Difference between revisions of "Timeline of face masks"

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This is a '''timeline of {{w|face mask}}s'''.
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This is a '''timeline of {{w|face mask}}s''', attempting to describe significant events related to the history and evolution of these healthcare products. This timeline focuses mainly on cloth and surgical masks, aimed at both healthcare workers and the public in general for airborne disease protection, and omitting complex devises such as {{w|self-contained breathing apparatus}}es.  
  
 
== Sample questions ==
 
== Sample questions ==
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 +
The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:
  
[File:Cloth mask, mask pads and medical face masks - small.jpg]
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* What are some of the several hazards combated by face mask use?
 +
** Sort the full timeline column titled "Targeted hazard".
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** You will mostly see {{w|airborne disease}}s like {{w|influenza}}, {{w|SARS}}, and {{w|COVID-19}}. You will also find {{w|plague}} happening mostly in early events, as well as other non-infectious hazards like smoke.
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* What are some old historical records on the use of face masks?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Early use".
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** You will see some early events on use of face masks, previous to the scientific establishment on methods of transmission of disease.
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* What are some events related to the adoption of face masks in the healthcare environment?
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**Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Hospital use".
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** You will see early adoption of face masks in the healthcare environment, starting in the 19th century.
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* What are some events related to the adoption of face masks by the general population?
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**Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "General use".
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** You will see several boosts in use caused by epidemic outbreaks.
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* What are some events describing the introduction of new face mask prototypes?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Model introduction".
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** You will see the introduction of some prototypes, like the {{w|N95 mask}}.
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* What are some events describing research on different properties of face masks as well as research on hazardous agents combated by the former?
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**Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Research".
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** You will mostly see research focused on the effectivity of face masks, but also on hazardous agents and other studies related to basic science of incumbence.
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* What are some recommendations on use of face masks by authorities and important organizations?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Recommendation".
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** You will see some recommendations by institutions like the {{w|World Health Organization}} and the U.S. {{w|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention}}, as well as some experts.
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* What are some events related to the face mask industry?
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**Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Production".
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* What are some figures illustrating the face mask market size?
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**Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Market size".
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** You will see figures indicating global market size as well as some regional figures.
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* Other events are described under the following types: "Anti-mask movement", "Literature", "Policy", and "Protester use".
  
The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:
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==Big picture==
  
==Big picture==
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===Key developments===
  
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
! Time period !! Development summary !! More details
 
