Timeline of brain preservation

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This is a timeline of cryonics.

Cryonics is the attempt to preserve a human or non-human animal using low-temperature with the hope that partial or complete resuscitation may be possible in the future.

While cryonics is currently the most popular brain preservation method, other methods are being used and developed, notably plastination. This page treats all brain preservation methods.

Similar concepts, or alternative names for cryonics include biostasis, neural archiving, and brain preservation.

Often confused with cryonics, suspended animation (or anabiosis) is a distinct practice where a patient body would remain biologically intact, and could be reanimated without the need to deeply repair the brain, or transfer its information to another substrate.[1]

Trends

In 1964, after two years of promoting cryonics, Evan Cooper fumed in exasperation, "Are we shouting in the abyss? How could 110 million go to their deaths without one, at least trying for a life in the future via freezing? Where is the individualism, scientific curiosity, and even eccentricity we hear so much about?"[2] From 1966 until 1973, of the 17 attempt freezing, only one person remain in cryopreserved[2] (hence the bumps at the beginning of the curve in the graph below). Consequently, the "pay-as-you-go" funding model was abandoned by the cryonics community as relatives had shown to generally eventually lose interest in paying maintenance fees. From then onward, the number of cryopreservations would grow exponentially, but to this day still represent a trivial amount in comparison to the number of burials and cremations. Since cryonics was first publicized, an estimated 2.9 billion people died[3], which could represent about 2.7% of humans to have ever lived[4]. As of January 2019, 416 people are know to be cryopreserved.

The following graph shows an history of the number of bodies preserved (complete or neuro-only). Given that the quality of preservations varies a lot, and it can often take many hours or even days before someone gets preserved from the time of their clinical death[5][6], the graph below represents an upper bond of the number of people that are preserved: some have probably been irreversibly lost, and some might only have been partially preserved. Given that we don't currently know how effective current preservation methods are, the lower bond for the number of people that have been preserved remain 0.

Number of people preserved over time.png

Memberships statistics can be tricky to track for a couple of reasons:

  • Lack of present data: some organisations don't publicize their membership statistics
  • Lack of historical data: some organisations only started tracking their membership statistics later in their history
  • Lack of cryonics membership data: the Cryonics Institute stopped publicizing the quantity of their members that are fully-funded since 2015, and now only reports the number of members they have; some are also members only for other of their services, such as DNA preservation
  • Dual memberships: some cryonicists are members of more than one organisation, often to support several organisations, or as a fall-back for themselves if one organisation was to fail in some ways.

Alcor is the only large cryonics organisation that has tracked the number of fully-funded members they've had since their beginnings[7]. The graph below shows the change in their membership quantity. The recent growth has been pretty linear. However, given that there are more and more cryonics organisations, worldwide cryonics memberships is likely to approach more an exponential growth.

Number of Alcor members.png

While ways to quantify the quality of preservations have been proposed, notably by OregonCryo, there are currently no systematic analyses done about the quality of current preservations. The following graph is an attempt to track progress of cryopreservation techniques by tracking the biggest mass that was successfully cryopreserved.[8] It doesn't directly track what cryonicists care about, but can be used as a proxy while better metrics are developed.

Biggest mass cryopreserve.png


Major events

Date Type Subtype Organisation or individual Event
1773-04 writing letter Benjamin Franklin In a letter to Jacques Dubourg, Benjamin Franklin says: "I wish it were possible...to invent a method of embalming drowned persons, in such a manner that they might be recalled to life at any period, however distant; for having a very ardent desire to see and observe the state of America a hundred years hence, I should prefer to an ordinary death, being immersed with a few friends in a cask of Madeira, until that time, then to be recalled to life by the solar warmth of my dear country! But... in all probability, we live in a century too little advanced, and too near the infancy of science, to see such an art brought in our time to its perfection...".[9]
1948-03 writing fiction Robert Ettinger Ettinger publishes the story The Penultimate Trump, in which the explicit idea of cryopreservation of legally dead people for future repair is promulgated. This story was written in 1947.[10]
1962 writing non-fiction Evan Cooper Evan Cooper publishes "Immortality: Physically, Scientifically, Now" under the pseudonym Nathan Duhring[11]. He coins the immortal "freeze, wait, reanimate" slogan.[12][13]
1962 writing non-fiction Robert Ettinger Ettinger privately publishes a preliminary version of "The Prospect of Immortality", in which he makes the case for cryonics.[14]
1965 Karl Werner Karl Werner coins the word "cryonics".[15]
1967-01-12 technological adoption cryonics Cryonics Society of California Dr James Bedford is the first human to be cryopreserved.

The freezing is carried out by affiliates of the newly-formed Cryonics Society of California: Robert Prehoda, author and cryobiological researcher; Dr. Dante Brunol, physician and biophysicist; and Robert Nelson, President of the Society. Also assisting is Bedford's physician, Dr. Renault Able.

6 days later, relatives would move Bedford to the Cryo-Care facility in Phoenix. Later, his son would store him, and finally on September 22, 1987, Beford would be moved to Alcor.[16][5]

1972-02-23 organisation founding Alcor Life Extension Foundation The Alcor Life Extension Foundation, a cryonics service provider, is founded by Fred and Linda Chamberlain. The organisation is named after a star in the Big Dipper used in ancient times as a test of visual acuity. It's initially founded as a response team for the Cryonics Society of California.[15][17]
2005 organisation founding KrioRus KrioRus, a cryonics provider in Russia, is founded by Danila Medvedev and Valerya Pride.[18]
2005-08 technological adoption vitrification Cryonics Institute CI starts using a vitrification solution for the first time, named CI-VM-1.[19]
2005-10 technological adoption vitrification Alcor Life Extension Foundation Alcor starts using a vitrification solution called M22, a cryoprotectant licensed from 21st Century Medicine.[20][21]
2014 writing 68 scientists from relevant disciplines sign an open letter to legitimize cryonics and support the right to be cryopreserved.[22]
2016 science 21st Century Medicine Robert McIntyre, Greg Fahy, and 21st Century Medicine wins the Large Mammal Prize from the Brain Preservation Foundation with a vitrifixation technique.[23]
2018-10-30 legal Norman Hardy For the first time, a cryonics patient uses the Death With Dignity legislation. The patient's name is Norman Hardy.[24]


Full timeline

The events in the timeline are sometimes classified in the following categories and sub-categories:

  • science: paper, observation
  • R&D
  • technological adoption: cold, cryonics, vitrification, field cryoprotection, fixation, intermediate storage temperature
  • writing: letter, fiction, communication, non-fiction, newsletter
  • social: meeting, conference
  • political
  • organisation: pref-founding, founding, first
  • legal: right-to-die

You can click on the header to sort the events by type or subtype.

