Difference between revisions of "Timeline of cardiovascular disease"

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! Year/period !! Type of event !! Event !!Location
 
! Year/period !! Type of event !! Event !!Location
 
|-
 
|-
|1628||Development||[[wikipedia:English people|English]] physician [[wikipedia:William Harvey|William Harvey]] describes in detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the brain and body by the heart.<ref name=history-and-epidemiology/>||
+
| 1628 || Scientific development || [[wikipedia:English people|English]] physician [[wikipedia:William Harvey|William Harvey]] describes in detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the brain and body by the heart.<ref name=history-and-epidemiology/>||
 
|-
 
|-
|1658||Development||[[wikipedia:Swiss people|Swiss]] physician [[wikipedia:Jakob Wepfer|Jakob Wepfer]] describes for the first time [[wikipedia:Thrombosis|carotid thrombosis]], extracranially and intracranially, in a patient with a completely occluded and calcified right internal [[wikipedia:carotid artery|carotid artery]].<ref name=ahajournals>{{cite web|url=http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/27/8/1427.full|title=The Evolution of Surgery for the Treatment and Prevention of Stroke |author=|date=|accessdate=28 July 2016}}</ref>||
+
| 1658 || Scientific development || [[wikipedia:Swiss people|Swiss]] physician [[wikipedia:Jakob Wepfer|Jakob Wepfer]] describes for the first time [[wikipedia:Thrombosis|carotid thrombosis]], extracranially and intracranially, in a patient with a completely occluded and calcified right internal [[wikipedia:carotid artery|carotid artery]].<ref name=ahajournals>{{cite web|url=http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/27/8/1427.full|title=The Evolution of Surgery for the Treatment and Prevention of Stroke |author=|date=|accessdate=28 July 2016}}</ref>||
 
|-
 
|-
|1681–1742||Discovery||[[wikipedia:German people|German]] physician [[wikipedia:Friedrich Hoffmann|Friedrich Hoffmann]] notes that coronary heart disease starts in the “reduced passage of the blood within the coronary arteries."<ref name=healthline/>||[[wikipedia:Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg|Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg]]
+
| 1681–1742 || Scientific development || [[wikipedia:German people|German]] physician [[wikipedia:Friedrich Hoffmann|Friedrich Hoffmann]] notes that coronary heart disease starts in the “reduced passage of the blood within the coronary arteries."<ref name=healthline/>||[[wikipedia:Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg|Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1733
+
|1733 || Medical development || English clergyman and scientist [[wikipedia:Stephen Hales|Stephen Hales]] measures blood pressure.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Lewis|first=O.|date=1994-12-01|title=Stephen Hales and the measurement of blood pressure|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7884783|journal=Journal of Human Hypertension|volume=8|issue=12|pages=865–871|issn=0950-9240|pmid=7884783}}</ref> ||[[wikipedia:Teddington|Teddington]], [[wikipedia:England|England]]
|Development
 
|English clergyman and scientist [[wikipedia:Stephen Hales|Stephen Hales]] measures blood pressure.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Lewis|first=O.|date=1994-12-01|title=Stephen Hales and the measurement of blood pressure|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7884783|journal=Journal of Human Hypertension|volume=8|issue=12|pages=865–871|issn=0950-9240|pmid=7884783}}</ref>
 
|[[wikipedia:Teddington|Teddington]], [[wikipedia:England|England]]
 
 
|-
 
|-
|1768||Development||English physician [[wikipedia:William Heberden|William Heberden]] describes [[wikipedia:angina|angina pectoris]] for the first time.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://rwjms1.umdnj.edu/shindler/heberden.html|title=Description of Angina Pectoris by William Heberden |author=|date=|accessdate=29 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Royal College of Physicians|Royal College of Physicians]], [[wikipedia:London|London]]
+
| 1768 || Scientific development || English physician [[wikipedia:William Heberden|William Heberden]] describes [[wikipedia:angina|angina pectoris]] for the first time.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://rwjms1.umdnj.edu/shindler/heberden.html|title=Description of Angina Pectoris by William Heberden |author=|date=|accessdate=29 July 2016}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Royal College of Physicians|Royal College of Physicians]], [[wikipedia:London|London]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1785||Development||English physician [[wikipedia:William Withering|William Withering]] publishes an account of medical use of [[wikipedia:digitalis|digitalis]], which are used for the treatment of heart conditions.<ref name=history-and-epidemiology/>||
+
| 1785 || Medical development || English physician [[wikipedia:William Withering|William Withering]] publishes an account of medical use of [[wikipedia:digitalis|digitalis]], which are used for the treatment of heart conditions.<ref name=history-and-epidemiology/>||
 
|-
 
|-
|1803||Achievement||[[wikipedia:British people|British]] surgeon [[wikipedia:David Fleming (surgeon)|David Fleming]] performs the first successful ligation of a carotid artery.<ref name=ahajournals/>||
+
| 1803 || Medical development || [[wikipedia:British people|British]] surgeon [[wikipedia:David Fleming (surgeon)|David Fleming]] performs the first successful ligation of a carotid artery.<ref name=ahajournals/>||
 
|-
 
|-
|1819||Development||[[wikipedia:French people|French]] physician [[wikipedia:René Laennec|René Laennec]] invents the [[wikipedia:stethoscope|stethoscope]], an acoustic device for listening internal sounds of an animal or human body.<ref name=history-and-epidemiology/>||[[wikipedia:Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital|Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital]], [[wikipedia:Paris|Paris]]
+
| 1812 || Scientific development || French physician {{w|César Julien Jean Legallois}} proposes the idea of artificial circulation.<ref name="Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices: 8. Review of Research in Cardiovascular Devices">{{cite book|last1=Nawrat|first1=Zbigniew|title=Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices: 8. Review of Research in Cardiovascular Devices|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=QWt2DAAAQBAJ&pg=PT9&dq=%22in+1955%22+The+first+artificial+cardiac+pacemaker&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwid_8eBicrZAhUruVkKHeYKDOQQ6AEILTAB#v=onepage&q=%22in%201955%22%20The%20first%20artificial%20cardiac%20pacemaker&f=false}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
|1831
+
| 1819 || Development || [[wikipedia:French people|French]] physician [[wikipedia:René Laennec|René Laennec]] invents the [[wikipedia:stethoscope|stethoscope]], an acoustic device for listening internal sounds of an animal or human body.<ref name=history-and-epidemiology/>||[[wikipedia:Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital|Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital]], [[wikipedia:Paris|Paris]]
|Discovery
 
|English physician [[wikipedia:Richard Bright (physician)|Richard Bright]] describes high blood pressure and heart disease in association with kidney disease ([[wikipedia:Bright's disease|Bright's disease]]).<ref>{{Cite book|title=Reports of Medical Cases, Selected with a View of Illustrating the Symptoms and Cure of Diseases by a Reference to Morbid Anatomy, volume I.|last=Bright|first=Richard|publisher=Longmans|year=1831|isbn=|location=London|pages=}}</ref>
 
