Difference between revisions of "Timeline of bioethics"

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This is a '''timeline of {{w|bioethics}}''', listing significnt events in the development of the field.
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This is a '''timeline of {{w|bioethics}}''', listing significant events in the development of the field.
  
 
==Big picture==
 
==Big picture==
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! Time period !! Development summary   
 
! Time period !! Development summary   
 
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| <1960s || Discussions of moral issues in medicine already happen in ancient times, with early contributions by {{w|Hippocrates}} and {{w|Plato}}.<ref name="Bioethicsbritannica.com"/>  
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| <1960s || Discussions of moral issues in medicine already happen in ancient times, with early contributions by {{w|Hippocrates}} and {{w|Plato}}.<ref name="Bioethicsbritannica.com"/> In the 20th century, German theologian Fritz Jahr publishes three articles in 1927, 1928, and 1934 using the German term “Bio-Ethik”, forcefully arguing an ethical approach to issues concerning human beings and the environment.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/>
 
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| 1960s || Bioethics as a distinct field of academic study is born in the United States, merging from a cluster of scientific and cultural developments in the country during that decade.<ref name="Bioethics - History Of Bioethics">{{cite web |title=Bioethics - History Of Bioethics |url=http://science.jrank.org/pages/8456/Bioethics-History-Bioethics.html |website=science.jrank.org |accessdate=1 September 2018}}</ref>
 
| 1960s || Bioethics as a distinct field of academic study is born in the United States, merging from a cluster of scientific and cultural developments in the country during that decade.<ref name="Bioethics - History Of Bioethics">{{cite web |title=Bioethics - History Of Bioethics |url=http://science.jrank.org/pages/8456/Bioethics-History-Bioethics.html |website=science.jrank.org |accessdate=1 September 2018}}</ref>
 
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| 1970s–1980s || Many bioethics programs and degrees are established at universities in the {{w|United States}} in order to provide students{{snd}}most notably medical, law, and public policy students{{snd}}with some expertise in medical ethics to deal with complex cases.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/> Feminist bioethics develops from the early 1970s on and is initially focused on medical ethics; proponents later extend the areas of interest to issues in the fields of animal and environmental ethics.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/>  
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| 1970s–1980s || Many bioethics programs and degrees are established at universities in the {{w|United States}} in order to provide students{{snd}}most notably medical, law, and public policy students{{snd}}with some expertise in medical ethics to deal with complex cases.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/> Feminist bioethics develops from the early 1970s on and is initially focused on medical ethics; proponents later extend the areas of interest to issues in the fields of animal and environmental ethics.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/> In the late 1980s, the Russian school of bioethics originates.<ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present"/>  
 
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| 1990s || In the last decade of the 20th century, the contributions of social scientists to bioethical research become particularly important. Work of this type involves surveys of public attitudes to advances in the life sciences, including xenotransplantation and genetic modification.<ref name="Bioethicsbritannica.com"/>  
 
| 1990s || In the last decade of the 20th century, the contributions of social scientists to bioethical research become particularly important. Work of this type involves surveys of public attitudes to advances in the life sciences, including xenotransplantation and genetic modification.<ref name="Bioethicsbritannica.com"/>  
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| 1259 – 1265 || Literature || Italian philosopher {{w|Thomas Aquinas}} writes his ''{{w|Summa contra Gentiles}}'', which briefly discusses the permissibility of {{w|abortion}}.<ref name="Bioethicsbritannica.com">{{cite web |title=Bioethics |url=https://www.britannica.com/topic/bioethics |website=britannica.com |accessdate=18 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|Italy}}
 
| 1259 – 1265 || Literature || Italian philosopher {{w|Thomas Aquinas}} writes his ''{{w|Summa contra Gentiles}}'', which briefly discusses the permissibility of {{w|abortion}}.<ref name="Bioethicsbritannica.com">{{cite web |title=Bioethics |url=https://www.britannica.com/topic/bioethics |website=britannica.com |accessdate=18 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|Italy}}
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| 1588 || || "In 1588, Pope Sixtus V adopted a papal bull adopting the position of St. Thomas Aquinas that contraception and abortion were crimes against nature and sins against marriage. " ||
 
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| 1775 – 1780 || Field development || German philosopher {{w|Immanuel Kant}} in his lectures on ethics argues against the sale of human body parts.<ref name="Bioethicsbritannica.com"/> ||
 
| 1775 – 1780 || Field development || German philosopher {{w|Immanuel Kant}} in his lectures on ethics argues against the sale of human body parts.<ref name="Bioethicsbritannica.com"/> ||
 
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| 1927 || Literature || German theologian {{w|Fritz Jahr}} publishes article using the German term “Bio-Ethik” (which translates as “Bio-Ethics”) and argues, both for the establishment of a new academic discipline, and for the practice of a new, more civilized, ethical approach to issues concerning human beings and the environment. Jahr would publish similar articles discussing bioethics in 1928, and 1934.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/> || {{w|Germany}}
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| 1847 || || The {{w|American Medical Association}} adopts its first [[w:ethical code|code of ethics]], with this being based in large part upon the work of {{w|Thomas Percival}}.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.uab.edu/reynolds/MajMedFigs/Percival.htm |title=Archived copy |accessdate=2007-10-16 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20060704201058/http://www.uab.edu/reynolds/MajMedFigs/Percival.htm |archivedate=2006-07-04 }}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1926 || Literature || German theologian {{w|Fritz Jahr}}, referring to European and Oriental traditions, publishes an article entitled ''Natural sciences and teaching ethics'' where he gives the subtitle “Old Knowledge in new clothes” describing the function of natural sciences for education and teaching biological research ethics.<ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present"/> || {{w|Germany}}
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| 1927 || Literature || {{w|Fritz Jahr}} publishes article using the German term “Bio-Ethik” (which translates as “Bio-Ethics”) and argues, both for the establishment of a new academic discipline, and for the practice of a new, more civilized, ethical approach to issues concerning human beings and the environment. Jahr would publish similar articles discussing bioethics in 1928, and 1934.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/> || {{w|Germany}}
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| 1932 || Literature || {{w|The Linacre Quarterly}} || {{w|United States}}
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| 1932 || || {{w|Tuskegee syphilis experiment}} || {{w|United States}}
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| 1943–1944 || || {{w|Nazi human experimentation}}. "The central leader of the experiments was [[Josef Mengele]], who from 1943 to 1944 performed experiments on nearly 1,500 sets of imprisoned twins at Auschwitz. About 200 people survived these studies."<ref>[http://www.longwood.k12.ny.us/lhs/science/mos/twins/mengele.html Josef Mengele and Experimentation on Human Twins at Auschwitz] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150414074936/http://www.longwood.k12.ny.us/lhs/science/mos/twins/mengele.html |date=14 April 2015 }}, ''Children of the Flames; Dr. Josef Mengele and the Untold Story of the Twins of Auschwitz'', Lucette Matalon Lagnado and Sheila Cohn Dekel, and ''Mengele: the Complete Story'' by Gerald Posner and John Ware.</ref> ||
 
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| 1947 || || The {{w|Nuremberg Code}} is adopted as a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation. It is set as a result of the {{w|Subsequent Nuremberg trials}} at the end of the {{w|Second World War}}.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/> || {{w|Germany}}
 
| 1947 || || The {{w|Nuremberg Code}} is adopted as a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation. It is set as a result of the {{w|Subsequent Nuremberg trials}} at the end of the {{w|Second World War}}.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/> || {{w|Germany}}
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| 1948 || || {{w|Declaration of Geneva}} || {{w|Switzerland}}
 
