Council%20on%20Bioethics%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Global Bioethics: The Impact of the UNESCO International Bioethics Committee |publisher=Alireza Bagheri, Jonathan D. Moreno, Stefano Semplici |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=Kv_NCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA129&dq=%22in+1991%22+%22Nuffield+Council+on+Bioethics%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjk2fS-5cLdAhXBE5AKHaqlCOQQ6AEIOzAD#v=onepage&q=%22in%201991%22%20%22Nuffield%20Council%20on%20Bioethics%22&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1975 || Field development || {{w|Peter Singer}} claims that human beings must consider the equal interests of human beings and animals alike.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/> ||
+
| 1991 || General || Literature (journal) || The ''{{w|Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal}}'' is launched.<ref>{{cite web |title=Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal |url=https://muse.jhu.edu/issue/13203 |website=muse.jhu.edu |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Evans |first1=John H. |title=Playing God?: Human Genetic Engineering and the Rationalization of Public Bioethical Debate |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=smFfe3p-rm8C&dq=1991+++The+Kennedy+Institute+of+Ethics+Journal+is+launched&source=gbs_navlinks_s}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1975 || Field development || At a gathering at the {{w|Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA}}, scientists discuss the benefits and risks of recombinant DNA research; the NIH forms the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee."<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1992 || Healthcare || Literature (journal) || Quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal ''{{w|Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics}}'' is launched.<ref>{{cite journal |title=Cambridge quarterly of healthcare ethics : CQ : the international journal of healthcare ethics committees |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/9208482}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1978 || Scientific development || {{w|Louise Brown}} is born as the world's first test-tube baby.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> ||
+
| 1992 || {{w|Scientific misconduct}} || Literature (book) || The United States {{w|National Academy of Sciences}} publishes ''Responsible Science: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process''. The book estimates the incidence of misconduct, discusses some of the causes of misconduct, proposes a definition of misconduct, and recommends some strategies for preventing misconduct.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/><ref>{{cite journal |title=Responsible Science: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process |doi=10.17226/1864 |pmid=25121265 |url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25121265/}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Responsible Science |url=https://www.nap.edu/read/1864/chapter/1 |website=nap.edu |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-  
 
|-  
| 1978 || || "With its starting publication in 1978 (1st edition), the Encyclopedia of Bioethics became the first reference book to focus exclusively on the new and promising field of bioethics, helping to define the discipline"<ref>{{cite web |title=The new edition (4th) of the Encyclopedia of Bioethics |url=http://www.saocamilo-sp.br/pdf/bioethikos/155567/Editorialen.pdf |website=saocamilo-sp.br |accessdate=20 December 2019}}</ref><ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present"/> ||
+
| 1992 || {{w|Environmental ethics}} || Literature (journal) || Peer-reviewed academic journal ''{{w|Environmental Values}}'' is established.<ref>{{cite web |last1= |first1= |title=Environmental |url=http://www.environmentandsociety.org/mml/collection/15702#:~:text=The%20journal%20was%20established%20in,published%20by%20White%20Horse%20Press. |website=environmentandsociety.org |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Routledge Handbook of Global Environmental Politics |edition=Paul G. Harris |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=YSRmAQAAQBAJ&pg=PT41&lpg=PT41&dq=1992++journal+Environmental+Values+is+established&source=bl&ots=SGy6_DMtMI&sig=ACfU3U3IfZ9GqwWPOXp6StwNIp-NY6UWyw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwidk4GZmMnqAhXdGbkGHXaXD8UQ6AEwBXoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=1992%20%20journal%20Environmental%20Values%20is%20established&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1992 || {{w|Research integrity}} || Organization || The {{w|United States Office of Research Integrity}} is formed. It focuses on {{w|research integrity}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=The Office of Research Integrity |url=https://ori.hhs.gov/historical-background#:~:text=In%20May%201992%2C%20OSI%20and,formally%20charged%20with%20research%20misconduct. |website=ori.hhs.gov |accessdate=5 August 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Office of Research Integrity logo.png|thumb|center|120px]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1979 || Literature || {{w|IRB: Ethics & Human Research}} ||
+
| 1993 || {{w|Human cloning}} || Notable case || Researchers successfully clone human {{w|embryo}}s.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1979 || Organization || The Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences officially establishes its own private central ethical committee.<ref name="Bioethics in a European Perspective"/> || {{w|Switzerland}}
+
| 1993 || General || Organization || The {{w|International Bioethics Committee}} is established by {{w|UNESCO}} to provide guidance on ethical and legal issues raised by research in medicine, biological sciences and associated technologies, and to reinforce knowledge in ethics.<ref>{{cite book |title=Global Bioethics: The Impact of the UNESCO International Bioethics Committee |edition=Alireza Bagheri, Jonathan D. Moreno, Stefano Semplici |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=Kv_NCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA176&dq=%22in+1993%22+International+Bioethics+Committee&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjztvzxucLdAhVIlpAKHYkRB2AQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=%22in%201993%22%20International%20Bioethics%20Committee&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=ten Have |first1=Henk |title=Global Bioethics: An introduction |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=mlyFCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA174&dq=%22in+1993%22+International+Bioethics+Committee&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjztvzxucLdAhVIlpAKHYkRB2AQ6AEIODAD#v=onepage&q=%22in%201993%22%20International%20Bioethics%20Committee&f=false}}</ref> || || [[File:UNESCO logo English.svg|thumb|center|120px]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1979 || Organization || {{w|Albert Gnaegi Center for Health Care Ethics}} || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1994 || {{w|Race and intelligence}} || Literature (book) || American psychologist {{w|Richard Herrnstein}} and American political scientist [[w:Charles Murray (political scientist)|Charles Murray]] publish ''{{w|The Bell Curve}}'', a controversial book that reignites the centuries old debate about biology, race and intelligence"<ref>{{cite web |title=Intelligence, Genes, and Success |url=https://www.springerprofessional.de/intelligence-genes-and-success/13726156 |website=springerprofessional.de |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Charles Murray Speaking at FreedomFest.jpeg|thumb|center|130px|[[w:Charles Murray (political scientist)|Charles Murray]]]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1979 || || The {{w|Belmont Report}} is released by the {{w| National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research}}. The Report becomes a key document in human research ethics regulations in the United States.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/><ref>{{cite web |title=The Belmont Report |url=https://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/regulations-and-policy/belmont-report/read-the-belmont-report/index.html |website=hhs.gov |accessdate=27 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1995 || Human and non-human animal patenting || Activism || About 200 religious leaders join in {{w|Washington, DC.}}, with leading biotechnology critic Jeremy Rifkin in a press conference named the "Joint Appeal against Human and Animal Patenting", protesting the patenting of plants, animals, and human body parts.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Hanson |first1=MJ |title=Religious voices in biotechnology: the case of gene patenting. |pmid=12962106 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12962106}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Hanson |first1=M J |title=Religious Voices in Biotechnology: The Case of Gene Patenting |url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12962106/}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1980 || Policy || In the {{w|Diamond v. Chakrabarty}} case the {{w|United States Supreme Court}} rules that a genetically modified bacterium can be patented because it is the product of human ingenuity. This sets a precedent for patents on other life forms and helps to establish solid intellectual property protection for the new biotechnology industry.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1995 || {{w|Healthcare}} || Organization || The {{w|Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics}} is established. It is dedicated to the study of complex moral and policy issues in biomedical science, health care, and health policy, promoting research in {{w|bioethics}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Berman Institute |url=https://bioethics.jhu.edu/about/history/ |website=bioethics.jhu.edu |accessdate=12 July 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Bioethics |url=https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/gim/research/content/bioethics.html |website=hopkinsmedicine.org |accessdate=12 July 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1981 || Organization || Japan establishes its first ethics committee, at the Medical Institute of Tokyo University.<ref name="Bioethics in a European Perspective"/> || {{w|Japan}}
+
| 1995 || General || Organization || The {{w|University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics}} is established.<ref>{{cite web |title=About Us: The Joint Centre for Bioethics |url=http://jcb.utoronto.ca/about/about.shtml |website=jcb.utoronto.ca/ |accessdate=19 December 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Canada}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1981 || Organization || {{w|MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics}} || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1995 || {{w|Biomedicine}} || Concept development || {{w|Daniel Callahan}} defines bioethics as a science “which is the product of biomedical achievements related to the environment and social sciences”.<ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present"/> || {{w|United States}}  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1985 || Literature || Zhi-zheng Du's ''Outline of Medical Ethics'' is published in China as the first systematic textbook of medical ethics after the cultural revolution of the 1960s and 1970s.<ref name="Annals of Bioethics: Regional Perspectives in Bioethics"/> || {{w|China}}
+
| 1995 || [[w:Biological agent|Biological agent use]] || Notable case || The {{w|Tokyo subway sarin attack}} is perpetrated. This would further increase concern among scientists and defense analysts about the use of chemical or biological weapons.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Evison |first1=Demetrius |last2=Hinsley |first2=David |last3=Rice |first3=Paul |title=Chemical weapons |doi=10.1136/bmj.324.7333.332 |pmid=11834561 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1122267/ |pmc=1122267}}</ref> || {{w|Japan}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1986 || Literature || Peer-reviewed academic journal ''{{w|Biology and Philosophy}}'' is launched.<ref>{{cite web |title=Biology and Philosophy |url=https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10539-016-9559-6 |website=link.springer.com |accessdate=3 September 2018}}</ref> ||
+
| 1995 || Science and engineering || Literature (journal) || Quarterly {{w|peer-review}}ed {{w|scientific journal}} ''{{w|Science and Engineering Ethics}}'' is first issued.<ref>{{cite web |title=Science and Engineering Ethics |url=https://link.springer.com/journal/11948/volumes-and-issues |website=link.springer.com |accessdate=10 October 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1987 || Organization || The European Society for Philosophy of Medicine and Health Care is founded by an international company of philosophers, physicians, ethicists and other interested professionals in the field.<ref name="The European Society For Philosophy Of Medicine And Healthcare">{{cite web |title=The European Society For Philosophy Of Medicine And Healthcare |url=http://www.espmh.org/about.php |website=espmh.org |accessdate=3 September 2018}}</ref> ||
+
| 1995 || Budhist bioethics || Literature (book) || British bioethicist {{w|Damien Keown}} publishes ''Buddhism & Bioethics'', which discusses issues in medical ethics from a Buddhist perspective, examining issues including {{w|abortion}}, {{w|embryo research}} and {{w|euthanasia}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Buddhism and Bioethics |url=https://www.amazon.com/Buddhism-Bioethics-Damien-Keown/dp/0333912802 |website=amazon.com |access-date=12 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1987 || Literature || Ren-zong Qiu's ''Bioethics'' is published as the first bioethics book in China.<ref name="Annals of Bioethics: Regional Perspectives in Bioethics">{{cite book |last1=Cherry |first1=Mark J. |last2=Peppin |first2=John F. |title=Annals of Bioethics: Regional Perspectives in Bioethics |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=CUB5AgAAQBAJ&pg=PA248&dq=%22in+1987%22+Journal+Bioethics&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiWuKHx_8DdAhVGlZAKHQ2DArwQ6AEILjAB#v=onepage&q=%22in%201987%22%20Journal%20Bioethics&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|China}}
+
| 1996 || {{w|Cloning}} || Notable case || [[w:Dolly (sheep)|Dolly]] is born as the first mammal ever to be cloned from another individual’s body cell. Her birth would be announced in 1997, followed by several European nations banning human cloning. The {{w|United States Congress}} would consider a bill to ban all human cloning but changes its mind after scientists argue that the bill would undermine biomedical research.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Dolly the sheep dies young |url=https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn3393-dolly-the-sheep-dies-young/ |website=newscientist.com |accessdate=27 September 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Dolly the sheep: 15 years after her death, cloning still has the power to shock |url=https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/dolly-the-sheep-cloning-15-years-death-future-humans-monkeys-what-next-a8208896.html |website=independent.co.uk |accessdate=27 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}} || [[File:Dolly face closeup.jpg|thumb|center|120px|Dolly taxidermied remains]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1987 || Literature || [[w:Bioethics (journal)|Bioethics]] ||
+
| 1996 || General || Organization || The {{w|National Bioethics Advisory Commission}} is established.<ref>{{cite web |title=History of Bioethics Commissions |url=https://bioethicsarchive.georgetown.edu/pcsbi/history.html |website=bioethicsarchive.georgetown.edu |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=National Bioethics Advisory Commission |url=https://clintonwhitehouse3.archives.gov/WH/EOP/OSTP/Science/html/nbac.html |website=clintonwhitehouse3.archives.gov |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:US-NationalBioethicsAdvisoryCommission-Logo.png|thumb|center|120px]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1988 || Literature || ''{{w|Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics}}'' is established.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Barnhill |first1=Anne |last2=Doggett |first2=Tyler |title=The Oxford Handbook of Food Ethics |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=_QpDDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA265&lpg=PA265&dq=%22Journal+of+Agricultural+and+Environmental+Ethics%22+%221988%22&source=bl&ots=Itg7VnQ2P_&sig=dVayGEAUB-u386zoCY2kAx0p7iE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjE7L7SwZ_dAhUEWpAKHYcUCqkQ6AEwB3oECAQQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22Journal%20of%20Agricultural%20and%20Environmental%20Ethics%22%20%221988%22&f=false}}</ref> ||
+
| 1996 || {{w|Ecology}} || Literature (book) || American philosopher {{w|David Abram}} publishes ''The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-than-Human World''. Abram coins the phrase "the more-than-human world" as a way of referring to earthly nature.<ref>{{cite web |title=The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human World |url=https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/48582.The_Spell_of_the_Sensuous |website=goodreads.com |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Photo of David Abram, 2019.jpg|thumb|center|120px|{{w|David Abram}}]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1988 || Scientific development || {{w|Harvard University}} and {{w|Dow Chemical Company}} patent a genetically engineered mouse used to study cancer.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1996 || {{w|Healthcare}} || Literature (book) || American philosopher {{w|H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr.}} publishes ''The Foundation of Bioethics'', in which he states “Moral diversity is real. It is real in fact and in principle. Bioethics and healthcare policy have yet to take this diversity seriously. Those who teach bioethics, those who engage in bioethics committees, even those who produced textbooks tend to discount the diversity of understanding regarding the morality of particular health care choices (e.g., regarding abortion, commercial surrogacy, euthanasia/ germline genetic engineering, inequalities in access to health care, infanticide, organ sales) or the nature of morality (e.g., theological, deontological, virtue-based)".<ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1988 || Literature || Zhao-xiong He's ''History of Chinese Medical Morality'' is published, providing material on medical ethics from ancient to current China.<ref name="Annals of Bioethics: Regional Perspectives in Bioethics"/> || {{w|China}}
+
| 1996 || Feminist bioethics || Literature (book) || American [[w:feminist philosophy|feminist philosopher]] publishes ''Feminist Approaches To Bioethics: Theoretical Reflections And Practical Applications'', which attemps to introduce to the field of feminist bioethics.<ref>{{cite web |title=Feminist Approaches To Bioethics: Theoretical Reflections And Practical Applications |url=https://www.amazon.com/Feminist-Approaches-Bioethics-Theoretical-Applications/dp/0813319552 |website=amazon.com |access-date=4 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1988 || Literature || Van Rensselaer Potter publishes ''Global bioethics''.<ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present">{{cite web |title=Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present |url=https://www.intechopen.com/books/reflections-on-bioethics/russian-school-of-bioethics-history-and-the-present- |website=intechopen.com |accessdate=20 December 2019}}</ref> ||
+
| 1997 || {{w|Human genetics}} || Treaty || The {{w|UNESCO}}'s {{w|International Bioethics Committee}} adopts the International Declaration on Human Genetic Data, its first international declaration.<ref name="The UNESCO Bioeth">{{cite journal |last1=Langlois |first1=Adèle |title=The UNESCO Bioethics Programme: A Review |pmid=24979873 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5627704/ |pmc=5627704}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1989 || Literature || The United States {{w|National Academy of Sciences}} publishes ''On Being A Scientist'', a free, short book on research ethics for scientists in training.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1997 || Publication ethics || Organization || The {{w|Committee On Publication Ethics}} is established in the {{w|United Kingdom}}, consisting in academic journal editors and others who are concerned about the integrity of what is peer-reviewed and published in journals.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Singh |first1=Jatinder |title=Committee on publication ethics |doi=10.4103/0976-500X.72371 |pmid=21350628 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3043328/ |accessdate=6 August 2020 |pmc=3043328}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Wager |first1=Elizabeth |title=The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE): Objectives and achievements 1997–2012Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) : objectifs et réalisations (1997–2012) |doi=10.1016/j.lpm.2012.02.049 |url=https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0755498212002874}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
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|-
| 1990 || || {{w|Legal Trends in Bioethics}} ||
+
| 1997 || ''{{w|Wisdom of repugnance}}'' || Concept development || The term "{{w|wisdom of repugnance}}" is coined by American physician {{w|Leon Kass}} in an article in ''{{w|The New Republic}}''. Kass states that disgust is not an argument ''per se'', but says that "in crucial cases... repugnance is the emotional expression of deep wisdom, beyond reason's power fully to articulate."<ref name="Kass 1997">{{Cite news|author=Kass, Leon R.|title=The Wisdom of Repugnance|work={{w|The New Republic}}|volume=216|issue=22 |date=June 2, 1997 |pages=17&ndash;26|publisher={{w|CanWest}}|location={{w|Washington, DC}}|authorlink=Leon Kass}}</ref> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:KassPCOB.jpg|thumb|center|120px|{{w|Leon Kass}}]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1991 || Organization || London-based {{w|Nuffield Council on Bioethics}} is established by the {{w|Nuffield Foundation}} to adress numerous bioethical issues in need of analysis.<ref>{{cite book |title=National bioethics committees in action |publisher=UNESCO |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=8JtYCgAAQBAJ&pg=PP8&dq=%22in+1991%22+%22Nuffield+Council+on+Bioethics%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjk2fS-5cLdAhXBE5AKHaqlCOQQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=%22in%201991%22%20%22Nuffield%20Council%20on%20Bioethics%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Weir |first1=Robert F. |last2=Olick |first2=Robert S. |last3=Murray |first3=Jeffrey C. |title=The Stored Tissue Issue: Biomedical Research, Ethics, and Law in the Era of Genomic Medicine |publisher= |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=_1ASDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA105&dq=%22in+1991%22+%22Nuffield+Council+on+Bioethics%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjk2fS-5cLdAhXBE5AKHaqlCOQQ6AEIMzAC#v=onepage&q=%22in%201991%22%20%22Nuffield%20Council%20on%20Bioethics%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Global Bioethics: The Impact of the UNESCO International Bioethics Committee |publisher=Alireza Bagheri, Jonathan D. Moreno, Stefano Semplici |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=Kv_NCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA129&dq=%22in+1991%22+%22Nuffield+Council+on+Bioethics%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjk2fS-5cLdAhXBE5AKHaqlCOQQ6AEIOzAD#v=onepage&q=%22in%201991%22%20%22Nuffield%20Council%20on%20Bioethics%22&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 1997 || {{w|Medical ethics}} || Organization || The National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care is established at {{w|Tuskegee University}}, as part of the United States Government official apology for the {{w|Tuskegee Syphilis Study}}. See [[Timeline of medical ethics]].<ref>{{cite web |title=National Center for Bioethics, Tuskegee University |url=http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/article/m-7339 |website=encyclopediaofalabama.org |access-date=3 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Bioethics Center (Kenny Hall).jpg|thumb|center|120px|National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1991 || Literature || The ''{{w|Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal}}'' is launched. || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1997 || {{w|Medical ethics}} || Literature (book) || American moral philosopher {{w|Bernard Gert}} publishes ''Bioethics: A Return to Fundamentals'', which attempts to integrate moral philosophy with clinical medicine "to present a comprehensive summary of the theory, concepts, and lines of reasoning underlying the field of bioethics".<ref>{{cite web |title=Bioethics: A Return to Fundamentals |url=https://www.amazon.com/Bioethics-Return-Fundamentals-Bernard-Gert-ebook/dp/B000SBDF94/ref=sr_1_2?dchild=1&keywords=K.+Danner+Clouser&qid=1606969357&s=books&sr=1-2 |website=amazon.com |access-date=3 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Bernardgert.1.jpg|thumb|center|120px|{{w|Bernard Gert}}]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1992 || Literature || Quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal ''{{w|Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics}}'' is launched.<ref>{{cite journal |title=Cambridge quarterly of healthcare ethics : CQ : the international journal of healthcare ethics committees |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/9208482}}</ref> ||
+
| 1998 || General || Literature (book) || {{w|Peter Singer}} and {{w|Helga Kuhse}} publish ''A companion to Bioethics''.<ref>{{cite web |title=A Companion to Bioethics |url=https://www.amazon.com/Companion-Companions-Philosophy-Wiley-Blackwell-1998-09-07/dp/B01A0C7H5I |website=amazon.com |access-date=4 December 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1992 || Literature || The United States {{w|National Academy of Sciences}} publishes ''Responsible Science: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process''. The book estimates the incidence of misconduct, discusses some of the causes of misconduct, proposes a definition of misconduct, and recommends some strategies for preventing misconduct.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1998 || {{w|Human embryonic development}} || Notable case/policy || As scientists perfect methods for growing human embryonic stem cells, some countries ban the research, while others promote it.<ref>{{cite journal |title=Stem Cell Research as Innovation: Expanding the Ethical and Policy Conversation |doi=10.1111/j.1748-720X.2010.00492.x |pmid=20579255 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2941662/ |pmc=2941662}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Chapter 13Embryos, Cloning, Stem Cells, and the Promise of Reprogramming |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK190607/ |website=ncbi.nlm.nih.gov |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=European Citizens' Initiative: European Commission replies to 'One of Us' – Q&A |url=https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/MEMO_14_385 |website=ec.europa.eu |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref><ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> ||
|-
 
