Timeline of cardiovascular disease

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The content on this page is forked from the English Wikipedia page entitled "Timeline of cardiovascular disease". The original page still exists at Timeline of cardiovascular disease. The original content was released under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License (CC-BY-SA), so this page inherits this license.

This is a timeline of cardiovascular disease, focusing on scientific development and major worldwide organizations and events concerning CVD.

Big picture

Year/period Key developments
Prior to 1400s Descriptions of heart failure exist from Ancient Egypt, Greece, and India. The Romans are known to use the foxglove as medicine.[1]
1400s–1700s Early discoveries of coronary artery disease start to happen. Among the most important works, are those made by William Harvey and Friedrich Hoffmann.[2]
1700s–1800s Angina is described and studied extensively in the 18th and 19th centuries. Work by cardiologist William Osler stands out.[2]
1900s Period of increased interest, study, and understanding of heart disease. Catheters start to be used to explore coronary arteries.[2]
1940s–1950s The International Society of Cardiology is designed, and the World Congress of Cardiology starts to be held. The link between heart disease and diet is discovered.[2]
1960s–Present Bypass surgery, angioplasty, and stents are developed. As a result of these treatment advances, a diagnosis of heart disease today is no longer necessarily a death sentence. Still, cardiovascular diseases remain by far the main cause of death worldwide.[2][3]