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| 1954 || Literature || Joseph F. Fletcher publishes ''Morals and Medicine: The Moral Problems of the Patient’s Right to Know the Truth, Contraception, Artificial Insemination, Sterilization, and Euthanasia''.<ref>{{cite web |title=Morals and Medicine |url=https://press.princeton.edu/titles/549.html |website=press.princeton.edu |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref><ref name="Bioethicsvv"/> ||
 
| 1954 || Literature || Joseph F. Fletcher publishes ''Morals and Medicine: The Moral Problems of the Patient’s Right to Know the Truth, Contraception, Artificial Insemination, Sterilization, and Euthanasia''.<ref>{{cite web |title=Morals and Medicine |url=https://press.princeton.edu/titles/549.html |website=press.princeton.edu |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref><ref name="Bioethicsvv"/> ||
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| 1966 || Field development || American anesthesiologist {{w|Henry K. Beecher}} publishes an article in ''{{w|The New England Journal of Medicine}}'' exposing 22 unethical studies in biomedicine, including the {{w|Tuskegee syphilis experiment}} and the [[w:Willowbrook State School|Willowbrook hepatitis study]].<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)">{{cite web |title=Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present) |url=https://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/bioethics/timeline/index.cfm |website=niehs.nih.gov |accessdate=18 September 2018}}</ref>  || {{w|United States}}
 
| 1966 || Field development || American anesthesiologist {{w|Henry K. Beecher}} publishes an article in ''{{w|The New England Journal of Medicine}}'' exposing 22 unethical studies in biomedicine, including the {{w|Tuskegee syphilis experiment}} and the [[w:Willowbrook State School|Willowbrook hepatitis study]].<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)">{{cite web |title=Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present) |url=https://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/bioethics/timeline/index.cfm |website=niehs.nih.gov |accessdate=18 September 2018}}</ref>  || {{w|United States}}
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| 1969 || Organization || {{w|The Hastings Center}} is founded as a bioethics research institute. It is located in {{w|Garrison, New York}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=The Hastings Center |url=https://www.thehastingscenter.org/who-we-are/ |website=thehastingscenter.org |accessdate=19 December 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=About The Hastings Center |url=https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hast.965 |website=onlinelibrary.wiley.com |accessdate=19 December 2019}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
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| 1970 || Literature || Paul Ramsey publishes ''The Patient as Person: Explorations in Medical Ethics''.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Ashley |first1=Benedict M. |title=Health Care Ethics: A Catholic Theological Analysis, Fifth Edition |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=jEEErLTiOz8C&pg=PA9&dq=%22in+1970%22+The+Patient+as+Person:+Explorations+in+Medical+Ethics&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjnqZ__scLdAhUFGJAKHXt5Cp8Q6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=%22in%201970%22%20The%20Patient%20as%20Person%3A%20Explorations%20in%20Medical%20Ethics&f=false}}</ref><ref name="Bioethicsvv"/> ||  
 
| 1970 || Literature || Paul Ramsey publishes ''The Patient as Person: Explorations in Medical Ethics''.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Ashley |first1=Benedict M. |title=Health Care Ethics: A Catholic Theological Analysis, Fifth Edition |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=jEEErLTiOz8C&pg=PA9&dq=%22in+1970%22+The+Patient+as+Person:+Explorations+in+Medical+Ethics&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjnqZ__scLdAhUFGJAKHXt5Cp8Q6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=%22in%201970%22%20The%20Patient%20as%20Person%3A%20Explorations%20in%20Medical%20Ethics&f=false}}</ref><ref name="Bioethicsvv"/> ||  
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| 1971 || Literature || {{w|Van Rensselaer Potter}} publishes book ''Bioethics: Bridge to the Future''.<ref name="Handbook of Bioethics and Religion"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 1971 || Literature || {{w|Van Rensselaer Potter}} publishes book ''Bioethics: Bridge to the Future''.<ref name="Handbook of Bioethics and Religion"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
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| 1971 || Organization || The [[w:Kennedy Institute of Ethics|Joseph and Rose Kennedy Center for the Study of Human Reproduction and Bioethics]] (now known as Kennedy Center) opens at {{w|Georgetown University}}. With similar goals to those of {{w|The Hastings Center}}, the Kennedy Institute is however placed inside the traditional academy.<ref name="Bioethics - History Of Bioethics"/><ref name="Handbook of Bioethics and Religion"/> || {{w|United States}}  
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| 1971 || Concept development || {{w|Georgetown University}} researcher Andre Hellegers uses the term ''bioethics'' to refer to interdisciplinary research moral problems of biomedicine, primarily associated with the need to protect the dignity and rights of patients.<ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present"/> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1971 || Organization || The [[w:Kennedy Institute of Ethics|Joseph and Rose Kennedy Center for the Study of Human Reproduction and Bioethics]] (now known as Kennedy Center) opens at {{w|Georgetown University}}. With similar goals to those of {{w|The Hastings Center}}, the Kennedy Institute is however placed inside the traditional academy.<ref name="Bioethics - History Of Bioethics"/><ref name="Handbook of Bioethics and Religion"/> Founded by Andre Hellegers, it is the first in the world to establish an institute of bioethics on the basis of interdisciplinary research and approaches.<ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present"/> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1972 || Organization || {{w|National Catholic Bioethics Center}} || {{w|United States}}
 
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| 1973 || || Dan Callahan writes essay ''Bioethics as a Discipline'', whose title is the first entry of the word "bioethics" in the catalogue of the National Library of Congress.<ref name="Handbook of Bioethics and Religion"/> In the article, Callahan argues for the establishment of a new academic discipline.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1973 || Concept development || Dan Callahan writes essay ''Bioethics as a Discipline'', whose title is the first entry of the word "bioethics" in the catalogue of the National Library of Congress.<ref name="Handbook of Bioethics and Religion"/> In the article, Callahan argues for the establishment of a new academic discipline.<ref name="Bioethicsvv"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
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| 1975 || Literature || The ''{{w|Journal of Medical Ethics}}'' is launched.<ref>{{cite web |title=Editor-in-Chief Journal of Medical Ethics |url=https://blogs.bmj.com/medical-ethics/2017/07/05/editor-in-chief-journal-of-medical-ethics/ |website=blogs.bmj.com |accessdate=3 September 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=VEATCH |first1=ROBERT M. |title=How Philosophy of Medicine Has Changed Medical Ethics |url=https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03605310601009315 |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> ||
 
| 1975 || Literature || The ''{{w|Journal of Medical Ethics}}'' is launched.<ref>{{cite web |title=Editor-in-Chief Journal of Medical Ethics |url=https://blogs.bmj.com/medical-ethics/2017/07/05/editor-in-chief-journal-of-medical-ethics/ |website=blogs.bmj.com |accessdate=3 September 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=VEATCH |first1=ROBERT M. |title=How Philosophy of Medicine Has Changed Medical Ethics |url=https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03605310601009315 |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> ||
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| 1978 || Scientific development || {{w|Louise Brown}} is born as the world's first test-tube baby.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> ||
 
| 1978 || Scientific development || {{w|Louise Brown}} is born as the world's first test-tube baby.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> ||
 