! Time period !! Development summary !! More details
 
|-
 
|-
| 6th century BC || || "The earliest recorded face mask-like objects in history date to the 6th century BC"<ref name="globaltimes.cn">{{cite web |title=The evolution of face masks |url=https://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1179358.shtml |website=globaltimes.cn |accessdate=10 September 2020}}</ref>
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| Before 19th century || Early development of masks || The earliest recorded face mask-like objects in history date to the 6th century BC.<ref name="globaltimes.cn">{{cite web |title=The evolution of face masks |url=https://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1179358.shtml |website=globaltimes.cn |accessdate=10 September 2020}}</ref> In the 14th century, the Black Death in {{w|Europe}} greatly promotes the emergence of functional face mask-like objects.<ref name="globaltimes.cn"/> In the 17th century, {{w|Charles de Lorme}}’s miasma-inspired leather overcoat and bird mask doesn’t prevent anyone from contracting the {{w|plague}}.<ref name="gizmodo.coms"/><ref name="newseye.euv">{{cite web |title=Go out wearing masks! A media history of face masks |url=https://www.newseye.eu/fi/blogi/news/go-out-wearing-masks-a-media-history-of-face-masks/|website=newseye.eu |accessdate=11 September 2020}}</ref><ref name="newseye.euv"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 14th century || || "In the 14th century, the Black Death spread to Europe. This also greatly promoted the emergence of functional face mask-like objects."<ref name="globaltimes.cn"/>
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| 19th century || Scientific backing establishment || The design of the mask takes a big step forward in this century,<ref name="globaltimes.cn"/> throughout which doctors continue to go without masks while workers in factories are encouraged to use them to help filter particle-ridden air<ref name="gizmodo.coms">{{cite web |title=A Brief History of Medical Face Masks |url=https://gizmodo.com/a-brief-history-of-medical-face-masks-1843698852 |website=gizmodo.com |accessdate=11 September 2020}}</ref>, as there is an understanding of the usefulness of face masks in factories.<ref name="gizmodo.coms"/> In the mid-century, German scientists conduct studies with industrial dust and bacteria and their relationship with respiratory health.<ref name="cdc.govi"/> By the late 1870s, scientists learn about bacteria, and the {{w|miasma theory}} falls from fashion as the modern field of microbiology emerges.<ref name="fastcompany.comsssa"/> In the latter half of the century, face masks begin to be worn in hospital settings, when medical research starts being benefited considerably from Louis Pasteur’s work.<ref name="newseye.euv"/><ref name="bloomberg.comss"/> The modern surgical face mask comes into use around the time that germs and viruses start reshaping medical understandings of disease.<ref name="We share what we exhale"/><ref name="The Mask">{{cite web |title=The Mask |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/17/style/face-mask-coronavirus.html |website=nytimes.comwwww |accessdate=12 September 2020}}</ref> In the 1880s, Robert Koch identifies the bacteria that cause tuberculosis and cholera. Before his discovery, dirt was simply dirt, and people knew nothing of threatening microbes or viruses.<ref name="We share what we exhale"/> In 1897, {{w|Jan Mikulicz-Radecki}} publishes the first study supporting the use of a mask in surgery.<ref name="Bhartendua">{{cite journal |last1=Goha |first1=Yihui |last2=Tanab |first2=Benjamin Y.Q. |last3=Bhartendua |first3=Chandra |last4=Onga |first4=Jonathan J.Y. |last5=Sharma |first5=Vijay K. |title=The face mask: How a real protection becomes a psychological symbol during Covid-19? |doi=10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.060 |url=https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0889159120310151?via%3Dihub}}</ref><ref name="Schlich">{{cite journal |last1=Strasser |first1=Bruno J |last2=Schlich |first2=Thomas |title=A history of the medical mask and the rise of throwaway culture |doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31207-1 |url=https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)31207-1/fulltext#:~:text=In%20response%20to%20these%20findings,operating%20room%20the%20same%20year.}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 16th century || || " In the 16th century, French doctor Charles de Lorme invented the beak mask."<ref name="globaltimes.cn"/>
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| 20th century (first half) || Widespread adoption by the healthcare system || Throughout the early decades of the century, various styles of masks are patented. Most commonly, masks are made of cotton gauze and held in place with a metal frame.<ref name="gizmodo.coms"/> In Japan, the mask business flourished during the {{w|Taishō}} period (1912-26).<ref name="japantimes.co.jp"/> In the 1920s, the surgical mask is used first in the operating rooms of Germany and the United States.<ref name="Fangerau"/> By the late 1920s, the use of gauze face masks is widespread.<ref name="Spooner">{{cite journal |last1=Spooner |first1=John L. |title=History of Surgical Face Masks: The myths, the masks, and the men and women behind them |doi=10.1016/S0001-2092(08)71359-0}}</ref><ref name="bloomberg.comss"/> In the 1930s, medical masks start to be replaced by disposable paper masks.<ref name="Schlich"/> In the mid-1930s, variations of the gauze type masks begin to appear.<ref name="Spooner"/> During the 1930s and 1940s, gauze and cloth masks are also used by healthcare workers to protect themselves from tuberculosis.<ref name="adwww"/> In the 1940s, with the introduction of {{w|antibiotic}}s, and their rapid acceptance as a means of controlling infection, interest in surgical masks decrease.<ref name="Spooner"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 17th century || || "While the plague doctors of the 17th century certainly had a scary getup, de Lorme’s miasma-inspired leather overcoat and bird mask didn’t prevent anyone from contracting the plague. "<ref name="gizmodo.coms"/> <ref name="newseye.euv">{{cite web |title=Go out wearing masks! A media history of face masks |url=https://www.newseye.eu/fi/blogi/news/go-out-wearing-masks-a-media-history-of-face-masks/|website=newseye.eu |accessdate=11 September 2020}}</ref> "As far back as the 17th century, the famous "beaked mask", filled with plants known for their disinfecting properties, had already been dreamt up by Charles de Lorme to protect plague doctors from airborne contagion"<ref name="newseye.euv"/>
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| 20th century (second half) || Adoption by the general population || In the late 1950s there is a renewed interest in surgical masks.<ref name="Spooner"/> Asians, especially in Japan, China and Taiwan, start wearing masks for a host of cultural and environmental reasons, including non-medical ones.<ref name="voanews.comrr">{{cite web |title=Not Just Coronavirus: Asians Have Worn Face Masks for Decades |url=https://www.voanews.com/science-health/coronavirus-outbreak/not-just-coronavirus-asians-have-worn-face-masks-decades |website=voanews.com |accessdate=17 September 2020}}</ref> In the 1960s, modern disposable masks grow in popularity.<ref name="gizmodo.coms"/> In the mid-1960s, the use of disposable items made of paper and fleece is introduced all over the world after having started in the United States.<ref name="Fangerau"/> In the 1980s, flu masks gradually reappear when the hay fever mask becomes common in Japan.<ref name="Mitsutoshi"/> In the 1990s, after being used in industrial applications for decades, the {{w|N95 mask}} is adopted in clinical settings with the rise of drug-resistant tuberculosis.<ref name="fastcompany.comsssa"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 19th century || || "The design of the mask took a big step forward in the 19th century. "<ref name="globaltimes.cn"/> "Throughout the 19th century, doctors continued to go without masks while workers in factories were encouraged to use them to help filter particle-ridden air."<ref name="gizmodo.coms">{{cite web |title=A Brief History of Medical Face Masks |url=https://gizmodo.com/a-brief-history-of-medical-face-masks-1843698852 |website=gizmodo.com |accessdate=11 September 2020}}</ref> "The practice of using face masks to prevent infection in hospitals started in the late 19th century."<ref name="bloomberg.comss"/> "in the 1800s there was an understanding of the usefulness of face masks in factories."<ref name="gizmodo.coms"/> "The modern surgical face mask came into use in the late nineteenth century, around the time that germs and viruses were reshaping medical understandings of disease."<ref name="We share what we exhale"/> " it was in the latter half of the 19th century – when medical research was benefiting considerably from Louis Pasteur’s work – that face masks began to be worn in hospital settings."<ref name="newseye.euv"/> "According to “History of Surgical Face Masks: The myths, the masks, and the men and women behind them,” by John L. Spooner, face masks first appeared at the very end of 19th century, used as a protective measure worn by doctors during surgery to prevent airborne bacteria from entering an open wound."<ref name="The Mask">{{cite web |title=The Mask |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/17/style/face-mask-coronavirus.html |website=nytimes.comwwww |accessdate=12 September 2020}}</ref> " In the mid-1800s, German scientists conducted studies with industrial dust and bacteria and their relationship with respiratory health"<ref name="cdc.govi"/>
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| 21st century (pre-COVID-19) || Increase in face mask use throughout the world || Mask-wearing increases in the early years of the current century with the {{w|SARS outbreak}} and {{w|avian influenza}}<ref name="theconversation.comv">{{cite web |title=A brief history of masks from the 17th-century plague to the ongoing coronavirus pandemic |url=https://theconversation.com/a-brief-history-of-masks-from-the-17th-century-plague-to-the-ongoing-coronavirus-pandemic-142959 |website=theconversation.com |accessdate=4 October 2020}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1868–1912 || || The modern history of masks in Japan begins in the {{w|Meiji Era}}.<ref name="japantimes.co.jp"/>
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| 21st century (post-COVID-19) || Massive adoption and compulsory use throughout the world || Worldwide mask-wearing use suddenly explodes with the advent of the {{w|COVID-19 pandemic}}, with many countries mandating its use in public places. As of 2020, face mask use is part of the everyday landscape all troughout the world, especially in urban areas. However, as of 2020, experts continue to debate the effectiveness of face masks in preventing the spread of diseases. Policies, laws, and practical considerations vary from region to region, as well as people’s attitudes, reflecting their cultural values and history.<ref>{{cite web |title=Faced With Face Masks: A Brief Discussion of Current Challenges |url=https://www.naspa.org/blog/faced-with-face-masks-a-brief-discussion-of-current-challenges |website=naspa.org |accessdate=13 September 2020}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1870s || || "By the late 1870s, scientists learned about bacteria. Miasma fell from fashion as the modern field of microbiology emerged."<ref name="fastcompany.comsssa"/>
+
|}
|-
+
 
| 1880s || || "Before Robert Koch’s identification in the 1880s of the bacteria that caused tuberculosis and cholera, dirt was simply dirt. People knew nothing of threatening microbes or viruses."<ref name="We share what we exhale"/> 
+
=== Summary by mask type ===
|-
+
 
| 20th century || || "Throughout the early decades of the 20th century, patents were issued various styles of masks. Most commonly, masks were made of cotton gauze and held in place with a metal frame."<ref name="gizmodo.coms"/>
+
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Masks/respirator type !! Advantages !! Disadvantages 
 