Full timeline

Year/period Type of event Event Location
1628 Development English physician William Harvey describes in detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the brain and body by the heart.[1]
1658 Development Swiss physician Jakob Wepfer describes for the first time carotid thrombosis, extracranially and intracranially, in a patient with a completely occluded and calcified right internal carotid artery.[4]
1681–1742 Discovery German physician Friedrich Hoffmann notes that coronary heart disease starts in the “reduced passage of the blood within the coronary arteries."[2] Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
1733 Development English clergyman and scientist Stephen Hales measures blood pressure.[5] Teddington, England
1768 Development English physician William Heberden describes angina pectoris for the first time.[6] Royal College of Physicians, London
1785 Development English physician William Withering publishes an account of medical use of digitalis, which are used for the treatment of heart conditions.[1]
1803 Achievement British surgeon David Fleming performs the first successful ligation of a carotid artery.[4]
1812 Development French physician César Julien Jean Legallois proposes the idea of artificial circulation.[7]
1819 Development French physician René Laennec invents the stethoscope, an acoustic device for listening internal sounds of an animal or human body.[1] Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris
1831 Discovery English physician Richard Bright describes high blood pressure and heart disease in association with kidney disease (Bright's disease).[8]
1872-1919 Development Canadian physician William Osler works extensively on angina, and is one of the first to indicate that angina is a syndrome rather than a disease in itself.[2]
1882 Development German Von Schröder introduces the first bubble oxygenator.[7]
1895 Discovery German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen discovers X-rays, which are used to diagnose heart disease.[1]
1901 Development Dutch physiologist Willem Einthoven invents the string galvanometer, which becomes the first practical electrocardiograph.[1] Leiden, Netherlands
1920 Development Organomercurial diuretics are first used for treatment of heart failure.[1]
1924 Organization The Association for the Prevention and Relief of Heart Disease is established.[9] New York City
1926 Organization The Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute is founded.[10] Melbourne, Australia
1929 Development German surgeon Werner Forssmann develops the technique of cardiac catheterization. For this achievement, Forssmann will receive the Nobel Prize in 1956.[11][7] Eberswalde, Germany
1932 Development American cardiac surgeon Michael E. DeBakey develops the roller pump, which later becomes an essential component of the heart-lung machine.[12] Tulane University, New Orleans
1937 Development An artificial heart designed by Soviet scientist W. P. Demichow is first successfully applied on a dog for 5.5 hours.[7] Soviet Union
1938 Achievement American surgeon Robert Gross applies systematically the first modern cardiovascular surgery when successfully closes a patent ductus arteriosus.[13] Boston Children's Hospital, Boston
1941 Development French physician André Cournand and American physician Dickinson Richards, use the cardiac catheter as a diagnostic tool for the first time, applying catheterization techniques to measure right-heart pressures and cardiac output. Both are awarded the Nobel Prize in 1956.[13][14] Bellevue Hospital, New York City
1948 Study The Framingham Heart Study is initiated under the direction of the National Heart Institute to better understand atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. 1,980 male and 2,421 female volunteers are recruited. The study identifies several factors that put a person at risk for atherosclerosis: among them, high levels of cholesterol. Over 1000 medical papers will have been published related to the Framingham Heart Study.[15][16] Framingham, Massachusetts
1949–1958 Development Scottish epidemiologist Jerry Morris performs studies on cardiovascular health, later establishing the importance of physical activity in preventing cardiovascular disease.[17]
1950 Organization The First World Congress of Cardiology (WCC) is held.[18] Paris
1950 Discovery Team led by American scientist John Gofman demonstrates the role of lipoproteins in the causation of heart disease.[15][19] University of California, Berkeley
1950-1958 Development Scientists Karl H. Beyer, James M. Sprague, John E. Baer, and Frederick C. Novello of Merck and Co develop thiazides for treatment of hypertension and heart failure.
1950–1959 Development Scottish pharmacologist James Black develops propranolol, a beta blocker used for the treatment of heart disease. Black is awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1988 for this work.[13] Imperial Chemical Industries, London
1950–1959 Discovery American scientist Ancel Keys discovers that heart disease is rare in some Mediterranean populations where fat diet has slow consumption.[2] Southern Europe
1952 Development Swedish cardiologist Inge Edler and German physicist Carl Hellmuth Hertz adapt for human use a sonar device for detecting submarines in World War II and record echoes from the walls of a human heart, thereby launching the field of echocardiography.[13]
1952 Development American cardiologist Paul Zoll develops the first external cardiac pacemaker.[13] Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
1953 Achievement American surgeon John Gibbon performs the first open-heart operation using cardiopulmonary bypass.[13] Thomas Jefferson Hospital, Philadelphia
1958 Development Thiazide diuretics are introduced for treating hypertension.[1]
1959 Organization The World Health Organization establishes Cardiovascular Disease program.[20]
1960 Discovery Framingham Study: Cigarette smoking is found to increase the risk of heart disease.[21] U.S.A
1960 Achievement The first successful coronary artery bypass operation (anastomosis) is performed by German surgeon Robert H. Goetz.[22] Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York City
1961 Discovery Cholesterol level, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram abnormalities are found to increase the risk of heart disease.[21] U.S.A
1961 Organization The British Heart Foundation (BHF) is established as a charity organization in order to fund research on cardiovascular disease.[23] London
1963 Organization Instituto do Coração da Universidade de São Paulo is founded as a center specializing in cardiology, cardiovascular medicine and cardiovascular surgery.[24] Sao Paulo