|
 
 
|-
 
|-
|1872-1919||Development||[[wikipedia:Canadian|Canadian]] physician [[wikipedia:William Osler|William Osler]] works extensively on [[wikipedia:angina|angina]], and is one of the first to indicate that angina is a [[wikipedia:syndrome|syndrome]] rather than a [[wikipedia:disease|disease]] in itself.<ref name=healthline/>||
+
|1831 ||Discovery ||English physician [[wikipedia:Richard Bright (physician)|Richard Bright]] describes high blood pressure and heart disease in association with kidney disease ([[wikipedia:Bright's disease|Bright's disease]]).<ref>{{Cite book|title=Reports of Medical Cases, Selected with a View of Illustrating the Symptoms and Cure of Diseases by a Reference to Morbid Anatomy, volume I.|last=Bright|first=Richard|publisher=Longmans|year=1831|isbn=|location=London|pages=}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
|1895||Discovery||German physicist [[wikipedia:Wilhelm Röntgen|Wilhelm Röntgen]] discovers [[wikipedia:X-ray|X-ray]]s, which are used to diagnose heart disease.<ref name=history-and-epidemiology/>||
+
| 1872-1919 || Development || [[wikipedia:Canadian|Canadian]] physician [[wikipedia:William Osler|William Osler]] works extensively on [[wikipedia:angina|angina]], and is one of the first to indicate that angina is a [[wikipedia:syndrome|syndrome]] rather than a [[wikipedia:disease|disease]] in itself.<ref name=healthline/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
|1901||Development||[[wikipedia:Dutch people|Dutch]] physiologist [[wikipedia:Willem Einthoven|Willem Einthoven]] invents the [[wikipedia:string galvanometer|string galvanometer]], which becomes the first practical electrocardiograph.<ref name=history-and-epidemiology/>||[[wikipedia:Leiden|Leiden]], [[wikipedia:Netherlands|Netherlands]]
+
| 1882 || Medical development (device) || German Von Schröder introduces the first bubble oxygenator.<ref name="Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices: 8. Review of Research in Cardiovascular Devices"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
|1920||Development||[[wikipedia:Mercurial diuretic|Organomercurial diuretics]] are first used for treatment of heart failure.<ref name=history-and-epidemiology/>||  
+
| 1895 || Scientific development || German physicist [[wikipedia:Wilhelm Röntgen|Wilhelm Röntgen]] discovers [[wikipedia:X-ray|X-ray]]s, which are used to diagnose heart disease.<ref name=history-and-epidemiology/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
|1924||Organization||The [[wikipedia:American Heart Association|Association for the Prevention and Relief of Heart Disease]] is established.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/General/History-of-the-American-Heart-Association_UCM_308120_Article.jsp#.V56Qh_mGMhk|title=History of the American Heart Association|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:New York City|New York City]]
+
| 1901 || Scientific development || [[wikipedia:Dutch people|Dutch]] physiologist [[wikipedia:Willem Einthoven|Willem Einthoven]] invents the [[wikipedia:string galvanometer|string galvanometer]], which becomes the first practical electrocardiograph.<ref name=history-and-epidemiology/> || [[wikipedia:Leiden|Leiden]], [[wikipedia:Netherlands|Netherlands]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1926||Organization||The [[wikipedia:Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute|Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute]] is founded.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.bakeridi.edu.au/|title=Baker |author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Melbourne|Melbourne]], [[wikipedia:Australia|Australia]] 
+
| 1920 || Medical development || [[wikipedia:Mercurial diuretic|Organomercurial diuretics]] are first used for treatment of heart failure.<ref name=history-and-epidemiology/> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
|1930–1939||Development||German physicist [[wikipedia:Werner Forssmann|Werner Forssmann]] is the first to develop a technique for [[wikipedia:cardiac catheterization|cardiac catheterization]], winning later the [[wikipedia:Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine]] for this achievement.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1956/forssmann-bio.html|title=Werner Forssmann|author=|date=|accessdate=29 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Eberswalde|Eberswalde]], [[wikipedia:Germany|Germany]]
+
| 1924 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:American Heart Association|Association for the Prevention and Relief of Heart Disease]] is established.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/General/History-of-the-American-Heart-Association_UCM_308120_Article.jsp#.V56Qh_mGMhk|title=History of the American Heart Association|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:New York City|New York City]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1932||Development||[[wikipedia:American people|American]] [[wikipedia:cardiac surgeon|cardiac surgeon]] [[wikipedia:Michael E. DeBakey|Michael E. DeBakey]] develops the [[wikipedia:roller pump|roller pump]], which later becomes an essential component of the [[wikipedia:heart-lung machine|heart-lung machine]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.biography.com/people/michael-debakey-9269009#synopsis|title=Michael DeBakey|author=|date=|accessdate=28 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Tulane University|Tulane University]], [[wikipedia:New Orleans|New Orleans]]
+
| 1926 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute|Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute]] is founded.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.bakeridi.edu.au/|title=Baker |author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Melbourne|Melbourne]], [[wikipedia:Australia|Australia]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1938||Achievement||American surgeon [[wikipedia:Robert Edward Gross|Robert Gross]] applies systematically the first modern [[wikipedia:Cardiac surgery|cardiovascular surgery]] when successfully closes a patent [[wikipedia:ductus arteriosus|ductus arteriosus]].<ref name=onlinejacc/>||[[wikipedia:Boston Children's Hospital|Boston Children's Hospital]], [[wikipedia:Boston|Boston]]  
+
| 1929 || Medical development || German surgeon {{w|Werner Forssmann}} develops the technique of cardiac catheterization. For this achievement, Forssmann will receive the Nobel Prize in 1956.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1956/forssmann-bio.html|title=Werner Forssmann|author=|date=|accessdate=29 July 2016}}</ref><ref name="Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices: 8. Review of Research in Cardiovascular Devices"/> || [[wikipedia:Eberswalde|Eberswalde]], [[wikipedia:Germany|Germany]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1941||Development||[[wikipedia:French people|French]] physician [[wikipedia:André Cournand|André Cournand]] and American physician [[wikipedia:Dickinson Richards|Dickinson Richards]], use the [[wikipedia:Cardiac catheterization|cardiac catheter]] as a diagnostic tool for the first time, applying catheterization techniques to measure right-heart pressures and cardiac output. Both are awarded the [[wikipedia:Nobel Prize|Nobel Prize]] in 1956.<ref name=onlinejacc>{{cite journal |author=Eugene Braunwald |date= |title=Cardiology: the past, the present, and the future|url=http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1132857|journal=Journal of the American College of Cardiology|publisher= |volume= 42|issue= |pages= 2031–2041|doi=10.1016/j.jacc.2003.08.025
+
| 1932 || Medical development (device) || [[wikipedia:American people|American]] [[wikipedia:cardiac surgeon|cardiac surgeon]] [[wikipedia:Michael E. DeBakey|Michael E. DeBakey]] develops the [[wikipedia:roller pump|roller pump]], which later becomes an essential component of the [[wikipedia:heart-lung machine|heart-lung machine]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.biography.com/people/michael-debakey-9269009#synopsis|title=Michael DeBakey|author=|date=|accessdate=28 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Tulane University|Tulane University]], [[wikipedia:New Orleans|New Orleans]]
|pmc= |pmid= }}</ref><ref name=20th-Century>{{cite journal |author=Nirav J. Mehta, Ijaz A. Khan |date= |title=Cardiology's 10 Greatest Discoveries of the 20th Century |journal= Tex Heart Inst J|publisher=NCBI |volume= 29|issue= |pages= 164–71|doi= |pmc=124754 |pmid= 12224718 |year=2002}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Bellevue Hospital|Bellevue Hospital]], [[wikipedia:New York City|New York City]]
 
 
|-
 
|-
|1948||Study||The [[wikipedia:Framingham Heart Study|Framingham Heart Study]] is initiated under the direction of the [[wikipedia:National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute|National Heart Institute]] to better understand [[wikipedia:atherosclerosis|atherosclerosis]] and cardiovascular disease. 1,980 male and 2,421 female volunteers are recruited. The study identifies several factors that put a person at risk for atherosclerosis: among them, high levels of [[wikipedia:cholesterol|cholesterol]]. Over 1000 medical papers will have been published related to the Framingham Heart Study.<ref name=heartt>{{cite web|url=http://dev.nsta.org/evwebs/2645a/history.html|title=A History of Heart Disease Treatment|author=|date=|accessdate=27 July 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.framinghamheartstudy.org/about-fhs/history.php|title=Framingham Heart Study|author=|date=|accessdate=27 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Framingham|Framingham]], [[wikipedia:Massachusetts|Massachusetts]]
+
| 1937 || Medical development (device) || An artificial heart designed by Soviet scientist W. P. Demichow is first successfully applied on a dog for 5.5 hours.<ref name="Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices: 8. Review of Research in Cardiovascular Devices"/> || {{w|Soviet Union}}
 
|-
 
|-
|1949–1958||Development||[[wikipedia:Scottish people|Scottish]] [[wikipedia:epidemiologist|epidemiologist]] [[wikipedia:Jerry Morris|Jerry Morris]] performs studies on cardiovascular health, later establishing the importance of [[wikipedia:physical activity|physical activity]] in preventing [[wikipedia:cardiovascular disease|cardiovascular disease]].<ref>{{cite journal|author=Ashton JR|journal=J Epidemiol Comm Health|title=Professor J N "Jerry" Morris|year=2000|volume=54|pages=881a| doi=10.1136/jech.54.12.881a }}</ref>|| 
+
| 1938 || Medical development || American surgeon [[wikipedia:Robert Edward Gross|Robert Gross]] applies systematically the first modern [[wikipedia:Cardiac surgery|cardiovascular surgery]] when successfully closes a patent [[wikipedia:ductus arteriosus|ductus arteriosus]].<ref name=onlinejacc/> || [[wikipedia:Boston Children's Hospital|Boston Children's Hospital]], [[wikipedia:Boston|Boston]]  
 
|-
 
|-
|1950||Organization||The First [[wikipedia:World Congress of Cardiology|World Congress of Cardiology]] (WCC) is held.<ref name=world-heart-federation>{{cite web|url=http://www.world-heart-federation.org/about-us/history/|title= World Heart Federation|author=|date=|accessdate=30 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Paris|Paris]]  
+
| 1941 || Medical development || [[wikipedia:French people|French]] physician [[wikipedia:André Cournand|André Cournand]] and American physician [[wikipedia:Dickinson Richards|Dickinson Richards]], use the [[wikipedia:Cardiac catheterization|cardiac catheter]] as a diagnostic tool for the first time, applying catheterization techniques to measure right-heart pressures and cardiac output. Both are awarded the [[wikipedia:Nobel Prize|Nobel Prize]] in 1956.<ref name=onlinejacc>{{cite journal |author=Eugene Braunwald |date= |title=Cardiology: the past, the present, and the future|url=http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1132857|journal=Journal of the American College of Cardiology|publisher= |volume= 42|issue= |pages= 2031–2041|doi=10.1016/j.jacc.2003.08.025
 +
|pmc= |pmid= }}</ref><ref name=20th-Century>{{cite journal |author=Nirav J. Mehta, Ijaz A. Khan |date= |title=Cardiology's 10 Greatest Discoveries of the 20th Century |journal= Tex Heart Inst J|publisher=NCBI |volume= 29|issue= |pages= 164–71|doi= |pmc=124754 |pmid= 12224718 |year=2002}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Bellevue Hospital|Bellevue Hospital]], [[wikipedia:New York City|New York City]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1950||Discovery||Team led by American scientist [[wikipedia:John Gofman|John Gofman]] demonstrates the role of [[wikipedia:lipoproteins|lipoproteins]] in the causation of heart disease.<ref name=heartt/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2007/09/04_GofmanObit.shtml|title=John Gofman|author=|date=|accessdate=28 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:University of California, Berkeley|University of California, Berkeley]]
+
| 1948 || Scientific development || The [[wikipedia:Framingham Heart Study|Framingham Heart Study]] is initiated under the direction of the [[wikipedia:National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute|National Heart Institute]] to better understand [[wikipedia:atherosclerosis|atherosclerosis]] and cardiovascular disease.  1,980 male and 2,421 female volunteers are recruited. The study identifies several factors that put a person at risk for atherosclerosis: among them, high levels of [[wikipedia:cholesterol|cholesterol]]. Over 1000 medical papers will have been published related to the Framingham Heart Study.<ref name=heartt>{{cite web|url=http://dev.nsta.org/evwebs/2645a/history.html|title=A History of Heart Disease Treatment|author=|date=|accessdate=27 July 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.framinghamheartstudy.org/about-fhs/history.php|title=Framingham Heart Study|author=|date=|accessdate=27 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Framingham|Framingham]], [[wikipedia:Massachusetts|Massachusetts]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1950-1958
+
| 1949 || Medical development (device) || {{w|IBM}} develops the Gibbon Model I heart-lung machine. It consists of DeBakey pumps and film oxygenator.<ref name="Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices: 8. Review of Research in Cardiovascular Devices"/> || {{w|United States}}
|Development
 
|Scientists Karl H. Beyer, James M. Sprague, John E. Baer, and Frederick C. Novello of [[wikipedia:Merck and Co.|Merck and Co]] develop thiazides for treatment of [[wikipedia:hypertension|hypertension]] and [[wikipedia:heart failure|heart failure]].
 