|-
 
|-
| 1912–1926 || || "The mask business flourished during the Taisho Era (1912-26) as the economy boomed with factories filling orders from Europe in the throes of World War I. Numerous products made from leather, velvet and other materials advertised under various brands inundated the market."<ref name="japantimes.co.jp"/>
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| Bandana || Better than nothing. Decreases droplets spray from more than 8 feet to about 4 feet. An adequate piece of cloth can be repurposed. Washable, reusable. || Droplet reduction by only about 50 per cent and neck fleeces increasing the amount of spray, probably by dispersing the largest droplets into many smaller droplets.<ref name="economictimes.indiatimes.com">{{cite web |title=Why wearing a bandana face-mask is a very bad idea |url=https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/healthcare/biotech/healthcare/why-wearing-a-bandana-face-mask-is-a-very-bad-idea/cotton-alternatives/slideshow/77741019.cms |website=economictimes.indiatimes.com |access-date=28 November 2020}}</ref> || [[File:-occupyboston (6224348389).jpg|thumb|center|150px]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1920s || || "The surgical mask was used first in the operating rooms of Germany and the USA in the 1920s."<ref name="Fangerau"/> "By the late 1920’s, the use of gauze face masks was widespread."<ref name="Spooner">{{cite journal |last1=Spooner |first1=John L. |title=History of Surgical Face Masks: The myths, the masks, and the men and women behind them |doi=10.1016/S0001-2092(08)71359-0}}</ref> "In the 1920s, masks are standard in operating rooms. Over the next century, medical researchers continue to experiment with designs and materials."<ref name="bloomberg.comss"/>
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| Homemade cloth mask || Better than bandanas. Hand-made cotton face coverings eliminate 70 to 90 per cent of the spray, depending on the layers and the pleating.<ref name="economictimes.indiatimes.com"/> Washable, reusable. || Single-layer masks may only provide 1% particle filtration.<ref name="healthgrades.com">{{cite web |title=9 Types of Masks and How Effective They Are |url=https://www.healthgrades.com/right-care/coronavirus/9-types-of-masks-and-how-effective-they-are |website=healthgrades.com |access-date=28 November 2020}}</ref> || [[File:Homemade cloth face mask (01).jpg|thumb|center|150px]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1930s || || "n the middle of the 1930s, the research on the role of facemasks was continued in Germany and the USA"<ref name="Fangerau"/> "In the 1930s variations of the gauze tlpe masks began to appear."<ref name="Spooner"/>
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| Neck gaiters and balaclavas || Washable, reusable. || Synthetic fabric, which is often used, isn't as effective as cotton in preventing the spread of small particles. Moreover, neck gaiters made of synthetic fleece can be harmful as they essentially aerosolize the wearer's respiratory droplets.<ref name="healthgrades.com"/> || [[File:Neck gaiter1.jpg|thumb|center|150px]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1940s || || " Only in the 1940s, washable and sterilizable masks gained acceptance in German and international surgery with only the number of gauze layers varying (2–3, 3–4)"<ref name="Fangerau"/> "With the introduction of antibiotics in the 194O’s, and their rapid acceptance as a means of controlling infection, interest in surgical masks decreased."<ref name="Spooner"/>
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| Store-bought cloth mask || High quality masks could be 80-95 percent protective.<ref name="healthgrades.com"/> Washable, reusable. || Low-quality masks made of very thin materials could still be 10-20 percent protective.<ref name="healthgrades.com"/> || [[File:Protective masks vending machine in Karviná (April 2020) 05.jpg|thumb|center|150px|Protective masks vending machine in Karviná, Czech Republic]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1950s || || "In the late 50s there was renewed interest in surgical masks that would effectively protect the patient’s open wound from the discharge of pathogens from the mouth and nose of operating room personnel."<ref name="Spooner"/> "Asians, especially in Japan, China and Taiwan, have worn masks for a host of cultural and environmental reasons, including non-medical ones, since at least the 1950s."<ref name="voanews.comrr">{{cite web |title=Not Just Coronavirus: Asians Have Worn Face Masks for Decades |url=https://www.voanews.com/science-health/coronavirus-outbreak/not-just-coronavirus-asians-have-worn-face-masks-decades |website=voanews.com |accessdate=17 September 2020}}</ref>     
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| Disposable surgical mask || Diligent wearing in public spaces can significantly reduce the spread of respiratory infection.<ref name="healthgrades.com"/> || Not reusable.<ref name="atriumhealth.org"/> || [[File:Surgical face mask.jpg|thumb|center|150px]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1960s || || "Beginning in the mid-1960s, the use of disposable items made of paper and fleece was introduced all over the world after this was started in the USA."<ref name="Fangerau"/> "Moderns disposable masks grew in popularity in the 1960s"<ref name="gizmodo.coms"/>
+
| N95 respirator || It offers the most protection against {{w|COVID 2019}} and other respiratory diseases. Reduces droplet transmission to less than 0.1 per cent.<ref name="economictimes.indiatimes.com"/> || It can't be washed.<ref name="atriumhealth.org">{{cite web |title=Your Guide to the Different Types of Face Masks and How to Care for Them |url=https://atriumhealth.org/dailydose/2020/08/04/your-guide-to-the-different-types-of-face-masks-and-how-to-care-for-them |website=atriumhealth.org |access-date=1 December 2020}}</ref> || [[File:Mascarilla N95.jpg|thumb|center|150px]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1980s || || "In the 1980s, when the hay fever mask became common in Japanese society, flu masks gradually reappeared."<ref name="Mitsutoshi"/>
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| KN95 respirator || Similarly to N95 masks, it captures about 95% of tiny particles in the air.<ref name="qualitylogoproducts.com">{{cite web |title=What Are the Different Types of Face Masks & Which One is Recommended? |url=https://www.qualitylogoproducts.com/blog/different-types-of-face-masks/ |website=qualitylogoproducts.com |access-date=28 November 2020}}</ref> || Not reusable.<ref name="atriumhealth.org"/> || [[File:Corona Face mask KN95 (50576539878).jpg|thumb|center|150px]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1990s || || "N95 respirators were used in industrial applications for decades before the need for a respirator circled back to clinical settings in the 1990s with the rise of drug-resistant tuberculosis."<ref name="fastcompany.comsssa"/>
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| Face shield || It protects the entire face. || Droplets can disperse over a wide area in both lateral and longitudinal directions. Aerosol-sized droplet particles from coughs or sneezes escape from the gaps in the bottom and on the sides of the shield.<ref>{{cite web |title=The Pros and Cons of Face Shields |url=https://www.aarp.org/health/conditions-treatments/info-2020/face-shields-pros-cons.html#:~:text=One%20of%20the%20benefits%20of,germs%20to%20enter%20the%20body. |website=aarp.org |access-date=1 December 2020}}</ref> || [[File:Face shield and denim mask.jpg|thumb|center|150px|Face shield and denim mask]]
|-
 
| 2020s || || "Experts continue to debate the effectiveness of face masks in preventing the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Not only do policies, laws, and practical considerations (such as the national supply of masks and how to prioritize them) vary from region to region, people’s attitudes toward face masks may also reflect their cultural values and history."<ref>{{cite web |title=Faced With Face Masks: A Brief Discussion of Current Challenges |url=https://www.naspa.org/blog/faced-with-face-masks-a-brief-discussion-of-current-challenges |website=naspa.org |accessdate=13 September 2020}}</ref>
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 +
== Visual data ==
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 +
=== Wikipedia views ===
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 +
The image shows pageviews of the English Wikipedia page {{w|Face mask}} from July 2015 to November 2020. See how pageviews increased dramatically since the beginning of the {{w|COVID-19 pandemic}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Face mask Wikipedia views |url=https://wikipediaviews.org/displayviewsformultiplemonths.php?page=Face+mask&allmonths=allmonths-api&language=en&drilldown=all |website=wikipediaviews.org |access-date=8 December 2020}}</ref>
 +
[[File:Face mask Wikipedia views.png|thumb|center|500px]]
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=== Google Trends ===
 +
 +
The image below shows Google Trends data for "Face mask" (topic), from January 2004 to December 2020. The image also shows interest by country, with higher values in darker blue.<ref>{{cite web |title=Face mask |url=https://trends.google.com/trends/explore?date=all&q=%2Fm%2F0hzqk8z |website=trends.google.com |access-date=8 December 2020}}</ref>
 +
[[File:Face mask Google Trends.png|thumb|center|1000px]]
 +
 +
 +
The image below shows Google Trends data for "Cloth face mask" (topic), from January 2004 to December 2020. The image also shows interest by country, with higher values in darker blue.<ref>{{cite web |title=Cloth face mask |url=https://trends.google.com/trends/explore?date=all&q=%2Fg%2F11jflz9v3_ |website=trends.google.com |access-date=8 December 2020}}</ref>
 +
[[File:Cloth face mask Google Trends.png|thumb|center|1000px]]
 +
  