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| 1978 || || "With its starting publication in 1978 (1st edition), the Encyclopedia of Bioethics became the first reference book to focus exclusively on the new and promising field of bioethics, helping to define the discipline"<ref>{{cite web |title=The new edition (4th) of the Encyclopedia of Bioethics |url=http://www.saocamilo-sp.br/pdf/bioethikos/155567/Editorialen.pdf |website=saocamilo-sp.br |accessdate=20 December 2019}}</ref><ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present"/> ||
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| 1979 || Literature || {{w|IRB: Ethics & Human Research}} ||
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| 1979 || Organization || The Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences officially establishes its own private central ethical committee.<ref name="Bioethics in a European Perspective"/> || {{w|Switzerland}}
 
| 1979 || Organization || The Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences officially establishes its own private central ethical committee.<ref name="Bioethics in a European Perspective"/> || {{w|Switzerland}}
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| 1979 || Organization || {{w|Albert Gnaegi Center for Health Care Ethics}} || {{w|United States}}
 
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| 1979 || || The {{w|Belmont Report}} is released by the {{w| National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research}}. The Report becomes a key document in human research ethics regulations in the United States.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/><ref>{{cite web |title=The Belmont Report |url=https://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/regulations-and-policy/belmont-report/read-the-belmont-report/index.html |website=hhs.gov |accessdate=27 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 1979 || || The {{w|Belmont Report}} is released by the {{w| National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research}}. The Report becomes a key document in human research ethics regulations in the United States.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/><ref>{{cite web |title=The Belmont Report |url=https://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/regulations-and-policy/belmont-report/read-the-belmont-report/index.html |website=hhs.gov |accessdate=27 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1981 || Organization || Japan establishes its first ethics committee, at the Medical Institute of Tokyo University.<ref name="Bioethics in a European Perspective"/> || {{w|Japan}}
 
| 1981 || Organization || Japan establishes its first ethics committee, at the Medical Institute of Tokyo University.<ref name="Bioethics in a European Perspective"/> || {{w|Japan}}
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| 1981 || Organization || {{w|MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics}} || {{w|United States}}
 
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| 1985 || Literature || Zhi-zheng Du's ''Outline of Medical Ethics'' is published in China as the first systematic textbook of medical ethics after the cultural revolution of the 1960s and 1970s.<ref name="Annals of Bioethics: Regional Perspectives in Bioethics"/> || {{w|China}}
 
| 1985 || Literature || Zhi-zheng Du's ''Outline of Medical Ethics'' is published in China as the first systematic textbook of medical ethics after the cultural revolution of the 1960s and 1970s.<ref name="Annals of Bioethics: Regional Perspectives in Bioethics"/> || {{w|China}}
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| 1987 || Literature || Ren-zong Qiu's ''Bioethics'' is published as the first bioethics book in China.<ref name="Annals of Bioethics: Regional Perspectives in Bioethics">{{cite book |last1=Cherry |first1=Mark J. |last2=Peppin |first2=John F. |title=Annals of Bioethics: Regional Perspectives in Bioethics |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=CUB5AgAAQBAJ&pg=PA248&dq=%22in+1987%22+Journal+Bioethics&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiWuKHx_8DdAhVGlZAKHQ2DArwQ6AEILjAB#v=onepage&q=%22in%201987%22%20Journal%20Bioethics&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|China}}
 
| 1987 || Literature || Ren-zong Qiu's ''Bioethics'' is published as the first bioethics book in China.<ref name="Annals of Bioethics: Regional Perspectives in Bioethics">{{cite book |last1=Cherry |first1=Mark J. |last2=Peppin |first2=John F. |title=Annals of Bioethics: Regional Perspectives in Bioethics |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=CUB5AgAAQBAJ&pg=PA248&dq=%22in+1987%22+Journal+Bioethics&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiWuKHx_8DdAhVGlZAKHQ2DArwQ6AEILjAB#v=onepage&q=%22in%201987%22%20Journal%20Bioethics&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|China}}
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| 1987 || Literature || [[w:Bioethics (journal)|Bioethics]] ||
 
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| 1988 || Literature || ''{{w|Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics}}'' is established.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Barnhill |first1=Anne |last2=Doggett |first2=Tyler |title=The Oxford Handbook of Food Ethics |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=_QpDDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA265&lpg=PA265&dq=%22Journal+of+Agricultural+and+Environmental+Ethics%22+%221988%22&source=bl&ots=Itg7VnQ2P_&sig=dVayGEAUB-u386zoCY2kAx0p7iE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjE7L7SwZ_dAhUEWpAKHYcUCqkQ6AEwB3oECAQQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22Journal%20of%20Agricultural%20and%20Environmental%20Ethics%22%20%221988%22&f=false}}</ref> ||
 
| 1988 || Literature || ''{{w|Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics}}'' is established.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Barnhill |first1=Anne |last2=Doggett |first2=Tyler |title=The Oxford Handbook of Food Ethics |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=_QpDDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA265&lpg=PA265&dq=%22Journal+of+Agricultural+and+Environmental+Ethics%22+%221988%22&source=bl&ots=Itg7VnQ2P_&sig=dVayGEAUB-u386zoCY2kAx0p7iE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjE7L7SwZ_dAhUEWpAKHYcUCqkQ6AEwB3oECAQQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22Journal%20of%20Agricultural%20and%20Environmental%20Ethics%22%20%221988%22&f=false}}</ref> ||
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| 1988 || Literature || Zhao-xiong He's ''History of Chinese Medical Morality'' is published, providing material on medical ethics from ancient to current China.<ref name="Annals of Bioethics: Regional Perspectives in Bioethics"/> || {{w|China}}
 
| 1988 || Literature || Zhao-xiong He's ''History of Chinese Medical Morality'' is published, providing material on medical ethics from ancient to current China.<ref name="Annals of Bioethics: Regional Perspectives in Bioethics"/> || {{w|China}}
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| 1988 || Literature || Van Rensselaer Potter publishes ''Global bioethics''.<ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present">{{cite web |title=Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present |url=https://www.intechopen.com/books/reflections-on-bioethics/russian-school-of-bioethics-history-and-the-present- |website=intechopen.com |accessdate=20 December 2019}}</ref> ||
 
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| 1989 || Literature || The United States {{w|National Academy of Sciences}} publishes ''On Being A Scientist'', a free, short book on research ethics for scientists in training.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 1989 || Literature || The United States {{w|National Academy of Sciences}} publishes ''On Being A Scientist'', a free, short book on research ethics for scientists in training.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1990 || || {{w|Legal Trends in Bioethics}} ||
 