Date Type Subtype Organisation or individual Event
1773-04 writing letter Benjamin Franklin In a letter to Jacques Dubourg, Benjamin Franklin says: "I wish it were possible...to invent a method of embalming drowned persons, in such a manner that they might be recalled to life at any period, however distant; for having a very ardent desire to see and observe the state of America a hundred years hence, I should prefer to an ordinary death, being immersed with a few friends in a cask of Madeira, until that time, then to be recalled to life by the solar warmth of my dear country! But... in all probability, we live in a century too little advanced, and too near the infancy of science, to see such an art brought in our time to its perfection...".[25]
1883-04-15 technological development cold Nitrogen is liquefied by Zygmunt Wróblewski and Karol Olszewski at the Jagiellonian University.[26]
1968 Cryo-Care Equipment Corporation Ed Hope closes Cryo-Care Equipment Corporation after seeing it wouldn't turn a profit. The remaining patients are turn over to other organizations or to relatives.[2]
1931-07 writing fiction Robert Ettinger Robert Ettinger reads Neil R. Jones' newly published story, "The Jameson Satellite"[14], in which a professor have his corpse sent into earth orbit where it would remain preserved indefinitely at near absolute zero (note: this is not scientifically accurate), until millions of years later, when, with humanity extinct, a race of mechanical beings discover, revive, and repair him by transferring his brain in a mechanical body.[27]
1940s technological development cold Liquid nitrogen becomes commercially available.[28]
1947 Robert Ettinger Ettinger, while in the hospital for his battle wounds, discovers Jean Rostand research in cryogenics.[19]
1948-03 writing fiction Robert Ettinger Ettinger publishes the story The Penultimate Trump, in which the explicit idea of cryopreservation of legally dead people for future repair is promulgated. This story was written in 1947.[29]
1960 writing communication Robert Ettinger Ettinger expected other scientists to advcate for cryonics. Given that this still hasn't happened, Ettinger finally makes the scientific case for cryonics. He sends this to approximately 200 people whom he selected from Who's Who in America, but got little responses.[14]
1960s Cryo-Care Equipment Corporation Cryo-Care Equipment Corporation in Phoenix, Arizona is founded by Ed Hope (not the same as the California organization with similar name). Unlike the others, they would build their own capsules, horizontal units on wheels for easy transport.

Cryo-Care would not use cryoprotectants or perfusion with their patients but would only do straight freezes to liquid nitrogen temperature. These freezings would be advertised as being for cosmetic purposes rather than eventual reanimation, though the cryonics issue would naturally arise. [2]

1962 writing non-fiction Evan Cooper Evan Cooper publishes "Immortality: Physically, Scientifically, Now" under the pseudonym Nathan Duhring[11]. He coins the immortal "freeze, wait, reanimate" slogan.[12][13]
1962 writing non-fiction Robert Ettinger Ettinger privately publishes a preliminary version of "The Prospect of Immortality", in which he makes the case for cryonics.[14]
1962 social meeting About 20 people attend the first informal cryonics meeting.[11]
1962 social Evan Cooper After the meeting, Cooper and a few other individuals form the Immortality Communication Exchange (ICE), an informal, "special-interest group" for the "freeze and wait" idea that would later be known as cryonics.[11]
1963 organisation founding Life Extension Society During the conference, the Life Extension Society, the first cryonics organization, is founded by Evan Cooper. It would be situated in Washington, D.C.[13]
1963-12-29 social conference The first cryonics conference happens.[11][30]
1964 writing non-fiction Robert Ettinger Ettinger's "The Prospect of Immortality" finally attracts attention of a major publisher, Doubleday, which sends a copy to Isaac Asimov; Asimov says that the science behind cryonics is sound, so the book is published. The book becomes a selection of the Book of the Month Club and is published in nine languages. Ettinger becomes a media celebrity, discussed in many periodicals, television shows, and radio programs.[14]
1964-01 writing newsletter The first issue of the Life Extension Society Newsletter is published.[11][30]
1965 Karl Werner Karl Werner coins the word "cryonics".[15]
1965 organisation founding Cryonics Society of New York The Cryonics Society of New York (CSNY) is founded by Saul Kent, Curtis Henderson and Karl Werner. CSNY is a non-profit organisation contracting with the for-profit organisation Cryospan for cryonics freezing and storage.[15][31]
1965-05-20 Life Extension Society Wilma Jean McLaughlin of Springfield, Ohio dies from heart and circulatory problems. Ev Cooper would fill a report the following day "The woman who almost became the first person frozen for a possible reanimation in the future died yesterday." The attempt to freeze her is abandoned. While reports on this event would vary, a lot would mention the lack of preparation, cooperation from various people, and explicit consent as obstacles to the freezing.[16]
1965-06 organisation Life Extension Society The Life Extension Society offers to freeze the first person for free: "The Life Extension Society now has primitive facilities for emergency short term freezing and storing our friend the large homeotherm (man). LES offers to freeze free of charge the first person desirous and in need of cryogenic suspension." Despite the generous offer, however, LES would never freeze anybody.[16]
1965-10-30 Dandridge M. Cole Dandridge M. Cole suffers a fatal heart attack. Cole had read "The Prospect of Immortality" in 1963. In his more recent book, Beyond Tomorrow, he had devoted several pages to the subject. He had expressed a wish to be frozen after death. After some delay a call was placed to Ettinger, who later would write, "I was consulted by long-distance telephone several hours after he died, but in the end the family did what was to be expected -- nothing."[16]
1966 organisation founding Immortalist Soceity The Cryonics Society of Michigan (later renamed the Cryonics Associatoin, and then, in 1985, the Immortalist Society) is founded with Ettinger elected as its president.[32]
1966 organisation founding Cryonics Society of California The Cryonics Society of California (CSC) is founded by Robert Nelson. CSC is a non-profit organisation contracting with the for-profit organisation Cryonic Interment for cryonics freezing and storage. It would later contract cryonics services through General Fluidics.[2][32]
1966 science observation Kroener and Luyet Kroener and Luyet observe fracturing in vitrified glycerol solutions.[33][34]
1966-04-22 Cryo-Care Equipment Corporation An elderly woman (probably from Los Angeles - never identified) who has been embalmed for two months and maintained slightly above-freezing temperature is straight-frozen.[16] There is some thought of the cryonics premise of eventual reanimation, but within a year she would be thawed and buried by relatives.[35][36]
1966-10-15 science paper The first paper showing recovery of brain electrical activity after freezing to -20°C is published.[37]
1967-01-12 technological adoption cryonics Cryonics Society of California Dr James Bedford is the first human to be cryopreserved.

The freezing is carried out by affiliates of the newly-formed Cryonics Society of California: Robert Prehoda, author and cryobiological researcher; Dr. Dante Brunol, physician and biophysicist; and Robert Nelson, President of the Society. Also assisting is Bedford's physician, Dr. Renault Able.