 
==Full timeline==
 
==Full timeline==
Line 55: Line 99:
 
! Year !! Targeted hazard !! Event type !! Details !! Location  
 
! Year !! Targeted hazard !! Event type !! Details !! Location  
 
|-
 
|-
| 9000 [[w:Before Present|BP]] || || || Early well-documented masks are found in the {{w|Judaean Desert}}.<ref name="sapiens.orgss">{{cite web |title=The Masked Man |url=https://www.sapiens.org/column/curiosities/history-of-masks/ |website=sapiens.org |accessdate=11 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Middle East}}
+
| 9000 [[w:Before Present|BP]] || || Early use || Early well-documented masks are found in the {{w|Judaean Desert}}.<ref name="sapiens.orgss">{{cite web |title=The Masked Man |url=https://www.sapiens.org/column/curiosities/history-of-masks/ |website=sapiens.org |accessdate=11 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Middle East}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 69 BC–30 BC || || || {{w|Cleopatra VII Philopator}} is famous for using several different combinations to create "the ultimate face masks".<ref name="History of the face mask">{{cite web |title=History of the face mask |url=https://www.slideshare.net/emma_webber/history-of-the-face-mask |website=slideshare.net |accessdate=17 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Egypt}}
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| 69 BC–30 BC || || Early use || {{w|Cleopatra VII Philopator}} is famous for using several different combinations to create "the ultimate face masks".<ref name="History of the face mask">{{cite web |title=History of the face mask |url=https://www.slideshare.net/emma_webber/history-of-the-face-mask |website=slideshare.net |accessdate=17 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Egypt}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 619 || || || The invention of the "beak doctor" costume is attributed to {{w|Charles de Lorme}}, who adopts the idea of a full head-to-toe protective garment,<ref name="Boeckl15">Boeckl, p. 15</ref> modeled after a soldier's canvas gown which goes from the neck to the ankle.<ref name="Boeckl15"/><ref>{{Citation
+
| 1619 || {{w|Plague}} || Early use || The invention of the "beak doctor" costume used against the plague is attributed to {{w|Charles de Lorme}}, who adopts the idea of a full head-to-toe protective garment,<ref name="Boeckl15">Boeckl, p. 15</ref> modeled after a soldier's canvas gown which goes from the neck to the ankle.<ref name="Boeckl15"/><ref>{{Citation
 
| last = Carmichael
 
| last = Carmichael
 
| first = A.G.
 
| first = A.G.
Line 77: Line 121:
 
* Hirts, p. 66
 
* Hirts, p. 66
 
* Reynolds, p. 23</ref> The garment is impregnated with similar fragrant items as the beak mask.<ref>Time-Life Books, p. 158 ''Beak Doctor: during the Black Plague, a medical man who wore a bird mask to protect himself against infection.''
 