|
 
 
|-
 
|-
|1950–1959||Development||[[wikipedia:Scottish people|Scottish]] [[wikipedia:pharmacology|pharmacologist]] [[wikipedia:James Black (pharmacologist)|James Black]] develops [[wikipedia:propranolol|propranolol]], a [[wikipedia:beta blocker|beta blocker]] used for the treatment of heart disease. Black is awarded the [[wikipedia:Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine]] in 1988 for this work.<ref name=onlinejacc/>||[[wikipedia:Imperial Chemical Industries|Imperial Chemical Industries]], [[wikipedia:London|London]]
+
| 1949–1958 || Scientific development || [[wikipedia:Scottish people|Scottish]] [[wikipedia:epidemiologist|epidemiologist]] [[wikipedia:Jerry Morris|Jerry Morris]] performs studies on cardiovascular health, later establishing the importance of [[wikipedia:physical activity|physical activity]] in preventing [[wikipedia:cardiovascular disease|cardiovascular disease]].<ref>{{cite journal|author=Ashton JR|journal=J Epidemiol Comm Health|title=Professor J N "Jerry" Morris|year=2000|volume=54|pages=881a| doi=10.1136/jech.54.12.881a }}</ref>||
 
|-
 
|-
|1950–1959||Discovery||American scientist [[wikipedia:Ancel Keys|Ancel Keys]] discovers that heart disease is rare in some Mediterranean populations where fat diet has slow consumption.<ref name=healthline>{{cite web|url=http://www.healthline.com/health/heart-disease/history#3|title=The History of Heart Disease
+
| 1950 || Organization || The First [[wikipedia:World Congress of Cardiology|World Congress of Cardiology]] (WCC) is held.<ref name=world-heart-federation>{{cite web|url=http://www.world-heart-federation.org/about-us/history/|title= World Heart Federation|author=|date=|accessdate=30 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Paris|Paris]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1950 || Scientific development || Team led by American scientist [[wikipedia:John Gofman|John Gofman]] demonstrates the role of [[wikipedia:lipoproteins|lipoproteins]] in the causation of heart disease.<ref name=heartt/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2007/09/04_GofmanObit.shtml|title=John Gofman|author=|date=|accessdate=28 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:University of California, Berkeley|University of California, Berkeley]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1950-1958 || Medical development || Scientists Karl H. Beyer, James M. Sprague, John E. Baer, and Frederick C. Novello of [[wikipedia:Merck and Co.|Merck and Co]] develop thiazides for treatment of [[wikipedia:hypertension|hypertension]] and [[wikipedia:heart failure|heart failure]]. ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1950–1959 || Medical development (drug) || [[wikipedia:Scottish people|Scottish]] [[wikipedia:pharmacology|pharmacologist]] [[wikipedia:James Black (pharmacologist)|James Black]] develops [[wikipedia:propranolol|propranolol]], a [[wikipedia:beta blocker|beta blocker]] used for the treatment of heart disease. Black is awarded the [[wikipedia:Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine]] in 1988 for this work.<ref name=onlinejacc/>||[[wikipedia:Imperial Chemical Industries|Imperial Chemical Industries]], [[wikipedia:London|London]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1950–1959 || Scientific development || American scientist [[wikipedia:Ancel Keys|Ancel Keys]] discovers that heart disease is rare in some Mediterranean populations where fat diet has slow consumption.<ref name=healthline>{{cite web|url=http://www.healthline.com/health/heart-disease/history#3|title=The History of Heart Disease
 
|author=Colleen Story,Kristeen Cherney|date=|accessdate=28 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Southern Europe|Southern Europe]]
 
|author=Colleen Story,Kristeen Cherney|date=|accessdate=28 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Southern Europe|Southern Europe]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1952||Development||[[wikipedia:Swedes|Swedish]] cardiologist [[wikipedia:Inge Edler|Inge Edler]] and German physicist [[wikipedia:Carl Hellmuth Hertz|Carl Hellmuth Hertz]] adapt for human use a sonar device for detecting submarines in [[wikipedia:World War II|World War II]] and record echoes from the walls of a human heart, thereby launching the field of [[wikipedia:echocardiography|echocardiography]].<ref name=onlinejacc/>||
+
| 1952 || MEdical development (device) || [[wikipedia:Swedes|Swedish]] cardiologist [[wikipedia:Inge Edler|Inge Edler]] and German physicist [[wikipedia:Carl Hellmuth Hertz|Carl Hellmuth Hertz]] adapt for human use a sonar device for detecting submarines in [[wikipedia:World War II|World War II]] and record echoes from the walls of a human heart, thereby launching the field of [[wikipedia:echocardiography|echocardiography]].<ref name=onlinejacc/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1952 || Medical development (device) || American cardiologist [[wikipedia:Paul Zoll|Paul Zoll]] develops the first external [[wikipedia:cardiac pacemaker|cardiac pacemaker]].<ref name=onlinejacc/><ref name="Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices: 8. Review of Research in Cardiovascular Devices"/>||[[wikipedia:Harvard University|Harvard University]], [[wikipedia:Cambridge|Cambridge]], [[wikipedia:Massachusetts|Massachusetts]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1952 || Medical development || American surgeon {{w|Charles A. Hufnagel}} sews an artificial valve into a patient's aorta.<ref name="Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices: 8. Review of Research in Cardiovascular Devices"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1953 || Medical development || American surgeon [[wikipedia:John Heysham Gibbon|John Gibbon]] performs the first open-heart operation using cardiopulmonary bypass.<ref name=onlinejacc/> || [[wikipedia:Thomas Jefferson Hospital|Thomas Jefferson Hospital]], [[wikipedia:Philadelphia|Philadelphia]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1953 || || Dr Michael DeBakey implants a seamless, knit Dacron tube for surgical repairs and/or replacement of occluded vessels of vascular aneurysms.<ref name="Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices: 8. Review of Research in Cardiovascular Devices"/> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1958 || Medical development (drug) || [[wikipedia:Thiazide|Thiazide]] [[wikipedia:diuretics|diuretics]] are introduced for treating [[wikipedia:hypertension|hypertension]].<ref name=history-and-epidemiology/>||
 +
|-
 +
| 1959 || Program || The [[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]] establishes [[wikipedia:Cardiovascular Disease|Cardiovascular Disease]] program.<ref name=cardiovascular_diseases/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
|1952||Development||American cardiologist [[wikipedia:Paul Zoll|Paul Zoll]] develops the first external [[wikipedia:cardiac pacemaker|cardiac pacemaker]].<ref name=onlinejacc/>||[[wikipedia:Harvard University|Harvard University]], [[wikipedia:Cambridge|Cambridge]], [[wikipedia:Massachusetts|Massachusetts]]
+
| 1960 || Scientific development || [[wikipedia:Framingham Study|Framingham Study]]: [[wikipedia:Tobacco smoking|Cigarette smoking]] is found to increase the risk of heart disease.<ref name=framinghamheartstudy>{{cite web|url=https://www.framinghamheartstudy.org/about-fhs/research-milestones.php|title=Research Milestones|author=|date=|accessdate=1 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:U.S.A|U.S.A]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1953||Achievement||American surgeon [[wikipedia:John Heysham Gibbon|John Gibbon]] performs the first open-heart operation using cardiopulmonary bypass.<ref name=onlinejacc/>||[[wikipedia:Thomas Jefferson Hospital|Thomas Jefferson Hospital]], [[wikipedia:Philadelphia|Philadelphia]]  
+
| 1960 || Medical development || The first successful coronary artery bypass operation (anastomosis) is performed by German surgeon [[wikipedia:Robert H. Goetz|Robert H. Goetz]].<ref name=greatest-discoveries>{{cite journal |author=Jordan D. Haller, Andrew S. Olearchyk |date= |title=Cardiology's 10 Greatest Discoveries |journal= Tex Heart Inst J|publisher= National Center for Biotechnology Information  |volume= 29|issue= |pages= 342–4|doi= |pmc=140304 |pmid= 12484626 |year=2002}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Albert Einstein College of Medicine|Albert Einstein College of Medicine]], [[wikipedia:New York City|New York City]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1958||Development||[[wikipedia:Thiazide|Thiazide]] [[wikipedia:diuretics|diuretics]] are introduced for treating [[wikipedia:hypertension|hypertension]].<ref name=history-and-epidemiology/>||
+
| 1961 || Scientific development || [[wikipedia:Cholesterol|Cholesterol]] level, [[wikipedia:blood pressure|blood pressure]], and [[wikipedia:Electrocardiography|electrocardiogram]] abnormalities are found to increase the risk of heart disease.<ref name=framinghamheartstudy/>||[[wikipedia:U.S.A|U.S.A]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1959||Organization||The [[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]] establishes [[wikipedia:Cardiovascular Disease|Cardiovascular Disease]] program.<ref name=cardiovascular_diseases/>||
+
| 1961 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:British Heart Foundation|British Heart Foundation]] (BHF) is established as a charity organization in order to fund research on cardiovascular disease.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.bhf.org.uk/|title=British Heart Foundation|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:London|London]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1960||Discovery||[[wikipedia:Framingham Study|Framingham Study]]: [[wikipedia:Tobacco smoking|Cigarette smoking]] is found to increase the risk of heart disease.<ref name=framinghamheartstudy>{{cite web|url=https://www.framinghamheartstudy.org/about-fhs/research-milestones.php|title=Research Milestones|author=|date=|accessdate=1 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:U.S.A|U.S.A]]
+
| 1963 || Organization || [[wikipedia:Instituto do Coração da Universidade de São Paulo|Instituto do Coração da Universidade de São Paulo]] is founded as a center specializing in [[wikipedia:cardiology|cardiology]], [[wikipedia:cardiovascular medicine|cardiovascular medicine]] and [[wikipedia:cardiovascular surgery|cardiovascular surgery]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.incor.usp.br/sites/incor2013/|title=incor|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Sao Paulo|Sao Paulo]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1960||Achievement||The first successful coronary artery bypass operation (anastomosis) is performed by German surgeon [[wikipedia:Robert H. Goetz|Robert H. Goetz]].<ref name=greatest-discoveries>{{cite journal |author=Jordan D. Haller, Andrew S. Olearchyk |date= |title=Cardiology's 10 Greatest Discoveries |journal= Tex Heart Inst J|publisher= National Center for Biotechnology Information  |volume= 29|issue= |pages= 342–4|doi= |pmc=140304 |pmid= 12484626 |year=2002}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Albert Einstein College of Medicine|Albert Einstein College of Medicine]], [[wikipedia:New York City|New York City]]
+
| 1964 || Medical development || [[wikipedia:Russians|Russian]] cardiac surgeon [[wikipedia:Vasiliy Kolesov|Vasiliy Kolesov]] performs the first successful coronary bypass using a standard suture technique.<ref name=greatest-discoveries/> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
|1961||Discovery||[[wikipedia:Cholesterol|Cholesterol]] level, [[wikipedia:blood pressure|blood pressure]], and [[wikipedia:Electrocardiography|electrocardiogram]] abnormalities are found to increase the risk of heart disease.<ref name=framinghamheartstudy/>||[[wikipedia:U.S.A|U.S.A]]
+
| 1964 || Medical development || American [[wikipedia:interventional radiologist|interventional radiologist]] [[wikipedia:Charles Dotter|Charles Dotter]] describes [[wikipedia:angioplasty|angioplasty]] for the first time.<ref>{{cite journal |vauthors =Dotter CT, Judkins MP |title=Transluminal treatment of arteriosclerotic obstruction |journal=Circulation |volume=30 |pages=654–70 |date=November 1964 |pmid=14226164 |url=http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=14226164 |doi=10.1161/01.CIR.30.5.654 |issue=5 }}</ref>||
 