6 days later, relatives would move Bedford to the Cryo-Care facility in Phoenix. Later, his son would store him, and finally on September 22, 1987, Beford would be moved to Alcor.[16][5]

1968 writing non-fiction Robert Nelson Robert Nelson publishes the book "We froze the first man" telling the story of Bedford's cryopreservation.[38]
1969 organisation founding American Cryonics Society The Bay Area Cryonics Society is founded by two physicians. It would be renamed to the American Cryonics Society in 1985.[15][39][40]
1969 Evan Cooper Cooper ends his involvement in cryonics. He feels overload and burned-out, and thinks cryonics is not going to be a viable option for himself for practical (political, social, economic) reasons and that he is not going to spend the time he had left trying to obtain the impossible. He is also concerns with the commercial and political aspects within cryonics.[12]
1970 organisation founding Cryonics Society of America The Cryonics Society of America is incorporated.[41]
1970-05-15 organisation Cryonics Society of California Nelson moves CSC's 4 patients into an underground vault he recently bought at a cemetery in Chatsworth, near Los Angeles.[2]
1971 (end of) - 1979-04 organisation Cryonics Society of California 9 patients are thawed because CSC had stopped receiving payments from their relative. This would become known as the Chatsworth Scandal, because the patients were stored in an underground vault at a cemetery in Chatsworth.

With a total of 16 suspension failures between 1967 and 1973, and only 1 success, future cryonics organisations would avoid offering cryonics services with a "pay-as-you-go" funding model.[2]

1971 The first paper to propose cryonics by neuropreservation is published.[42]
1972 organisation founding Trans Time Trans Time, a cryonics service provider, is founded by Art Quaife, along with John Day, Paul Segall and other cryonicists. It is a for-profit organisation. It is initially meant to be a perfusion service-provider for the Bay Area Cryonics Society. They buy the perfusion equipment from Manrise Corporation.[15] They would be the first to undertake the effort of clarifying legal issues around cryonics, and to actively market cryonics.[15] The name "Trans Time" is inspired by Trans World Airlines, a prominent airline.[43][44]
1972 Mike Darwin Mike Darwin is the first full-time cryonics researcher. He would work at Alcor for a year.[45]
1972 organisation founding Alcor Life Extension Foundation Alcor is incorporated as the Alcor Society for Solid State Hypothermia in the State of California by Fred and Linda Chamberlain. It would change its name to "Alcor Life Extension Foundation" in 1977. In the beginning, Alcor's office would consist of a mobile surgical unit in a large van.
1972-02-23 organisation founding Alcor Life Extension Foundation The Alcor Life Extension Foundation, a cryonics service provider, is founded by Fred and Linda Chamberlain. The organisation is named after a star in the Big Dipper used in ancient times as a test of visual acuity. It's initially founded as a response team for the Cryonics Society of California.[15][46]
1973 science paper The first paper showing recovery of a mammalian organ after cooling to -196°C (liquid nitrogen temperature) and subsequent transplantation is published.[47]
1974 organisation Trans Time Due to the closure of the storage facility in New York, Trans Time creates its own. Consentially, BACS and Alcor change their plan to preserve their patients to the Trans Time facility instead of the New York one, and would do so until the 1980s.[15]
1974 science paper The first paper showing partial recovery of brain electrical activity after 7 years of frozen storage is published.[48]
1974 Curtis Henderson, who has been maintaining three cryonics patients for the Cryonics Society of New York, is told by the New York Department of Public Health that he must close down his cryonics facility. The three cryonics patients are returned to their families, and would later be thawed.[15]
1976 technological adoption Alcor Life Extension Foundation Alcor preserves their first patient, which is also the world's first neuropreservation. The patient was the father of Fred Chamberlain, the co-founder of the organisation.[45]
1976 R&D Alcor Life Extension Foundation Manrise Corporation provides initial funding to Alcor for cryonics research.
1976-04-28 organisation founding Cryonics Institute Cryonics Institute is founded, and start offering cryonics services: preparation, cooling, and long term storage.[49]
1976-07-16 organisation Alcor Life Extension Foundation Alcor performes its first human cryopreservation.
1977 organisation Institute for Advanced Biological Studies The Institute for Advanced Biological Studies (IABS) is incorporated by Steve Bridge. IABS is a nonprofit research startup.[50]
1977 organisation Soma, Inc. Soma, Inc. is incorporated. Soma is intended as a for-profit organization to provide cryopreservation and human storage services. Its president is Mike Darwin. It would be disbanded in 1982.
1977 organisation Cryonics Institute The Cryonics Institute preserves its first patient, Rhea Ettinger. She would be preserved in dry ice for the for 10 years, and then switch to liquid nitrogen.
1977(?) - 1986 social Life Extension Festival The Life Extension Festival is runned by Fred and Linda Chamberlain.[51]
1978 organisation Cryovita Laboratories Cryovita Laboratories is founded by Jerry Leaf, who had been teaching surgery at UCLA. Cryovita is a for-profit organization which would provide cryopreservation services for Alcor and Trans Time in the 1980s.

During this time Leaf also collaborates with Mike Darwin in a series of hypothermia experiments in which dogs are resuscitated with no measurable neurological deficit after hours in deep hypothermia, just a few degrees above zero Celsius. The blood substitute which was developed for these experiments became the basis for the washout solution used at Alcor. Together, Leaf and Darwin developed a standby-transport model for human cryonics cases with the goal of intervening immediately after cardiac arrest and minimizing ischemic injury. [15]

1978 organisation founding Cryovita Cryovita Laboratories is founded by Jerry Leaf.[52]
1980 organisation founding Life Extension Foundation The Life Extension Foundation (LEF) is founded. It would later helped fund various cryonics organisations, notably Alcor, 21st Century Medicine, Critical Care Research, and Suspended Animation, Inc.[15]
1980s (late) legal Alcor Life Extension Foundation Alcor Member Dick Clair — who was dying of AIDS — fights in court for the legal right to practice cryonics in California, a battle that would ultimately be won.[15]
1980s (mid) legal Jackson National Jackson National is first life insurance company to definitively state that they acknowledged that cryonics arrangements constitutes a legitimate insurable interest.[53]
1980s (mid) technological adoptoin vitrification Greg Fahy and William F. Rall Researchers Greg Fahy and William F. Rall help introduce vitrification to reproductive cryopreservation.
1981 science paper The first paper suggesting that nanotechnology could reverse freezing injury is published.[54]
1982 organisation Alcor Life Extension Foundation Alcor begins storing its own patients. It was previously storing its patients with Trans Time, Inc.
1982 organisation Alcor Life Extension Foundation IABS merges with Alcor.
1982-09-15 social Society for Cryobiology The Society for Cryobiology adopts new bylaws denying membership to organizations or individuals supporting cryonics.[55][56]
1983 Institute for Cryobiological Extension Leaf changes hats to President of the Institute for Cryobiological Extension (I.C.E.) to report on the beginnings of a project to test for survival of memory in frozen brains. Leaf is devising a system to freeze individual animal heads, and then to thaw and support them by blood flow from a second animal. Eventually the project will work up to freezing and reviving whole animals. I.C.E. is soliciting contributions for this research.[57]
1984 science paper The first paper showing that large organs can be cryopreserved without structural damage from ice is published.[58]
1984 science paper Alcor Life Extension Foundation Alcor observes fractures in human cryopreservation patients. [33][59]
1986 writing non-fiction K. Eric Drexle K. Eric Drexler publishes "Engines of Creation"[60] -- the first book on molecular nanotechnology --. The book has a chapter on cryonics. It creates a surge in growth in cryonics interest and membership.
1986 science paper The first paper showing that large mammals can be recovered after three hours of total circulatory arrest (“clinical death”) at +3°C (37°F) is published. This supports the reversibility of the hypothermic phase of cryonics.[61]
1986 Alcor Life Extension Foundation Alcor cryopreserves a member's companion animal, its first non-human animal.
1987 organisation founding Cryonics Society of Canada Douglas Quinn launches the Cryonics Society of Canada and Canadian Cryonics News.[62]
1987 technological adoption cold Cryonics Institute The Cryonics Institute starts using liquid nitrogen instead of dry ice.[15]
1987-12 legal Alcor Life Extension Foundation Saul Kent brings his terminally ill mother (Dora Kent) into the Alcor facility where she deanimates. Her head would be cryopreserved.