* Reynolds, p. 23</ref> The garment is impregnated with similar fragrant items as the beak mask.<ref>Time-Life Books, p. 158 ''Beak Doctor: during the Black Plague, a medical man who wore a bird mask to protect himself against infection.''
Black plague definition: ''In 14th-century Europe, the victims of the "black plague" had bleeding below the skin (subcutaneous hemorrhage) which made darkened ("blackened") their bodies. Black plague can lead to "black death" characterized by gangrene of the fingers, toes, and nose. Black plague is caused by a bacterium (Yersinia pestis) which is transmitted to humans from infected rats by the oriental rat flea..'' medterm.com</ref> || {{w|France}} || [[File:Medico peste.jpg|thumb|center|200px|Plague doctor outfit from Germany (17th century).]]
+
Black plague definition: ''In 14th-century Europe, the victims of the "black plague" had bleeding below the skin (subcutaneous hemorrhage) which made darkened ("blackened") their bodies. Black plague can lead to "black death" characterized by gangrene of the fingers, toes, and nose. Black plague is caused by a bacterium (Yersinia pestis) which is transmitted to humans from infected rats by the oriental rat flea..'' medterm.com</ref> || {{w|France}} || [[File:Medico peste.jpg|thumb|center|150px|Plague doctor outfit from Germany (17th century).]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1720 || || || Paintings from {{w|Marseille}} during the [[w:Great Plague of Marseille|last major outbreak of bubonic plague in western Europe]] show gravediggers and people handling bodies with cloth around their faces.<ref name="fastcompany.comsssa"/> || {{w|France}}
+
| 1720 || {{w|Plague}} || Early use || Paintings from {{w|Marseille}} during the [[w:Great Plague of Marseille|last major outbreak of bubonic plague in western Europe]] show gravediggers and people handling bodies with cloth around their faces.<ref name="fastcompany.comsssa"/> || {{w|France}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1827 || || || Scottish scientist [[w:Robert Brown (botanist, born 1773)|Robert Brown]] discovers the later called "{{w|Brownian motion}}" which theoretically proves the protective effect of masks on dust.<ref name="globaltimes.cn"/> ". In 1827, the Scottish botanist Robert Brown discovered the phenomenon known as the Brownian movement – the theory that collisions of rapidly moving gas molecules causes the random bouncing motion of extremely small particles. Understanding the behavior of small particles, the properties of filter media and their interactions led to the first particulate respirator."<ref name="cdc.govi"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 1827 || || Research || Scottish scientist [[w:Robert Brown (botanist, born 1773)|Robert Brown]] discovers the later called "{{w|Brownian motion}}" which theoretically proves the protective effect of masks on dust.<ref name="globaltimes.cn"/> The theory states that collisions of rapidly moving gas molecules causes the random bouncing motion of extremely small particles. This understanding would lead to the development of the first particulate respirator.<ref name="cdc.govi"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1848 || Mining pollution || || Lewis Hassley in the United States develops a mask for miners, obtaining the first patent for a protective mask.<ref name="globaltimes.cn"/><ref name="globaltimes.cn"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1848 || Mining pollution || Model introduction || Lewis Hassley in the United States develops a mask for miners, obtaining the first patent for a protective mask.<ref name="globaltimes.cn"/><ref name="globaltimes.cn"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1861 || || || French scientist {{w|Louis Pasteur}} proves the presence of {{w|bacteria}} in the air. This makes more people pay attention to the design of modern masks.<ref name="globaltimes.cn"/> || {{w|France}}
+
| 1861 || {{w|Bacteria}} || Research || French scientist {{w|Louis Pasteur}} proves the presence of {{w|bacteria}} in the air. This makes more people pay attention to the design of modern masks.<ref name="globaltimes.cn"/> || {{w|France}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1877 || || || The Nealy Smoke Mask is invented and patented in {{w|England}}. It users a series of water-saturated sponges and a bag of water attached to a neck strap. The wearer could squeeze the bag of water to re-saturate the sponges to filter out some of the smoke.<ref name="cdc.govi"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 1877 || Smoke || Model introduction || The Nealy Smoke Mask is invented and patented in {{w|England}} as the first filter type firefighter protective apparatus.<ref name="cdc.govi"/><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Spelce |first1=David |last2=Rehak |first2=Timothy R |last3=Metzler |first3=Richard W. |last4=Johnson |first4=James S. |title=Pre-World War I Firefighter Respirators and the U.S. Bureau of Mines Involvement in WWI|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278273/}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1879 || || || One of the first domestically produced masks is advertised in newspapers in Japan.<ref name="japantimes.co.jp">{{cite web |title=The history behind Japan’s love of face masks |url=https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2020/07/04/national/science-health/japans-history-wearing-masks-coronavirus/ |website=japantimes.co.jp |accessdate=10 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Japan}}
+
| 1879 || || General use || One of the first domestically produced masks is advertised in newspapers in Japan.<ref name="japantimes.co.jp">{{cite web |title=The history behind Japan’s love of face masks |url=https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2020/07/04/national/science-health/japans-history-wearing-masks-coronavirus/ |website=japantimes.co.jp |accessdate=10 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Japan}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1895 || Noxious fumes || || Henrot suggests equipping the privates in Madagascar with face masks to protect them from noxious fumes. By this time this idea is considered comical if not downright ridiculous.<ref name="newseye.euv"/> || {{w|Madagascar}}
+
| 1895 || Noxious fumes || Recommendation || Henrot suggests equipping the privates in Madagascar with face masks to protect them from noxious fumes. By this time this idea is considered comical if not downright ridiculous.<ref name="newseye.euv"/> || {{w|Madagascar}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1897 || || || Polish surgeon {{w|Jan Mikulicz-Radecki}} describes a surgical mask composed on one layer of gauze.<ref name="History of Surgical Face Masks">{{cite journal |last1=Spooner |first1=John L. |title=History of Surgical Face Masks |doi=10.1016/S0001-2092(08)71359-0 |url=Johann Von Mikulicz Radecki describes a surgical mask composed on one layer of gauze.}}</ref> The practice of using face masks is considered to be introduced by him.<ref name="bloomberg.comss"/> || {{w|Poland}} || [[File:Jan Mikulicz-Radecki (c. 1878).jpg|thumb|center|150px|Jan Mikulicz-Radecki]]
+
| 1897 || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || Model introduction || Polish surgeon {{w|Jan Mikulicz-Radecki}} describes a surgical mask composed on one layer of gauze.<ref name="History of Surgical Face Masks">{{cite journal |last1=Spooner |first1=John L. |title=History of Surgical Face Masks |doi=10.1016/S0001-2092(08)71359-0 |url=https://aornjournal.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1016/S0001-2092%2808%2971359-0}}</ref> The practice of using face masks is considered to be introduced by him.<ref name="bloomberg.comss"/> || {{w|Poland}} || [[File:Jan Mikulicz-Radecki (c. 1878).jpg|thumb|center|150px|Jan Mikulicz-Radecki]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1897 || || || German hygienist {{w|Carl Flügge}} publishes his works on the development of droplet infections as part of his research on tuberculosis.<ref name="Fangerau"/> Flügge, along with {{w|Jan Mikulicz-Radecki}}, suggest the idea of a facemask after having demonstrated the presence of bacterial droplets from the nose and mouth.<ref name="Aschenbrenner">{{cite journal |last1=Adams |first1=Lu Wang |last2=Aschenbrenner |first2=Carol A. |last3=Houle |first3=Timothy T. |last4=Roy |first4=Raymond C. |title=Uncovering the History of Operating Room Attire through Photographs |doi=10.1097/ALN.0000000000000932 |url=https://pubs.asahq.org/anesthesiology/article/124/1/19/14254/Uncovering-the-History-of-Operating-Room-Attire}}</ref><ref name="Fangerau"/> || {{w|Germany}} || [[File:Carl Flügge c1906.jpg|thumb|center|150px|Carl Flügge]]
+