| 1992 || Literature || Peer-reviewed academic journal ''{{w|Environmental Values}}'' is established. || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
 
|-
 
|-
| 1993 || Scientific development || Researchers successfully clone human {{w|embryo}}s.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> ||
+
| 1998 || {{w|Human genome}} sequencing || Notable case || American biotechnologist {{w|Craig Venter}} forms [[w:Celera Corporation|Celera Genomics]] and begins a private effort to sequence the human genome, using dozens of automated sequencing machines.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Craigventer2.jpg|thumb|center|120px|{{w|Craig Venter}}]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1993 || Organization || The {{w|International Bioethics Committee}} is established by {{w|UNESCO}} to provide guidance on ethical and legal issues raised by research in medicine, biological sciences and associated technologies, and to reinforce knowledge in ethics.<ref>{{cite book |title=Global Bioethics: The Impact of the UNESCO International Bioethics Committee |edition=Alireza Bagheri, Jonathan D. Moreno, Stefano Semplici |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=Kv_NCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA176&dq=%22in+1993%22+International+Bioethics+Committee&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjztvzxucLdAhVIlpAKHYkRB2AQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=%22in%201993%22%20International%20Bioethics%20Committee&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=ten Have |first1=Henk |title=Global Bioethics: An introduction |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=mlyFCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA174&dq=%22in+1993%22+International+Bioethics+Committee&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjztvzxucLdAhVIlpAKHYkRB2AQ6AEIODAD#v=onepage&q=%22in%201993%22%20International%20Bioethics%20Committee&f=false}}</ref> ||
+
| 1998 || General || Organization || The {{w|American Society for Bioethics and Humanities}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=ASBH History |url=https://asbh.org/about/history |website=asbh.org |access-date=12 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1993 || Journal || The ''Indian Journal of Medical Ethics'' is launched.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Jesani |first1=Amar |title=In the 25th year of bioethics publishing: new challenges of the post-truth era |url=http://ijme.in/articles/in-the-25th-year-of-bioethics-publishing-new-challenges-of-the-post-truth-era-2/?galley=html |accessdate=3 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|India}}
+
| 1998 || General || Literature (journal) || [[w:Peer review|Peer-reviewed]] {{w|academic journal}} ''{{w|Ethical Theory and Moral Practice}}'' is first issued.<ref>{{cite web |title=Ethical Theory and Moral Practice |url=https://www.jstor.org/journal/ethitheomoraprac |website=jstor.org |accessdate=10 October 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1994 || || The United States Government declassifies information about secret human radiation experiments conducted from the 1940s-1980s and issues an apology.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1999 || General || Literature (journal) || ''{{w|AMA Journal of Ethics}}'' is launched.<ref>{{cite web |title=AMA Journal of Ethics |url=https://journalofethics.ama-assn.org/about |website=journalofethics.ama-assn.org |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1994 || Literature || American philosophers {{w|Tom Beauchamp}} and {{w|James Childress}} publish ''The principles of biomedical ethics'', in which they state their basic principles of bioethics as "the principle of respect for patient autonomy, which has grounded, in particular, the concept of informed consent; dates back to the Hippocratic principle of “do no harm,” which requires minimization of damage to the patient during the medical intervention; the principle of “do good” (beneficence), emphasizing the physician’s responsibility to take positive steps to improve the condition of the patient; and the principle of justice, emphasizing the need for fairness and equal treatment of patients, and equitable distribution of resources (which are always limited) in the provision of medical care".<ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1999 || General || Literature (journal) || The ''{{w|American Journal of Bioethics}}'' is launched.<ref>{{cite web |title=American Journal of Bioethics |url=http://www.bioethics.net/about/ |website=bioethics.net |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United Sattes}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1995 || || About 200 religious leaders join in {{w|Washington, DC.}}, with leading biotechnology critic Jeremy Rifkin in a press conference named the "Joint Appeal against Human and Animal Patenting", protesting the patenting of plants, animals, and human body parts.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Hanson |first1=MJ |title=Religious voices in biotechnology: the case of gene patenting. |pmid=12962106 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12962106}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1999 || Confucian Bioethics || Literature (book) || Chinese bioethicist {{w|Lee Shui-chuen}} publishes ''Confucian Bioethics'' (in Chinese).<ref>{{cite web |title=China |url=https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-94-007-2512-6_11 |website=link.springer.com |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Limits of Human Existence According to China’s Bioethics |url=https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4020-6764-8_24 |website=link.springer.com |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=A Confucian Asian Ethos? Essentials of the Culture of East Asian Bioethics |url=https://www.jstor.org/stable/43150699?seq=1 |website=jstor.org |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref> || {{w|China}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1995 || Organization || The {{w|Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics}} is established. || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1999 || General || Literature (book) || American philosopher [[w:Carl Elliott (philosopher)|Carl Elliott]] publishes ''A Philosophical Disease: Bioethics, Culture and Identity''.<ref>{{cite web |title=A Philosophical Disease: Bioethics, Culture, and Identity |url=https://www.amazon.com/Philosophical-Disease-Bioethics-Identity-Reflective/dp/0415919401 |website=amazon.com |access-date=5 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Carl Elliott teaching a class (cropped).jpg|thumb|center|120px|[[w:Carl Elliott (philosopher)|Carl Elliott]]]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1995 || Organization || {{w|University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics}}<ref>{{cite web |title=About Us: The Joint Centre for Bioethics |url=http://jcb.utoronto.ca/about/about.shtml |website=jcb.utoronto.ca/ |accessdate=19 December 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Canada}}
+
| 1999 || General || Literature (book) || American professor Robert M. Veatch publishes ''The Basics of Bioethics'', which attempts to introduce readers of all backgrounds to the field of bioethics in an accessible way. This book is based on the author's training in both religious and philosophical ethics.<ref>{{cite web |title=Basics of Bioethics |url=https://www.amazon.com/Basics-Bioethics-Robert-Veatch/dp/0130839760 |website=amazon.com |access-date=2 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1995 || Concept development || American philosopher {{w|Daniel Callahan}} defines bioethics as a science “which is the product of biomedical achievements related to the environment and social sciences”.<ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2000 || General || Literature (book) || {{w|Kevin Wildes}} publishes ''Moral Acquaintances: Methodology in Bioethics''.<ref>{{cite web |title=Moral Acquaintances: Methodology in Bioethics |url=https://www.amazon.com/Moral-Acquaintances-Kevin-S-J-Wildes/dp/0268034524 |website=amazon.com |access-date=5 December 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1996 || Scientific development || [[w:Dolly (sheep)|Dolly]] is born as the first mammal ever to be cloned from another individual’s body cell. Her birth is announced in 1997, followed by several European nations banning human cloning. The United States Congress considers a bill to ban all human cloning but changes its mind after scientists argue that the bill would undermine biomedical research.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Dolly the sheep dies young |url=https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn3393-dolly-the-sheep-dies-young/ |website=newscientist.com |accessdate=27 September 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Dolly the sheep: 15 years after her death, cloning still has the power to shock |url=https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/dolly-the-sheep-cloning-15-years-death-future-humans-monkeys-what-next-a8208896.html |website=independent.co.uk |accessdate=27 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 2000 || {{w|Darwinism}} || Literature (book) || British bioethicist {{w|Janet Radcliffe Richards}} publishes ''Human Nature After Darwin: A Philosophical Introduction'', which investigates the implications of Darwinism for understanding humans and their situation.<ref>{{cite web |title=Human Nature After Darwin |url=https://www.amazon.com/Human-Nature-After-Darwin-Philosophical/dp/0415212448 |website=amazon.com |access-date=5 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}} || [[File:Janet Radcliffe Richards.jpg|thumb|center|120px|{{w|Janet Radcliffe Richards}}]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1996 || Organization || The {{w|National Bioethics Advisory Commission}} is established. ||
+
| 2001 || Catholic bioethics || Literature (journal) || Peer-reviewed journal ''{{w|The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly}}'' is launched.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Curran |first1=Charles E. |title=Catholic Moral Theology in the United States: A History |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=enB4otKhEFwC&pg=PA222&lpg=PA222&dq=%22in+2001%22+The+National+Catholic+Bioethics+Quarterly&source=bl&ots=rH3DEl-Bdr&sig=LifxWKWrmT8Js0w50qyzQHz3GsM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiLlcyFksPdAhULg5AKHfOcBZEQ6AEwB3oECAAQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22in%202001%22%20The%20National%20Catholic%20Bioethics%20Quarterly&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1996 || Literature (book) || American philosopher {{w|David Abram}} publishes ''The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-than-Human World''. Abram coins the phrase "the more-than-human world" as a way of referring to earthly nature.
+
| 2001 || {{w|Scientific integrity}} || Policy || Several journals start requiring authors to describe their responsibilities when publishing research.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1996 || Literature (book) || American philosopher {{w|H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr.}} publishes ''The Foundation of Bioethics'', in which he states “Moral diversity is real. It is real in fact and in principle. Bioethics and healthcare policy have yet to take this diversity seriously. Those who teach bioethics, those who engage in bioethics committees, even those who produced textbooks tend to discount the diversity of understanding regarding the morality of particular health care choices (e.g., regarding abortion, commercial surrogacy, euthanasia/ germline genetic engineering, inequalities in access to health care, infanticide, organ sales) or the nature of morality (e.g., theological, deontological, virtue-based)".<ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2001 || {{w|Stem cell}} research || Organization || The {{w|International Society for Stem Cell Research}} is established to promote the exchange and dissemination of information and ideas relating to stem cells.<ref>{{cite web |title=About the ISSCR |url=http://www.closerlookatstemcells.org/about-isscr |website=closerlookatstemcells.org |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Marzotto |first1=Toni |last2=Alt |first2=Patricia M. |title=Stem Cell Research: Hope or Hype? |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=Vg-lDgAAQBAJ&pg=PA1895&dq=%22in+2001%22+International+Society+for+Stem+Cell+Research&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjw9vTll8PdAhXCHJAKHW9oD6IQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=%22in%202001%22%20International%20Society%20for%20Stem%20Cell%20Research&f=false}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1997 || || "On May 16, 1997, President Bill Clinton formally apologized on behalf of the United States to victims of the experiment" || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2001 || Biomedical science, technology || Organization || {{w|The President's Council on Bioethics}} is created by United States President {{w|George W. Bush}} to advice the President on bioethical issues that may emerge as a consequence of advances in biomedical science and technology.<ref>{{cite web |title=President's Council on Bioethics |url=https://bioethicsarchive.georgetown.edu/pcbe/reports/past_commissions/ |website=bioethicsarchive.georgetown.edu |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1997 || || {{w|Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights}} ||
+
| 2001 || Genetic studies || Organization || The {{w|Center for Genetics and Society}} is established.<ref>{{cite web |title=HISTORY OF THE CENTER FOR GENETICS AND SOCIETY |url=https://www.geneticsandsociety.org/history-center-genetics-and-society |website=geneticsandsociety.org |accessdate=12 July 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1998 || Literature (journal) || {{w|Medicine Health Care and Philosophy}} is launched by the European Society For Philosophy Of Medicine And Healthcare.<ref name="The European Society For Philosophy Of Medicine And Healthcare"/> ||
+