The rest of the body would be given to a coroner. The coroner's office wouldn't understand that circulation would be artificially restarted after legal death, and that barbiturate would be given to slow down the brain metabolism. Seeing the distributed barbiturate throught the body, they would change the cause of death from natural causes to homicide.

In January 1988, Alcor would be raid by coroner's deputies, a SWAT team, and UCLA police. The Alcor staff would be taken to the police station in handcuffs and the Alcor facility would be ransacked, with computers and records being seized. The coroner's office would want to seize Dora Kent's head for autopsy, but the head would be removed from the Alcor facility and taken to a location that would never be disclosed. Alcor would later sue for false arrest and for illegal seizures, and would won both cases.[15]

1988 social The Cryonet email list starts.[63]
1988 legal Dick Clair Alcor member Dick Clair (who is dying of AIDS) sues for, and ultimately wins for everyone, the right to be cryopreserved in the State of California.[64]
1990 legal right-to-die Thomas K. Donaldson Thomas K. Donaldson, after being diagnosed with terminal brain cancer, petitions the California courts, seeking a declaration that he has a constitutional right to achieve cryonic suspension before his natural death. Donaldson and his doctors build their argument in light of the recent right-to-die where patients could have life-sustaining medical treatment withdrawn. The trial court would dismiss the complaint for failure to state a cause of action, and Donaldson would then appeal. The court hold that he didn't have a constitutional right to assisted death because the cryonic process would necessarily involve physician-assisted death, or the aiding, advising, or encouraging of another to commit suicide.[65]
1990 science intermediate storage temperature Greg Fahy Fahy publishes a detailed study of fracturing in large volumes of vitrification solution.[33][66]
1990 Trygve Bauge Trygve Bauge, a member of the American Cryonics Society, brings his deceased grandfather from Norvegia to the United States.

He would store his body at Trans Time from 1990 to 1993.

Bauge then would then transport his grandfather to Nederland, Colorado in dry ice with the intention of starting his own cryonics company.

After media turmoil, the town would outlaw cryonics, but would "grandfather the grandfather" who would remain there on dry ice.[15]

1990-06 technological adoption field cryoprotection Alcor Life Extension Foundation Alcor patient A-1239 receives a field cryoprotection with glycerol in Australia before being transported on dry ice to Alcor.[67]
1992 paper The application of nanotechnology to reverse human cryopreservation is discussed in a paper for the first time.[68]
1992 organisation Alcor Life Extension Foundation Alcor starts providing its own cryopreservation as well as patient-storage services.
1993 organisation founding 21st Century Medicine 21st Century Medicine, a cryogenics and cryonics research organisation, is founded.[69]
1993 organisation founding CryoCare The CryoCare Foundation is founded. It would provide human cryopreservation with assistance from two separate businesses: BioPreservation, which would provide their remote standby, stabilization, and transport, and CryoSpan, which would provide the long-term storage of patients in liquid-nitrogen. About 50 former Alcor members join in the founding of the organisation.[45][70]
1993-03 R&D intermediate storage temperature CryoNet Through the CryoNet email list, collaborative effort is put into designing a room to preserve up to 100 people at -130ºC.[33]
1994 R&D intermediate storage temperature Alcor Life Extension Foundation Alcor observes fractures in the brain of a patient following removal from cryopreservation. Alcor thinks of intermediate temperature storage systems, and the development of a new acoustic fracturing monitoring device, the "crackphone."[33][71]
1994 R&D intermediate storage temperature Timeship Architect Stephen Valentine begins studying Cold Room intermediate temperature storage design concepts as part of a large cryonics facility design that would eventually be called Timeship.[33]
1994-02 risk management natural catastrophes, legal environment Alcor Life Extension Foundation Alcor moves to Scottsdale, Arizona, with all its patients.[15][72]
1997 technological adoption intermediate storage temperature Alcor Life Extension Foundation Alcor brings the crackphone (an acoustic fracturing monitoring device) into clinical.[33]
1997 risk management economic stability Alcor Life Extension Foundation After a substantial effort led by then-president Steve Bridge, Alcor forms the Patient Care Trust as an entirely separate entity to manage and protect the funding for cryopatients.
1999 organisation closing CryoCare BioPreservation doesn't renew its contract with CryoCare, and stops offer cryonics services altogether.[15] CryoCare doesn't find a new provider.[15] They would tansfer their 10 patients from the American Cryonics Society to the Cryonics Institute on 2004-04-06, and their 2 other patients to Alcor on 2001-01-24.[5][45][70]
2000 science paper The application of vitrification to a relatively large tissue of medical interest is succesful for the first time.[73]
2000 technological adoption intermediate storage temperature Alcor Life Extension Foundation Alcor acquires a -130ºC Harris CryoStar laboratory freezer from GS Laboratory Equipment and begins testing its utility for possible storage of neuropatients.[33][74]
2000 organisation founding Critical Care Research Critical Care Research, a research organisation on critical care medicine, is founded.[75]
2001 technological adoption vitrification Alcor Life Extension Foundation Alcor switches from glycerol (which was reducing ice formation, but not vitrifying the brain) to a proprietary mixture of cryoprotectants designed to eliminate ice formation completely, ideally achieving vitrification of the entire brain.[76]
2001 technological adoption vitrification Alcor Life Extension Foundation Alcor begins vitrification perfusion of cryonics patients with a cryoprotectant mixture called B2C.[15]
2002 summer technological adoption intermediate storage temperature Alcor Life Extension Foundation An Alcor neuropatient receive an excellent uniform perfusion, allowing them to reach the lowest temperature without fracturing ever recorded to date, -128°C. Cryobiologist consultants would evaluate that this may be the best cryopreservation to date. The patient is transferred to the CryoStar freezer for continued slow cooling and annealing for fracture avoidance. However, the patient would be move to liquid nitrogen in July 2003 as the maneuver wouldn't be succesful. In December, another patient, A-1034, would be also placed into the CryoStar to accommodate the family's preference for this type of storage, and later transfer in a new validated neuroped in April 2006.[33]
2002 science paper For the first time, a paper shows rigorous demonstration of memory retention after cooling to +10°C (59°F): “Learning and memory is preserved after induced asanguineous hyperkalemic hypothermic arrest in a swine model of traumatic exsanguination“.[77]
2002 R&D intermediate storage temperature Timeship Project Physicist Brian Wowk and Brookhaven National Laboratory cryogenic engineer Mike Iarocci start collaborating with architect Stephen Valentine to design intermediate temperature storage systems suitable for cryonics in connection with the Timeship Project.[33]
2002 organisation founding Suspended Animation, Inc Suspended Animation, Inc, a for profit organisation that provides cryonics standby, stabilization, and transport services, is founded.[78][79]
2002 political Alcor Life Extension Foundation Alcor cryopreserves baseball legend Ted Williams.