| 1897 || {{w|Tuberculosis}} || Research || German hygienist {{w|Carl Flügge}} publishes his works on the development of droplet infections as part of his research on tuberculosis.<ref name="Fangerau"/> Flügge, along with {{w|Jan Mikulicz-Radecki}}, suggest the idea of a facemask after having demonstrated the presence of bacterial droplets from the nose and mouth.<ref name="Aschenbrenner">{{cite journal |last1=Adams |first1=Lu Wang |last2=Aschenbrenner |first2=Carol A. |last3=Houle |first3=Timothy T. |last4=Roy |first4=Raymond C. |title=Uncovering the History of Operating Room Attire through Photographs |doi=10.1097/ALN.0000000000000932 |url=https://pubs.asahq.org/anesthesiology/article/124/1/19/14254/Uncovering-the-History-of-Operating-Room-Attire}}</ref><ref name="Fangerau"/> || {{w|Germany}} || [[File:Carl Flügge c1906.jpg|thumb|center|150px|Carl Flügge]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1897 || || Medical use || Doctors start wearing early surgical masks.<ref name="fastcompany.comsssa">{{cite web |last1= |title=The untold origin story of the N95 mask |url=https://www.fastcompany.com/90479846/the-untold-origin-story-of-the-n95-mask#:~:text=By%20the%201970s%2C%20the%20Bureau,approved%20on%20May%2025%2C%201972. |website=fastcompany.com |accessdate=12 September 2020}}</ref> ||
+
| 1897 || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || Hospital use || Doctors start wearing early surgical masks.<ref name="fastcompany.comsssa">{{cite web |last1= |title=The untold origin story of the N95 mask |url=https://www.fastcompany.com/90479846/the-untold-origin-story-of-the-n95-mask#:~:text=By%20the%201970s%2C%20the%20Bureau,approved%20on%20May%2025%2C%201972. |website=fastcompany.com |accessdate=12 September 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1898 || || Medical use || Huebner recommends masks made of two layers of gauze, worn at a distance from the nose, to be used during operations.<ref name="History of Surgical Face Masks"/> ||
+
| 1898 || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || Hospital use || Huebner recommends masks made of two layers of gauze, worn at a distance from the nose, to be used during operations.<ref name="History of Surgical Face Masks"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1899 || || Mask development || A French doctor develops a mask made of six layers of gauze and sews it on the collar of a surgical gown. The user only needs to flip the collar up when using it. It would gradually evolve into a form that could be freely tied and hung on the ears with a looped strap, thus giving birth to the modern mask.<ref name="globaltimes.cn"/> || {{w|France}}
+
| 1899 || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || Model introduction || A French doctor develops a mask made of six layers of gauze and sews it on the collar of a surgical gown. The user only needs to flip the collar up when using it. It would gradually evolve into a form that could be freely tied and hung on the ears with a looped strap, thus giving birth to the modern mask.<ref name="globaltimes.cn"/> || {{w|France}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1905 || || || "Hamilton proposes that scarlet fever is transmitted through droplet infection. She recommends that masks be worn by nurses handling sterile dressings and by doctors during surgery because of the danger of droplet infection from the mouth and nose."<ref name="History of Surgical Face Masks"/> "In 1905, Chicago physician Alice Hamilton publishes an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association, reporting on experiments measuring the amount of streptococci bacteria expelled when scarlet fever patients cough or cry. She also measures the strep bacteria from healthy doctors and nurses when they talk or cough, leading her to recommend masks during surgery."<ref name="bloomberg.comss">{{cite web |title=Pandemics Come and Go But Medical Masks Are Eternal |url=https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2020-04-10/medical-face-masks-an-illustrated-history |website=bloomberg.com |accessdate=11 September 2020}}</ref> "  Hamilton,10  in 1905, found heavy droplet contamination from surgeons’ mouths and noses during talking"<ref name="Aschenbrenner"/> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Alice Hamilton1.jpg|thumb|center|150px|Alice Hamilton in 1893]]
+
| 1905 || {{w|Scarlet fever}} || Research || American physician {{w|Alice Hamilton}} publishes an article proposing that {{w|scarlet fever}} is transmitted through droplet infection, thus recommends that masks be worn in hospitals.<ref name="History of Surgical Face Masks"/> <ref name="bloomberg.comss">{{cite web |title=Pandemics Come and Go But Medical Masks Are Eternal |url=https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2020-04-10/medical-face-masks-an-illustrated-history |website=bloomberg.com |accessdate=11 September 2020}}</ref><ref name="Aschenbrenner"/> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Alice Hamilton1.jpg|thumb|center|150px|Alice Hamilton in 1893]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1910 || || Medical use || The application of face covers starts becoming common in surgery and the general hospitals.<ref name="Fangerau"/> ||
+
| 1910 || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || Hospital use || The application of face covers starts becoming common in surgery and the general hospitals.<ref name="Fangerau"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1910 || {{w|Pneumonic plague}} || || "In 1910, an epidemic of pneumonic plague strikes Manchuria. Appointed by the Chinese court to head anti-plague efforts, the Penang-born, Cambridge-educated physician Wu Lien-Teh (Wu Liande) argues that the disease is transmitted through airborne contact. To prevent its spread, he develops masks to be worn by medical personnel and the general public."<ref name="bloomberg.comss"/> "The practice of wearing face-masks to prevent disease can be dated back to the 1910-11 Manchurian epidemic in China. It was Wu Lien-teh, a Cambridge educated Chinese doctor who described the mask as a ​‘prophylactic apparatus’ that could be worn by all to protect themselves from the plague. "<ref name="indiabioscience.orges">{{cite web |title=The history and science of mask-wearing |url=https://indiabioscience.org/columns/general-science/the-history-and-science-of-mask-wearing |website=indiabioscience.org |accessdate=12 September 2020}}</ref> ". China has had an ethic of wearing masks during public-health emergencies since the outbreak of the pneumonic plague in 1910"<ref name="theatlantic.comdsa">{{cite web |title=Face Masks Are In |url=https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2020/04/america-asia-face-mask-coronavirus/609283/ |website=theatlantic.com |accessdate=13 September 2020}}</ref> "Those masks widely adopted by public health officials in Manchuria in 1910 left no special impression on the region afterwards"<ref name="We share what we exhale">{{cite web |title=We share what we exhale |url=https://www.the-tls.co.uk/articles/a-short-cultural-history-of-mask-wearing-essay-jordan-sand/ |website=the-tls.co.uk |accessdate=17 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|China}} || [[File:Plague Workers Mukden, Manchuria, 1882-ca. 1936 (imp-cswc-GB-237-CSWC47-LS8-045).jpg|thumb|center|200px|Plague workers in {{w|personal protective equipment}}]]
+
| 1910 || {{w|Pneumonic plague}} || General use || During an epidemic of pneumonic plague in {{w|Manchuria}}, Malaysian physician Wu Lien-teh argues that the disease is transmitted through airborne contact, and develops masks to be worn by medical personnel and the general public.<ref name="bloomberg.comss"/><ref name="indiabioscience.orges">{{cite web |title=The history and science of mask-wearing |url=https://indiabioscience.org/columns/general-science/the-history-and-science-of-mask-wearing |website=indiabioscience.org |accessdate=12 September 2020}}</ref> This marks the beginning of an ethic of wearing masks in China during public-health emergencies.<ref name="theatlantic.comdsa">{{cite web |title=Face Masks Are In |url=https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2020/04/america-asia-face-mask-coronavirus/609283/ |website=theatlantic.com |accessdate=13 September 2020}}</ref><ref name="We share what we exhale">{{cite web |title=We share what we exhale |url=https://www.the-tls.co.uk/articles/a-short-cultural-history-of-mask-wearing-essay-jordan-sand/ |website=the-tls.co.uk |accessdate=17 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|China}} || [[File:Plague Workers Mukden, Manchuria, 1882-ca. 1936 (imp-cswc-GB-237-CSWC47-LS8-045).jpg|thumb|center|200px|Plague workers in {{w|personal protective equipment}}]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1915 || Infantile paralysis || Hospital use || Meltzer recommends fine mesh gauze masks to cover the faces of patients with infantile paralysis and the faces of personnel attending them.<ref name="History of Surgical Face Masks"/> ||
 