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|-
 
| 1991 || Organization || London-based {{w|Nuffield Council on Bioethics}} is established by the {{w|Nuffield Foundation}} to adress numerous bioethical issues in need of analysis.<ref>{{cite book |title=National bioethics committees in action |publisher=UNESCO |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=8JtYCgAAQBAJ&pg=PP8&dq=%22in+1991%22+%22Nuffield+Council+on+Bioethics%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjk2fS-5cLdAhXBE5AKHaqlCOQQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=%22in%201991%22%20%22Nuffield%20Council%20on%20Bioethics%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Weir |first1=Robert F. |last2=Olick |first2=Robert S. |last3=Murray |first3=Jeffrey C. |title=The Stored Tissue Issue: Biomedical Research, Ethics, and Law in the Era of Genomic Medicine |publisher= |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=_1ASDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA105&dq=%22in+1991%22+%22Nuffield+Council+on+Bioethics%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjk2fS-5cLdAhXBE5AKHaqlCOQQ6AEIMzAC#v=onepage&q=%22in%201991%22%20%22Nuffield%20Council%20on%20Bioethics%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Global Bioethics: The Impact of the UNESCO International Bioethics Committee |publisher=Alireza Bagheri, Jonathan D. Moreno, Stefano Semplici |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=Kv_NCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA129&dq=%22in+1991%22+%22Nuffield+Council+on+Bioethics%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjk2fS-5cLdAhXBE5AKHaqlCOQQ6AEIOzAD#v=onepage&q=%22in%201991%22%20%22Nuffield%20Council%20on%20Bioethics%22&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
| 1991 || Organization || London-based {{w|Nuffield Council on Bioethics}} is established by the {{w|Nuffield Foundation}} to adress numerous bioethical issues in need of analysis.<ref>{{cite book |title=National bioethics committees in action |publisher=UNESCO |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=8JtYCgAAQBAJ&pg=PP8&dq=%22in+1991%22+%22Nuffield+Council+on+Bioethics%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjk2fS-5cLdAhXBE5AKHaqlCOQQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=%22in%201991%22%20%22Nuffield%20Council%20on%20Bioethics%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Weir |first1=Robert F. |last2=Olick |first2=Robert S. |last3=Murray |first3=Jeffrey C. |title=The Stored Tissue Issue: Biomedical Research, Ethics, and Law in the Era of Genomic Medicine |publisher= |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=_1ASDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA105&dq=%22in+1991%22+%22Nuffield+Council+on+Bioethics%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjk2fS-5cLdAhXBE5AKHaqlCOQQ6AEIMzAC#v=onepage&q=%22in%201991%22%20%22Nuffield%20Council%20on%20Bioethics%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Global Bioethics: The Impact of the UNESCO International Bioethics Committee |publisher=Alireza Bagheri, Jonathan D. Moreno, Stefano Semplici |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=Kv_NCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA129&dq=%22in+1991%22+%22Nuffield+Council+on+Bioethics%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjk2fS-5cLdAhXBE5AKHaqlCOQQ6AEIOzAD#v=onepage&q=%22in%201991%22%20%22Nuffield%20Council%20on%20Bioethics%22&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1991 || Literature || The ''{{w|Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal}}'' is launched. || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1992 || Literature || Quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal ''{{w|Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics}}'' is launched.<ref>{{cite journal |title=Cambridge quarterly of healthcare ethics : CQ : the international journal of healthcare ethics committees |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/9208482}}</ref> ||
 
| 1992 || Literature || Quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal ''{{w|Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics}}'' is launched.<ref>{{cite journal |title=Cambridge quarterly of healthcare ethics : CQ : the international journal of healthcare ethics committees |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/9208482}}</ref> ||
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| 1992 || Literature || The United States {{w|National Academy of Sciences}} publishes ''Responsible Science: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process''. The book estimates the incidence of misconduct, discusses some of the causes of misconduct, proposes a definition of misconduct, and recommends some strategies for preventing misconduct.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 1992 || Literature || The United States {{w|National Academy of Sciences}} publishes ''Responsible Science: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process''. The book estimates the incidence of misconduct, discusses some of the causes of misconduct, proposes a definition of misconduct, and recommends some strategies for preventing misconduct.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-  
 
|-  
 +
| 1992 || Literature || Peer-reviewed academic journal ''{{w|Environmental Values}}'' is established. || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 
| 1993 || Scientific development || Researchers successfully clone human {{w|embryo}}s.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> ||
 
| 1993 || Scientific development || Researchers successfully clone human {{w|embryo}}s.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
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|-
 
|-
 
| 1994 || || The United States Government declassifies information about secret human radiation experiments conducted from the 1940s-1980s and issues an apology.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 1994 || || The United States Government declassifies information about secret human radiation experiments conducted from the 1940s-1980s and issues an apology.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1994 || Literature || American philosophers {{w|Tom Beauchamp}} and {{w|James Childress}} publish ''The principles of biomedical ethics'', in which they state their basic principles of bioethics as "the principle of respect for patient autonomy, which has grounded, in particular, the concept of informed consent; dates back to the Hippocratic principle of “do no harm,” which requires minimization of damage to the patient during the medical intervention; the principle of “do good” (beneficence), emphasizing the physician’s responsibility to take positive steps to improve the condition of the patient; and the principle of justice, emphasizing the need for fairness and equal treatment of patients, and equitable distribution of resources (which are always limited) in the provision of medical care".<ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1995 || || About 200 religious leaders join in {{w|Washington, DC.}}, with leading biotechnology critic Jeremy Rifkin in a press conference named the "Joint Appeal against Human and Animal Patenting", protesting the patenting of plants, animals, and human body parts.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Hanson |first1=MJ |title=Religious voices in biotechnology: the case of gene patenting. |pmid=12962106 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12962106}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 1995 || || About 200 religious leaders join in {{w|Washington, DC.}}, with leading biotechnology critic Jeremy Rifkin in a press conference named the "Joint Appeal against Human and Animal Patenting", protesting the patenting of plants, animals, and human body parts.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Hanson |first1=MJ |title=Religious voices in biotechnology: the case of gene patenting. |pmid=12962106 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12962106}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1995 || Organization || The {{w|Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics}} is established. || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1995 || Organization || {{w|University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics}}<ref>{{cite web |title=About Us: The Joint Centre for Bioethics |url=http://jcb.utoronto.ca/about/about.shtml |website=jcb.utoronto.ca/ |accessdate=19 December 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Canada}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1995 || Concept development || American philosopher {{w|Daniel Callahan}} defines bioethics as a science “which is the product of biomedical achievements related to the environment and social sciences”.<ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1996 || Scientific development || [[w:Dolly (sheep)|Dolly]] is born as the first mammal ever to be cloned from another individual’s body cell. Her birth is announced in 1997, followed by several European nations banning human cloning. The United States Congress considers a bill to ban all human cloning but changes its mind after scientists argue that the bill would undermine biomedical research.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Dolly the sheep dies young |url=https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn3393-dolly-the-sheep-dies-young/ |website=newscientist.com |accessdate=27 September 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Dolly the sheep: 15 years after her death, cloning still has the power to shock |url=https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/dolly-the-sheep-cloning-15-years-death-future-humans-monkeys-what-next-a8208896.html |website=independent.co.uk |accessdate=27 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
| 1996 || Scientific development || [[w:Dolly (sheep)|Dolly]] is born as the first mammal ever to be cloned from another individual’s body cell. Her birth is announced in 1997, followed by several European nations banning human cloning. The United States Congress considers a bill to ban all human cloning but changes its mind after scientists argue that the bill would undermine biomedical research.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Dolly the sheep dies young |url=https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn3393-dolly-the-sheep-dies-young/ |website=newscientist.com |accessdate=27 September 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Dolly the sheep: 15 years after her death, cloning still has the power to shock |url=https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/dolly-the-sheep-cloning-15-years-death-future-humans-monkeys-what-next-a8208896.html |website=independent.co.uk |accessdate=27 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1996 || Organization || The {{w|National Bioethics Advisory Commission}} is established. ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1996 || Literature || American philosopher {{w|H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr.}} publishes ''The Foundation of Bioethics'', in which he states “Moral diversity is real. It is real in fact and in principle. Bioethics and healthcare policy have yet to take this diversity seriously. Those who teach bioethics, those who engage in bioethics committees, even those who produced textbooks tend to discount the diversity of understanding regarding the morality of particular health care choices (e.g., regarding abortion, commercial surrogacy, euthanasia/ germline genetic engineering, inequalities in access to health care, infanticide, organ sales) or the nature of morality (e.g., theological, deontological, virtue-based)".<ref name="Russian School of Bioethics: History and the Present"/> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1997 || || "On May 16, 1997, President Bill Clinton formally apologized on behalf of the United States to victims of the experiment" || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1997 || || {{w|Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights}} ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1998 || Literature || Journal {{w|Medicine Health Care and Philosophy}} is launched by the European Society For Philosophy Of Medicine And Healthcare.<ref name="The European Society For Philosophy Of Medicine And Healthcare"/> ||
 