| 2002 || {{w|Cloning}} || Policy || {{w|The President's Council on Bioethics}} recommends that the United States ban reproductive cloning and enact a moratorium on research cloning.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Human Cloning |url=https://www.everycrsreport.com/reports/RL31358.html#:~:text=In%20July%202002%20the%20President's,cloning%20for%20medical%20research%20purposes. |website=everycrsreport.com |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Bennett |first1=Belinda |title=Health Law's Kaleidoscope: Health Law Rights in a Global Age |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=YHFBDgAAQBAJ&pg=PT58&lpg=PT58&dq=2002+%22The+President%27s+Council+on+Bioethics+recommends+that+the+U.S.+ban+reproductive+cloning+and+enact+a+moratorium+on+research+cloning&source=bl&ots=Po0qN0y9Z2&sig=ACfU3U3EUr4cLlKKGOhQ45U04IxJyY8pFw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj48pH0gMvqAhVuH7kGHfTGBz0Q6AEwAnoECA0QAQ#v=onepage&q=2002%20%22The%20President's%20Council%20on%20Bioethics%20recommends%20that%20the%20U.S.%20ban%20reproductive%20cloning%20and%20enact%20a%20moratorium%20on%20research%20cloning&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Shamoo |first1=Adil E. |last2=Resnik |first2=David B. |title=Responsible Conduct of Research |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=dP7oKntCUUUC&pg=PA310&lpg=PA310&dq=2002+%22The+President%27s+Council+on+Bioethics+recommends+that+the+U.S.+ban+reproductive+cloning+and+enact+a+moratorium+on+research+cloning&source=bl&ots=PF80OaJpgn&sig=ACfU3U0fVHT2aIQ1GRcPn17AybGYMnMx6g&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj48pH0gMvqAhVuH7kGHfTGBz0Q6AEwA3oECAYQAQ#v=onepage&q=2002%20%22The%20President's%20Council%20on%20Bioethics%20recommends%20that%20the%20U.S.%20ban%20reproductive%20cloning%20and%20enact%20a%20moratorium%20on%20research%20cloning&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1998 || Scientific development || Methods for growing human embryonic stem cells are perfected. Some countries ban the research; others promote it.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> ||
+
| 2002 || {{w|Earth jurisprudence}} || Concept development || South African author {{w|Cormac Cullinan}} publishes ''[[w:Wild Law (book)|Wild Law: A Manifesto for Earth Justice]]'', which describes the first detailed exploration of {{w|earth jurisprudence}} in print and introduces the term "Great Jurisprudence". Cullinan states that the survival all living beings requires us humans to alter fundamentally our understanding of the nature and purpose of law and governance, rather than merely changing laws.<ref>{{cite web |title=Wild Law: A Manifesto for Earth Justice |url=https://www.scribd.com/book/392183285/Wild-Law-A-Manifesto-for-Earth-Justice |website=scribd.com |access-date=5 December 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Wild Law: A Manifesto for Earth Justice |url=https://www.amazon.com/Wild-Law-Manifesto-Earth-Justice/dp/1603583777 |website=amazon.com |access-date=5 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|South Africa}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1998 || Scientific development || American biotechnologist {{w|Craig Venter}} forms [[w:Celera Corporation|Celera Genomics]] and begins a private effort to sequence the human genome, using dozens of automated sequencing machines.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> ||
+
| 2002 || [[w:Biological agent|Biological agent use]] || Literature (journal) || Researchers publish several papers in prominent journals with direct implications for {{w|bioterrorism}}. Some described methods include one for genetically engineering a form of {{w|mousepox}} virus that is much deadlier than the naturally occurring strain. Another shows how to make the poliovirus by obtaining supplies from a mail-order company. Another study develops a mathematical model for showing how many people would be killed by infecting the United States milk supply with {{w|botulinum toxin}}.<ref>{{cite book |title=Teaching Research Methods in Public Administration |edition=Schwester, Richard W. |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=MfWfBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA223&lpg=PA223&dq=2002+%22Scientists+publish+several+papers+in+prominent+journals+with+direct+implications+for+bioterrorism.+A+paper+published+in+the+Journal+of+Virology+described+a+method+for+genetically+engineering+a+form+of+mousepox+virus+that+is+much+deadlier+than+the+naturally+occurring+strain.&source=bl&ots=7bYyah3VSI&sig=ACfU3U1MReup0F73Hn4alSEoK6PMrcJDXQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwij0c2zhMvqAhVzE7kGHY1bAEUQ6AEwAHoECAsQAQ#v=onepage&q=2002%20%22Scientists%20publish%20several%20papers%20in%20prominent%20journals%20with%20direct%20implications%20for%20bioterrorism.%20A%20paper%20published%20in%20the%20Journal%20of%20Virology%20described%20a%20method%20for%20genetically%20engineering%20a%20form%20of%20mousepox%20virus%20that%20is%20much%20deadlier%20than%20the%20naturally%20occurring%20strain.&f=false}}</ref>||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1999 || Literature (journal) || ''{{w|AMA Journal of Ethics}}'' is launched.<ref>{{cite web |title=AMA Journal of Ethics |url=https://journalofethics.ama-assn.org/about |website=journalofethics.ama-assn.org |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2002 || {{w|Biotechnology}} || Organization || The {{w|Toi Te Taiao: The Bioethics Council}} is established. Its goal is: "To enhance New Zealand's understanding of the cultural, ethical and spiritual aspects of {{w|biotechnology}} and ensure that the use of biotechnology has regard for the values held by New Zealanders." <ref>{{cite book |title=Religion and Biopolitics |edition=Mirjam Weiberg-Salzmann, Ulrich Willems |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=jhObDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA140&lpg=PA140&dq=2002++Toi+Te+Taiao:+The+Bioethics+Council&source=bl&ots=Vsa2iuTmS-&sig=ACfU3U3UwPcO27xoelpO9PoxeDnUNmA38A&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwji95zh5cbqAhXpLLkGHYTSB1gQ6AEwB3oECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=2002%20%20Toi%20Te%20Taiao%3A%20The%20Bioethics%20Council&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Manning |first1=Joanna |title=The Cartwright Papers: Essays on the Cervical Cancer Inquiry, 1987-88 |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=lHfafxmBkVUC&pg=PA220&lpg=PA220&dq=2002++Toi+Te+Taiao:+The+Bioethics+Council&source=bl&ots=e3mOFcOBtw&sig=ACfU3U3oY5uuceOZyiWtHiG4vHSklUS9Nw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwji95zh5cbqAhXpLLkGHYTSB1gQ6AEwCHoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=2002%20%20Toi%20Te%20Taiao%3A%20The%20Bioethics%20Council&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|New Zealand}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1999 || Literature || The ''{{w|American Journal of Bioethics}}'' is launched.<ref>{{cite web |title=American Journal of Bioethics |url=http://www.bioethics.net/about/ |website=bioethics.net |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United Sattes}}
+
| 2003 || Biological research || Policy || The {{w|American Society for Microbiology}}, the {{w|National Academy of Sciences}}, and the {{w|Center for Strategic and International Studies}} hold a meeting to discuss the censorship on biological research that poses security risks. Self-censorship of some research is also agreed by journals.<ref name="Schwester, Richard W.">{{cite book |title=Teaching Research Methods in Public Administration |edition=Schwester, Richard W. |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=MfWfBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA223&lpg=PA223&dq=In+2003,+the+American+Society+for+Microbiology+(ASM),+the+National+Academy+of+Sciences,+and+the+Center+for+Strategic+and+International+Studies+held+a+meeting+to+discuss+the+censorship+biological+research+that+poses+security+risks.+Journals+agree+to+self-censor+some+research&source=bl&ots=7bYyab3-UM&sig=ACfU3U2h3BsD2NvuhgnhFJhzBzv6sFevjA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiJooKbp8nqAhX1HrkGHc1tC-EQ6AEwAHoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=In%202003%2C%20the%20American%20Society%20for%20Microbiology%20(ASM)%2C%20the%20National%20Academy%20of%20Sciences%2C%20and%20the%20Center%20for%20Strategic%20and%20International%20Studies%20held%20a%20meeting%20to%20discuss%20the%20censorship%20biological%20research%20that%20poses%20security%20risks.%20Journals%20agree%20to%20self-censor%20some%20research&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |title=Censoring science |pmid=12796312 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC156663/ |pmc=156663}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1999 || Organization || {{w|Human Genetics Alert}} is founded in {{w|London}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=About Human Genetics Alert |url=http://www.hgalert.org/aboutUs/ |website=hgalert.org |accessdate=19 December 2019}}</ref> It advocates against uses of {{w|reproductive technology}} and {{w|human genetics}} research that it considers harmful.<ref name="detail">{{cite web |title=Participant Detail |url=http://www.biopolitics-berlin2003.org/participants.asp?id=302&od=1 |website=Within and Beyond the Limits to Human Nature |accessdate=18 December 2019}}</ref> ||
+
| 2003 || [[w:Biological agent|Biological agent use]] || Notable case || The United States invades {{w|Iraq}} with the stated purpose of eliminating its chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons programs. So far, evidence of weapons programs but no actual weapons would be found.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|Iraq}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1999 || Policy || The {{w|National Institutes of Health}} and the {{w|Office for Human Research Protections}} require all people conducting or overseeing human subjects research have some training in research ethics.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2003 || {{w|Human genetics}} || Treaty || The {{w|International Bioethics Committee}} issues a second global instrument, the International Declaration on Human Genetic Data, which may be regarded as an extension of the {{w|Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=International Declaration on Human Genetic Data |url=https://en.unesco.org/themes/ethics-science-and-technology/human-genetic-data |website=en.unesco.org |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=INTERNATIONAL DECLARATION ON HUMAN GENETIC DATA |url=https://www.who.int/genomics/elsi/regulatory_data/region/international/031/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1999 || Literature || Chinese bioethicist {{w|Lee Shui-chuen}} publishes ''Confucian Bioethics'' (in Chinese). || {{w|China}}
+
| 2003 || {{w|Asian values}} || Literature (book) || Chinese bioethicist {{w|Qiu Renzong}} poublishes ''Bioethics: Asian Perspectives: A Quest for Moral Diversity'', which addresses bioethical issues from comprehensive Asian perspectives and different from the western paradigm.<ref>{{cite web |title=Bioethics: Asian Perspectives: A Quest for Moral Diversity |url=https://www.amazon.com/Bioethics-Perspectives-Diversity-Philosophy-Medicine/dp/1402017952 |website=Bioethics: Asian Perspectives: A Quest for Moral Diversity |access-date=5 December 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2000 || Organization || The {{w|Office for Human Research Protections}} is established. || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2004 || General || Literature (journal) || The ''{{w|Journal of Bioethical Inquiry}}'' is released by the {{w|University of Otago}} Bioethics Centre.<ref>{{cite journal |title=Journal of bioethical inquiry |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/101250741}}</ref> || {{w|New Zealand}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2001 || Literature || Peer-reviewed journal ''{{w|The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly}}'' is launched.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Curran |first1=Charles E. |title=Catholic Moral Theology in the United States: A History |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=enB4otKhEFwC&pg=PA222&lpg=PA222&dq=%22in+2001%22+The+National+Catholic+Bioethics+Quarterly&source=bl&ots=rH3DEl-Bdr&sig=LifxWKWrmT8Js0w50qyzQHz3GsM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiLlcyFksPdAhULg5AKHfOcBZEQ6AEwB3oECAAQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22in%202001%22%20The%20National%20Catholic%20Bioethics%20Quarterly&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2004 || [[w:democratic transhumanism|Transhumanism (democratic)]] || Literature (book) || American bioethicist [[w:James Hughes (sociologist)|James Hughes]] publishes ''{{w|Citizen Cyborg}}'', a non-fiction book which articulates {{w|democratic transhumanism}} as a socio-political ideology and program.<ref name="Hughes 2004">{{cite book| author = [[James Hughes (sociologist)|Hughes, James]]| title = Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future| publisher = Westview Press| year = 2004| isbn = 0-8133-4198-1}}</ref> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:James Hughes.jpg|thumb|center|120px|[[w:James Hughes (sociologist)|James Hughes]]]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 2001 || Field development || The {{w|United States Congress}} starts debating legislation on human cloning.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2002 || {{w|Transhumanism}} || Literature (book) || American political economist and philosopher {{w|Francis Fukuyama}} publishes ''{{w|Our Posthuman Future}}'', which designates transhumanism as the {{w|world's most dangerous idea}} because he believes that it may undermine the egalitarian ideals of {{w|democracy}} (in general) and {{w|liberal democracy}} (in particular) through a fundamental alteration of "{{w|human nature}}".<ref name="Fukuyama 2004">{{cite journal | last = Fukuyama | first = Francis | authorlink = Francis Fukuyama | title = The world's most dangerous ideas: transhumanism | journal = {{w|Foreign Policy}} | issue = 144 | pages = 42–43 | date = September–October 2004 | doi = 10.2307/4152980 | jstor = 4152980 | url = https://foreignpolicy.com/articles/2004/09/01/transhumanism | format = reprint | accessdate = 5 December 2020}}</ref> || || [[File:Francis Fukuyama 2015 (cropped).jpg|thumb|center|120px|{{w|Francis Fukuyama}}]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 2001 || Policy || Several journals start requiring authors to describe their responsibilities when publishing research.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> ||