Following this case, journalists at Sports Illustrated would write a sensationalistic expose of Alcor based on information that would be supplied to them by Alcor employee Larry Johnson, who had surreptitiously recorded several conversations.

Following more media turmoil, Arizona state representative Bob Stump would attempt to put Alcor under the control of the Funeral Board. The Arizona Funeral Board Director would tell the New York Times "These companies need to be regulated or deregulated out of business". After a hard fight by Alcor, the legislation would finally be withdrawn in 2004. Alcor would hire a full-time lobbyist to watch after their interests in the Arizona legislature.[15]

2002 social Frozen Dead Guy Days festival After media turmoil from Trygve Bauge having brought his cryopreserved grandfather to the the town of Nederland, Colorado, some people take take this opportunity to create an annual Frozen Dead Guy Days festival which would feature coffin races, snow sculptures, and many other activities.

Many cryonicists insist that dry ice is not cold enough for long-term cryopreservation and that the Nederland festival is negative publicity for cryonics.[15]

2002-12-13 writing newsletter Alcor Life Extension Foundation The first issue of Alcor News, an online newsletter, is distributed.[80]
2003 Alcor Life Extension Foundation New staff members join the organization and work continues to create a new patient care bay, operating room, and laboratory area. A truck is purchased for conversion as an ambulance that would be large enough to permit surgical procedures. Alcor makes radical changes to its medications to conform with results of resuscitation research, and purchases the prototype of an intermediate temperature storage device that promises to reduce or eliminate the risk of fracturing in cryopatients.
2003 organisation founding KrioRus KrioRus, an organisation based in Russia that offers cryopreservation services, is funded.[81][82]
2003 organisation procedure Alcor Life Extension Foundation There is continued work to create a new patient care bay, operating room, and laboratory area. A truck is purchased for conversion as an ambulance that would be large enough to permit surgical procedures. Alcor makes radical changes to its medications to conform with results of resuscitation research.[83]
2003-05-12 organisation first KrioRus KrioRus cryopreserves its first human patient.[84]
2003-06 technological adoption intermediate storage temperature Alcor Life Extension Foundation Brian Wowk, Mike Iarocci, and Stephen Valentine present new designs for intermediate temperature storage systems to the Alcor board of directors. Alcor acquires an experimental single-patient "neuropod" intermediate temperature storage system developed by Brian Wowk at 21CM.[33]
2003-08 R&D intermediate storage temperature Camegie Mellon University Carnegie Mellon University receives a $1.3 million grant from the U.S. government to study fracturing during vitrification of tissue for medical applications, which would considerably advance the field.[33]
2003-10 R&D intermediate storage temperature 21st Century Medicine 21st Century Medicine, Inc., constructs a prototype dewar for storage at intermediate temperatre in which most of the volume of the dewar is converted into a uniform-temperature storage space kept cold by liquid nitrogen.[33]
2004 science paper For the first time, a paper shows good ultrastructure of vitrified/re-warmed mammalian brains and the reversibility of prolonged warm ischemic injury in dogs without subsequent neurological deficits.[85]
2004 science paper The first report of the consistent survival of transplanted kidneys after cooling to and rewarming from -45°C is published.[86]
2004 legal Cryonics Institute As a result from media coverage of Ted Williams cryopreservation, even though the Cryonics Institute was not involved in that case, the State of Michigan places the organization under a "Cease and Desist" order for six months, ultimately classifying and regulating the Cryonics Institute as a cemetery in 2004. In the spirit of de-regulation, the new Republican Michigan government would remove the cemetary designation for CI in 2012.[15]
2004-08 technological adoptoin vitrification Cryonics Institute CI uses a cryoprotectant, CI-VM-1, for the first time. The dog of a CI members is the patient of the experimental perfusion. The mixture was developed by CI Staff Cryobiologist Yuri Pichugin, PhD.
2004-10-23 technological adoption field cryoprotection Suspended Animation, Inc Suspended Animation, Inc performes a field cryoprotection with glycerol for the American Cryonics Society before transporting the patient on dry ice to the Cryonics Institute for long-term care.[67]
2005 (mid) organisation founding Neural Archives Foundation The Neural Archives Foundation is conceived, an organisation that offers brain preservation services. In 2008 it would get incorporated.[87]
2005 organisation founding KrioRus KrioRus, a cryonics provider in Russia, is founded by Danila Medvedev and Valerya Pride.[88]
2005 science paper Cryonics is discussed in a major medical journal for the first time. It addresses the definition of death in the intensive care unit context.[89]
2005 organisation founding OregonCryo Oregon Cryonics is established as a Non Profit Mutual Benefit corporation.[90]
2005-02 organisation pre-founding Sociedad Crionica The website crionica.org is created.[91]
2005-02 technological adoptoin vitrification Cryonics Institute The used of vitrification mixture is published for the first time; the subject being the dog Thor.
2005-08 technological adoption vitrification Cryonics Institute CI starts using a vitrification solution for the first time, named CI-VM-1.[19]
2005-08 technological adoptoin vitrification Cryonics Institute CI's 69th patient is CI's first patient to be vitrified.
2005-10 technological adoption vitrification Alcor Life Extension Foundation Alcor starts using a vitrification solution called M22, a cryoprotectant licensed from 21st Century Medicine.[92][93]
2006 science paper For the first time it is demonstrated that both the viability and structure of complex neural networks can be well preserved by vitrification.[94]
2006-01 technological adoption intermediate storage temperature Alcor Life Extension Foundation An Alcor neuropatient cryopreserved with M22 vitrification solution sets a new record for lowest temperature reached without fracturing of -134 °C.[33]
2008 paper A review of scientific justifications of cryonics is published.[95]