|-
 
|-
|1961||Organization||The [[wikipedia:British Heart Foundation|British Heart Foundation]] (BHF) is established as a charity organization in order to fund research on cardiovascular disease.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.bhf.org.uk/|title=British Heart Foundation|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:London|London]]
+
| 1967 || Medical development || [[wikipedia:South African people|South African]] cardiac surgeon [[wikipedia:Christiaan Barnard|Christiaan Barnard]] performs the first successful human-to-human heart transplant.<ref name=history-and-epidemiology/>||[[wikipedia:Groote Schuur Hospital|Groote Schuur Hospital]], [[wikipedia:Cape Town|Cape Town]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1963||Organization||[[wikipedia:Instituto do Coração da Universidade de São Paulo|Instituto do Coração da Universidade de São Paulo]] is founded as a center specializing in [[wikipedia:cardiology|cardiology]], [[wikipedia:cardiovascular medicine|cardiovascular medicine]] and [[wikipedia:cardiovascular surgery|cardiovascular surgery]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.incor.usp.br/sites/incor2013/|title=incor|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Sao Paulo|Sao Paulo]]
+
| 1967 || Medical development || [[wikipedia:Argentine|Argentine]] [[wikipedia:cardiac surgeon|cardiac surgeon]] [[wikipedia:René Favaloro|René Favaloro]] performs the first documented [[wikipedia:Coronary artery bypass surgery|saphenous aortocoronary bypass]].<ref>{{cite journal |author=Denton A. Cooley |date= |title=In Memoriam: Tribute to René Favaloro, Pioneer of Coronary Bypass |journal= Tex Heart Inst J|publisher= |volume= 27|issue= |pages= 231–2|doi= |pmc=101069 |pmid= 11225585 |year=2000}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Cleveland Clinic|Cleveland Clinic]], [[wikipedia:Ohio|Ohio]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1964||Achievement||[[wikipedia:Russians|Russian]] cardiac surgeon [[wikipedia:Vasiliy Kolesov|Vasiliy Kolesov]] performs the first successful coronary bypass using a standard suture technique.<ref name=greatest-discoveries/>||  
+
| 1967 || Dcientific development || [[wikipedia:Sedentary lifestyle|Physical inactivity]] and [[wikipedia:obesity|obesity]] are found to increase the risk of heart disease.<ref name=cardiovascular_diseases>{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/cardiovascular_diseases/en/cvd_atlas_27_MILS_1856_1967.pdf|title=who cardiovascular diseases|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:U.S.A.|U.S.A.]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1964||Development||American [[wikipedia:interventional radiologist|interventional radiologist]] [[wikipedia:Charles Dotter|Charles Dotter]] describes [[wikipedia:angioplasty|angioplasty]] for the first time.<ref>{{cite journal |vauthors =Dotter CT, Judkins MP |title=Transluminal treatment of arteriosclerotic obstruction |journal=Circulation |volume=30 |pages=654–70 |date=November 1964 |pmid=14226164 |url=http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=14226164 |doi=10.1161/01.CIR.30.5.654 |issue=5 }}</ref>||
+
| 1968 || Medical development (device) || A. Kantrowitz et al. perform the first clinical trial in a man with intra-aortic balloon pumping.<ref name="Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices: 8. Review of Research in Cardiovascular Devices"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
|1967||Achievement||[[wikipedia:South African people|South African]] cardiac surgeon [[wikipedia:Christiaan Barnard|Christiaan Barnard]] performs the first successful human-to-human heart transplant.<ref name=history-and-epidemiology/>||[[wikipedia:Groote Schuur Hospital|Groote Schuur Hospital]], [[wikipedia:Cape Town|Cape Town]]
+
| 1969 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:World Heart Federation|International Cardiology Foundation]] (ICF) is established.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.epi.umn.edu/cvdepi/essay/the-international-society-of-cardiology-isc-and-cvd-epidemiology/|title=The International Society of Cardiology (ISC) and CVD Epidemiology|author=|date=|accessdate=29 July 2016}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Geneva|Geneva]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1967||Achievement||[[wikipedia:Argentine|Argentine]] [[wikipedia:cardiac surgeon|cardiac surgeon]] [[wikipedia:René Favaloro|René Favaloro]] performs the first documented [[wikipedia:Coronary artery bypass surgery|saphenous aortocoronary bypass]].<ref>{{cite journal |author=Denton A. Cooley |date= |title=In Memoriam: Tribute to René Favaloro, Pioneer of Coronary Bypass |journal= Tex Heart Inst J|publisher= |volume= 27|issue= |pages= 231–2|doi= |pmc=101069 |pmid= 11225585 |year=2000}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Cleveland Clinic|Cleveland Clinic]], [[wikipedia:Ohio|Ohio]]
+
| 1969 || Medical development (device) ||Argentine [[wikipedia:cardiac surgeon|cardiac surgeon]] [[wikipedia:Domingo Liotta|Domingo Liotta]] and [[wikipedia:Americans|American]] [[wikipedia:cardiac surgeon|cardiac surgeon]] [[wikipedia:Denton Cooley|Denton Cooley]] perform the first clinical implantation of a total [[wikipedia:artificial heart|artificial heart]] (TAH).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.fdliotta.org/biography.htm|title=Professor Domingo Santo Liotta|author=|date=|accessdate=28 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:The Texas Heart Institute|The Texas Heart Institute]], [[wikipedia:Houston|Houston]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1970 || Organization || The Sixth [[wikipedia:World Congress of Cardiology|World Congress of Cardiology]] is held. During this congress, the [[wikipedia:World Congress of Cardiology|International  Cardiology Federation]]  (ICF) is created.<ref name=world-heart-federation/>||[[wikipedia:London|London]]  
 
|-
 
|-
|1967||Discovery||[[wikipedia:Sedentary lifestyle|Physical inactivity]] and [[wikipedia:obesity|obesity]] are found to increase the risk of heart disease.<ref name=cardiovascular_diseases>{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/cardiovascular_diseases/en/cvd_atlas_27_MILS_1856_1967.pdf|title=who cardiovascular diseases|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:U.S.A.|U.S.A.]]
+
| 1970 || Scientific development || [[wikipedia:Atrial fibrillation|Atrial fibrillation]] is found to increase stroke risk 5-fold.<ref name=framinghamheartstudy/> || U.S.A
 
|-
 
|-
|1969||Organization||The [[wikipedia:World Heart Federation|International Cardiology Foundation]] (ICF) is established.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.epi.umn.edu/cvdepi/essay/the-international-society-of-cardiology-isc-and-cvd-epidemiology/|title=The International Society of Cardiology (ISC) and CVD Epidemiology|author=|date=|accessdate=29 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Geneva|Geneva]]
+
| 1971 || Medical development (device) || White– Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) are implemented on newborn babies using veno-venous bypass for up to 9 days.<ref name="Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices: 8. Review of Research in Cardiovascular Devices"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
|1969||Achievement||Argentine [[wikipedia:cardiac surgeon|cardiac surgeon]] [[wikipedia:Domingo Liotta|Domingo Liotta]] and [[wikipedia:Americans|American]] [[wikipedia:cardiac surgeon|cardiac surgeon]] [[wikipedia:Denton Cooley|Denton Cooley]] perform the first clinical implantation of a total [[wikipedia:artificial heart|artificial heart]] (TAH).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.fdliotta.org/biography.htm|title=Professor Domingo Santo Liotta|author=|date=|accessdate=28 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:The Texas Heart Institute|The Texas Heart Institute]], [[wikipedia:Houston|Houston]]
+
| 1975 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:Philippine Heart Center|Philippine Heart Center]] is founded.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.phc.gov.ph/|title=Philippine Heart Center|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Quezón City|Quezón City]], [[wikipedia:Philippines|Philippines]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1970||Organization||The Sixth [[wikipedia:World Congress of Cardiology|World Congress of Cardiology]] is held. During this congress, the [[wikipedia:World Congress of Cardiology|International  Cardiology Federation]]  (ICF) is created.<ref name=world-heart-federation/>||[[wikipedia:London|London]]
+
| 1976 || Scientific development || [[wikipedia:Menopause|Menopause]] is found to increase the risk of heart disease<ref name=framinghamheartstudy/>||U.S.A
 
|-
 
|-
|1970||Discovery||[[wikipedia:Atrial fibrillation|Atrial fibrillation]] is found to increase stroke risk 5-fold.<ref name=framinghamheartstudy/>||U.S.A
+
| 1977 || Medical development || German [[wikipedia:radiology|radiologist]] [[wikipedia:Andreas Gruentzig|Andreas Gruentzig]] first develops [[wikipedia:coronary angioplasty|coronary angioplasty]] for treatment of [[wikipedia:coronary artery disease|coronary artery disease]].<ref>{{cite journal |author= Bernhard Meier, Dölf Bachmann, Thomas F Lüscher |date= February 2003|title=25 years of coronary angioplasty: almost a fairy tale|url=http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2803%2912470-1/fulltext|journal= The Lancet|publisher= |volume= 361|issue= |pages= 527|doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12470-1|pmc= |pmid= 12583964}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Zurich|Zurich]], [[wikipedia:Switzerland|Switzerland]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1975||Organization||The [[wikipedia:Philippine Heart Center|Philippine Heart Center]] is founded.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.phc.gov.ph/|title=Philippine Heart Center|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Quezón City|Quezón City]], [[wikipedia:Philippines|Philippines]]
+
| 1978 || Scientific development || Psychosocial factors are found to affect heart disease.<ref name=framinghamheartstudy/>||[[wikipedia:U.S.A|U.S.A]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1976||Discovery||[[wikipedia:Menopause|Menopause]] is found to increase the risk of heart disease<ref name=framinghamheartstudy/>||U.S.A
+
| 1978 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:World Congress of Cardiology|International Society of Cardiology]] and the [[wikipedia:World Congress of Cardiology|International Cardiology Federation]] merge to become the [[wikipedia:World Congress of Cardiology|International Society and Federation of Cardiology]].<ref name=world-heart-federation/>||
 