+
| 2005 || {{w|Human rights}} || Treaty || The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights is adopted by {{w|UNESCO}}.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Langlois |first1=Adèle |title=The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights: Perspectives from Kenya and South Africa |doi=10.1007/s10728-007-0055-7 |pmid=18240025 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2226192/#:~:text=In%20October%202005%2C1%20the,on%20Bioethics%20and%20Human%20Rights.&text=The%20onus%20is%20on%20UNESCO's,national%20laws%2C%20regulations%20or%20policies. |pmc=2226192}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights |url=https://en.unesco.org/themes/ethics-science-and-technology/bioethics-and-human-rights |website=en.unesco.org |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2001 || || The United States Government announces that the {{w|National Institutes of Health}} will fund research on approximately 64 embryonic stem cell lines created from leftover human {{w|embryo}}s.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2005 || {{w|Biosecurity}} || Organization || The {{w|National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity}} is established by the {{w|United States Department of Health and Human Services}} "to provide advice and guidance to federal agencies, scientists, and journals concerning oversight and public of research in biotechnology or biomedicine which can be readily applied to cause significant harm to public health, agriculture, the economy, or national security".<ref>{{cite web |title=National Science Advisory Board on Biosecurity |url=https://osp.od.nih.gov/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/COMBINED_Codes_PDFs.pdf |website=osp.od.nih.gov |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2001 || Organization || The {{w|International Society for Stem Cell Research}} is established to promote the exchange and dissemination of information and ideas relating to stem cells.<ref>{{cite web |title=About the ISSCR |url=http://www.closerlookatstemcells.org/about-isscr |website=closerlookatstemcells.org |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Marzotto |first1=Toni |last2=Alt |first2=Patricia M. |title=Stem Cell Research: Hope or Hype? |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=Vg-lDgAAQBAJ&pg=PA1895&dq=%22in+2001%22+International+Society+for+Stem+Cell+Research&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjw9vTll8PdAhXCHJAKHW9oD6IQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=%22in%202001%22%20International%20Society%20for%20Stem%20Cell%20Research&f=false}}</ref> ||
+
| 2005 || Healthcare, life science, {{w|biotechnology}} || Organization || Bioethics International (BEI) is established in the {{w|State of New York}}, with the mission "to empower professionals and organizations in healthcare, life science and {{w|biotechnology}}".<ref>{{cite web |title=Operationalizing Bioethics in Pharma |url=https://bioethicsinternational.org/who-we-are/#:~:text=Bioethics%20International%20(BEI)%20was%20co,and%20patient%2Dcentricity%20in%20medicine. |website=bioethicsinternational.org |access-date=2 December 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Bioethics International |url=https://www.linkedin.com/company/bioethics-international/ |website=linkedin.com |access-date=2 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Bioethics Logo.png|thumb|center|120px]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 2001 || Organization || {{w|The President's Council on Bioethics}} is created by United States President {{w|George W. Bush}} to advice the President on bioethical issues that may emerge as a consequence of advances in biomedical science and technology.<ref>{{cite web |title=President's Council on Bioethics |url=https://bioethicsarchive.georgetown.edu/pcbe/reports/past_commissions/ |website=bioethicsarchive.georgetown.edu |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2005 || {{w|Human rights}}, {{w|health law}} || Literature (book) || American professor {{w|George Annas}} publishes ''American bioethics: crossing human rights and health law boundaries''.<ref>{{cite web |title=Worst case bioethics: Death, disaster, and public health |url=https://www.jci.org/articles/view/43845 |website=jci.org |accessdate=12 July 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2001 || Organization || The {{w|Center for Genetics and Society}} is established. || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2005 || {{w|Organ trade}} || Literature (book) || American bioethicist {{w|Mark Cherry}} publishes ''Kidney for Sale by Owner: Human Organs, Transplantation, and the Market'', which argues that healthcare "could be improved and lives saved by introducing a regulated transplant organs market rather than by well-meant, but misguided, prohibitions".<ref>{{cite web |title=Kidney for Sale by Owner: Human Organs, Transplantation, and the Market |url=https://www.amazon.com/Kidney-Sale-Owner-Organs-Transplantation-ebook/dp/B001HBI8XW/ref=sr_1_1?dchild=1&keywords=Kidney+for+Sale+by+Owner%3A+Human+Organs%2C+Transplantation%2C+and+the+Market&qid=1606968101&s=books&sr=1-1 |website=amazon.com |access-date=3 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2002 || || {{w|The President's Council on Bioethics}} recommends that the United States ban reproductive cloning and enact a moratorium on research cloning.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2006 || {{w|Antinatalism}} || Literature (book) || South African philosopher {{w|David Benatar}} publishes ''Better Never to Have Been: The Harm of Coming into Existence'',  in which he argues that coming into existence is always a serious harm, regardless of the feelings of the existing being once brought into existence, and that, as a consequence, it is always morally wrong to create more sentient beings.<ref>{{cite web |title=Better Never to Have Been: The Harm of Coming into Existence |url=https://www.amazon.com/-/es/David-Benatar/dp/0199549265/ref=sr_1_1?__mk_es_US=%C3%85M%C3%85%C5%BD%C3%95%C3%91&dchild=1&keywords=Better+Never+to+Have+Been&qid=1607211852&s=books&sr=1-1 |website=amazon.com |access-date=5 December 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Better Never to Have Been: The Harm of Coming into Existence |url=https://ndpr.nd.edu/news/better-never-to-have-been-the-harm-of-coming-into-existence/ |website=ndpr.nd.edu |access-date=5 December 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2002 || Organization || {{w|Toi Te Taiao: The Bioethics Council}} || {{w|New Zealand}}
+
| 2006 || {{w|Social science}}, {{w|biology}} || Literature (journal) || Quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal ''{{w|BioSocieties}}'' is released.<ref>{{cite web |title=BioSocieties |url=http://andymiah.net/blog/2006/07/01/biosocieties |website=andymiah.net |accessdate=3 September 2018}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || || The United States invades {{w|Iraq}} with the stated purpose of eliminating its chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons programs. So far, evidence of weapons programs but no actual weapons would be found.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|Iraq}}
+
| 2007 || African American bioethics || Literature (book) || Lawrence Prograis and Edmund D. Pellegrino publish ''African American Bioethics: Culture, Race, and Identity'', which discusses the existence of a distinctive African American bioethics.<ref>{{cite web |title=African American Bioethics: Culture, Race, and Identity |url=https://www.amazon.com/African-American-Bioethics-Culture-Identity/dp/1589011635 |website=amazon.com |access-date=4 December 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Lawrence J. Prograis |url=https://clinicalbioethics.georgetown.edu/prograis/ |website=clinicalbioethics.georgetown.edu |access-date=4 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || || The {{w|International Bioethics Committee}} issues a second global instrument, the International Declaration on Human Genetic Data, which may be regarded as an extension of the {{w|Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights}}. ||
+
| 2007 || General || Literature (book) || Italian bioethicist {{w|Elio Sgreccia}} publishes ''Manuale di bioetica. Fondamenti ed etica biomedica'', which presents a reason-based philosophical approach to bioethics linking with the natural law and the moral teachings of the Catholic Church.<ref>{{cite book|last=Sgreccia|first=Elio|title=Personalist Bioethics: Foundations and Applications|year=2012|publisher=The National Catholic Bioethics Center|location=Philadelphia|isbn=978-0-935372-63-2|page=Back cover}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Cardinal Elio Sgreccia, eminent Italian bioethicist, dies at 90 |url=https://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/cardinal-elio-sgreccia-eminent-italian-bioethicist-dies-at-90-55935 |website=catholicnewsagency.com |access-date=5 December 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Manuale di bioetica |url=https://www.amazon.com/Manuale-bioetica-vol-Aspetti-medico-sociali/dp/8834318838 |website=amazon.com |access-date=5 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Italy}} || [[File:Cardinal Elio Sgreccia.jpg|thumb|center|120px|{{w|Elio Sgreccia}}]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || Organization || {{w|The Regenerative Medicine Institute}} || {{w|Ireland}}
+
| 2008 || Feminist bioethics || Literature (journal) || The ''{{w|International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics}}'' is launched to encourage more work in feminist bioethics.<ref>{{cite web |title=Feminist Bioethics |url=https://stanford.library.sydney.edu.au/archives/sum2009/entries/feminist-bioethics/ |website=stanford.library.sydney.edu.au |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics |url=https://www.researchgate.net/journal/1937-4577_International_Journal_of_Feminist_Approaches_to_Bioethics |website=researchgate.net |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || || International Declaration on Human Genetic Data 
+
| 2008 || {{w|Genetic discrimination}} || Policy || The {{w|Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act}} (GINA) is passed on May 21 in the {{w|United States}}, making genetic discrimination illegal in the country.<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.wired.com/2008/05/the-genetic-inf/|title=Genetic Discrimination by Insurers, Employers Becomes a Crime|work=WIRED|access-date=2018-11-05|language=en-US}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2004 || Literature || The ''{{w|Journal of Bioethical Inquiry}}'' is released by the {{w|University of Otago}} Bioethics Centre.<ref>{{cite journal |title=Journal of bioethical inquiry |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/101250741}}</ref> || {{w|New Zealand}}
+
| 2008 || General || Competition || The {{w|Bioethics Bowl}} (a spin-off of the {{w|Ethics Bowl}}) launches in the United States as an intercollegiate, academic competition among undergraduate students at accredited four-year institutions of higher education. Taking place each April on a college campus, it focuses exclusively on ethical issues in the health and biological sciences.<ref>{{cite web |title=Bioethics Bowl |url=https://ethics.miami.edu/about/ethics-society/debates/bioethics-bowl/index.html |website=ethics.miami.edu |access-date=12 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Bioethics Bowl Team.jpg|thumb|center|120px|UAB Bioethics Bowl Team at Duke University in 2011]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 2004 || Literature || Medical ethicist James Hughes publishes ''{{w|Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future}}'', which argues that technologies pushing the boundaries of humanness can radically improve our quality of life if they are controlled democratically.<ref>{{cite web |title=Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future |url=https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/111902.Citizen_Cyborg |website=goodreads.com |accessdate=3 September 2018}}</ref> ||
+
| 2008 || {{w|Medical ethics}} || Organization || The {{w|Center for bioethics and medical humanities}} is established at the {{w|University of Mississippi Medical Center}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=History and Future |url=https://www.umc.edu/Research/Centers-and-Institutes/Centers/Center-for-Bioethics-and-Medical-Humanities/About-the-Center-for-Bioethics-and-Medical-Humanities/Overview/History%20and%20Future.html |website=umc.edu |access-date=26 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2004 || Organization || {{w|Institute on Biotechnology and the Human Future}} ||
+
| 2009 || {{w|Biomedicine}} || Organization || {{w|Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues}} is established by United States President {{w|Barack Obama}} to advise the president and the administration on bioethical issues arising from advances in biomedicine and related areas of science and technology.<ref>{{cite web |title=About the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues |url=https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/hast.726 |website=onlinelibrary.wiley.com |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2004 || Literature (book) || {{w|Nicholas Agar}} publishes ''Liberal Eugenics: In Defence of Human Enhancement'' ||
+
| 2009 || General || Organization || The {{w|Bangladesh Bioethics Society}} is established.<ref>{{cite web |title=Bangladesh Bioethics Society |url=https://www.ausn.info/worldwide_collaboration/bangladesh_bioethics_society_bbs |website=bioethics.org.bd/ |accessdate=19 December 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Bangladesh}}
|-
 