2008 organisation founding Advanced Neural Biosciences Advanced Neural Biosciences, Inc is funded by Aschwin de Wolf. The organisation mainly aims to improve brain preservations. The laboratory would receive funding from the Immortalist Society, the Life Extension Foundation, the Cryonics Institute, the Alcor Life Extension Foundation, as well as various individuals.[96][97]
2008 organisation first Neural Archives Foundation Neural Archives Foundation preserves its first human patient.[98]
2009 science paper A vital mammalian organ is successfully vitrified, transplanted, and reused for the first time.[99]
2009-05 organisation Brain Preservation Foundation The Brain Preservation Foundation is founded by Kenneth Hayworth and John Smart with the goal of furthering research in whole brain preservation.[100]
2010 organisation standby Cryonics Institute The Cryonics Institute started offering, through Suspended Animation, Inc, standby and transport options.[101]
2010-05 organisation Brain Preservation Foundation Saar Wilf donates $100,000 to the Brain Preservation Foundation, which then launches its large and small mammal brain preservation prizes, which would be given to the first groups that could reliably preserve the synaptic structure of the brain.[100]
2011 Cryonics Institute Robert Ettinger is cryopreserved at the age of 92.[15][102]
2011-01 technological adoption field cryoprotection Cryonics Institute The Cryonics Institute ships its vitrification solution (CI-VM-1) to the United Kingdom so that European cryonics patients could be vitrified before shipping in dry ice to the United States.[15]
2012 organisation Brain Preservation Foundation Shawn Mikula at the Winfred Denk lab in Germany uses uses plastic embedding to preserve mouse brains, and submit his results for the Small Mammal Brain Preservation Prize. But the preservation quality is not complete.[100]
2012 organisation Brain Preservation Foundation Greg Fahy at 21st Century Medicine (21CM) uses cryobiological techniques to preserve mouse brains, and submit his results for the Small Mammal Brain Preservation Prize. But the preservation quality is not complete.[100]
2012 technolocial research field cryoprotection Alcor Life Extension Foundation Advanced Neural Biosciences collaborates with Alcor to validate Alcor’s proposed field cryoprotection protocol in the rat model. No ice formation is found after up to 48 hours of storing the brains at dry ice temperature prior to further cooling.[67]
2013 organisation founding Church of Perpetual Life The Church of Perpetual Life is founded. Their first service happens at the end of 2013.[103][104]
2013-05 technological adoption field cryoprotection Cryonics Institute The wife of UK cryonicist Alan Sinclair receives a field cryoprotection before being shipped to the Cryonics Institute.[15]
2014 writing 68 scientists from relevant disciplines sign an open letter to legitimize cryonics and support the right to be cryopreserved.[105]
2014 science 21st Century Medicine Robert McIntyre from 21st Century Medicine wins Small Mammal Prize from the Brain Preservation Foundation with a technique called vitrifixation, an Aldehyde Stabilized Cryopreservation (ASC). He combines research done by Greg Fahy and Shawn Mikula.[100]
2014 organisation Suspended Animation, Inc Suspended Animation, Inc opens an office in California.[78]
2014-05-06 organisation OregonCryo OregonCryo preserves their first patient, a dog named Cupcake[106]
2014-07 technological adoption field cryoprotection Alcor Life Extension Foundation Alcor starts implementing a plan to practice field cryoprotection for cases in Canada and Europe.[15][67]
2015 science paper Memory retention in a cryopreserved and revived animal is demonstrated for the first time.[107]
2015 science paper Whole brain vitrification with perfect preservation of neural connectivity (“connectome”) throughout the entire brain is demonstrated for the first time.[108]
2015-03-13 technological adoption fixation OregonCryo For the first time, someone is preserved using fixation technology, by having her brain immerse in a fixative solution. The patient was Deborah Cheek, and she was preserved by OregonCryo.[109]
2016 science 21st Century Medicine Robert McIntyre, Greg Fahy, and 21st Century Medicine wins the Large Mammal Prize from the Brain Preservation Foundation with a vitrifixation technique.[110]
2016 organisation founding Osiris Osiris Back to Life is founded by Dvir Derhy.[111]
2016 organisation founding Nectome Nectome is started by Robert McIntyre after having won the Brain Preservation Foundational Large Mammal Prize. Nectome is a research organization developing biological preservation techniques to better preserve the physical traces of memory.[112]
2016-05-06 organisation training OregonCryo OregonCryo starts training its medical team with body donors.[109]
2016-06-06 risk management economic stability Alcor Life Extension Foundation The Alcor Care Trust Supporting Organization (“ACT”) is created. The Patient Care Trust (PCT) continues in existence to receive inital funding from new cryopreservations, and to pay for ongoing costs for maintain patients' cryopreservation. The ACT will make long term investments, continue maintaining the PCT, and possibly eventual fund resuscitation research. Both trusts have different board of directors that can check on each other.[113]
2016-07-30 organisation founding Sociedad Crionica Sociedad Crionica is founded.[91]
2016-12-24 technological adoption fixation OregonCryo For the first time, someone is preserved by being perfused with a fixation solution insead of simply being immersed in it. OregonCryo was the organisation that did the preservation.[109]
2017-01 to 2017-08 R&D OregonCryo OregonCryo trains and does R&D with 38 body donations.[109]
2018 winter organisation Nectome Nectome participates to Y Combinator.[112][114]
2018-04-06 organisation founding International Cryomedicine Experts Alcor signs an agreement with the newly funded International Cryomedicine Experts, a for profit organisation providing international cryonics standby, stabilization, and transport services.
2018-05-16 risk management economic stability Alcor Life Extension Foundation Alcor announces the creation of a sibling organisation called the Alcor Endowment Trust Supporting Organization. Its goal is to maintain funds that is invested, and which support Alcor's general operation and research through giving a fraction of the interests made.[115]
2018-10-30 legal Norman Hardy For the first time, a cryonics patient uses the Death With Dignity legislation. The patient's name is Norman Hardy.[116]
2018-11 social Society for Cryobiology The Society for Cryobiology release a position statement clarifying their stance in regards to cryonics.