| 1915 || Infantile paralysis || Hospital use || Meltzer recommends fine mesh gauze masks to cover the faces of patients with infantile paralysis and the faces of personnel attending them.<ref name="History of Surgical Face Masks"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1915 || || || An article in ''{{w|Le Temps}}'' describes:<blockquote>“A respiratory mask. — It was designed in 1868 by Dr Henrot to ward off the danger of contagion from certain infectious diseases via the airways – diphtheria, for example. It is comprised of a framework sealing in the nose and mouth, which is closed on the outside by two metal cloths between which cotton discs are placed. All the infectious germs remain attached to these discs and the air is thus rigorously filtered. A small, very simple and highly sensitive valve lets out the inhaled air. The whole of this small device is made of aluminium, so it is very light, and is easy to wear like spectacles.</blockquote><ref name="newseye.euv"/> || {{w|Switzerland}}
+
| 1917 || Dust || Model introduction || The first commercial dust respirator is invented.<ref name="Mitsutoshi">{{cite web |last1=Horii |first1=Mitsutoshi |title=Why Do the Japanese Wear Masks? |url=https://www.japanesestudies.org.uk/ejcjs/vol14/iss2/horii.html |website=japanesestudies.org.uk |accessdate=13 September 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1918 || {{w|Diphtheria}} || Hospital use || G. H. Weaver in {{w|Chicago}} reports that over a two-year period the incidence of {{w|diphtheria}} contracted by attendants of infected patients was reduced to zero after wearing masks of double thickness gauze.<ref name="History of Surgical Face Masks"/><ref name="Aschenbrenner"/><ref name="Bhartendua"/> || {{w|United States}}
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|-
 +
| 1918 || {{w|Influenza}} || General use || During the {{w|1918 flu pandemic}}, people again starts to wear face masks. However, while the practice whould endure in China due to continued outbreaks, it would be largely forgotten in the United States and other countries.<ref name="autodesk.comss">{{cite web |title=99% Invisible Podcast: History of Face Masks and the Power of PPE in Pandemics |url=https://www.autodesk.com/redshift/history-of-face-masks/ |website=autodesk.com |accessdate=11 September 2020}}</ref><ref name="We share what we exhale"/> || || [[File:1918 at Spanish Flu Ward Walter Reed (cropped).jpg|thumb|center|200px|A nurse wears a cloth mask while treating a patient in Washington, DC]]
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|-
 +
| 1918 || {{w|Influenza}} || Recommendation || The U.S. {{w|Academy of Medicine}} recommends that masks be worn to avoid the spread of flu among health staff.<ref name="newseye.euv"/> || {{w|United States}} 
 +
|-
 +
| 1918 || {{w|Influenza}} || Production || During the {{w|1918 flu pandemic}}, the {{w|Red Cross}} encourages women to sew masks.<ref name="sideeffectspublicmedia.orgu">{{cite web |title=COVID-19 Mask Makers Are Part Of A Larger History |url=https://www.sideeffectspublicmedia.org/post/covid-19-mask-makers-are-part-larger-history |website=sideeffectspublicmedia.org |accessdate=17 September 2020}}</ref> || || [[File:Spanish flu in 1918, Police officers in masks, Seattle Police Department detail, from- 165-WW-269B-25-police-l (cropped).jpg|thumb|center|200px|Seattle police wearing masks in December 1918]]
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|-
 +
| 1918 || {{w|Influenza}} || Anti-mask movement || After {{w|San Francisco}} enforces the wearing of masks during the {{w|1918 flu pandemic}}, the {{w|Anti-Mask League of San Francisco}} is formed as an anti-mask movement with the purpose to fight for the mask-wearing mandate to be repealed.<ref>{{cite web |title=Photos show how San Francisco had to convince its 'mask slackers' to wear masks after many defied the law while the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic seized the city |url=https://www.businessinsider.com/san-francisco-anti-mask-league-1918-spanish-flu-pandemic-2020-5 |website=businessinsider.com |accessdate=1 October 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=The Mask Slackers of 1918 |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2020/08/03/us/mask-protests-1918.html |website=nytimes.com |accessdate=1 October 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Detail, Co-op Cafeteria detail, Colleges and Universities - University of California - University of California, Berkeley, California. Open air barber shop during influenza epidemic - NARA - 26428662 (cropped).jpg|thumb|center|150px|Barbers wearing masks during the epidemic]]
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|-
 +
| 1918 || || Research || The first study producing a specification for surgical masks is published. This study finds extreme variations in the numbers of layers and quality of gauze of which masks are made, with researchers undertaking a series of tests to determine how many layers were needed to provide complete filtration.<ref name="SUTTON"/> ||
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|-
 +
| 1919 || Mining pollution || Model introduction || The {{w|United States Bureau of Mines}} initiates the first respirator certification program, and certifies the first respirator.<ref name="cdc.govi">{{cite web |title=100 Years of Respiratory Protection History |url=https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npptl/Respiratory-Protection-history.html |website=cdc.gov |accessdate=17 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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|-
 +
| 1919 || {{w|Influenza}} || Research || By the end of the {{w|1918 flu pandemic}}, most scientists and health commissions come to a consensus about the benefits of wearing masks.<ref name="fastcompany.comss">{{cite web |title=A brief history of people refusing to wear masks |url=https://www.fastcompany.com/90500617/a-brief-history-of-people-refusing-to-wear-masks |website=fastcompany.com |accessdate=17 September 2020}}</ref> || || [[File:1919FluVictimsTokyo.jpg|thumb|center|200px|1919 Tokyo, Japan]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1917 || || || The first commercial dust respirator is invented.<ref name="Mitsutoshi">{{cite web |last1=Horii |first1=Mitsutoshi |title=Why Do the Japanese Wear Masks? |url=https://www.japanesestudies.org.uk/ejcjs/vol14/iss2/horii.html |website=japanesestudies.org.uk |accessdate=13 September 2020}}</ref> ||
+
| 1920 || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || Hospital use || The use of masks becomes routine practice in the operating room.<ref name="Aschenbrenner"/> ||
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|-
 +
| 1920 || || Research || Kellogg and MacMillan undertake an array of tests on masks, and conclude that they have not been demonstrated to have a degree of efficiency that would warrant mandatory use.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Kellogg |first1=W. H. |last2=MacMillan |first2=Grace |title=AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE EFFICACY OF GAUZE FACE MASKS |url=https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/10.2105/AJPH.10.1.34 |website=ajph.aphapublications.org |accessdate=29 September 2020}}</ref><ref name="SUTTON"/> || {{w|United States}}
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|-
 +
| 1923 || Ash and smoke || General use || In the aftermath of the {{w|Great Kanto Earthquake}}, people in {{w|Tokyo}} and {{w|Yokohama}} wear masks to protect themselves from all of the ash and smoke. By this time, Kotobuki Mask by Uchiyama Takeshoten becomes the first registered trademark product.<ref name="Face Masks in Japan: 100 Years Running"/> || {{w|Japan}}
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|-
 +
| 1924 || {{w|Plague}} || General use || Gauze masks are used during the so-called second Manchurian plague epidemic.<ref name="adwww">{{cite web |title=Effectiveness of Cloth Masks for Protection Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 |url=https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/10/20-0948_article |website=cdc.gov |accessdate=29 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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|-
 +
| 1926 || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || Hospital use || A clinical study first demonstrates a potential link between wearing masks and reduced surgical site infection.<ref name="Aschenbrenner"/> The effectiveness of surgical masks on patient infection reduction is established by research.<ref name="dsdssds">{{cite journal |last1=Belkin |first1=Nathan L. |title=A century after their introduction, are surgical masks necessary? |doi=10.1016/S0001-2092(06)63628-4}}</ref> ||
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|-
 +
| 1927 || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || Hospital use || German surgeon {{w|Martin Kirschner}} describes the necessity of wearing a facemask in his multi-volume operational theory in the chapter ''Measures to combat infections''.<ref name="Fangerau"/> || {{w|Germany}}
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|-
 +
| 1927 || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || Research || American bacteriologist {{w|Edwin O. Jordan}} publishes his definitive study, which determines that masks are effective when worn by patients already sick or by those directly exposed to victims, including nurses and physicians. Jordan also acknowledges, however, that “masks are uncomfortable and inconvenient, as anyone who has worn them can testify” and require a great deal of “discipline, self-imposed or other.”<ref name="healthaffairs.orgrr">{{cite web |title=Flu Masks Failed In 1918, But We Need Them Now |url=https://www.healthaffairs.org/do/10.1377/hblog20200508.769108/full/ |website=healthaffairs.org |accessdate=17 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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|-
 +
| 1929 || {{w|Influenza}} || Hospital use || Professor Marchoux at the {{w|National Academy of Medicine}} recommends, particularly for doctors and hospital staff, wearing a light structure, hat veil or mask, in addition to spectacles, on the face, in order to protect against the projection of septic droplets from flu patients.<ref name="newseye.euv"/> || {{w|United States}}
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|-
 +
| 1929 || {{w|Meningitis}} || Recommendation || During a meningitis outbreak in China, the government encourages citizens to use masks and avoid public gatherings.<ref name="sixthtone.comt"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Epidemic Cerebrospinal Meningitis during the Cultural Revolution |url=https://journals.openedition.org/extremeorient/341?lang=en |website=journals.openedition.org |accessdate=27 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|China}}
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|-
 +
| 1930 || Surgical wound infection || Hospital use || Walker publishes data confirming the value of face masks in preventing infection of surgical wounds.<ref name="Spooner"/> ||
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|-
 +
| 1934 || {{w|Influenza}} || General use || An influenza epidemic in Japan triggers a different relationship with masks for the citizens, that of social courtesy. Infected people become conscientious about not passing on germs to others, and masks are no longer only worn by healthy individuals trying to avoid illness.<ref name="indiabioscience.orges"/> The Japanese government actively encourages its citizens to wear masks on public transportation, in theaters, and any other place people gather. This practice is reinforced to the point where those without a mask are sometimes barred from entry.<ref name="Face Masks in Japan: 100 Years Running"/> || {{w|Japan}}
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|-
 +
| 1935 || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || Literature || Face masks are mentioned in an edition of the book ''Assistance for operating staff''.<ref name="Fangerau"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1935 || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || Research || Study by Meleney further confirms the value of face masks in preventing infection of surgical wounds.<ref name="Spooner"/> ||
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|-
 +
| 1936 || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || Research || A study reports on the results of a nine-year prospective study suggesting that use of surgical masks could contribute to surgical wound infections.<ref name="dsdssds"/> ||
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|-
 +
| 1937 || Chemical and biological weapons || General use || During the {{w|Second Sino-Japanese War}}, face masks become essential protection against chemical and biological warfare.<ref name="sixthtone.comt">{{cite web |title=A Brief History of Face Masks in China |url=https://www.sixthtone.com/news/1005177/a-brief-history-of-face-masks-in-china |website=sixthtone.com |accessdate=18 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|China}}
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|-
 +
| 1937 || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || Research || Study by Hart and Davis confirms the value of face masks in preventing infection of surgical wounds.<ref name="Spooner"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1948 || Bacterial infection || Research || Study shows that large numbers of bacteria are liberated into the air from desquamated skin and clothing as a result of normal body activity, and that air in the operating room is contaminated more regularly and to a greater degree by the liberation of dust from clothing than by sneezing.<ref name="SUTTON"/> || 
 +
|-
 +
| 1948–1950 || {{w|Influenza}} || Research || After a period of decline since the end of the Spanish flu, the use of face masks quickly becomes common again during several major flu outbreaks around this time.<ref name="sciencenorway.no">{{cite web |title=Face masks: Why do different countries in the world have such different recommendations? |url=https://sciencenorway.no/cultural-history-disease-health/face-masks-why-do-different-countries-in-the-world-have-such-different-recommendations/1689385 |website=sciencenorway.no |accessdate=11 September 2020}}</ref> ||     
 +
|-
 +
| 1950 || {{w|Air pollution}} || Model introduction || White gauze masks are first produced in Japan, as well as simple cloth ones without a wire frame. Previously, early masks were black, brown or green, in order to disguise dirt or stains from repeated use. New white masks are not only a response to industrialization and its subsequent pollution, but also used to combat the pollen from Japanese cedars that thrive off of the extra carbon dioxide.<ref name="Face Masks in Japan: 100 Years Running"/> || {{w|Japan}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1956 || ''{{w|Staphylococcus aureus}}'' || Research || Hare confirms that ''{{w|staphylococcus aureus}}'' is carried in the anterior nares in 50% of the population, but finds it was generally only expelled from the nose during sneezing and snorting.<ref name="SUTTON">{{cite journal |last1=SKINNER |first1=M. W. |last2=SUTTON |first2=B. A. |title=Do Anaesthetists Need to Wear Surgical Masks in the Operating Theatre? A Literature Review with EvidenceBased Recommendations |url=https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0310057X0102900402}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1958 || || Research || Kiser and Hitchcock report on a mask that combines the deflection and filtration principles. This plastic mask diverts the flow of breath backward on either side. Filter material near the side outlets is designed to trap the deflected organisms.<ref name="Spooner"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1958 || || Research || Andersen develops a sampling chamber to collect airborne particles in several categories of decreasing particle size.<ref name="Spooner"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1959 || || Research || Adam evaluates a fitted filter mask and finds it more efficient than gauze masks.<ref name="Spooner"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1959 || Nasal bacteria || Research || Shooter finds that few, if any, nasal bacteria are expelled into the air during quiet breathing, despite heavy nasal colonization.<ref name="SUTTON"/> || 
 