| 1998 || Literature || Journal {{w|Medicine Health Care and Philosophy}} is launched by the European Society For Philosophy Of Medicine And Healthcare.<ref name="The European Society For Philosophy Of Medicine And Healthcare"/> ||
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|-
 
|-
 
| 1999 || Literature || The ''{{w|American Journal of Bioethics}}'' is launched.<ref>{{cite web |title=American Journal of Bioethics |url=http://www.bioethics.net/about/ |website=bioethics.net |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref>  || {{w|United Sattes}}
 
| 1999 || Literature || The ''{{w|American Journal of Bioethics}}'' is launched.<ref>{{cite web |title=American Journal of Bioethics |url=http://www.bioethics.net/about/ |website=bioethics.net |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref>  || {{w|United Sattes}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1999 || Organization || {{w|Human Genetics Alert}} is founded in {{w|London}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=About Human Genetics Alert |url=http://www.hgalert.org/aboutUs/ |website=hgalert.org |accessdate=19 December 2019}}</ref> It advocates against uses of {{w|reproductive technology}} and {{w|human genetics}} research that it considers harmful.<ref name="detail">{{cite web |title=Participant Detail |url=http://www.biopolitics-berlin2003.org/participants.asp?id=302&od=1 |website=Within and Beyond the Limits to Human Nature |accessdate=18 December 2019}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1999 || Policy || The {{w|National Institutes of Health}} and the {{w|Office for Human Research Protections}} require all people conducting or overseeing human subjects research have some training in research ethics.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 1999 || Policy || The {{w|National Institutes of Health}} and the {{w|Office for Human Research Protections}} require all people conducting or overseeing human subjects research have some training in research ethics.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1999 || Literature || Chinese bioethicist {{w|Lee Shui-chuen}} publishes ''Confucian Bioethics'' (in Chinese). || {{w|China}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2000 || Organization || The {{w|Office for Human Research Protections}} is established. || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2001 || Literature || Peer-reviewed journal ''{{w|The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly}}'' is launched.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Curran |first1=Charles E. |title=Catholic Moral Theology in the United States: A History |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=enB4otKhEFwC&pg=PA222&lpg=PA222&dq=%22in+2001%22+The+National+Catholic+Bioethics+Quarterly&source=bl&ots=rH3DEl-Bdr&sig=LifxWKWrmT8Js0w50qyzQHz3GsM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiLlcyFksPdAhULg5AKHfOcBZEQ6AEwB3oECAAQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22in%202001%22%20The%20National%20Catholic%20Bioethics%20Quarterly&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 2001 || Literature || Peer-reviewed journal ''{{w|The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly}}'' is launched.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Curran |first1=Charles E. |title=Catholic Moral Theology in the United States: A History |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=enB4otKhEFwC&pg=PA222&lpg=PA222&dq=%22in+2001%22+The+National+Catholic+Bioethics+Quarterly&source=bl&ots=rH3DEl-Bdr&sig=LifxWKWrmT8Js0w50qyzQHz3GsM&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiLlcyFksPdAhULg5AKHfOcBZEQ6AEwB3oECAAQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22in%202001%22%20The%20National%20Catholic%20Bioethics%20Quarterly&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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|-
 
|-
 
| 2001 || Organization || {{w|The President's Council on Bioethics}} is created by United States President {{w|George W. Bush}} to advice the President on bioethical issues that may emerge as a consequence of advances in biomedical science and technology.<ref>{{cite web |title=President's Council on Bioethics |url=https://bioethicsarchive.georgetown.edu/pcbe/reports/past_commissions/ |website=bioethicsarchive.georgetown.edu |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 2001 || Organization || {{w|The President's Council on Bioethics}} is created by United States President {{w|George W. Bush}} to advice the President on bioethical issues that may emerge as a consequence of advances in biomedical science and technology.<ref>{{cite web |title=President's Council on Bioethics |url=https://bioethicsarchive.georgetown.edu/pcbe/reports/past_commissions/ |website=bioethicsarchive.georgetown.edu |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2001 || Organization || The {{w|Center for Genetics and Society}} is established. || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2002 || || {{w|The President's Council on Bioethics}} recommends that the United States ban reproductive cloning and enact a moratorium on research cloning.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 2002 || || {{w|The President's Council on Bioethics}} recommends that the United States ban reproductive cloning and enact a moratorium on research cloning.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2002 || Organization || {{w|Toi Te Taiao: The Bioethics Council}} || {{w|New Zealand}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2003 || || The United States invades {{w|Iraq}} with the stated purpose of eliminating its chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons programs. So far, evidence of weapons programs but no actual weapons would be found.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|Iraq}}
 
| 2003 || || The United States invades {{w|Iraq}} with the stated purpose of eliminating its chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons programs. So far, evidence of weapons programs but no actual weapons would be found.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|Iraq}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2004 || Literature || ''{{w|Journal of Bioethical Inquiry}}'' is released by the {{w|University of Otago}} Bioethics Centre.<ref>{{cite journal |title=Journal of bioethical inquiry |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/101250741}}</ref> || {{w|New Zeland}}
+
| 2003 || || The {{w|International Bioethics Committee}} issues a second global instrument, the International Declaration on Human Genetic Data, which may be regarded as an extension of the {{w|Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights}}. ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2003 || Organization || {{w|The Regenerative Medicine Institute}} || {{w|Ireland}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2004 || Literature || The ''{{w|Journal of Bioethical Inquiry}}'' is released by the {{w|University of Otago}} Bioethics Centre.<ref>{{cite journal |title=Journal of bioethical inquiry |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/101250741}}</ref> || {{w|New Zealand}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2004 || Literature || Medical ethicist James Hughes publishes ''{{w|Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future}}'', which argues that technologies pushing the boundaries of humanness can radically improve our quality of life if they are controlled democratically.<ref>{{cite web |title=Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future |url=https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/111902.Citizen_Cyborg |website=goodreads.com |accessdate=3 September 2018}}</ref> ||
 
| 2004 || Literature || Medical ethicist James Hughes publishes ''{{w|Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future}}'', which argues that technologies pushing the boundaries of humanness can radically improve our quality of life if they are controlled democratically.<ref>{{cite web |title=Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future |url=https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/111902.Citizen_Cyborg |website=goodreads.com |accessdate=3 September 2018}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2004 || Organization || {{w|Institute on Biotechnology and the Human Future}} ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2005 || || Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2005 || Literature || American professor {{w|George Annas}} publishes ''American bioethics: crossing human rights and health law boundaries''. || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2006 || Literature || Quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal ''{{w|BioSocieties}}'' is released.<ref>{{cite web |title=BioSocieties |url=http://andymiah.net/blog/2006/07/01/biosocieties |website=andymiah.net |accessdate=3 September 2018}}</ref> ||
 