| 2005 || || Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights ||
 
 
|-
 
|-
| 2005 || Literature || American professor {{w|George Annas}} publishes ''American bioethics: crossing human rights and health law boundaries''. || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2009 || General || Literature (book) || American scholar Lewis Vaughn publishes ''Bioethics: Principles, Issues, and Cases'', which attempts to explore the philosophical, medical, social, and legal aspects of key bioethical issues.<ref>{{cite web |title=Bioethics: Principles, Issues, and Cases |url=https://www.amazon.com/Bioethics-Principles-Issues-Lewis-Vaughn/dp/0190903260/ref=pd_sbs_14_1/141-8408789-4392815?_encoding=UTF8&pd_rd_i=0190903260&pd_rd_r=0bf25412-8cf3-4dcc-8bcb-e9aafe6ce813&pd_rd_w=3uO3k&pd_rd_wg=w8xUB&pf_rd_p=ed1e2146-ecfe-435e-b3b5-d79fa072fd58&pf_rd_r=Z0QY26QGC4RKTESP6DWS&psc=1&refRID=Z0QY26QGC4RKTESP6DWS |website=amazon.com |access-date=2 December 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Bioethics: Principles, Issues, and Cases 1st edition by Vaughn, Lewis (2009) Paperback |url=https://www.amazon.com/Bioethics-Principles-Issues-Vaughn-Paperback/dp/B011DALLOY |website=amazon.com |access-date=2 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2006 || Literature || Quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal ''{{w|BioSocieties}}'' is released.<ref>{{cite web |title=BioSocieties |url=http://andymiah.net/blog/2006/07/01/biosocieties |website=andymiah.net |accessdate=3 September 2018}}</ref> ||
+
| 2009 || General || Literature (book) || James B. Tubbs publishes ''Handbook of Bioethics Terms'', a glossary-style book describing over 400 entries of importance to the field.<ref>{{cite web |title=Handbook of Bioethics Terms |url=https://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Bioethics-Terms-James-Tubbs/dp/1589012593 |website=amazon.com |access-date=2 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2006 || Literature || Quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal ''{{w|Clinical Ethics}}'' is launched. || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2010 || General || Literature (book) || {{w|George Annas}} publishes ''Worst case bioethics: death, disaster, and public health''<ref>{{cite web |title=Worst case bioethics: Death, disaster, and public health |url=https://www.jci.org/articles/view/43845 |website=jci.org |accessdate=13 July 2020}}</ref>, which examines worst case scenarios in the United States and assesses their impacts on individuals, physicians and the government. It is written at the intersection of law, bioethics, {{w|public health}}, and {{w|human rights}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Worst Case Bioethics: Death, Disaster, and Public Health |url=https://www.amazon.com/Worst-Case-Bioethics-Disaster-Public-ebook/dp/B00VQVPADY/ref=sr_1_1?dchild=1&keywords=Worst+case+bioethics%3A+death%2C+disaster%2C+and+public+health&qid=1607101839&s=books&sr=1-1 |website=amazon.com |access-date=4 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2007 || [[w:List of medical ethics cases|Medical ethics case]] || A man in pain requests a legal right to die. || {{w|Italy}}
+
| 2010 || {{w|Animal rights}} || Literature (book) || British ethicist {{w|Alasdair Cochrane}} publishes ''{{w|An Introduction to Animals and Political Theory}}''.<ref>{{cite web |title=An Introduction to Animals and Political Theory (The Palgrave Macmillan Animal Ethics Series) |url=https://www.amazon.com/Introduction-Animals-Political-Palgrave-Macmillan/dp/0230239269 |website=amazon.com |access-date=26 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2008 || Literature || The ''{{w|International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics}}'' is launched to encourage more work in feminist bioethics.<ref>{{cite web |title=Feminist Bioethics |url=https://stanford.library.sydney.edu.au/archives/sum2009/entries/feminist-bioethics/ |website=stanford.library.sydney.edu.au |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics |url=https://www.researchgate.net/journal/1937-4577_International_Journal_of_Feminist_Approaches_to_Bioethics |website=researchgate.net |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> ||
+
| 2011 || General || Literature (journal) || Triannual academic journal ''{{w|Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics}}'' is first issued.<ref>{{cite web |title=“Reasonable Accommodation” for Families of ‘Brain Dead’ Patients |url=https://bioethics.georgetown.edu/tag/narrative-ethics/ |website=bioethics.georgetown.edu |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2008 || || The {{w|Catholic Church}} publishes a document entitled ''{{w|Dignitas Personae}}'', about a range of bioethical issues related to the areas of assisted reproduction and human genetics. The paper analizes and comments the bioethical thinking of the Catholic Church.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Pastor |first1=LM |title=[Ethical analysis and commentary of Dignitas Personae document: from continuity toward the innovation]. |pmid=21692553 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21692553}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=INSTRUCTION DIGNITAS PERSONAE |url=http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cfaith/documents/rc_con_cfaith_doc_20081208_dignitas-personae_en.html |website=vatican.va |accessdate=27 September 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Vatican issues new document on biotechnology |url=https://www.ncronline.org/blogs/all-things-catholic/vatican-issues-new-document-biotechnology |website=ncronline.org |accessdate=27 September 2018}}</ref> ||
+
| 2011 || {{w|Religion}} || Literature (book) || Australian {{w|Catholic Church}} prelate {{w|Anthony Fisher}} publishes ''Catholic Bioethics for a New Millennium'', which discusses bioethics in the Catholic tradition.<ref>{{cite web |title=Catholic Bioethics for a New Millennium |url=https://www.amazon.com/Catholic-Bioethics-Millennium-Anthony-Fisher/dp/0521253241 |website=amazon.com |access-date=3 December 2020}}</ref> || || [[File:Anthony Fisher appearing on "After Dark" on 30 May 1994.jpg|thumb|center|120px|{{w|Anthony Fisher}}]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 2008 || Literature || {{w|International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics}} || {{w|Canada}}
+
| 2012 || General || Organization || The {{w|Center for the Study of Bioethics}} is founded by Serbian American philosopher {{w|Vojin Rakić}} with the purpose to stimulate scientific debate on a variety of issues bioethics deals with. It is based in Belgrade, Serbia.<ref>{{cite web |title=Center for the Study of Bioethics |url=http://csb.eu.com/en/purpose/ |website=csb.eu.com/ |accessdate=19 December 2019}}</ref> || || [[File:CBS Location1.jpg|thumb|center|120px|{{w|Center for the Study of Bioethics}} location in {{w|Belgrade}}]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || Organization || {{w|Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues}} is established by United States President {{w|Barack Obama}} to advise the president and the administration on bioethical issues arising from advances in biomedicine and related areas of science and technology.<ref>{{cite web |title=About the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues |url=https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/hast.726 |website=onlinelibrary.wiley.com |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2012 || General || Literature (journal) || The ''{{w|Canadian Journal of Bioethics}}'' is established.<ref>{{cite web |title=Launch of the Canadian Journal of Bioethics |url=https://www.erudit.org/en/journals/bioethics/1900-v1-n1-bioethics04468/1058305ar/abstract/ |website=erudit.org |accessdate=12 July 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Canada}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || Organization || The {{w|Bangladesh Bioethics Society}} is established.<ref>{{cite web |title=Bangladesh Bioethics Society |url=https://www.ausn.info/worldwide_collaboration/bangladesh_bioethics_society_bbs |website=bioethics.org.bd/ |accessdate=19 December 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Bangladesh}}
+
| 2013 || {{w|Genetic privacy}} || Notable case || {{w|Israeli-American}} scientist {{w|Yaniv Erlich}} conducts a study revealing vulnerabilities in the security of public databases that contain {{w|genetic data}}. The stury reports a method to discover the identity of anonymous research subjects whose genomes have been sequenced as part of a genomics project.<ref name=nature1>{{cite journal|title=Genetic privacy|journal=Nature|volume=493|issue=7433|url=http://www.nature.com/news/genetic-privacy-1.12238|accessdate=29 December 2016|pages=451|doi=10.1038/493451a|pmid=23350074|date=24 January 2013|doi-access=free}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || Policy || The Obama Administration announces it will significantly expand {{w|National Institutes of Health}} funding of human embryonic stem cell research which was restricted under the Bush Administration.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2013 || {{w|DNA extraction}} || Policy || The {{w|Supreme Court of the United States}} rules that isolated and purified {{w|DNA}} cannot be patented and that only DNA that has been modified by human beings can be patented.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Cartwright-Smith |first1=Lara |title=Patenting Genes: What Does Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics Mean for Genetic Testing and Research? |doi=10.1177/003335491412900311 |pmid=24790252 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3982540/#:~:text=During%20its%202013%20term%2C%20the,of%20breast%20and%20ovarian%20cancer.&text=The%20Court%20ruled%20that%20synthetically,isolated%20natural%20DNA%20is%20not. |pmc=3982540}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2010 || Literature || {{w|George Annas}} publishes ''Worst case bioethics: death, disaster, and public health''. || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2013 || General || Literature (book) || American bioethicist {{w|Arthur Caplan}} writes ''Contemporary Debates in Bioethics'', which features a collection of debate-style arguments contributed by many bioethics scholars. The book focuses on core bioethical concerns of the twenty-first century.<ref>{{cite web |title=Contemporary Debates in Bioethics |url=https://www.amazon.com/Contemporary-Debates-Bioethics-Philosophy-Book-ebook/dp/B00E4MY2U4/ref=sr_1_1?dchild=1&keywords=Arthur+Caplan&qid=1606967258&s=books&sr=1-1 |website=amazon.com |access-date=3 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Arthur Caplan (2667975697).jpg|thumb|center|120px|{{w|Arthur Caplan}}]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 2010 || Literature (book) || {{w|Nicholas Agar}} publishes ''Humanity's End: Why We Should Reject Radical Enhancement''. The book argues against the doctrine of radical enhancement sometimes identified with the [[w:Transhumanism|transhumanist movement]].<ref>{{Cite book|title=Humanity's end : why we should reject radical enhancement.|last=Nicholas.|first=Agar|date=2013|publisher=Bradford Books|isbn=978-0262525176|location=[Place of publication not identified]|oclc=842500060}}</ref>
+
| 2013 || General || Literature (book) || British bioethicist [[w:Alastair Campbell (bioethicist)|Alastair V. Campbell]] publishes ''Bioethics: The Basics'', which introduces to the foundational principles, theories and issues in the study of medical and biological ethics.<ref>{{cite web |title=Bioethics: The Basics 1st Edition |url=https://www.amazon.com/Bioethics-Basics-Alastair-V-Campbell/dp/0415504082 |website=amazon.com |access-date=2 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}} || [[File:Prof Alastair V Campbell FRSE.jpg|thumb|center|120px|[[w:Alastair Campbell (bioethicist)|Alastair V. Campbell]]]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 2011 || Literature || Triannual academic journal ''{{w|Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics}}'' is first issued.<ref>{{cite web |title=“Reasonable Accommodation” for Families of ‘Brain Dead’ Patients |url=https://bioethics.georgetown.edu/tag/narrative-ethics/ |website=bioethics.georgetown.edu |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> ||
+
| 2014 || {{w|Reproducibility}} || Policy || Various funding agencies and journals, including the {{w|National Institutes of Health}}, [[W:Science (journal)|Science]], and [[w:Nature (journal)|Nature]], take steps to promote {{w|reproducibility}} in science in response to reports that many published studies in the biomedical, behavioral, and physical sciences are not reproducible.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2012 || Organization || The {{w|Center for the Study of Bioethics}} is founded by Serbian American philosopher {{w|Vojin Rakić}} with the purpose to stimulate scientific debate on a variety of issues bioethics deals with. It is based in Belgrade, Serbia.<ref>{{cite web |title=Center for the Study of Bioethics |url=http://csb.eu.com/en/purpose/ |website=csb.eu.com/ |accessdate=19 December 2019}}</ref> ||
+
| 2014 || {{w|Right to die}} || Policy || {{w|New Mexico}} Second District Judge Nan Nash rules that terminally ill patients have the right to aid in dying under the state constitution, i.e., making it legal for a doctor to prescribe a lethal dose of medication to a terminally ill patient.<ref>{{cite news| url=http://articles.latimes.com/2014/jan/19/nation/la-na-new-mexico-aid-dying-20140120 | work=Los Angeles Times | first=Saba | last=Hamedy | name-list-format = vanc | title=New Mexico judge affirms right to 'aid in dying' | date=19 January 2014}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2012 || Literature || The {{w|Canadian Journal of Bioethics}} is established. || {{w|Canada}}
+
| 2015 || {{w|Medical ethics}} || Literature (book) || American bioethicist {{w|Alice Dreger}} publishes ''{{w|Galileo's Middle Finger}}'', which discusses the ethics of medical research.<ref>{{cite web |title=‘Galileo’s Middle Finger,’ by Alice Dreger |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/19/books/review/galileos-middle-finger-by-alice-dreger.html |website=nytimes.com |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Alice Dreger.jpg|thumb|center|120px|{{w|Alice Dreger}}]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 2014 || || Various funding agencies and journals, including the {{w|National Institutes of Health}}, [[W:Science (journal)|Science]], and [[w:Nature (journal)|Nature]], take steps to promote {{w|reproducibility}} in science in response to reports that many published studies in the biomedical, behavioral, and physical sciences are not reproducible.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> ||
+
| 2016 || {{w|Cryonics}} || Notable case || The English [[w:High Court of Justice|High Court]] rules in favor of a mother's right to seek cryopreservation of her terminally ill 14-year-old daughter, as the girl wanted. This case is interpreted as a conventional dispute over the disposal of the girl's body, as the girl's father opposed cryopreservation.<ref>{{cite web |title=14-year-old girl who died of cancer wins right to be cryogenically frozen |url=https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/nov/18/teenage-girls-wish-for-preservation-after-death-agreed-to-by-court |website=theguardian.com |accessdate=7 November 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2015 || Literature || American bioethicist {{w|Alice Dreger}} publishes {{w|Galileo's Middle Finger}}, which discusses the ethics of medical research.<ref>{{cite web |title=‘Galileo’s Middle Finger,’ by Alice Dreger |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/19/books/review/galileos-middle-finger-by-alice-dreger.html |website=nytimes.com |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2018 || General || Literature (book) || Canadian bioethicist {{w|Francoise Baylis}} publishes ''Bioethics in Action'', which presents first-person case studies of attempts to fix serious ethical problems in medical practice and research.<ref>{{cite web |title=Bioethics in Action (Cambridge Bioethics and Law) |url=https://www.amazon.com/Bioethics-Action-Cambridge-Law/dp/1107120896 |website=amazon.com |access-date=12 December 2020}}</ref> || || [[File:Francoise Baylis-5 Cropped.jpg|thumb|center|120px|{{w|Francoise Baylis}}]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 2016 || || The United States {{w|National Institutes of Health}} places a temporary moratorium on funding for experiments involving human-animal chimeras.<ref>{{cite web |title=NIH moves to lift moratorium on animal-human chimera research |url=http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/08/nih-moves-lift-moratorium-animal-human-chimera-research |website=sciencemag.org |accessdate=27 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2018 || {{w|Sentientism}} || Literature (book) || {{w|Alasdair Cochrane}} publishes ''[[w:Sentientist Politics|Sentientist Politics: A Theory of Global Inter-Species Justice]]''. The book argues in favour of a "sentientist cosmopolitan democracy: a global political system made up of overlapping local, national, regional and global communities comprised of human and non-human members who exist within shared communities of fate".<ref>{{cite web |title=Sentientist Politics: A Theory of Global Inter-Species Justice |url=https://www.amazon.com/Sentientist-Politics-Theory-Inter-Species-Justice/dp/0198789807 |website=amazon.com |access-date=12 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}} || [[File:Alasdair Cochrane at the University of Manchester.JPG|thumb|center|120px|{{w|Alasdair Cochrane}}]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
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===What the timeline is still missing===
 