1964 Achievement Russian cardiac surgeon Vasiliy Kolesov performs the first successful coronary bypass using a standard suture technique.[22]
1964 Development American interventional radiologist Charles Dotter describes angioplasty for the first time.[25]
1967 Achievement South African cardiac surgeon Christiaan Barnard performs the first successful human-to-human heart transplant.[1] Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town
1967 Achievement Argentine cardiac surgeon René Favaloro performs the first documented saphenous aortocoronary bypass.[26] Cleveland Clinic, Ohio
1967 Discovery Physical inactivity and obesity are found to increase the risk of heart disease.[20] U.S.A.
1969 Organization The International Cardiology Foundation (ICF) is established.[27] Geneva
1969 Achievement Argentine cardiac surgeon Domingo Liotta and American cardiac surgeon Denton Cooley perform the first clinical implantation of a total artificial heart (TAH).[28] The Texas Heart Institute, Houston
1970 Organization The Sixth World Congress of Cardiology is held. During this congress, the International Cardiology Federation (ICF) is created.[18] London
1970 Discovery Atrial fibrillation is found to increase stroke risk 5-fold.[21] U.S.A
1975 Organization The Philippine Heart Center is founded.[29] Quezón City, Philippines
1976 Discovery Menopause is found to increase the risk of heart disease[21] U.S.A
1977 Development German radiologist Andreas Gruentzig first develops coronary angioplasty for treatment of coronary artery disease.[30] Zurich, Switzerland
1978 Discovery Psychosocial factors are found to affect heart disease.[21] U.S.A
1978 Organization The International Society of Cardiology and the International Cardiology Federation merge to become the International Society and Federation of Cardiology.[18]
1979 Organization The Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) is founded as an international non-profit organization in order to promote education and advocacy for cardiac arrhythmia professionals and patients.[31] Washington, D.C.
1982 Development The Jarvik 7 total artificial heart, named for its designer, Dr. Robert Jarvik, is implanted in a patient.[32] University of Utah
1986 Development French physician Jacques Puel and German cardiologist Ulrich Sigwart are attributed to be the first to use the coronary stent.[33] Toulouse, France
1987 Discovery Study done by Cooperative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study (CONSENSUS), shows unequivocal survival benefit of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in severe heart failure.[1]
1988 Development Hemopump, a temporary left ventricular assist blood pump, is put to clinical use. It is designed to allow for temporary support of a failing heart.[34] The Texas Heart Institute, Houston
1988 Achievement The first successful long-term implantation of an artificial Ventricular assist device LVAD is conducted by Dr. William F. Bernhard.[35] Boston Children's Hospital
1993 Organization the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology (ASNC) is founded.[36]
1994 Discovery Enlarged left ventricle (one of two lower chambers of the heart) is shown to increase the risk of stroke.[21] U.S.A
1995 Development The European Society of Cardiology publishes guidelines for diagnosing heart failure.[1]
1996 Development Progression from hypertension to heart failure is described.[21] U.S.A
1997 Development The Thoratec Ventricular Assist Device (VAD) is put to clinical use to support patients with acute and chronic heart failure.[37] The Texas Heart Institute, Houston
1998 Discovery Framingham Study: Atrial fibrillation is found to be associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality.[21] U.S.A
1998 Organization The International Society and Federation of Cardiology board approves the change of name to World Heart Federation (WHF).[18]
1999 Discovery Lifetime risk at age 40 years of developing coronary heart disease is found to be one in two for men and one in three for women.[21] U.S.A
2000 Organization The World Heart Federation launches World Heart Day as an annual event on the last Sunday of each September.[18]
2000 Organization The Krishna Heart Institute is founded as a high-end medical facility, specializing in heart diseases.[38] Ahmedabad, India
2000 Organization The Blood Pressure Association is founded as a charitable organization to provide information and support to people with hypertension.[39] London
2001 Discovery High-normal blood pressure is found to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, emphasizing the need to determine whether lowering high-normal blood pressure can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.[21] U.S.A
2001 Development AbioCor total artificial heart is implanted in a 59-year-old man. The TAH is developed by company AbioMed.[40] Jewish Hospital, Louisville, Kentucky
2004 Discovery Serum aldosterone levels are found to predict future risk of hypertension in non-hypertensive individuals.[21][41] Boston Medical Center, U.S.A
2006 Organization The Multan Institute of Cardiology is founded.[42] Multan, Pakistan
2007 Organization Atrial Fibrillation Association is established as an international charity that provides information and support for patients with atrial fibrillation.[43] Shipston-on-Stour, United Kingdom
2008 Report The total number of deaths due to cardiovascular disease reads 17.3 million worldwide a year according to the WHO.[44]
2008 Organization The Sixteenth World Congress of Cardiology is held. From then on, the WCC moves from a 4-year to a 2-year cycle.[18] Buenos Aires
2010 Discovery Sleep apnea is found to be tied to increased risk of stroke.[21][45] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Maryland, U.S.A
2011 Development pCMV-vegf165 is registered in Russia as the first-in-class gene therapy drug for treatment of peripheral artery disease, including the advanced stage of critical limb ischemia.[46][47] Russia
2011 Campaign The UN declaration on Non-communicable diseases change the global approach to NCD’s of which cardiovascular disease is the greatest contributor.[18]
2012 Report Ischemic heart disease and stroke are found to be the leading causes of death worldwide, with 7.4 million deaths due to ischemic heart disease and 6.7 million deaths for stroke.[3]
2013 Campaign World Heart Federation board adopts the United Nations and World Health Organization targets for cardiovascular disease, launching the 25 x 25 campaign to reduce premature death from CVD by 25% by 2025.[18]