| 2006 || Literature || Quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal ''{{w|BioSocieties}}'' is released.<ref>{{cite web |title=BioSocieties |url=http://andymiah.net/blog/2006/07/01/biosocieties |website=andymiah.net |accessdate=3 September 2018}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2006 || Literature || Quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal ''{{w|Clinical Ethics}}'' is launched. || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2007 || [[w:List of medical ethics cases|Medical ethics case]] || A man in pain requests a legal right to die. || {{w|Italy}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2008 || Literature || The ''{{w|International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics}}'' is launched to encourage more work in feminist bioethics.<ref>{{cite web |title=Feminist Bioethics |url=https://stanford.library.sydney.edu.au/archives/sum2009/entries/feminist-bioethics/ |website=stanford.library.sydney.edu.au |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics |url=https://www.researchgate.net/journal/1937-4577_International_Journal_of_Feminist_Approaches_to_Bioethics |website=researchgate.net |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> ||
 
| 2008 || Literature || The ''{{w|International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics}}'' is launched to encourage more work in feminist bioethics.<ref>{{cite web |title=Feminist Bioethics |url=https://stanford.library.sydney.edu.au/archives/sum2009/entries/feminist-bioethics/ |website=stanford.library.sydney.edu.au |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics |url=https://www.researchgate.net/journal/1937-4577_International_Journal_of_Feminist_Approaches_to_Bioethics |website=researchgate.net |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2008 || || The {{w|Catholic Church}} publishes a document entitled ''{{w|Dignitas Personae}}'', about a range of bioethical issues related to the areas of assisted reproduction and human genetics. The paper analizes and comments the bioethical thinking of the Catholic Church.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Pastor |first1=LM |title=[Ethical analysis and commentary of Dignitas Personae document: from continuity toward the innovation]. |pmid=21692553 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21692553}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=INSTRUCTION DIGNITAS PERSONAE |url=http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cfaith/documents/rc_con_cfaith_doc_20081208_dignitas-personae_en.html |website=vatican.va |accessdate=27 September 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Vatican issues new document on biotechnology |url=https://www.ncronline.org/blogs/all-things-catholic/vatican-issues-new-document-biotechnology |website=ncronline.org |accessdate=27 September 2018}}</ref> ||
 
| 2008 || || The {{w|Catholic Church}} publishes a document entitled ''{{w|Dignitas Personae}}'', about a range of bioethical issues related to the areas of assisted reproduction and human genetics. The paper analizes and comments the bioethical thinking of the Catholic Church.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Pastor |first1=LM |title=[Ethical analysis and commentary of Dignitas Personae document: from continuity toward the innovation]. |pmid=21692553 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21692553}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=INSTRUCTION DIGNITAS PERSONAE |url=http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cfaith/documents/rc_con_cfaith_doc_20081208_dignitas-personae_en.html |website=vatican.va |accessdate=27 September 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Vatican issues new document on biotechnology |url=https://www.ncronline.org/blogs/all-things-catholic/vatican-issues-new-document-biotechnology |website=ncronline.org |accessdate=27 September 2018}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2008 || Literature || {{w|International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics}} || {{w|Canada}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2009 || Organization || {{w|Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues}} is established by United States President {{w|Barack Obama}} to advise the president and the administration on bioethical issues arising from advances in biomedicine and related areas of science and technology.<ref>{{cite web |title=About the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues |url=https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/hast.726 |website=onlinelibrary.wiley.com |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 2009 || Organization || {{w|Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues}} is established by United States President {{w|Barack Obama}} to advise the president and the administration on bioethical issues arising from advances in biomedicine and related areas of science and technology.<ref>{{cite web |title=About the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues |url=https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/hast.726 |website=onlinelibrary.wiley.com |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 || Organization || The {{w|Bangladesh Bioethics Society}} is established.<ref>{{cite web |title=Bangladesh Bioethics Society |url=https://www.ausn.info/worldwide_collaboration/bangladesh_bioethics_society_bbs |website=bioethics.org.bd/ |accessdate=19 December 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Bangladesh}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2009 || Policy || The Obama Administration announces it will significantly expand {{w|National Institutes of Health}} funding of human embryonic stem cell research which was restricted under the Bush Administration.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 2009 || Policy || The Obama Administration announces it will significantly expand {{w|National Institutes of Health}} funding of human embryonic stem cell research which was restricted under the Bush Administration.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2010 || Literature || {{w|George Annas}} publishes ''Worst case bioethics: death, disaster, and public health''. || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2011 || Literature || Triannual academic journal ''{{w|Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics}}'' is first issued.<ref>{{cite web |title=“Reasonable Accommodation” for Families of ‘Brain Dead’ Patients |url=https://bioethics.georgetown.edu/tag/narrative-ethics/ |website=bioethics.georgetown.edu |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> ||
 
| 2011 || Literature || Triannual academic journal ''{{w|Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics}}'' is first issued.<ref>{{cite web |title=“Reasonable Accommodation” for Families of ‘Brain Dead’ Patients |url=https://bioethics.georgetown.edu/tag/narrative-ethics/ |website=bioethics.georgetown.edu |accessdate=17 September 2018}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2012 || Organization || The {{w|Center for the Study of Bioethics}} is founded by Serbian American philosopher {{w|Vojin Rakić}} with the purpose to stimulate scientific debate on a variety of issues bioethics deals with. It is based in Belgrade, Serbia.<ref>{{cite web |title=Center for the Study of Bioethics |url=http://csb.eu.com/en/purpose/ |website=csb.eu.com/ |accessdate=19 December 2019}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2012 || Literature || The {{w|Canadian Journal of Bioethics}} is established. || {{w|Canada}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2014 || || Various funding agencies and journals, including the {{w|National Institutes of Health}}, [[W:Science (journal)|Science]], and [[w:Nature (journal)|Nature]], take steps to promote {{w|reproducibility}} in science in response to reports that many published studies in the biomedical, behavioral, and physical sciences are not reproducible.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> ||
 
| 2014 || || Various funding agencies and journals, including the {{w|National Institutes of Health}}, [[W:Science (journal)|Science]], and [[w:Nature (journal)|Nature]], take steps to promote {{w|reproducibility}} in science in response to reports that many published studies in the biomedical, behavioral, and physical sciences are not reproducible.<ref name="Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)"/> ||
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===Timeline update strategy===
 
===Timeline update strategy===

Latest revision as of 08:53, 13 March 2020

This is a timeline of bioethics, listing significant events in the development of the field.

Big picture

Time period Development summary
<1960s Discussions of moral issues in medicine already happen in ancient times, with early contributions by Hippocrates and Plato.[1] In the 20th century, German theologian Fritz Jahr publishes three articles in 1927, 1928, and 1934 using the German term “Bio-Ethik”, forcefully arguing an ethical approach to issues concerning human beings and the environment.[2]
1960s Bioethics as a distinct field of academic study is born in the United States, merging from a cluster of scientific and cultural developments in the country during that decade.[3]
1970s–1980s Many bioethics programs and degrees are established at universities in the United States in order to provide students – most notably medical, law, and public policy students – with some expertise in medical ethics to deal with complex cases.[2] Feminist bioethics develops from the early 1970s on and is initially focused on medical ethics; proponents later extend the areas of interest to issues in the fields of animal and environmental ethics.[2] In the late 1980s, the Russian school of bioethics originates.[4]
1990s In the last decade of the 20th century, the contributions of social scientists to bioethical research become particularly important. Work of this type involves surveys of public attitudes to advances in the life sciences, including xenotransplantation and genetic modification.[1]
2000s Ethics consultation begins to emerge as another, more enduring model of ethics and science interaction. The concept of research ethics consultation develops.[5]