===What the timeline is still missing===
 
* {{w|List of medical ethics cases}}
 
* {{w|Category:Bioethicists}}
 
* {{w|List of bioethics journals}}
 
* {{w|Clinical research ethics}}
 
* [https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/04/13/china-will-always-be-bad-at-bioethics/]
 
  
 
===Timeline update strategy===
 
===Timeline update strategy===
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 +
 +
* [[Timeline of medical ethics]]
 +
* [[Timeline of animal testing]]
 +
* [[Timeline of brain preservation]] (includes cryonics)
 +
* [[Timeline of animal welfare and rights]]
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==

Latest revision as of 15:29, 17 January 2021

This is a timeline of bioethics, attempting to describe significant events related to the development of the field. Its subfield medical ethics is described with more detail on the Timeline of medical ethics.

Sample questions

The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:

  • What are some of the multiple topics closely related to the field of bioethics?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Main topic".
    • You will see a variety of topics of interest, such as Biological agents, biopolitics, religion (Catholic, Budhist, and Jewish bioethics), cloning, environmental ethics, healthcare, human genetics,
  • What are some notable events describing the development of the concept of bioethics?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Concept development".
    • You will see events related to the development of the term "bioethics" as well as several other associated terms, such as "biopolitics" and "speciesism", etc.
  • What are some notable publications on the topic of bioethics?
    • For books, sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Literature (book)".
    • You will see some very early publications by authors such as Thomas Aquinas, as well as modern classics in the field, such as Animal Liberation, and other notable publications.
    • For academic journals, sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Literature (journal)".
  • What are some events describing notable controversial cases pertaining to the field of bioethics?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Notable case"
    • You will see a variety of cases of interest mainly occurring within the scope of controversial scientific fields, as well as some cases involving biological agents.
  • What are some notable organizations devoted to the topic of bioethics?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Organization".
    • You will mostly see a number of English speaking organizations esablished whether by educational institutions or national governments.
  • What are some notable policies issued by governments on issues pertaining to the field of bioethics?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Policy".
    • You will see a number of regulations introduced by governments and major organizations, many related to controversial cases in scientific research, and concerning the field of bioethics.
  • What are some notable treaties concerning bioethics?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Treaty".
    • You will see important treaties signed by UNESCO, concerning bioethics.
  • Other events are described under the following types: "Activism", "Genetic discrimination", "Genetic privacy", .

Big picture

Time period Development summary
<1960s Discussions of moral issues in medicine already happen in ancient times, with early contributions by Hippocrates and Plato.[1] In the 20th century, German theologian Fritz Jahr publishes three articles in 1927, 1928, and 1934 using the German term “Bio-Ethik”, forcefully arguing an ethical approach to issues concerning human beings and the environment.[2]
1960s Bioethics as a distinct field of academic study is born in the United States, merging from a cluster of scientific and cultural developments in the country during that decade.[3] A wide range of new ethical problems emerge into view, all of them driven by spectacular advances in medicine and biology.[4]
1970s Many bioethics programs and degrees are established at universities in the United States in order to provide students – most notably medical, law, and public policy students – with some expertise in medical ethics to deal with complex cases.[2] Feminist bioethics develops from the early 1970s on and is initially focused on medical ethics; proponents later extend the areas of interest to issues in the fields of animal and environmental ethics.[2]
1980s Universities begin establishing human subjects review committees.[5] In the late decade, the Russian school of bioethics originates.[6]
1990s The contributions of social scientists to bioethical research become particularly important. Work of this type involves surveys of public attitudes to advances in the life sciences, including xenotransplantation and genetic modification.[1]
2000s Ethics consultation begins to emerge as another, more enduring model of ethics and science interaction. The concept of research ethics consultation develops.[7]

Visual data

Wikipedia Views

The chart below shows Wikipedia views for the article Bioethics for desktop, mobile-web, desktop-spider, mobile-web-spider and mobile app, from June 2015 to November 2020.[8]

Bioethicswikipediaviews.png


Google Trends

The chart below shows Google Trends data comparing Bioethics (field of study) and Bioethics (search term), from January 1, 2004 to December 12, 2020, when the screenshot was taken. A declining interest is appreciated.[9]

Bioethicsgoogletrends.png

Google Ngram Viewer

The chart below shows Google Ngram Viewer data comparing both "bioethics" and "medical ethics" search strings (case-insensitive), from 1700 to 2019. See how data for "bioethics" starts soaring at around 1960s, which correlates with the birth of bioethics as a distinct field of academic study in the United States.[10]