|-
 
|-
|1977||Development||German [[wikipedia:radiology|radiologist]] [[wikipedia:Andreas Gruentzig|Andreas Gruentzig]] first develops [[wikipedia:coronary angioplasty|coronary angioplasty]] for treatment of [[wikipedia:coronary artery disease|coronary artery disease]].<ref>{{cite journal |author= Bernhard Meier, Dölf Bachmann, Thomas F Lüscher |date= February 2003|title=25 years of coronary angioplasty: almost a fairy tale|url=http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2803%2912470-1/fulltext|journal= The Lancet|publisher= |volume= 361|issue= |pages= 527|doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12470-1|pmc= |pmid= 12583964}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Zurich|Zurich]], [[wikipedia:Switzerland|Switzerland]]
+
| 1979 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:Heart Rhythm Society|Heart Rhythm Society]] (HRS) is founded as an international non-profit organization in order to promote education and advocacy for cardiac arrhythmia professionals and patients.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.hrsonline.org/About-HRS/|title=Heart Rhythm Society|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Washington, D.C.|Washington, D.C.]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1978||Discovery||Psychosocial factors are found to affect heart disease.<ref name=framinghamheartstudy/>||[[wikipedia:U.S.A|U.S.A]]
+
| 1982 || Medical development (device) || The [[wikipedia:Jarvik 7|Jarvik 7]] total [[wikipedia:artificial heart|artificial heart]], named for its designer, Dr. [[wikipedia:Robert Jarvik|Robert Jarvik]],  is implanted in a patient.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.texasheart.org/Research/Devices/j7tah.cfm|title=Jarvik 7|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:University of Utah|University of Utah]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1978||Organization||The [[wikipedia:World Congress of Cardiology|International Society of Cardiology]] and the [[wikipedia:World Congress of Cardiology|International Cardiology Federation]] merge to become the [[wikipedia:World Congress of Cardiology|International Society and Federation of Cardiology]].<ref name=world-heart-federation/>||
+
| 1984 || Medical development || American surgeon {{w|Leonard L Bailey}} transplants a baboon heart into {{w|Baby Fae}}, at Loma Linda Medical Center. The baby survives for three weeks.<ref name="Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices: 8. Review of Research in Cardiovascular Devices"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
|1979||Organization||The [[wikipedia:Heart Rhythm Society|Heart Rhythm Society]] (HRS) is founded as an international non-profit organization in order to promote education and advocacy for cardiac arrhythmia professionals and patients.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.hrsonline.org/About-HRS/|title=Heart Rhythm Society|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Washington, D.C.|Washington, D.C.]]
+
| 1984 || Medical development (device) || Oyer and Portner use the Novacor electronically powered implantable left ventricular assist device as the first successful bridge to transplant.<ref>{{cite book|title=Textbook of Organ Transplantation Set|edition=Allan D. Kirk, Stuart J. Knechtle, Christian P. Larsen, Joren C. Madsen, Thomas C. Pearson, Steven A. Webber|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=GzMWBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA555&dq=%22in+1984%22+%22novacor%22+%22transplant%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj3n6nkm8rZAhVPrVkKHasDCg0Q6AEILDAB#v=onepage&q=%22in%201984%22%20%22novacor%22%20%22transplant%22&f=false}}</ref><ref name="Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices: 8. Review of Research in Cardiovascular Devices"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
|1982||Development||The [[wikipedia:Jarvik 7|Jarvik 7]] total [[wikipedia:artificial heart|artificial heart]], named for its designer, Dr. [[wikipedia:Robert Jarvik|Robert Jarvik]],  is implanted in a patient.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.texasheart.org/Research/Devices/j7tah.cfm|title=Jarvik 7|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:University of Utah|University of Utah]]
+
| 1986 || Medical development (device) || French physician [[wikipedia:Jacques Puel|Jacques Puel]] and German [[wikipedia:cardiologist|cardiologist]] [[wikipedia:Ulrich Sigwart|Ulrich Sigwart]] are attributed to be the first to use the [[wikipedia:coronary stent|coronary stent]].<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Roguin|first1=Ariel|title=Historical Perspectives in Cardiology|journal=Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventsions|date=2011|volume=4|pages=206–209|doi=10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.110.960872|url=http://circinterventions.ahajournals.org/content/4/2/206.full|issue=2}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Toulouse|Toulouse]], [[wikipedia:France|France]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1986||Development||French physician [[wikipedia:Jacques Puel|Jacques Puel]] and German [[wikipedia:cardiologist|cardiologist]] [[wikipedia:Ulrich Sigwart|Ulrich Sigwart]] are attributed to be the first to use the [[wikipedia:coronary stent|coronary stent]].<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Roguin|first1=Ariel|title=Historical Perspectives in Cardiology|journal=Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventsions|date=2011|volume=4|pages=206–209|doi=10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.110.960872|url=http://circinterventions.ahajournals.org/content/4/2/206.full|issue=2}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Toulouse|Toulouse]], [[wikipedia:France|France]]
+
| 1986 || Medical development (device) || The first atherectomy devices that remove material from the vessel wall are introduced.<ref name="Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices: 8. Review of Research in Cardiovascular Devices"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
|1987||Discovery||Study done by [[wikipedia:Cooperative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study|Cooperative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study]] (CONSENSUS), shows unequivocal survival benefit of [[wikipedia:angiotensin|angiotensin]] converting enzyme inhibitors in severe heart failure.<ref name=history-and-epidemiology/>||
+
| 1987 || Medical development || Study done by [[wikipedia:Cooperative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study|Cooperative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study]] (CONSENSUS), shows unequivocal survival benefit of [[wikipedia:angiotensin|angiotensin]] converting enzyme inhibitors in severe heart failure.<ref name=history-and-epidemiology/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
|1988||Development||[[wikipedia:Hemopump|Hemopump]], a temporary left ventricular assist blood pump, is put to clinical use. It is designed to allow for temporary support of a failing heart.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.texasheart.org/Research/Devices/hemopump.cfm|title=Hemopump|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:The Texas Heart Institute|The Texas Heart Institute]], [[wikipedia:Houston|Houston]]
+
| 1988 || Medical development (device) || [[wikipedia:Hemopump|Hemopump]], a temporary left ventricular assist blood pump, is put to clinical use. It is designed to allow for temporary support of a failing heart.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.texasheart.org/Research/Devices/hemopump.cfm|title=Hemopump|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:The Texas Heart Institute|The Texas Heart Institute]], [[wikipedia:Houston|Houston]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1988||Achievement||The first successful long-term implantation of an artificial [[wikipedia:Ventricular assist device|Ventricular assist device]] LVAD is conducted by Dr. [[wikipedia:William F. Bernhard|William F. Bernhard]].<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.joomag.com/magazine/lvad-living-august-2014/0872428001402630896?page=10|title=LVAD |author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Boston Children's Hospital|Boston Children's Hospital]]
+
| 1988 || Medical development (device) || The first successful long-term implantation of an artificial [[wikipedia:Ventricular assist device|Ventricular assist device]] LVAD is conducted by Dr. [[wikipedia:William F. Bernhard|William F. Bernhard]].<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.joomag.com/magazine/lvad-living-august-2014/0872428001402630896?page=10|title=LVAD |author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Boston Children's Hospital|Boston Children's Hospital]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1993||Organization||the [[wikipedia:American Society of Nuclear Cardiology|American Society of Nuclear Cardiology]] (ASNC) is founded.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.asnc.org/|title=ASNC|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||
+
| 1993|| Organization || the [[wikipedia:American Society of Nuclear Cardiology|American Society of Nuclear Cardiology]] (ASNC) is founded.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.asnc.org/|title=ASNC|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||
 
|-
 
|-
|1994||Discovery||Enlarged left [[wikipedia:Ventricle (heart)|ventricle]] (one of two lower chambers of the heart) is shown to increase the risk of stroke.<ref name=framinghamheartstudy/>||[[wikipedia:U.S.A|U.S.A]]
+
| 1994 || Scientific development || Enlarged left [[wikipedia:Ventricle (heart)|ventricle]] (one of two lower chambers of the heart) is shown to increase the risk of stroke.<ref name=framinghamheartstudy/>||[[wikipedia:U.S.A|U.S.A]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1995||Development||The [[wikipedia:European Society of Cardiology|European Society of Cardiology]] publishes guidelines for diagnosing [[wikipedia:heart failure|heart failure]].<ref name=history-and-epidemiology/>||  
+
| 1995 || Publication || The [[wikipedia:European Society of Cardiology|European Society of Cardiology]] publishes guidelines for diagnosing [[wikipedia:heart failure|heart failure]].<ref name=history-and-epidemiology/>||  
 
|-
 
|-
|1996||Development||Progression from hypertension to heart failure is described.<ref name=framinghamheartstudy/>||[[wikipedia:U.S.A|U.S.A]]
+
| 1996 || Scientific development || Progression from hypertension to heart failure is described.<ref name=framinghamheartstudy/>||[[wikipedia:U.S.A|U.S.A]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1997||Development||The [[wikipedia:Thoratec|Thoratec]] [[wikipedia:Ventricular Assist Device|Ventricular Assist Device]] (VAD) is put to clinical use to support patients with acute and chronic heart failure.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.texasheart.org/Research/Devices/thoratec.cfm|title=Thoratec VAD|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:The Texas Heart Institute|The Texas Heart Institute]], [[wikipedia:Houston|Houston]]
+
| 1997 || Medical development (device) ||The [[wikipedia:Thoratec|Thoratec]] [[wikipedia:Ventricular Assist Device|Ventricular Assist Device]] (VAD) is put to clinical use to support patients with acute and chronic heart failure.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.texasheart.org/Research/Devices/thoratec.cfm|title=Thoratec VAD|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:The Texas Heart Institute|The Texas Heart Institute]], [[wikipedia:Houston|Houston]]
 