Full timeline

Year Event type Details Location
380 BC Field development The Republic of Plato advocates selective human breeding in anticipation of later programs of eugenics.[1]
1259 – 1265 Literature Italian philosopher Thomas Aquinas writes his Summa contra Gentiles, which briefly discusses the permissibility of abortion.[1] Italy
1588 "In 1588, Pope Sixtus V adopted a papal bull adopting the position of St. Thomas Aquinas that contraception and abortion were crimes against nature and sins against marriage. "
1775 – 1780 Field development German philosopher Immanuel Kant in his lectures on ethics argues against the sale of human body parts.[1]
1847 The American Medical Association adopts its first code of ethics, with this being based in large part upon the work of Thomas Percival.[6] United States
1926 Literature German theologian Fritz Jahr, referring to European and Oriental traditions, publishes an article entitled Natural sciences and teaching ethics where he gives the subtitle “Old Knowledge in new clothes” describing the function of natural sciences for education and teaching biological research ethics.[4] Germany
1927 Literature Fritz Jahr publishes article using the German term “Bio-Ethik” (which translates as “Bio-Ethics”) and argues, both for the establishment of a new academic discipline, and for the practice of a new, more civilized, ethical approach to issues concerning human beings and the environment. Jahr would publish similar articles discussing bioethics in 1928, and 1934.[2] Germany
1932 Literature The Linacre Quarterly United States
1932 Tuskegee syphilis experiment United States
1943–1944 Nazi human experimentation. "The central leader of the experiments was Josef Mengele, who from 1943 to 1944 performed experiments on nearly 1,500 sets of imprisoned twins at Auschwitz. About 200 people survived these studies."[7]
1947 The Nuremberg Code is adopted as a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation. It is set as a result of the Subsequent Nuremberg trials at the end of the Second World War.[2] Germany
1948 Declaration of Geneva Switzerland
1954 Literature Joseph F. Fletcher publishes Morals and Medicine: The Moral Problems of the Patient’s Right to Know the Truth, Contraception, Artificial Insemination, Sterilization, and Euthanasia.[8][2]
1964 The Declaration of Helsinki is created in order to provide researchers and physicians with ethical guidelines. It is developed for the medical community by the World Medical Association.[2][9] Finland
1966 Organization The Schlesinger Institute for Medical-Halachic Research is founded.[10][11] Israel
1966 Organization The first medical ethics committees in Europe emerge in the United Kingdom and Sweden.[12] United Kingdom, Sweden
1966 Field development American anesthesiologist Henry K. Beecher publishes an article in The New England Journal of Medicine exposing 22 unethical studies in biomedicine, including the Tuskegee syphilis experiment and the Willowbrook hepatitis study.[13] United States
1969 Organization The Hastings Center is founded as a bioethics research institute. It is located in Garrison, New York.[14][15] United States
1970 Literature Paul Ramsey publishes The Patient as Person: Explorations in Medical Ethics.[16][2]
1970 Organization The Institute of Society, Ethics and the Life Sciences (later Hastings Center) is founded. A freestanding bioethics center, it is the first institution devoted to the study of bioethical questions.[3][17] United States
1970 Literature American biochemist Van Rensselaer Potter publishes his article Bioethics, the Science of Survival, which suggests viewing bioethics as a global movement in order to foster concern for the environment and ethics.[2][17]
1971 Literature Van Rensselaer Potter publishes book Bioethics: Bridge to the Future.[17] United States
1971 Concept development Georgetown University researcher Andre Hellegers uses the term bioethics to refer to interdisciplinary research moral problems of biomedicine, primarily associated with the need to protect the dignity and rights of patients.[4] United States
1971 Organization The Joseph and Rose Kennedy Center for the Study of Human Reproduction and Bioethics (now known as Kennedy Center) opens at Georgetown University. With similar goals to those of The Hastings Center, the Kennedy Institute is however placed inside the traditional academy.[3][17] Founded by Andre Hellegers, it is the first in the world to establish an institute of bioethics on the basis of interdisciplinary research and approaches.[4] United States
1972 Organization National Catholic Bioethics Center United States
1973 Concept development Dan Callahan writes essay Bioethics as a Discipline, whose title is the first entry of the word "bioethics" in the catalogue of the National Library of Congress.[17] In the article, Callahan argues for the establishment of a new academic discipline.[2] United States
1975 Literature The Journal of Medical Ethics is launched.[18][19]
1975 Field development Peter Singer claims that human beings must consider the equal interests of human beings and animals alike.[2]
1975 Field development At a gathering at the Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, scientists discuss the benefits and risks of recombinant DNA research; the NIH forms the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee."[13] United States
1978 Scientific development Louise Brown is born as the world's first test-tube baby.[13]
1978 "With its starting publication in 1978 (1st edition), the Encyclopedia of Bioethics became the first reference book to focus exclusively on the new and promising field of bioethics, helping to define the discipline"[20][4]
1979 Literature IRB: Ethics & Human Research
1979 Organization The Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences officially establishes its own private central ethical committee.[12] Switzerland
1979 Organization Albert Gnaegi Center for Health Care Ethics United States
1979 The Belmont Report is released by the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. The Report becomes a key document in human research ethics regulations in the United States.[13][21] United States
1980 Policy In the Diamond v. Chakrabarty case the United States Supreme Court rules that a genetically modified bacterium can be patented because it is the product of human ingenuity. This sets a precedent for patents on other life forms and helps to establish solid intellectual property protection for the new biotechnology industry.[13] United States
1981 Organization Japan establishes its first ethics committee, at the Medical Institute of Tokyo University.[12] Japan
1981 Organization MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics United States
1985 Literature Zhi-zheng Du's Outline of Medical Ethics is published in China as the first systematic textbook of medical ethics after the cultural revolution of the 1960s and 1970s.[22] China
1986 Literature Peer-reviewed academic journal Biology and Philosophy is launched.[23]
1987 Organization The European Society for Philosophy of Medicine and Health Care is founded by an international company of philosophers, physicians, ethicists and other interested professionals in the field.[24]
1987 Literature Ren-zong Qiu's Bioethics is published as the first bioethics book in China.[22] China
1987 Literature Bioethics
1988 Literature Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics is established.[25]
1988 Scientific development Harvard University and Dow Chemical Company patent a genetically engineered mouse used to study cancer.[13] United States
1988 Literature Zhao-xiong He's History of Chinese Medical Morality is published, providing material on medical ethics from ancient to current China.[22] China
1988 Literature Van Rensselaer Potter publishes Global bioethics.[4]
1989 Literature The United States National Academy of Sciences publishes On Being A Scientist, a free, short book on research ethics for scientists in training.[13] United States
1990 Legal Trends in Bioethics
1991 Organization London-based Nuffield Council on Bioethics is established by the Nuffield Foundation to adress numerous bioethical issues in need of analysis.[26][27][28] United Kingdom
1991 Literature The Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal is launched. United States
1992 Literature Quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics is launched.[29]
1992 Literature The United States National Academy of Sciences publishes Responsible Science: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process. The book estimates the incidence of misconduct, discusses some of the causes of misconduct, proposes a definition of misconduct, and recommends some strategies for preventing misconduct.[13] United States
1992 Literature Peer-reviewed academic journal Environmental Values is established. United Kingdom
1993 Scientific development Researchers successfully clone human embryos.[13]
1993 Organization The International Bioethics Committee is established by UNESCO to provide guidance on ethical and legal issues raised by research in medicine, biological sciences and associated technologies, and to reinforce knowledge in ethics.[30][31]
1993 Journal The Indian Journal of Medical Ethics is launched.[32] India
1994 The United States Government declassifies information about secret human radiation experiments conducted from the 1940s-1980s and issues an apology.[13] United States
