Timeline of cognitive biases

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Year Event type Details
1747 "Lind conducted the first systematic clinical trial in 1747."[1]
1753 Anthropomorphism is first attested, originally in reference to the heresy of applying a human form to the Christian God.[2]}}[3]
1848 Bandwagon effect "The phrase "jump on the bandwagon" first appeared in American politics in 1848 when Dan Rice, a famous and popular circus clown of the time, used his bandwagon and its music to gain attention for his political campaign appearances. As his campaign became more successful, other politicians strove for a seat on the bandwagon, hoping to be associated with his success. Later, during the time of William Jennings Bryan's 1900 presidential campaign, bandwagons had become standard in campaigns,[4] and the phrase "jump on the bandwagon" was used as a derogatory term, implying that people were associating themselves with success without considering that with which they associated themselves."
1882 "The specious present is the time duration wherein a state of {{w|consciousness]] is experienced as being in the present.[5] The term was first introduced by the philosopher E. R. Clay in 1882 (E. Robert Kelly),[6][7]
1920 "First coined back in 1920, the halo effect describes how our impression of a person forms a halo around our conception of their character."[8]
1927 Russian psychologist Bluma Zeigarnik publishes in the journal Psychologische Forschung a report on a series of experiments uncovering the processes underlying the phenomenon later called Zeigarnik effect.[9]
1930 The specious present is further developed by William James.[7] "James defined the specious present to be "the prototype of all conceived times... the short duration of which we are immediately and incessantly sensible". In "Scientific Thought" (1930), C. D. Broad further elaborated on the concept of the specious present and considered that the specious present may be considered as the temporal equivalent of a sensory datum.[7]
1961 Ambiguity effect is first described by Daniel Ellsberg.[10]
1967 "Chapman (1967) described a bias in the judgment of the frequency with which two events co-occur. This demonstration showed that the co-occurrence of paired stimuli resulted in participants overestimating the frequency of the pairings."[11]
1969 Researchers confirm the Ben Franklin effect.[12]
1974 " One of the common heuristics used when making judgements is the anchoring and adjustment heuristic, first described in 1974 (Tversky and Kahneman, 1974). In this heuristic, when people estimate an unknown quantity (say, the length of the average American commute) they begin with an ‘anchor’ of information they do know (say, their own commute) and adjust until an acceptable value is reached. This anchor could be based on information given to a person (such as the advertised price of new car before bargaining) or it could be drawn from personal experience (the price a friend paid for a new car)."[13]
1975 "In 1975, psychologist Stanley Smith Stevens proposed that the strength of a stimulus (e.g., the brightness of a light, the severity of a crime) is encoded neurally in a way that is independent of modality. Kahneman and Frederick built on this idea, arguing that the target attribute and heuristic attribute could be unrelated."[14]
1995 "Implicit bias was first described in a 1995 publication by Tony Greenwald and Mahzarin Banaji"[15]
1996 Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky argue that cognitive biases have efficient practical implications for areas including clinical judgment, entrepreneurship, finance, and management.[16][17]
2002 "In a 2002 revision of the theory, Kahneman and Shane Frederick proposed attribute substitution as a process underlying these and other effects."[14]
2002 Bystander effect. Research indicates that priming a social context may inhibit helping behavior. Imagining being around one other person or being around a group of people can affect a person's willingness to help.[18]
2004 "One of the most common anchors is personal experience, which is the basis of ego-centric decision-making. Estimating the behaviors, attitudes and thoughts of other people is complex and effortful; anchoring and adjustment makes this process simpler by substituting one’s own perspective and adjusting until a reasonable estimate has been achieved (Epley et al., 2004). "[13]
2006 "Overcoming Bias began in November ’06 as a group blog on the general theme of how to move our beliefs closer to reality, in the face of our natural biases such as overconfidence and wishful thinking, and our bias to believe we have corrected for such biases, when we have done no such thing."[19]
2011 "Cognitive Bias: The Google Effect. Also known as “digital amnesia”, the aptly named Google Effect describes our tendency to forget information that can be easily accessed online. First described in 2011 by Betsy Sparrow (Columbia University) and her colleagues, their paper described the results of several memory experiments involving technology."[20]

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The initial version of the timeline was written by FIXME.

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See also

External links

References

  1. Carlisle, Rodney (2004). Scientific American Inventions and Discoveries, John Wiley & Songs, Inc., New Jersey. p. 393. Template:Isbn.
  2. Chambers's Cyclopædia, Supplement, 1753 
  3. Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. "anthropomorphism, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1885.
  4. "Bandwagon Effect". Retrieved 2007-03-09. 
  5. James W (1893). The principles of psychology. New York: H. Holt and Company. p. 609. 
  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named kelly
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
  8. "This Cognitive Bias Explains Why Pretty People Make 12% More Money Than Everybody Else". businessinsider.com. Retrieved 6 April 2020. 
  9. Zeigarnik 1927: "Das Behalten erledigter und unerledigter Handlungen". Psychologische Forschung 9, 1-85.
  10. Borcherding, Katrin; Laričev, Oleg Ivanovič; Messick, David M. (1990). Contemporary Issues in Decision Making. North-Holland. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-444-88618-7. 
  11. Chapman, L.J (1967). "Illusory correlation in observational report". Journal of Verbal Learning. 6: 151–155. doi:10.1016/s0022-5371(67)80066-5. 
  12. "To Become Super-Likable, Practice "The Ben Franklin Effect"". medium.com. Retrieved 13 March 2020. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Ralph, Kelcie; Delbosc, Alexa. [One of the common heuristics used when making judgements is the anchoring and adjustment heuristic, first described in 1974 (Tversky and Kahneman, 1974). In this heuristic, when people estimate an unknown quantity (say, the length of the average American commute) they begin with an ‘anchor’ of information they do know (say, their own commute) and adjust until an acceptable value is reached. This anchor could be based on information given to a person (such as the advertised price of new car before bargaining) or it could be drawn from personal experience (the price a friend paid for a new car). "I'm multimodal, aren't you? How ego-centric anchoring biases experts' perceptions of travel patterns"] Check |url= value (help). doi:10.1016/j.tra.2017.04.027. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 Kahneman, Daniel; Frederick, Shane (2002). "Representativeness Revisited: Attribute Substitution in Intuitive Judgment". In Thomas Gilovich; Dale Griffin; Daniel Kahneman. Heuristics and Biases: The Psychology of Intuitive Judgment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 49–81. ISBN 978-0-521-79679-8. OCLC 47364085. 
  15. "PROJECT IMPLICIT LECTURES AND WORKSHOPS". projectimplicit.net. Retrieved 12 March 2020. 
  16. Kahneman, D. & Tversky, A. (1996). "On the reality of cognitive illusions" (PDF). Psychological Review. 103 (3): 582–591. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.174.5117Freely accessible. PMID 8759048. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.103.3.582. 
  17. S.X. Zhang; J. Cueto (2015). "The Study of Bias in Entrepreneurship". Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 41 (3): 419–454. doi:10.1111/etap.12212. 
  18. Garcia, S.M.; Weaver, K.; Darley, J.M.; Moskowitz, G.B. (2002). "Crowded minds: the implicit bystander effect". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 83 (4): 843–853. PMID 12374439. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.83.4.843. 
  19. "Overcoming Bias". overcomingbias.com. Retrieved 13 March 2020. 
  20. "Marketers Need To Be Aware Of Cognitive Bias". thecustomer.net. Retrieved 12 March 2020.