Bioethics Ngram Viewer.png

Full timeline

Year Main topic Event type Details Location
380 BC Eugenics Field development The Republic of Plato advocates selective human breeding in anticipation of later programs of eugenics.[1]
Plato
1259 – 1265 Abortion Literature (book) Italian philosopher Thomas Aquinas writes his Summa contra Gentiles, which briefly discusses the permissibility of abortion.[1] Italy
Thomas Aquinas
1620 General Literature (book) English philosopher Francis Bacon publishes his Novum Organon, in which he argues that scientific research should benefit humanity.[11] United Kingdom
Francis Bacon
1830 Scientific misconduct Literature (book) English polymath Charles Babbage writes Reflections on the Decline of Science in England, which catalogs scientific misdeeds, and originates such terms as data trimming, data fudging, data falsification, and data cooking.[12] United Kingdom
Charles Babbage
1859 Human evolution Literature (book) English naturalist Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species, which proposes a theory of evolution of living things by natural selection. The book would generate much controversy because it proposes that human beings were not created by God (as most religions claimed) but descended from apes.[13] United Kingdom
Charles Darwin
1905 Biopolitics Concept development Swedish political scientist Rudolf Kjellén coins the term "biopolitics".[14] in his 1905 two-volume work The Great Powers.[15] Sweden
Rudolf Kjellén
1926 General Literature (article) German theologian Fritz Jahr, referring to European and Oriental traditions, publishes an article entitled Natural sciences and teaching ethics where he gives the subtitle “Old Knowledge in new clothes” describing the function of natural sciences for education and teaching biological research ethics.[6] Germany
1927 General Concept development Fritz Jahr publishes article using the German term “Bio-Ethik” (which translates as “Bio-Ethics”) and argues, both for the establishment of a new academic discipline, and for the practice of a new, more civilized, ethical approach to issues concerning human beings and the environment. Jahr would publish similar articles discussing bioethics in 1928, and 1934.[2] Germany
1931 Reproductive rights Policy Mexico becomes the first country in the world to legalize abortion in cases of rape.[16] Mexico
1938 Biopolitics Literature (book) English writer Morley Roberts publishes Bio-politics: an essay in the physiology, pathology & politics of the social & somatic organism, which argues that a correct model for world politics is "a loose association of cell and protozoa colonies".[17] United Kingdom
Morley Roberts
1947 General Literature (essay) American ecologist Aldo Leopold publishes The Land Ethic, a chapter in A Sand County Almanac. Leopold argues that there is a critical need for a "new ethic," an "ethic dealing with human's relation to land and to the animals and plants which grow upon it".[18] United States
1947 Human experimentation Policy The Nuremberg Code is adopted as a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation created as a result of the Nuremberg trials at the end of the Second World War. These principles are used as a set of research principles to be used to prosecute the Nazi scientists as war criminals.[19][20]
1948–1953 Human sexuality Literature (book) American biologist Alfred Kinsey publishes Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. Five years later, he publishes Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. These books, known as the Kinsey Reports would become very controversial, because they examine topics which are regarded as taboo at the time, such as masturbation, orgasm, sexual intercourse, promiscuity, and sexual fantasies.[21][22] United States
1965 Science and technology studies Literature (journal) Peer-reviewed academic journal Science, Technology, & Human Values is founded. It covers research on the relationship of science and technology with society.[23] United States
1966 Cryonics Notable case The first human body –a middle-aged woman from Los Angeles, is frozen by being placed in liquid nitrogen and stored at just above freezing. However, the body would be later thawed out and buried by relatives.[24] United States
1967 Value studies Literature (journal) Peer-reviewed philosophical journal Journal of Value Inquiry is established. It focuses on value studies.[25]
1969 General Organization The Institute of Society, Ethics, and the Life Sciences (later The Hastings Center) is founded by American philosopher Daniel Callahan and Professor Willard Gaylin as a bioethics research institute. Located in Garrison, New York[26][27], it would be regarded as instrumental in establishing the field of bioethics and one of the most prestigious bioethics and health policy institutes in the world.[28][29][30] The Hastings Center publishes two journals, the Hastings Center Report,[31][32] and Ethics & Human Research (formerly IRB: Ethics & Human Research).[33] A freestanding bioethics center, it is the first institution devoted to the study of bioethical questions.[3][34] United States
Woodlawn, Garrison, NY wide view.jpg
1969 Biological agent use Policy United States President Richard Nixon terminate production of biological weapons, allowing only scientific research for defensive measures.[35] United States
1970 Environmental ethics Literature (article) American biochemist Van Rensselaer Potter publishes his article Bioethics, the Science of Survival, which suggests viewing bioethics as a global movement in order to foster concern for the environment and ethics.[2][34] Van Rensselaer Potter defines the term "bioethics" to describe a new philosophy that seeks to integrate biology, ecology, medicine, and human values.[36]
1970 Speciesism Concept development English animal rights advocate Richard D. Ryder coins the term "speciesism" to describe the exclusion of nonhuman animals from the protections available to human beings.[37] United Kingdom
Richard D Ryder in The Superior Human (2012).jpg
1971 General Literature (book) Van Rensselaer Potter publishes book Bioethics: Bridge to the Future.[34] United States
1971 General Literature (journal) Peer-reviewed academic journal Hastings Center Report is first issued.[38]
1971 Biomedicine Concept development Georgetown University researcher Andre Hellegers uses the term bioethics to refer to interdisciplinary research moral problems of biomedicine, primarily associated with the need to protect the dignity and rights of patients.[6] United States
1971 Medicine Organization The Joseph and Rose Kennedy Center for the Study of Human Reproduction and Bioethics (now known as Kennedy Center) opens at Georgetown University. With similar goals to those of The Hastings Center, the Kennedy Institute is however placed inside the traditional academy.[3][34] Founded by Andre Hellegers, it is the first in the world to establish an institute of bioethics on the basis of interdisciplinary research and approaches.[6] United States
KIEJ Cover.png
1972 Catholic bioethics Organization The National Catholic Bioethics Center is established. Based in Philadelphia, it states its mission as "promoting and safeguarding the dignity of the human person, thereby sharing in the ministry of Jesus Christ and his Church."[39].[40][41][42] United States
1973 General Literature (article) American philosopher Daniel Callahan writes essay Bioethics as a Discipline, whose title is the first entry of the word "bioethics" in the catalogue of the National Library of Congress.[34] In the article, Callahan argues for the establishment of a new academic discipline.[2] United States
1974 Human subject research Policy The 93rd United States Congress enacts the National Research Act, which authorizes federal agencies to develop human research regulations.[43][44][45][46] United States
1975 Cruelty to animals Literature (book) Australian moral philosopher Peter Singer publishes Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals, which raises concern on cruelty to animals. The book exposes the realities of factory farms and product-testing procedures. It is widely considered within the animal liberation movement to be the founding philosophical statement of its ideas. Singer claims that human beings must consider the equal interests of human beings and animals alike.[2][47] Activist Ingrid Newkirk would later write of Animal Liberation, "It forever changed the conversation about our treatment of animals. It made people—myself included—change what we ate, what we wore, and how we perceived animals."[48] United States
1975 Genetics Field development At a gathering at the Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA at Asilomar, California, scientists discuss the benefits and risks of recombinant DNA research. The Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee is formed by the National Institutes of Health to provide guidance for researchers and institutions. The Institutional Biosafety Committees (IBCs) is also formed to review and oversee research involving hazardous biological materials.[49][50][51] United States
1977 General Literature (book) British philosopher Jonathan Glover publishes Causing Death and Saving Lives, which addresses practical moral questions about life and death decisions in the areas of abortion, infanticide, suicide, euthanasia, choices between people, capital punishment, and issues of war and peace.[52] nited Kingdom
1978 General Literature (encyclopedia) The Encyclopedia of Bioethics launches its first edition, becoming the first reference book to focus exclusively on the field of bioethics.[53][6]
1978 Biopolitics Concept development French philosopher Michel Foucault elaborates further his concept of biopower in his lecture courses delivered at the Collège de France.[54] France
Michel Foucault 1974 Brasil.jpg
1979 Biological agent use Notable case An anthrax outbreak in Sverdlovsk (Soviet Union) occurs when spores of anthrax are accidentally released from a Soviet military research facility. In what would be considered among the largest biological weapons accident, approximately 100 people die. Sheep become ill with anthrax as far as 200 kilometers from the release point.[55][56][57] Russia
1980 Genetic engineering Policy In the Diamond v. Chakrabarty case the United States Supreme Court rules that a genetically modified bacterium can be patented because it is the product of human ingenuity. This sets a precedent for patents on other life forms and helps to establish solid intellectual property protection for the new biotechnology industry.[49] United States
1980 Philosophy of medicine, general bioethics Literature (journal) Peer-reviewed medical journal Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics is first issued.[58]
1982 Scientific misconduct Literature (book) William Broad and Nicholas Wade publish Betrayers of the Truth, which attempts to reveal much of the scientific misconduct that happens at this time.[59]
1986 General Literature (journal) Peer-reviewed academic journal Biology and Philosophy is launched.[60]
1986 Biocentrism Literature (book) American philosopher Paul W. Taylor publishes Respect for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics which discusses biocentrism. Taylor maintains that biocentrism is an "attitude of respect for nature", whereby one attempts to make an effort to live one's life in a way that respects the welfare and inherent worth of all living creatures.[61][62] United States
1987 General Literature (book) Ren-zong Qiu's Bioethics is published as the first bioethics book in China.[63] China
1987 General Literature (journal) Peer-reviewed academic journal Bioethics is launched.[64]
1988 Environmental ethics Literature (journal) The Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics is established.[65]
1988 Genetically modified mice Notable case Harvard University and Dow Chemical Company patent a genetically engineered mouse used to study cancer. This invention would become highly controversial as it involves the genetic manipulation of animals, particularly mammals.[66][67][68][49] United States
1988 General Literature (book) Van Rensselaer Potter publishes Global bioethics,[6] which defines bioethics as "Biology combined with diverse humanistic knowledge forging a science that sets a system of medical and environmental priorities for acceptable survival."[36]
1989 Research ethics Literature (book) The United States National Academy of Sciences publishes On Being A Scientist, a free, short book on research ethics for scientists in training.[49][69][70][71] United States
1990 General Literature (column) American medical ethicist Sigrid Fry-Revere starts the column Legal Trends in Bioethics for the Journal of Clinical Ethics.[72] The column "tracks bioethics related issues through all stages of litigation, legislation, and regulation at both the federal and state levels, as well as occasionally mentioning exceptional legal developments in other countries."[73] United States
1990 Genetic discrimination Notable case The Human Genome Project is launched by the United States as a US$20 billion effort to map and sequence the human genome. At the onset of this project, several ethical, legal, and social concerns would be raised in regard to how increased knowledge of the human genome could be used to discriminate against people.[74][75] United States
Logo HGP.jpg
1991 General Organization London-based Nuffield Council on Bioethics is established by the Nuffield Foundation, with the purpose to adress numerous bioethical issues in need of analysis.[76][77][78] United Kingdom
1991 General Literature (journal) The Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal is launched.[79][80] United States
1992 Healthcare Literature (journal) Quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics is launched.[81]
1992 Scientific misconduct Literature (book) The United States National Academy of Sciences publishes Responsible Science: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process. The book estimates the incidence of misconduct, discusses some of the causes of misconduct, proposes a definition of misconduct, and recommends some strategies for preventing misconduct.[49][82][83] United States
1992 Environmental ethics Literature (journal) Peer-reviewed academic journal Environmental Values is established.[84][85] United Kingdom
1992 Research integrity Organization The United States Office of Research Integrity is formed. It focuses on research integrity.[86] United States
Office of Research Integrity logo.png
1993 Human cloning Notable case Researchers successfully clone human embryos.[49]
1993 General Organization The International Bioethics Committee is established by UNESCO to provide guidance on ethical and legal issues raised by research in medicine, biological sciences and associated technologies, and to reinforce knowledge in ethics.[87][88]
UNESCO logo English.svg
1994 Race and intelligence Literature (book) American psychologist Richard Herrnstein and American political scientist Charles Murray publish The Bell Curve, a controversial book that reignites the centuries old debate about biology, race and intelligence"[89] United States
1995 Human and non-human animal patenting Activism About 200 religious leaders join in Washington, DC., with leading biotechnology critic Jeremy Rifkin in a press conference named the "Joint Appeal against Human and Animal Patenting", protesting the patenting of plants, animals, and human body parts.[49][90][91] United States
1995 Healthcare Organization The Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics is established. It is dedicated to the study of complex moral and policy issues in biomedical science, health care, and health policy, promoting research in bioethics.[92][93] United States
1995 General Organization The University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics is established.[94] Canada
1995 Biomedicine Concept development Daniel Callahan defines bioethics as a science “which is the product of biomedical achievements related to the environment and social sciences”.[6] United States
1995 Biological agent use Notable case The Tokyo subway sarin attack is perpetrated. This would further increase concern among scientists and defense analysts about the use of chemical or biological weapons.[95] Japan
1995 Science and engineering Literature (journal) Quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal Science and Engineering Ethics is first issued.[96]
1995 Budhist bioethics Literature (book) British bioethicist Damien Keown publishes Buddhism & Bioethics, which discusses issues in medical ethics from a Buddhist perspective, examining issues including abortion, embryo research and euthanasia.[97] United Kingdom
1996 Cloning Notable case Dolly is born as the first mammal ever to be cloned from another individual’s body cell. Her birth would be announced in 1997, followed by several European nations banning human cloning. The United States Congress would consider a bill to ban all human cloning but changes its mind after scientists argue that the bill would undermine biomedical research.[49][98][99] United Kingdom
Dolly taxidermied remains
1996 General Organization The National Bioethics Advisory Commission is established.[100][101] United States