|-
 
|-
|1998||Discovery||[[wikipedia:Framingham Study|Framingham Study]]: [[wikipedia:Atrial fibrillation|Atrial fibrillation]] is found to be associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality.<ref name=framinghamheartstudy/>||U.S.A
+
| 1998 || Scientific development || [[wikipedia:Framingham Study|Framingham Study]]: [[wikipedia:Atrial fibrillation|Atrial fibrillation]] is found to be associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality.<ref name=framinghamheartstudy/>||U.S.A
 
|-
 
|-
|1998||Organization||The [[wikipedia:World Congress of Cardiology|International Society and Federation of Cardiology]] board approves the change of name to [[wikipedia:World Heart Federation|World Heart Federation]] (WHF).<ref name=world-heart-federation/>||
+
| 1998 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:World Congress of Cardiology|International Society and Federation of Cardiology]] board approves the change of name to [[wikipedia:World Heart Federation|World Heart Federation]] (WHF).<ref name=world-heart-federation/>||
 
|-
 
|-
|1999||Discovery||Lifetime risk at age 40 years of developing coronary heart disease is found to be one in two for men and one in three for women.<ref name=framinghamheartstudy/>||[[wikipedia:U.S.A|U.S.A]]
+
| 1999 || Scientific development || Lifetime risk at age 40 years of developing coronary heart disease is found to be one in two for men and one in three for women.<ref name=framinghamheartstudy/>||[[wikipedia:U.S.A|U.S.A]]
 
|-
 
|-
|2000||Organization||The World Heart Federation launches '''World Heart Day''' as an annual event on the last Sunday of each September.<ref name=world-heart-federation/>||
+
| 2000 || Organization || The World Heart Federation launches '''World Heart Day''' as an annual event on the last Sunday of each September.<ref name=world-heart-federation/>||
 
|-
 
|-
|2000||Organization||The [[wikipedia:Krishna Heart Institute|Krishna Heart Institute]] is founded as a high-end medical facility, specializing in [[wikipedia:heart diseases|heart diseases]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.indiaheartbeat.com/hospital/profile/30849/KRISHNA-HEART-SUPER-SPECIALTY-INSTITUTE.html|title=Krishna Heart Institute|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Ahmedabad|Ahmedabad]], [[wikipedia:India|India]]
+
| 2000 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:Krishna Heart Institute|Krishna Heart Institute]] is founded as a high-end medical facility, specializing in [[wikipedia:heart diseases|heart diseases]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.indiaheartbeat.com/hospital/profile/30849/KRISHNA-HEART-SUPER-SPECIALTY-INSTITUTE.html|title=Krishna Heart Institute|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Ahmedabad|Ahmedabad]], [[wikipedia:India|India]]
 
|-
 
|-
|2000||Organization||The [[wikipedia:Blood Pressure Association|Blood Pressure Association]] is founded as a [[wikipedia:charitable organization|charitable organization]] to provide information and support to people with [[wikipedia:hypertension|hypertension]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.blood-pressure-monitoring.org/|title=Blood Pressure Association|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:London|London]]
+
| 2000 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:Blood Pressure Association|Blood Pressure Association]] is founded as a [[wikipedia:charitable organization|charitable organization]] to provide information and support to people with [[wikipedia:hypertension|hypertension]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.blood-pressure-monitoring.org/|title=Blood Pressure Association|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:London|London]]
 
|-
 
|-
|2001||Discovery||High-normal [[wikipedia:blood pressure|blood pressure]] is found to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, emphasizing the need to determine whether lowering high-normal blood pressure can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.<ref name=framinghamheartstudy/>||[[wikipedia:U.S.A|U.S.A]]
+
| 2001 || Scientific development || High-normal [[wikipedia:blood pressure|blood pressure]] is found to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, emphasizing the need to determine whether lowering high-normal blood pressure can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.<ref name=framinghamheartstudy/>||[[wikipedia:U.S.A|U.S.A]]
 
|-
 
|-
|2001||Development||[[wikipedia:AbioCor|AbioCor]] total [[wikipedia:artificial heart|artificial heart]] is implanted in a 59-year-old man. The TAH is developed by company [[wikipedia:AbioMed|AbioMed]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.texasheart.org/Research/Devices/abiocor.cfm|title=AbioCor|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Jewish Hospital (Louisville, Kentucky)|Jewish Hospital]], [[wikipedia:Louisville, Kentucky|Louisville]], [[wikipedia:Kentucky|Kentucky]]  
+
| 2001 || Medical development (device) || [[wikipedia:AbioCor|AbioCor]] total [[wikipedia:artificial heart|artificial heart]] is implanted in a 59-year-old man. The TAH is developed by company [[wikipedia:AbioMed|AbioMed]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.texasheart.org/Research/Devices/abiocor.cfm|title=AbioCor|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Jewish Hospital (Louisville, Kentucky)|Jewish Hospital]], [[wikipedia:Louisville, Kentucky|Louisville]], [[wikipedia:Kentucky|Kentucky]]  
 
|-
 
|-
|2004||Discovery||Serum [[wikipedia:aldosterone|aldosterone]] levels are found to predict future risk of hypertension in non-hypertensive individuals.<ref name=framinghamheartstudy/><ref>{{cite journal |author=Ramachandran S. Vasan, M.D., Jane C. Evans, D.Sc., Martin G. Larson, Sc.D., Peter W.F. Wilson, M.D., James B. Meigs, M.D., M.P.H., Nader Rifai, Ph.D., Emelia J. Benjamin, M.D., Daniel Levy, M.D. |date= |title=Serum Aldosterone and the Incidence of Hypertension in Nonhypertensive Persons|url=http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa033263#t=article|journal= New England Journal of Medicine|publisher= |volume= 351|issue= |pages= 33–41|doi=10.1056/NEJMoa033263 |pmc= |pmid= }}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Boston Medical Center|Boston Medical Center]], [[wikipedia:U.S.A|U.S.A]]
+
| 2002 || Medical development || Alain Cribier performs the first percutaneous aortic valve replacement.<ref name="Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices: 8. Review of Research in Cardiovascular Devices"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
|2006||Organization||The [[wikipedia:Multan Institute of Cardiology|Multan Institute of Cardiology]] is founded.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://cpeic.gop.pk/|title=Multan Institute of Cardiology|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Multan|Multan]], [[wikipedia:Pakistan|Pakistan]]
+
| 2004 || Scientific development || Serum [[wikipedia:aldosterone|aldosterone]] levels are found to predict future risk of hypertension in non-hypertensive individuals.<ref name=framinghamheartstudy/><ref>{{cite journal |author=Ramachandran S. Vasan, M.D., Jane C. Evans, D.Sc., Martin G. Larson, Sc.D., Peter W.F. Wilson, M.D., James B. Meigs, M.D., M.P.H., Nader Rifai, Ph.D., Emelia J. Benjamin, M.D., Daniel Levy, M.D. |date= |title=Serum Aldosterone and the Incidence of Hypertension in Nonhypertensive Persons|url=http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa033263#t=article|journal= New England Journal of Medicine|publisher= |volume= 351|issue= |pages= 33–41|doi=10.1056/NEJMoa033263 |pmc= |pmid= }}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Boston Medical Center|Boston Medical Center]], [[wikipedia:U.S.A|U.S.A]]
 
|-
 
|-
|2007||Organization||[[wikipedia:Atrial Fibrillation Association|Atrial Fibrillation Association]] is established as an international charity that provides information and support for patients with [[wikipedia:atrial fibrillation|atrial fibrillation]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.heartrhythmalliance.org/afa/uk/about|title=Atrial Fibrillation Association|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Shipston-on-Stour|Shipston-on-Stour]], [[wikipedia:United Kingdom|United Kingdom]]
+
| 2004 || Medical development || The CardioWest TAH-t becomes the world's first temporary total artificial heart (TAH-t). It is indicated for use as a bridge to transplant in cardiac transplant patients at risk of imminent death from nonreversible biventricular failure.<ref name="Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices: 8. Review of Research in Cardiovascular Devices"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
|2008||Report||The total number of deaths due to cardiovascular disease reads 17.3 million worldwide a year according to the [[wikipedia:World Health Organization|WHO]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.world-heart-federation.org/cardiovascular-health/global-facts-map/|title=Deaths due to cardiovascular disease|author=|date=|accessdate=1 July 2016}}</ref>||
+
| 2006 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:Multan Institute of Cardiology|Multan Institute of Cardiology]] is founded.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://cpeic.gop.pk/|title=Multan Institute of Cardiology|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Multan|Multan]], [[wikipedia:Pakistan|Pakistan]]
 
|-
 
|-
|2008||Organization||The Sixteenth [[wikipedia:World Congress of Cardiology|World Congress of Cardiology]] is held. From then on, the WCC moves from a 4-year to a 2-year cycle.<ref name=world-heart-federation/>||[[wikipedia:Buenos Aires|Buenos Aires]]  
+
| 2007 || Organization || [[wikipedia:Atrial Fibrillation Association|Atrial Fibrillation Association]] is established as an international charity that provides information and support for patients with [[wikipedia:atrial fibrillation|atrial fibrillation]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.heartrhythmalliance.org/afa/uk/about|title=Atrial Fibrillation Association|author=|date=|accessdate=31 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Shipston-on-Stour|Shipston-on-Stour]], [[wikipedia:United Kingdom|United Kingdom]]
 
|-
 
|-
|2010||Discovery||[[wikipedia:Sleep apnea|Sleep apnea]] is found to be tied to increased risk of stroke.<ref name=framinghamheartstudy/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/news/press-releases/2010/sleep-apnea-tied-to-increased-risk-of-stroke|title=Sleep apnea tied to increased risk of stroke|author=|date=|accessdate=1 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute|National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute]], [[wikipedia:Maryland|Maryland]], [[wikipedia:U.S.A|U.S.A]]
+
| 2008 || Epidemiology || The total number of deaths due to cardiovascular disease reads 17.3 million worldwide a year according to the [[wikipedia:World Health Organization|WHO]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.world-heart-federation.org/cardiovascular-health/global-facts-map/|title=Deaths due to cardiovascular disease|author=|date=|accessdate=1 July 2016}}</ref>||
 