"The Society recognizes and respects the freedom of individuals to hold and express their own opinions and to act, within lawful limits, according to their beliefs. Preferences regarding disposition of postmortem human bodies or brains are clearly a matter of personal choice and, therefore, inappropriate subjects of Society policy. The Society does, however, take the position that the knowledge necessary for the revival of live or dead whole mammals following cryopreservation does not currently exist and can come only from conscientious and patient research in cryobiology and medicine. In short, the act of preserving a body, head or brain after clinical death and storing it indefinitely on the chance that some future generation may restore it to life is an act of speculation or hope, not science, and as such is outside the purview of the Society for Cryobiology."[117]

2020 (anticipated) organisation founding Southern Cryonics Southern Cryonics anticipates opening in 2020.[118]


Papers

Year Taxon tissue, organ or whole body? Approx. mass, kg Lowest temperature (°C) after which a successful reanimation was achieved Healthy brain activity / behavior after reanimation? Reference Useful link
1876 Guinea pig (C. porcellus) whole 1 18 Unknown Bernard, 1876 https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1959.tb49209.x
1881 Marmots (Marmota) whole 3 0 Likely yes (adapted to hibernation) Horvath, 1881 https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1959.tb49209.x
1912 Schreibers' bat (M. schreibersii) whole 0.02 -4 Unknown Bachmetiev, 1912 http://priroda.ras.ru/ (1912 05)
1933 Bats (Chiroptera) whole 0.004 0 Unknown Eisentraut, 1933 https://www.jstor.org/stable/1376212?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
1949 Human: unnamed donors red blood cells 9E-14 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith et al, 1949 https://www.nature.com/articles/164666a0
1949 Human: unnamed donors spermatozoa 3E-15 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Polge et al, 1949 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18143360?dopt=Abstract
1950 Tardigrades (Tardigrada) whole 2E-11 -272 Unknown Becquerel, 1950 https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms12808
1950 Mammals (Mammalia) skin <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Kreyberg, Hanssen, 1950 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1951 Human: unnamed 23yo woman whole 60 16 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Laufmann, 1951 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/312807
1951 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) whole 0.2 0 Unknown Andjus, 1951 https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1959.tb49209.x
1952 European rabbit (O. cuniculus) skin <0,1 -150 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Billingham, Medawar, 1952 http://jeb.biologists.org/content/29/3/454.short
1953 Primate: lemur C. major whole 0.4 19 Unknown Bourliere et al, 1953 https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1959.tb49209.x
1955 House mouse (M. musculus) spleen 0.0001 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Barnes,Loutit, 1955 https://academic.oup.com/jnci/article-abstract/15/4/901/915080
1955 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) whole 0.2 -3 Unknown Andjus, 1955 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1365903/
1956 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) whole 0.2 0 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Andjus, 1956 https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1959.tb49209.x
1956 Golden hamster (M. auratus) whole 0.1 -1 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Lovelock, Smith, 1956 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13359396
1957 Mammals (Mammalia) ovarian tissue 0.0000000005 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Parkes, 1957 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1957 Primate: some Simiiformes whole 4 11 Yes (habits preserved, no abnormalities) Niazi and Lewis, 1957 https://journals.lww.com/surveyanesthesiology/citation/1957/12000/profound_hypothermia_in_the_monkey_with_recovery.1.aspx
1957 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) sup. сervic. ganglion 0.0000005 -79 full recovery of synaptic function Pascoe, Parkes, 1957 https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/abs/10.1098/rspb.1957.0071
1958 Mammals (Mammalia) renal tissue <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Vieuchange, 1958 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1958 Leisler's bat (N. leisleri) whole 0.01 -7 Unknown Kalabukhov, 1958 https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1959.tb49209.x
1959 Mammals (Mammalia) thyroid tissue <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Parkes, 1959 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1959 Golden hamster (M. auratus) whole 0.1 -5 Unknown Andjus, 1959 https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1959.tb49209.x
1959 European rabbit (O. cuniculus) whole 2 14 Unknown Andjus, 1959 https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1959.tb49209.x
1959 Human: brain surgery patients whole 60 28 Likely yes (a standard praxis in 2018) Soleimanpour et al, 2014 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4166101/
1961 Mammals (Mammalia) adrenal cortex <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1961 Mammals (Mammalia) epididymis <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1961 Mammals (Mammalia) fallopian tube <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1961 Mammals (Mammalia) hypophysis <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1961 Mammals (Mammalia) parathyroid glands <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Russell et al, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1961 Mammals (Mammalia) prostate gland (ps.) <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1961 Mammals (Mammalia) seminal vesicles <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1961 Mammals (Mammalia) testicular tissue <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1961 Golden hamster (M. auratus) heart 0.001 -20 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/19620102256
1961 European rabbit (O. cuniculus) heart 0.04 -21 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Connaughton, Lewis, 1961 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27072955
1961 Guinea pig (C. porcellus) uteri 0.002 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Smith, 1961 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1963 Domestic dog (C. lupus f.) ureters <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Barner et al, 1963 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1964 House mouse (M. musculus) thymus glands 0.00005 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Playfair et al, 1964 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1966 Cat (Felis catus) brain (in vitro) 0.03 -20 EEG similar to the control I. Suda et al, 1966 https://www.nature.com/articles/212268a0
1967 Domestic dog (C. lupus f.) small intestine <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Hailmton, Lehr, 1967 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1972 Mammals (Mammalia) heart (fetal) <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue David, 1972 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1973 Domestic dog (C. lupus f.) kidney 0.02 -22 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Dietzman et al, 1973 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27072955
1974 Mammals (Mammalia) bone marrow <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Karow et al, 1974 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1974 Cat (Felis catus) brain (in vitro) 0.03 -20 activity, but some EEG abnormalities I. Suda et al, 1974 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006899374902637
1974 Mammals (Mammalia) cornea <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Karow et al, 1974 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1977 Mammals (Mammalia) embryos 0.0000000005 -79 Unknown Elliot, Whelan, 1977 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1977 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) pancreases (fetal) <0,1 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Kemp et al, 1977 (via Fahy, 1980) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224080900449
1980 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) fetal brain tissue <0,1 -90 Successful transplantation into a rat brain Houle, Das, 1980 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006899380909099
1983 Human: unnamed donors brain tissue <0,1 -70 Metabolically, functionally active synapses Hardy et al, 1983 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1471-4159.1983.tb08024.x
1984 Salamander S. keyserlingii whole 0.01 -32 Unknown Berman et al, 1984 https://eurekamag.com/research/006/919/006919627.php
1984 Human: unnamed donors astrocytes (culture) <0,1 -70 Astrocytes were growing in culture Kim et al, 1984 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6475502
1986 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) fetal brain cells <0,1 -90 cultures indistinguishable from controls Kawamoto, Barrett, 1986 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006899386912229
1986 Human: unnamed donors oocytes 0.0000000005 -196 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Chen, 1986 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2870356
1986 Human: a 9-14 week abortus fetal brain tissue <0,1 -80 Brain cells were growing in culture Groscurth et al., 1986 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3518539
1986 House mouse (M. musculus) brain cells (culture) <0,1 -15 Normal electrical activity, regeneration Scott, Lew, 1986 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3943556
1986 Human: unnamed whole (embryo) 0.0000000005 -196 Likely yes (a standard praxis in 2018) Graham, 2005 https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-do-embryos-survive-th/
1986 Human: Michelle Funk whole 10 19 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Clawson, 2013 https://survivor-story.com/miracle-2-year-old-recovers-hour-underwater/
1989 Squirrel S. parryii whole 0.9 -3 Unknown Barnes, 1989 https://web.archive.org/web/20081216233837/http://users.iab.uaf.edu/~brian_barnes/publications/1989barnes.pdf
1989 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) Pancreas (islets) 0.00000003 -196 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Warnock, Rajotte, 1989 https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(89)90701-0/fulltext
1994 Domestic dog (C. lupus f.) whole 10 7 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Taylor et al, 1994 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8555538?dopt=Abstract
1999 Human: Anna Bågenholm whole 70 14 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Gilbert et al, 2000 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anna_B%C3%A5genholm
2000 European rabbit (O. cuniculus) kidney 0.000008 -3 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Kheirabadi, Fahy, 2000 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10919575
2001 Human: Erika Nordby whole 9 16 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Greaves et al, 2002 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erika_Nordby
2002 Brown rat (R. norvegicus) ovaries 0.00001 -79 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Wang et al, 2002 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27072955
2003 Domestic dog (C. lupus f.) whole 20 10 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Behringer et al, 2003 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12771628
2003 Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) ovaries 0.0001 -140 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Bedaiwy et al, 2003 https://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(02)04842-2/fulltext
2004 European rabbit (O. cuniculus) kidney 0.000008 -45 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Fahy, 2004 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15094092
2006 Domestic pig (S. domesticus) whole 50 10 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Alam et al, 2006, 2008 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16456447
2007 Human: aortic surgery patients whole 70 17 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Hayashida et al, 2007 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17289482
2008 Domestic pig (S. domesticus) liver 2 -40 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Gavish, 2008 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18729808
2009 Beetle Upis ceramboides whole 0.0002 -60 Unknown Walters, 2009 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19403530
2012 Nematodes frozen for 26 years whole 0.0000003 -20 Unknown Kagoshima et al, 2012 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22987239
2015 Nematode C. elegans whole 0.0000003 -79 Yes (long-term memory preserved) Vita-More, Barranco, 2015 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4620520/
2016 Human: trauma patients whole 80 10 Likely yes (ongoing clinical trial) Kutcher et al, 2016 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26497780
2017 Human: Tayyab Jafar whole 80 21 Yes (no abnormalities observed) Ormsby, 2017 https://www.thestar.com/news/insight/2017/02/19/this-queens-student-froze-to-death-on-a-kingston-pier-heres-how-he-came-back-to-life.html
2018 Nematodes frozen for 30+ tsd yrs whole 0.0000003 -10 Unknown Shatilovich et al, 2018 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S0012496618030079
2018 Human: unnamed donors liver 2 5 Irrelevant - no brain tissue Buchholz et al, 2018 https://journals.lww.com/transplantjournal/Abstract/2018/07001/Extending_the_Human_Liver_Preservation_Time_for.637.aspx