US-NationalBioethicsAdvisoryCommission-Logo.png
1996 Ecology Literature (book) American philosopher David Abram publishes The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-than-Human World. Abram coins the phrase "the more-than-human world" as a way of referring to earthly nature.[102] United States
1996 Healthcare Literature (book) American philosopher H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr. publishes The Foundation of Bioethics, in which he states “Moral diversity is real. It is real in fact and in principle. Bioethics and healthcare policy have yet to take this diversity seriously. Those who teach bioethics, those who engage in bioethics committees, even those who produced textbooks tend to discount the diversity of understanding regarding the morality of particular health care choices (e.g., regarding abortion, commercial surrogacy, euthanasia/ germline genetic engineering, inequalities in access to health care, infanticide, organ sales) or the nature of morality (e.g., theological, deontological, virtue-based)".[6] United States
1996 Feminist bioethics Literature (book) American feminist philosopher publishes Feminist Approaches To Bioethics: Theoretical Reflections And Practical Applications, which attemps to introduce to the field of feminist bioethics.[103] United States
1997 Human genetics Treaty The UNESCO's International Bioethics Committee adopts the International Declaration on Human Genetic Data, its first international declaration.[104]
1997 Publication ethics Organization The Committee On Publication Ethics is established in the United Kingdom, consisting in academic journal editors and others who are concerned about the integrity of what is peer-reviewed and published in journals.[105][106] United Kingdom
1997 Wisdom of repugnance Concept development The term "wisdom of repugnance" is coined by American physician Leon Kass in an article in The New Republic. Kass states that disgust is not an argument per se, but says that "in crucial cases... repugnance is the emotional expression of deep wisdom, beyond reason's power fully to articulate."[107] United States
1997 Medical ethics Organization The National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care is established at Tuskegee University, as part of the United States Government official apology for the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. See Timeline of medical ethics.[108] United States
National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care
1997 Medical ethics Literature (book) American moral philosopher Bernard Gert publishes Bioethics: A Return to Fundamentals, which attempts to integrate moral philosophy with clinical medicine "to present a comprehensive summary of the theory, concepts, and lines of reasoning underlying the field of bioethics".[109] United States
1998 General Literature (book) Peter Singer and Helga Kuhse publish A companion to Bioethics.[110]
1998 Human embryonic development Notable case/policy As scientists perfect methods for growing human embryonic stem cells, some countries ban the research, while others promote it.[111][112][113][49]
1998 Human genome sequencing Notable case American biotechnologist Craig Venter forms Celera Genomics and begins a private effort to sequence the human genome, using dozens of automated sequencing machines.[49] United States
1998 General Organization The American Society for Bioethics and Humanities is founded.[114] United States
1998 General Literature (journal) Peer-reviewed academic journal Ethical Theory and Moral Practice is first issued.[115]
1999 General Literature (journal) AMA Journal of Ethics is launched.[116] United States
1999 General Literature (journal) The American Journal of Bioethics is launched.[117] United Sattes
1999 Confucian Bioethics Literature (book) Chinese bioethicist Lee Shui-chuen publishes Confucian Bioethics (in Chinese).[118][119][120] China
1999 General Literature (book) American philosopher Carl Elliott publishes A Philosophical Disease: Bioethics, Culture and Identity.[121] United States
1999 General Literature (book) American professor Robert M. Veatch publishes The Basics of Bioethics, which attempts to introduce readers of all backgrounds to the field of bioethics in an accessible way. This book is based on the author's training in both religious and philosophical ethics.[122] United States
2000 General Literature (book) Kevin Wildes publishes Moral Acquaintances: Methodology in Bioethics.[123]
2000 Darwinism Literature (book) British bioethicist Janet Radcliffe Richards publishes Human Nature After Darwin: A Philosophical Introduction, which investigates the implications of Darwinism for understanding humans and their situation.[124] United Kingdom
2001 Catholic bioethics Literature (journal) Peer-reviewed journal The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly is launched.[125] United States
2001 Scientific integrity Policy Several journals start requiring authors to describe their responsibilities when publishing research.[49]
2001 Stem cell research Organization The International Society for Stem Cell Research is established to promote the exchange and dissemination of information and ideas relating to stem cells.[126][127]
2001 Biomedical science, technology Organization The President's Council on Bioethics is created by United States President George W. Bush to advice the President on bioethical issues that may emerge as a consequence of advances in biomedical science and technology.[128] United States
2001 Genetic studies Organization The Center for Genetics and Society is established.[129] United States
2002 Cloning Policy The President's Council on Bioethics recommends that the United States ban reproductive cloning and enact a moratorium on research cloning.[49][130][131][132] United States
2002 Earth jurisprudence Concept development South African author Cormac Cullinan publishes Wild Law: A Manifesto for Earth Justice, which describes the first detailed exploration of earth jurisprudence in print and introduces the term "Great Jurisprudence". Cullinan states that the survival all living beings requires us humans to alter fundamentally our understanding of the nature and purpose of law and governance, rather than merely changing laws.[133][134] South Africa
2002 Biological agent use Literature (journal) Researchers publish several papers in prominent journals with direct implications for bioterrorism. Some described methods include one for genetically engineering a form of mousepox virus that is much deadlier than the naturally occurring strain. Another shows how to make the poliovirus by obtaining supplies from a mail-order company. Another study develops a mathematical model for showing how many people would be killed by infecting the United States milk supply with botulinum toxin.[135]
2002 Biotechnology Organization The Toi Te Taiao: The Bioethics Council is established. Its goal is: "To enhance New Zealand's understanding of the cultural, ethical and spiritual aspects of biotechnology and ensure that the use of biotechnology has regard for the values held by New Zealanders." [136][137] New Zealand
2003 Biological research Policy The American Society for Microbiology, the National Academy of Sciences, and the Center for Strategic and International Studies hold a meeting to discuss the censorship on biological research that poses security risks. Self-censorship of some research is also agreed by journals.[138][139]
2003 Biological agent use Notable case The United States invades Iraq with the stated purpose of eliminating its chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons programs. So far, evidence of weapons programs but no actual weapons would be found.[49] Iraq
2003 Human genetics Treaty The International Bioethics Committee issues a second global instrument, the International Declaration on Human Genetic Data, which may be regarded as an extension of the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights.[140][141]
2003 Asian values Literature (book) Chinese bioethicist Qiu Renzong poublishes Bioethics: Asian Perspectives: A Quest for Moral Diversity, which addresses bioethical issues from comprehensive Asian perspectives and different from the western paradigm.[142]
2004 General Literature (journal) The Journal of Bioethical Inquiry is released by the University of Otago Bioethics Centre.[143] New Zealand
2004 Transhumanism (democratic) Literature (book) American bioethicist James Hughes publishes Citizen Cyborg, a non-fiction book which articulates democratic transhumanism as a socio-political ideology and program.[144] United States
2002 Transhumanism Literature (book) American political economist and philosopher Francis Fukuyama publishes Our Posthuman Future, which designates transhumanism as the world's most dangerous idea because he believes that it may undermine the egalitarian ideals of democracy (in general) and liberal democracy (in particular) through a fundamental alteration of "human nature".[145]
2005 Human rights Treaty The Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights is adopted by UNESCO.[146][147]
2005 Biosecurity Organization The National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity is established by the United States Department of Health and Human Services "to provide advice and guidance to federal agencies, scientists, and journals concerning oversight and public of research in biotechnology or biomedicine which can be readily applied to cause significant harm to public health, agriculture, the economy, or national security".[148] United States
2005 Healthcare, life science, biotechnology Organization Bioethics International (BEI) is established in the State of New York, with the mission "to empower professionals and organizations in healthcare, life science and biotechnology".[149][150] United States
Bioethics Logo.png
2005 Human rights, health law Literature (book) American professor George Annas publishes American bioethics: crossing human rights and health law boundaries.[151] United States
2005 Organ trade Literature (book) American bioethicist Mark Cherry publishes Kidney for Sale by Owner: Human Organs, Transplantation, and the Market, which argues that healthcare "could be improved and lives saved by introducing a regulated transplant organs market rather than by well-meant, but misguided, prohibitions".[152] United States
2006 Antinatalism Literature (book) South African philosopher David Benatar publishes Better Never to Have Been: The Harm of Coming into Existence, in which he argues that coming into existence is always a serious harm, regardless of the feelings of the existing being once brought into existence, and that, as a consequence, it is always morally wrong to create more sentient beings.[153][154]
2006 Social science, biology Literature (journal) Quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal BioSocieties is released.[155]
2007 African American bioethics Literature (book) Lawrence Prograis and Edmund D. Pellegrino publish African American Bioethics: Culture, Race, and Identity, which discusses the existence of a distinctive African American bioethics.[156][157] United States
2007 General Literature (book) Italian bioethicist Elio Sgreccia publishes Manuale di bioetica. Fondamenti ed etica biomedica, which presents a reason-based philosophical approach to bioethics linking with the natural law and the moral teachings of the Catholic Church.[158][159][160] Italy
2008 Feminist bioethics Literature (journal) The International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics is launched to encourage more work in feminist bioethics.[161][162]
2008 Genetic discrimination Policy The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) is passed on May 21 in the United States, making genetic discrimination illegal in the country.[163] United States
2008 General Competition The Bioethics Bowl (a spin-off of the Ethics Bowl) launches in the United States as an intercollegiate, academic competition among undergraduate students at accredited four-year institutions of higher education. Taking place each April on a college campus, it focuses exclusively on ethical issues in the health and biological sciences.[164] United States
UAB Bioethics Bowl Team at Duke University in 2011
2008 Medical ethics Organization The Center for bioethics and medical humanities is established at the University of Mississippi Medical Center.[165] United States
2009 Biomedicine Organization Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues is established by United States President Barack Obama to advise the president and the administration on bioethical issues arising from advances in biomedicine and related areas of science and technology.[166] United States
2009 General Organization The Bangladesh Bioethics Society is established.[167] Bangladesh
2009 General Literature (book) American scholar Lewis Vaughn publishes Bioethics: Principles, Issues, and Cases, which attempts to explore the philosophical, medical, social, and legal aspects of key bioethical issues.[168][169] United States
2009 General Literature (book) James B. Tubbs publishes Handbook of Bioethics Terms, a glossary-style book describing over 400 entries of importance to the field.[170] United States
2010 General Literature (book) George Annas publishes Worst case bioethics: death, disaster, and public health[171], which examines worst case scenarios in the United States and assesses their impacts on individuals, physicians and the government. It is written at the intersection of law, bioethics, public health, and human rights.[172] United States
2010 Animal rights Literature (book) British ethicist Alasdair Cochrane publishes An Introduction to Animals and Political Theory.[173] United Kingdom
2011 General Literature (journal) Triannual academic journal Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics is first issued.[174]
2011 Religion Literature (book) Australian Catholic Church prelate Anthony Fisher publishes Catholic Bioethics for a New Millennium, which discusses bioethics in the Catholic tradition.[175]
2012 General Organization The Center for the Study of Bioethics is founded by Serbian American philosopher Vojin Rakić with the purpose to stimulate scientific debate on a variety of issues bioethics deals with. It is based in Belgrade, Serbia.[176]
2012 General Literature (journal) The Canadian Journal of Bioethics is established.[177] Canada
2013 Genetic privacy Notable case Israeli-American scientist Yaniv Erlich conducts a study revealing vulnerabilities in the security of public databases that contain genetic data. The stury reports a method to discover the identity of anonymous research subjects whose genomes have been sequenced as part of a genomics project.[178]
2013 DNA extraction Policy The Supreme Court of the United States rules that isolated and purified DNA cannot be patented and that only DNA that has been modified by human beings can be patented.[179] United States
2013 General Literature (book) American bioethicist Arthur Caplan writes Contemporary Debates in Bioethics, which features a collection of debate-style arguments contributed by many bioethics scholars. The book focuses on core bioethical concerns of the twenty-first century.[180] United States
2013 General Literature (book) British bioethicist Alastair V. Campbell publishes Bioethics: The Basics, which introduces to the foundational principles, theories and issues in the study of medical and biological ethics.[181] United Kingdom
2014 Reproducibility Policy Various funding agencies and journals, including the National Institutes of Health, Science, and Nature, take steps to promote reproducibility in science in response to reports that many published studies in the biomedical, behavioral, and physical sciences are not reproducible.[49]
2014 Right to die Policy New Mexico Second District Judge Nan Nash rules that terminally ill patients have the right to aid in dying under the state constitution, i.e., making it legal for a doctor to prescribe a lethal dose of medication to a terminally ill patient.[182] United States
2015 Medical ethics Literature (book) American bioethicist Alice Dreger publishes Galileo's Middle Finger, which discusses the ethics of medical research.[183] United States
2016 Cryonics Notable case The English High Court rules in favor of a mother's right to seek cryopreservation of her terminally ill 14-year-old daughter, as the girl wanted. This case is interpreted as a conventional dispute over the disposal of the girl's body, as the girl's father opposed cryopreservation.[184] United Kingdom
2018 General Literature (book) Canadian bioethicist Francoise Baylis publishes Bioethics in Action, which presents first-person case studies of attempts to fix serious ethical problems in medical practice and research.[185]
2018 Sentientism Literature (book) Alasdair Cochrane publishes Sentientist Politics: A Theory of Global Inter-Species Justice. The book argues in favour of a "sentientist cosmopolitan democracy: a global political system made up of overlapping local, national, regional and global communities comprised of human and non-human members who exist within shared communities of fate".[186] United Kingdom

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References

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