1994 Literature American philosophers Tom Beauchamp and James Childress publish The principles of biomedical ethics, in which they state their basic principles of bioethics as "the principle of respect for patient autonomy, which has grounded, in particular, the concept of informed consent; dates back to the Hippocratic principle of “do no harm,” which requires minimization of damage to the patient during the medical intervention; the principle of “do good” (beneficence), emphasizing the physician’s responsibility to take positive steps to improve the condition of the patient; and the principle of justice, emphasizing the need for fairness and equal treatment of patients, and equitable distribution of resources (which are always limited) in the provision of medical care".[4] United States
1995 About 200 religious leaders join in Washington, DC., with leading biotechnology critic Jeremy Rifkin in a press conference named the "Joint Appeal against Human and Animal Patenting", protesting the patenting of plants, animals, and human body parts.[13][33] United States
1995 Organization The Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics is established. United States
1995 Organization University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics[34] Canada
1995 Concept development American philosopher Daniel Callahan defines bioethics as a science “which is the product of biomedical achievements related to the environment and social sciences”.[4] United States
1996 Scientific development Dolly is born as the first mammal ever to be cloned from another individual’s body cell. Her birth is announced in 1997, followed by several European nations banning human cloning. The United States Congress considers a bill to ban all human cloning but changes its mind after scientists argue that the bill would undermine biomedical research.[13][35][36] United Kingdom
1996 Organization The National Bioethics Advisory Commission is established.
1996 Literature American philosopher H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr. publishes The Foundation of Bioethics, in which he states “Moral diversity is real. It is real in fact and in principle. Bioethics and healthcare policy have yet to take this diversity seriously. Those who teach bioethics, those who engage in bioethics committees, even those who produced textbooks tend to discount the diversity of understanding regarding the morality of particular health care choices (e.g., regarding abortion, commercial surrogacy, euthanasia/ germline genetic engineering, inequalities in access to health care, infanticide, organ sales) or the nature of morality (e.g., theological, deontological, virtue-based)".[4] United States
1997 "On May 16, 1997, President Bill Clinton formally apologized on behalf of the United States to victims of the experiment" United States
1997 Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights
1998 Literature Journal Medicine Health Care and Philosophy is launched by the European Society For Philosophy Of Medicine And Healthcare.[24]
1998 Scientific development Methods for growing human embryonic stem cells are perfected. Some countries ban the research; others promote it.[13]
1998 Scientific development American biotechnologist Craig Venter forms Celera Genomics and begins a private effort to sequence the human genome, using dozens of automated sequencing machines.[13]
1999 Literature AMA Journal of Ethics is launched.[37] United States
1999 Literature The American Journal of Bioethics is launched.[38] United Sattes
1999 Organization Human Genetics Alert is founded in London.[39] It advocates against uses of reproductive technology and human genetics research that it considers harmful.[40]
1999 Policy The National Institutes of Health and the Office for Human Research Protections require all people conducting or overseeing human subjects research have some training in research ethics.[13] United States
1999 Literature Chinese bioethicist Lee Shui-chuen publishes Confucian Bioethics (in Chinese). China
2000 Organization The Office for Human Research Protections is established. United States
2001 Literature Peer-reviewed journal The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly is launched.[41] United States
2001 Field development The United States Congress starts debating legislation on human cloning.[13] United States
2001 Policy Several journals start requiring authors to describe their responsibilities when publishing research.[13]
2001 The United States Government announces that the National Institutes of Health will fund research on approximately 64 embryonic stem cell lines created from leftover human embryos.[13] United States
2001 Organization The International Society for Stem Cell Research is established to promote the exchange and dissemination of information and ideas relating to stem cells.[42][43]
2001 Organization The President's Council on Bioethics is created by United States President George W. Bush to advice the President on bioethical issues that may emerge as a consequence of advances in biomedical science and technology.[44] United States
2001 Organization The Center for Genetics and Society is established. United States
2002 The President's Council on Bioethics recommends that the United States ban reproductive cloning and enact a moratorium on research cloning.[13] United States
2002 Organization Toi Te Taiao: The Bioethics Council New Zealand
2003 The United States invades Iraq with the stated purpose of eliminating its chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons programs. So far, evidence of weapons programs but no actual weapons would be found.[13] Iraq
2003 The International Bioethics Committee issues a second global instrument, the International Declaration on Human Genetic Data, which may be regarded as an extension of the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights.
2003 Organization The Regenerative Medicine Institute Ireland
2004 Literature The Journal of Bioethical Inquiry is released by the University of Otago Bioethics Centre.[45] New Zealand
2004 Literature Medical ethicist James Hughes publishes Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future, which argues that technologies pushing the boundaries of humanness can radically improve our quality of life if they are controlled democratically.[46]
2004 Organization Institute on Biotechnology and the Human Future
2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights
2005 Literature American professor George Annas publishes American bioethics: crossing human rights and health law boundaries. United States
2006 Literature Quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal BioSocieties is released.[47]
2006 Literature Quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal Clinical Ethics is launched. United States
2007 Medical ethics case A man in pain requests a legal right to die. Italy
2008 Literature The International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics is launched to encourage more work in feminist bioethics.[48][49]
2008 The Catholic Church publishes a document entitled Dignitas Personae, about a range of bioethical issues related to the areas of assisted reproduction and human genetics. The paper analizes and comments the bioethical thinking of the Catholic Church.[50][51][52]
2008 Literature International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics Canada
2009 Organization Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues is established by United States President Barack Obama to advise the president and the administration on bioethical issues arising from advances in biomedicine and related areas of science and technology.[53] United States
2009 Organization The Bangladesh Bioethics Society is established.[54] Bangladesh
2009 Policy The Obama Administration announces it will significantly expand National Institutes of Health funding of human embryonic stem cell research which was restricted under the Bush Administration.[13] United States
2010 Literature George Annas publishes Worst case bioethics: death, disaster, and public health. United States
2011 Literature Triannual academic journal Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics is first issued.[55]
2012 Organization The Center for the Study of Bioethics is founded by Serbian American philosopher Vojin Rakić with the purpose to stimulate scientific debate on a variety of issues bioethics deals with. It is based in Belgrade, Serbia.[56]
2012 Literature The Canadian Journal of Bioethics is established. Canada
2014 Various funding agencies and journals, including the National Institutes of Health, Science, and Nature, take steps to promote reproducibility in science in response to reports that many published studies in the biomedical, behavioral, and physical sciences are not reproducible.[13]
2015 Literature American bioethicist Alice Dreger publishes Galileo's Middle Finger, which discusses the ethics of medical research.[57] United States
2016 The United States National Institutes of Health places a temporary moratorium on funding for experiments involving human-animal chimeras.[58] United States

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

Feedback and comments

Feedback for the timeline can be provided at the following places:

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What the timeline is still missing

Timeline update strategy

See also

External links

References

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  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 "Bioethics". iep.utm.edu. Retrieved 1 September 2018. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Bioethics - History Of Bioethics". science.jrank.org. Retrieved 1 September 2018. 
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  13. 13.00 13.01 13.02 13.03 13.04 13.05 13.06 13.07 13.08 13.09 13.10 13.11 13.12 13.13 13.14 13.15 13.16 13.17 13.18 13.19 13.20 13.21 "Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)". niehs.nih.gov. Retrieved 18 September 2018. 
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