See also


  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 R C Davis, F D R Hobbs, G Y H Lip (2000). "History and epidemiology". BMJ. 320: 39–42. PMC 1117316Freely accessible. PMID 10617530. doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7226.39. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Colleen Story,Kristeen Cherney. "The History of Heart Disease". Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "The top 10 causes of death". Retrieved 1 July 2016. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "The Evolution of Surgery for the Treatment and Prevention of Stroke". Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  5. Lewis, O. (1994-12-01). "Stephen Hales and the measurement of blood pressure". Journal of Human Hypertension. 8 (12): 865–871. ISSN 0950-9240. PMID 7884783. 
  6. "Description of Angina Pectoris by William Heberden". Retrieved 29 July 2016. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Nawrat, Zbigniew. Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices: 8. Review of Research in Cardiovascular Devices. 
  8. Bright, Richard (1831). Reports of Medical Cases, Selected with a View of Illustrating the Symptoms and Cure of Diseases by a Reference to Morbid Anatomy, volume I. London: Longmans. 
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  10. "Baker". Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  11. "Werner Forssmann". Retrieved 29 July 2016. 
  12. "Michael DeBakey". Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 Eugene Braunwald. "Cardiology: the past, the present, and the future". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 42: 2031–2041. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2003.08.025. 
  14. Nirav J. Mehta, Ijaz A. Khan (2002). "Cardiology's 10 Greatest Discoveries of the 20th Century". Tex Heart Inst J. NCBI. 29: 164–71. PMC 124754Freely accessible. PMID 12224718. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 "A History of Heart Disease Treatment". Retrieved 27 July 2016. 
  16. "Framingham Heart Study". Retrieved 27 July 2016. 
  17. Ashton JR (2000). "Professor J N "Jerry" Morris". J Epidemiol Comm Health. 54: 881a. doi:10.1136/jech.54.12.881a. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 "World Heart Federation". Retrieved 30 July 2016. 
  19. "John Gofman". Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 "who cardiovascular diseases" (PDF). Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  21. 21.00 21.01 21.02 21.03 21.04 21.05 21.06 21.07 21.08 21.09 21.10 21.11 "Research Milestones". Retrieved 1 July 2016. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 Jordan D. Haller, Andrew S. Olearchyk (2002). "Cardiology's 10 Greatest Discoveries". Tex Heart Inst J. National Center for Biotechnology Information. 29: 342–4. PMC 140304Freely accessible. PMID 12484626. 
  23. "British Heart Foundation". Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
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  27. "The International Society of Cardiology (ISC) and CVD Epidemiology". Retrieved 29 July 2016. 
  28. "Professor Domingo Santo Liotta". Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  29. "Philippine Heart Center". Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  30. Bernhard Meier, Dölf Bachmann, Thomas F Lüscher (February 2003). "25 years of coronary angioplasty: almost a fairy tale". The Lancet. 361: 527. PMID 12583964. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12470-1. 
  31. "Heart Rhythm Society". Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
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  33. Roguin, Ariel (2011). "Historical Perspectives in Cardiology". Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventsions. 4 (2): 206–209. doi:10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.110.960872. 
  34. "Hemopump". Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
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  41. Ramachandran S. Vasan, M.D., Jane C. Evans, D.Sc., Martin G. Larson, Sc.D., Peter W.F. Wilson, M.D., James B. Meigs, M.D., M.P.H., Nader Rifai, Ph.D., Emelia J. Benjamin, M.D., Daniel Levy, M.D. "Serum Aldosterone and the Incidence of Hypertension in Nonhypertensive Persons". New England Journal of Medicine. 351: 33–41. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa033263. 
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  46. "Gene Therapy for PAD Approved". 6 December 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  47. Deev, R.; Bozo, I.; Mzhavanadze, N.; Voronov, D.; Gavrilenko, A.; Chervyakov, Yu.; Staroverov, I.; Kalinin, R.; Shvalb, P.; Isaev, A. (13 March 2015). "pCMV-vegf165 Intramuscular Gene Transfer is an Effective Method of Treatment for Patients With Chronic Lower Limb Ischemia". Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology and therapeutics. 20: 473–82. PMID 25770117. doi:10.1177/1074248415574336. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 

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