|-
 
|-
|2011||Development||pCMV-''vegf165'' is registered in [[wikipedia:Russia|Russia]] as the first-in-class gene therapy drug for treatment of [[wikipedia:peripheral artery disease|peripheral artery disease]], including the advanced stage of [[wikipedia:critical limb ischemia|critical limb ischemia]].<ref>{{cite news|title=Gene Therapy for PAD Approved|url=http://www.dddmag.com/news/2011/12/gene-therapy-pad-approved|accessdate=28 July 2016|date=6 December 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last1=Deev|first1=R.|last2=Bozo|first2=I.|last3=Mzhavanadze|first3=N.|last4=Voronov|first4=D.|last5=Gavrilenko|first5=A.|last6=Chervyakov|first6=Yu.|last7=Staroverov|first7=I.|last8=Kalinin|first8=R.|last9=Shvalb|first9=P.|last10=Isaev|first10=A.|title=pCMV-vegf165 Intramuscular Gene Transfer is an Effective Method of Treatment for Patients With Chronic Lower Limb Ischemia|journal=Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology and therapeutics|date=13 March 2015|doi=10.1177/1074248415574336|url=http://cpt.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/03/12/1074248415574336.abstract|accessdate=28 July 2016|pmid=25770117|volume=20|pages=473–82}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Russia|Russia]]
+
| 2008 || Organization || The Sixteenth [[wikipedia:World Congress of Cardiology|World Congress of Cardiology]] is held. From then on, the WCC moves from a 4-year to a 2-year cycle.<ref name=world-heart-federation/>||[[wikipedia:Buenos Aires|Buenos Aires]]  
 
|-
 
|-
|2011||Campaign||The [[wikipedia:United Nations|UN]] declaration on [[wikipedia:Non-communicable disease|Non-communicable disease]]s change  the global approach to NCD’s  of which cardiovascular disease is the greatest contributor.<ref name=world-heart-federation/>||
+
| 2010 || Scientific development ||[[wikipedia:Sleep apnea|Sleep apnea]] is found to be tied to increased risk of stroke.<ref name=framinghamheartstudy/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/news/press-releases/2010/sleep-apnea-tied-to-increased-risk-of-stroke|title=Sleep apnea tied to increased risk of stroke|author=|date=|accessdate=1 July 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute|National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute]], [[wikipedia:Maryland|Maryland]], [[wikipedia:U.S.A|U.S.A]]
 
|-
 
|-
|2012||Report||[[wikipedia:Ischemic heart disease|Ischemic heart disease]] and [[wikipedia:stroke|stroke]] are found to be the leading causes of death worldwide, with 7.4 million deaths due to ischemic heart disease and 6.7 million deaths for stroke.<ref name=factsheets>{{cite web|url=http://who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/|title=The top 10 causes of death|author=|date=|accessdate=1 July 2016}}</ref>||
+
| 2011 || Medical development (drug) || pCMV-''vegf165'' is registered in [[wikipedia:Russia|Russia]] as the first-in-class gene therapy drug for treatment of [[wikipedia:peripheral artery disease|peripheral artery disease]], including the advanced stage of [[wikipedia:critical limb ischemia|critical limb ischemia]].<ref>{{cite news|title=Gene Therapy for PAD Approved|url=http://www.dddmag.com/news/2011/12/gene-therapy-pad-approved|accessdate=28 July 2016|date=6 December 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last1=Deev|first1=R.|last2=Bozo|first2=I.|last3=Mzhavanadze|first3=N.|last4=Voronov|first4=D.|last5=Gavrilenko|first5=A.|last6=Chervyakov|first6=Yu.|last7=Staroverov|first7=I.|last8=Kalinin|first8=R.|last9=Shvalb|first9=P.|last10=Isaev|first10=A.|title=pCMV-vegf165 Intramuscular Gene Transfer is an Effective Method of Treatment for Patients With Chronic Lower Limb Ischemia|journal=Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology and therapeutics|date=13 March 2015|doi=10.1177/1074248415574336|url=http://cpt.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/03/12/1074248415574336.abstract|accessdate=28 July 2016|pmid=25770117|volume=20|pages=473–82}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Russia|Russia]]
 
|-
 
|-
|2013||Campaign||World Heart Federation board adopts the [[wikipedia:United Nations|United Nations]] and [[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]] targets for cardiovascular disease, launching the '''25 x 25 campaign''' to reduce premature death from CVD by 25% by 2025.<ref name=world-heart-federation/>||
+
| 2011 || Update || The [[wikipedia:United Nations|UN]] declaration on [[wikipedia:Non-communicable disease|Non-communicable disease]]s change  the global approach to NCD’s  of which cardiovascular disease is the greatest contributor.<ref name=world-heart-federation/>||
 +
|-
 +
| 2012 || Epidemiology || [[wikipedia:Ischemic heart disease|Ischemic heart disease]] and [[wikipedia:stroke|stroke]] are found to be the leading causes of death worldwide, with 7.4 million deaths due to ischemic heart disease and 6.7 million deaths for stroke.<ref name=factsheets>{{cite web|url=http://who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/|title=The top 10 causes of death|author=|date=|accessdate=1 July 2016}}</ref>||
 +
|-
 +
| 2013 || Program || World Heart Federation board adopts the [[wikipedia:United Nations|United Nations]] and [[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]] targets for cardiovascular disease, launching the '''25 x 25 campaign''' to reduce premature death from CVD by 25% by 2025.<ref name=world-heart-federation/>||
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 +
 
* [[wikipedia:Cardiovascular disease|Cardiovascular disease]]
 
* [[wikipedia:Cardiovascular disease|Cardiovascular disease]]
  
==References==
+
==Meta information on the timeline==
{{Reflist|30em}}
+
 
 +
===How the timeline was built===
 +
 
 +
The initial version of the timeline was written by [[User:Sebastian]].
 +
 
 +
{{funding info}} is available.
 +
 
 +
===Feedback and comments===
 +
 
 +
Feedback for the timeline can be provided at the following places:
 +
 
 +
* FIXME
 +
 
 +
===What the timeline is still missing===
 +
 
 +
===Timeline update strategy===
 +
 
 +
==See also==
  
{{Circulatory system pathology}}
+
==External links==
{{Vascular diseases}}
 
{{Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period}}
 
  
{{Authority control}}
+
==References==
  
{{DEFAULTSORT:Cardiovascular Disease}}
+
{{Reflist|30em}}
[[wikipedia:Category:Heart diseases| ]]
 
[[wikipedia:Category:Health-related timelines|Category:Health-related timelines]]
 
[[wikipedia:Category:History of cardiovascular surgery|Category:History of cardiovascular surgery]]
 
[[wikipedia:Category:Medicine timelines|Category:Medicine timelines]]
 

Latest revision as of 09:43, 1 March 2018

The content on this page is forked from the English Wikipedia page entitled "Timeline of cardiovascular disease". The original page still exists at Timeline of cardiovascular disease. The original content was released under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License (CC-BY-SA), so this page inherits this license.

This is a timeline of cardiovascular disease, focusing on scientific development and major worldwide organizations and events concerning CVD.

Big picture

Year/period Key developments
Prior to 1400s Descriptions of heart failure exist from Ancient Egypt, Greece, and India. The Romans are known to use the foxglove as medicine.[1]
1400s–1700s Early discoveries of coronary artery disease start to happen. Among the most important works, are those made by William Harvey and Friedrich Hoffmann.[2]
1700s–1800s Angina is described and studied extensively in the 18th and 19th centuries. Work by cardiologist William Osler stands out.[2]
1900s Period of increased interest, study, and understanding of heart disease. Catheters start to be used to explore coronary arteries.[2]
1940s–1950s The International Society of Cardiology is designed, and the World Congress of Cardiology starts to be held. The link between heart disease and diet is discovered.[2]
1960s–Present Bypass surgery, angioplasty, and stents are developed. As a result of these treatment advances, a diagnosis of heart disease today is no longer necessarily a death sentence. Still, cardiovascular diseases remain by far the main cause of death worldwide.[2][3]