Meta information on the timeline

The initial version of the timeline was written by Mati Roy.

Timeline update strategy

As of 2019, Mati Roy is currently roughly staying up-to-date with new major cryonics events, and should therefore update the timeline roughly continuously, at least in the near future. The timeline on this wiki is manually synced with the Google Sheet Timeline of cryonics as the main author, Mati Roy, finds it easier to maintain it there. So feel free to edit either, and it will then get manually synced.

If you're interested in helping in any way, feel free to take the initiative. If you have any questions, want guidance or feedback, or want to discuss about ways to improve this timeline, feel free to contact Mati Roy at contact@matiroy.com or post on TimelinesWiki Reddit cryonics post.

Also see the section "More information" for other related information that can be updated or otherwise improved.

Tracking preservation quality

An interesting addition that could be done to this page is to measure the progress (if progress there is) of cryonics cases. If you're interested in contributing to this project, you can fill the columns related to the quality of the cryopreservation in the Google Sheet List of cryonics patients by going through some of the cases published by the cryonics organisations; see: Alcor (human cases), the Cryonics Institute (human cases), OregonCryo (human cases), OregonCryo (non-human cases), KrioRus (human cases), KrioRus (non-human cases).

Improving types of events

The types and subtypes of events in the timelines could be more exhaustive. The science and R&D types could have subtypes for the different field of research.


More information

Some events that weren't important enough to make it into this timeline are noted in the Google Sheet Timeline of cryonics - not significant enough.

An exhaustive list of publicly known preserved patients (including a yet incomplete evaluation of the quality of their preservation) can be found in the Google Sheet List of cryonics patients.

A detailed account of membership statistics of cryonics organisations has been compiled in the Google Sheet Cryonic members statistics (although not all organisations share all, or any of their membership statistics). A detailed account of patient statistics has been compiled in the Google Sheet Cryonic patients statistics. The membership and patient statistics should be updated at the beginning of every year, after the publication of the statistics from last year.

All those external lists are editable, and everyone is encouraged to contribute to them. They are all available in the Google Folder Cryonics Statistics. Mati Roy created and is maintaining all of those Google Sheets. Most of the membership statistics were entered by someone anonymous.

A list of papers tracking the development of cryonics is tracked in the GitHub repository Scientific progress towards cryonics, and is currently maintained by Roman.

The graphs from the Trends section can be updated whenever the relevant external lists are.

Inspirational quote

As Matthew Deutsch once said: "We will not only stand on the shoulders of giants, but pull them up with us."


References

  1. "Oregon Cryonics - Suspended Animation". www.oregoncryo.com. Retrieved 2019-01-24. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 "Suspension Failures - Lessons from the Early Days". www.alcor.org. Retrieved 2019-01-21. 
  3. Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Roser, Max (2019-01-23). "World Population Growth". Our World in Data. 
  4. "How Many People Have Ever Lived on Earth? – Population Reference Bureau". Retrieved 2019-01-23. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Alcor Cases". alcor.org. Retrieved 2019-01-22. 
  6. "Case Reports | Cryonics Institute". www.cryonics.org. Retrieved 2019-01-23. 
  7. "Alcor: Membership Statistics". alcor.org. Retrieved 2019-01-23. 
  8. RomanPlusPlus (2019-01-11), SPTCR: curated repository of scientific papers on cryonics: RomanPlusPlus/scientific-progress-towards-cryonics, retrieved 2019-01-23 
  9. "Page:Works of the Late Doctor Benjamin Franklin (1793).djvu/233 - Wikisource, the free online library". en.wikisource.org. Retrieved 2019-01-21. 
  10. "Title: The Penultimate Trump". www.isfdb.org. Retrieved 2019-01-21. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 Perry, Michael (August 1992). "Unity and Disunity in Cryonics". Cryonics. 13 (145): 5. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 "Ev Cooper". www.cryonet.org. Retrieved 2019-01-21. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 "Ev Cooper's cryonics classic published online – Biostasis". Retrieved 2019-01-21. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 Regis, Ed (1991). Great Mambo Chicken and the Transhuman Condition: Science Slightly Over The Edge. Westview Press. pp. 87–88. ISBN 0-201-56751-2. 
  15. 15.00 15.01 15.02 15.03 15.04 15.05 15.06 15.07 15.08 15.09 15.10 15.11 15.12 15.13 15.14 15.15 15.16 15.17 15.18 15.19 15.20 15.21 15.22 15.23 15.24 15.25 15.26 "A HISTORY OF CRYONICS". www.benbest.com. Retrieved 2019-01-22. 
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