Full timeline

Year/period Type of event Event Location
1628 Scientific development English physician William Harvey describes in detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the brain and body by the heart.[1]
1658 Scientific development Swiss physician Jakob Wepfer describes for the first time carotid thrombosis, extracranially and intracranially, in a patient with a completely occluded and calcified right internal carotid artery.[4]
1681–1742 Scientific development German physician Friedrich Hoffmann notes that coronary heart disease starts in the “reduced passage of the blood within the coronary arteries."[2] Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
1733 Medical development English clergyman and scientist Stephen Hales measures blood pressure.[5] Teddington, England
1768 Scientific development English physician William Heberden describes angina pectoris for the first time.[6] Royal College of Physicians, London
1785 Medical development English physician William Withering publishes an account of medical use of digitalis, which are used for the treatment of heart conditions.[1]
1803 Medical development British surgeon David Fleming performs the first successful ligation of a carotid artery.[4]
1812 Scientific development French physician César Julien Jean Legallois proposes the idea of artificial circulation.[7]
1819 Development French physician René Laennec invents the stethoscope, an acoustic device for listening internal sounds of an animal or human body.[1] Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris
1831 Discovery English physician Richard Bright describes high blood pressure and heart disease in association with kidney disease (Bright's disease).[8]
1872-1919 Development Canadian physician William Osler works extensively on angina, and is one of the first to indicate that angina is a syndrome rather than a disease in itself.[2]
1882 Medical development (device) German Von Schröder introduces the first bubble oxygenator.[7]
1895 Scientific development German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen discovers X-rays, which are used to diagnose heart disease.[1]
1901 Scientific development Dutch physiologist Willem Einthoven invents the string galvanometer, which becomes the first practical electrocardiograph.[1] Leiden, Netherlands
1920 Medical development Organomercurial diuretics are first used for treatment of heart failure.[1]
1924 Organization The Association for the Prevention and Relief of Heart Disease is established.[9] New York City
1926 Organization The Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute is founded.[10] Melbourne, Australia
1929 Medical development German surgeon Werner Forssmann develops the technique of cardiac catheterization. For this achievement, Forssmann will receive the Nobel Prize in 1956.[11][7] Eberswalde, Germany
1932 Medical development (device) American cardiac surgeon Michael E. DeBakey develops the roller pump, which later becomes an essential component of the heart-lung machine.[12] Tulane University, New Orleans
1937 Medical development (device) An artificial heart designed by Soviet scientist W. P. Demichow is first successfully applied on a dog for 5.5 hours.[7] Soviet Union
1938 Medical development American surgeon Robert Gross applies systematically the first modern cardiovascular surgery when successfully closes a patent ductus arteriosus.[13] Boston Children's Hospital, Boston
1941 Medical development French physician André Cournand and American physician Dickinson Richards, use the cardiac catheter as a diagnostic tool for the first time, applying catheterization techniques to measure right-heart pressures and cardiac output. Both are awarded the Nobel Prize in 1956.[13][14] Bellevue Hospital, New York City
1948 Scientific development The Framingham Heart Study is initiated under the direction of the National Heart Institute to better understand atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. 1,980 male and 2,421 female volunteers are recruited. The study identifies several factors that put a person at risk for atherosclerosis: among them, high levels of cholesterol. Over 1000 medical papers will have been published related to the Framingham Heart Study.[15][16] Framingham, Massachusetts
1949 Medical development (device) IBM develops the Gibbon Model I heart-lung machine. It consists of DeBakey pumps and film oxygenator.[7] United States
1949–1958 Scientific development Scottish epidemiologist Jerry Morris performs studies on cardiovascular health, later establishing the importance of physical activity in preventing cardiovascular disease.[17]
1950 Organization The First World Congress of Cardiology (WCC) is held.[18] Paris
1950 Scientific development Team led by American scientist John Gofman demonstrates the role of lipoproteins in the causation of heart disease.[15][19] University of California, Berkeley
1950-1958 Medical development Scientists Karl H. Beyer, James M. Sprague, John E. Baer, and Frederick C. Novello of Merck and Co develop thiazides for treatment of hypertension and heart failure.
1950–1959 Medical development (drug) Scottish pharmacologist James Black develops propranolol, a beta blocker used for the treatment of heart disease. Black is awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1988 for this work.[13] Imperial Chemical Industries, London
1950–1959 Scientific development American scientist Ancel Keys discovers that heart disease is rare in some Mediterranean populations where fat diet has slow consumption.[2] Southern Europe
1952 MEdical development (device) Swedish cardiologist Inge Edler and German physicist Carl Hellmuth Hertz adapt for human use a sonar device for detecting submarines in World War II and record echoes from the walls of a human heart, thereby launching the field of echocardiography.[13]
1952 Medical development (device) American cardiologist Paul Zoll develops the first external cardiac pacemaker.[13][7] Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
1952 Medical development American surgeon Charles A. Hufnagel sews an artificial valve into a patient's aorta.[7]
1953 Medical development American surgeon John Gibbon performs the first open-heart operation using cardiopulmonary bypass.[13] Thomas Jefferson Hospital, Philadelphia
1953 Dr Michael DeBakey implants a seamless, knit Dacron tube for surgical repairs and/or replacement of occluded vessels of vascular aneurysms.[7] United States
1958 Medical development (drug) Thiazide diuretics are introduced for treating hypertension.[1]
1959 Program The World Health Organization establishes Cardiovascular Disease program.[20]
1960 Scientific development Framingham Study: Cigarette smoking is found to increase the risk of heart disease.[21] U.S.A
1960 Medical development The first successful coronary artery bypass operation (anastomosis) is performed by German surgeon Robert H. Goetz.[22] Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York City
1961 Scientific development Cholesterol level, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram abnormalities are found to increase the risk of heart disease.[21] U.S.A
1961 Organization The British Heart Foundation (BHF) is established as a charity organization in order to fund research on cardiovascular disease.[23] London
1963 Organization Instituto do Coração da Universidade de São Paulo is founded as a center specializing in cardiology, cardiovascular medicine and cardiovascular surgery.[24] Sao Paulo
1964 Medical development Russian cardiac surgeon Vasiliy Kolesov performs the first successful coronary bypass using a standard suture technique.[22]
1964 Medical development American interventional radiologist Charles Dotter describes angioplasty for the first time.[25]
1967 Medical development South African cardiac surgeon Christiaan Barnard performs the first successful human-to-human heart transplant.[1] Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town
1967 Medical development Argentine cardiac surgeon René Favaloro performs the first documented saphenous aortocoronary bypass.[26] Cleveland Clinic, Ohio
1967 Dcientific development Physical inactivity and obesity are found to increase the risk of heart disease.[20] U.S.A.
1968 Medical development (device) A. Kantrowitz et al. perform the first clinical trial in a man with intra-aortic balloon pumping.[7]
1969 Organization The International Cardiology Foundation (ICF) is established.[27] Geneva
1969 Medical development (device) Argentine cardiac surgeon Domingo Liotta and American cardiac surgeon Denton Cooley perform the first clinical implantation of a total artificial heart (TAH).[28] The Texas Heart Institute, Houston
1970 Organization The Sixth World Congress of Cardiology is held. During this congress, the International Cardiology Federation (ICF) is created.[18] London
1970 Scientific development Atrial fibrillation is found to increase stroke risk 5-fold.[21] U.S.A
1971 Medical development (device) White– Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) are implemented on newborn babies using veno-venous bypass for up to 9 days.[7]
1975 Organization The Philippine Heart Center is founded.[29] Quezón City, Philippines
1976 Scientific development Menopause is found to increase the risk of heart disease[21] U.S.A
1977 Medical development German radiologist Andreas Gruentzig first develops coronary angioplasty for treatment of coronary artery disease.[30] Zurich, Switzerland
1978 Scientific development Psychosocial factors are found to affect heart disease.[21] U.S.A
1978 Organization The International Society of Cardiology and the International Cardiology Federation merge to become the International Society and Federation of Cardiology.[18]
1979 Organization The Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) is founded as an international non-profit organization in order to promote education and advocacy for cardiac arrhythmia professionals and patients.[31] Washington, D.C.
1982 Medical development (device) The Jarvik 7 total artificial heart, named for its designer, Dr. Robert Jarvik, is implanted in a patient.[32] University of Utah
1984 Medical development American surgeon Leonard L Bailey transplants a baboon heart into Baby Fae, at Loma Linda Medical Center. The baby survives for three weeks.[7] United States
1984 Medical development (device) Oyer and Portner use the Novacor electronically powered implantable left ventricular assist device as the first successful bridge to transplant.[33][7]
1986 Medical development (device) French physician Jacques Puel and German cardiologist Ulrich Sigwart are attributed to be the first to use the coronary stent.[34] Toulouse, France
1986 Medical development (device) The first atherectomy devices that remove material from the vessel wall are introduced.[7]
1987 Medical development Study done by Cooperative North Scandinavian Enalapril Survival Study (CONSENSUS), shows unequivocal survival benefit of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in severe heart failure.[1]
1988 Medical development (device) Hemopump, a temporary left ventricular assist blood pump, is put to clinical use. It is designed to allow for temporary support of a failing heart.[35] The Texas Heart Institute, Houston
1988 Medical development (device) The first successful long-term implantation of an artificial Ventricular assist device LVAD is conducted by Dr. William F. Bernhard.[36] Boston Children's Hospital
1993 Organization the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology (ASNC) is founded.[37]
1994 Scientific development Enlarged left ventricle (one of two lower chambers of the heart) is shown to increase the risk of stroke.[21] U.S.A
1995 Publication The European Society of Cardiology publishes guidelines for diagnosing heart failure.[1]
1996 Scientific development Progression from hypertension to heart failure is described.[21] U.S.A
1997 Medical development (device) The Thoratec Ventricular Assist Device (VAD) is put to clinical use to support patients with acute and chronic heart failure.[38] The Texas Heart Institute, Houston
1998 Scientific development Framingham Study: Atrial fibrillation is found to be associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality.[21] U.S.A
1998 Organization The International Society and Federation of Cardiology board approves the change of name to World Heart Federation (WHF).[18]
1999 Scientific development Lifetime risk at age 40 years of developing coronary heart disease is found to be one in two for men and one in three for women.[21] U.S.A
2000 Organization The World Heart Federation launches World Heart Day as an annual event on the last Sunday of each September.[18]
2000 Organization The Krishna Heart Institute is founded as a high-end medical facility, specializing in heart diseases.[39] Ahmedabad, India
2000 Organization The Blood Pressure Association is founded as a charitable organization to provide information and support to people with hypertension.[40] London
2001 Scientific development High-normal blood pressure is found to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, emphasizing the need to determine whether lowering high-normal blood pressure can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.[21] U.S.A
2001 Medical development (device) AbioCor total artificial heart is implanted in a 59-year-old man. The TAH is developed by company AbioMed.[41] Jewish Hospital, Louisville, Kentucky
2002 Medical development Alain Cribier performs the first percutaneous aortic valve replacement.[7]
2004 Scientific development Serum aldosterone levels are found to predict future risk of hypertension in non-hypertensive individuals.[21][42] Boston Medical Center, U.S.A
2004 Medical development The CardioWest TAH-t becomes the world's first temporary total artificial heart (TAH-t). It is indicated for use as a bridge to transplant in cardiac transplant patients at risk of imminent death from nonreversible biventricular failure.[7]
2006 Organization The Multan Institute of Cardiology is founded.[43] Multan, Pakistan
2007 Organization Atrial Fibrillation Association is established as an international charity that provides information and support for patients with atrial fibrillation.[44] Shipston-on-Stour, United Kingdom
2008 Epidemiology The total number of deaths due to cardiovascular disease reads 17.3 million worldwide a year according to the WHO.[45]
2008 Organization The Sixteenth World Congress of Cardiology is held. From then on, the WCC moves from a 4-year to a 2-year cycle.[18] Buenos Aires
2010 Scientific development Sleep apnea is found to be tied to increased risk of stroke.[21][46] National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Maryland, U.S.A
2011 Medical development (drug) pCMV-vegf165 is registered in Russia as the first-in-class gene therapy drug for treatment of peripheral artery disease, including the advanced stage of critical limb ischemia.[47][48] Russia
2011 Update The UN declaration on Non-communicable diseases change the global approach to NCD’s of which cardiovascular disease is the greatest contributor.[18]
2012 Epidemiology Ischemic heart disease and stroke are found to be the leading causes of death worldwide, with 7.4 million deaths due to ischemic heart disease and 6.7 million deaths for stroke.[3]
2013 Program World Heart Federation board adopts the United Nations and World Health Organization targets for cardiovascular disease, launching the 25 x 25 campaign to reduce premature death from CVD by 25% by 2025.[18]

See also

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

Feedback and comments

Feedback for the timeline can be provided at the following places:

  • FIXME

What the timeline is still missing

Timeline update strategy

See also

External links

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 R C Davis, F D R Hobbs, G Y H Lip (2000). "History and epidemiology". BMJ. 320: 39–42. PMC 1117316Freely accessible. PMID 10617530. doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7226.39. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Colleen Story,Kristeen Cherney. "The History of Heart Disease". Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "The top 10 causes of death". Retrieved 1 July 2016. 
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