|-  
 
|-  
| 1918 || {{w|Diphtheria}} || Hospital use || Weaver reports that over a two-year period the incidence of diphtheria contracted by attendants of infected patients was reduced to zero after wearing masks of double thickness gauze.<ref name="History of Surgical Face Masks"/> "In 1918, Weaver11  reported a decreased incidence of diphtheria contracted by healthcare providers from infected patients when masks were worn. "<ref name="Aschenbrenner"/> ||
+
| 1960 || || Research || Rockwood and O’Donoghuelg report that the length of time a filter mask retains its efficiency is three hours, confirming the inefficiency of absorbing gauze masks, and stressing the fact that the proper use of the best mask available could prevent infection.<ref name="Spooner"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1961 || Bacterial pathogens || Model introduction || Musselman reports on a mask designed to be used only once and then discarded. The mask incorporates a filter in a plastic shell that is shaped to fit the face. An elastic band secures it in place. Excellent bacterial filtration is reported.<ref name="Spooner"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1961 || Dust || Model introduction || {{w|3M}} releases a “bubble” surgical mask that takes its inspiration from the cup of a bra. When 3M learns it can’t block pathogens, the mask is re-branded as a “dust” mask."<ref name="fastcompany.comsssa"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1918 || {{w|Influenza}} || || During the {{w|1918 flu pandemic}}, people again starts to wear face masks. However, while the practice whould endure in China due to continued outbreaks, it would be largely forgotten in the United States and other countries.<ref name="autodesk.comss">{{cite web |title=99% Invisible Podcast: History of Face Masks and the Power of PPE in Pandemics |url=https://www.autodesk.com/redshift/history-of-face-masks/ |website=autodesk.com |accessdate=11 September 2020}}</ref><ref name="We share what we exhale"/> || || [[File:1918 at Spanish Flu Ward Walter Reed (cropped).jpg|thumb|center|200px|A nurse wears a cloth mask while treating a patient in Washington, DC]]
+
| 1962 || Hospital acquired bacterial infection || Research || Davis shows that [[w:Desquamation|desquamated skin]], not expelled particulate matter, is the source of most common bacteria dispersed into the air of hospital wards.<ref name="SUTTON"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1918 || {{w|Influenza}} || || The U.S. {{w|Academy of Medicine}} recommends that masks be worn to avoid the spread of flu among health staff.<ref name="newseye.euv"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1966–1968 || {{w|Influenza}} || General use || The use of face masks in Japan becomes even more common during several major flu outbreaks happening around this time.<ref name="sciencenorway.no"/> || {{w|Japan}}    
 
|-
 
|-
| 1918 || {{w|Influenza}} || || During the {{w|1918 flu pandemic}}, the {{w|Red Cross}} encourages women to sew masks.<ref name="sideeffectspublicmedia.orgu">{{cite web |title=COVID-19 Mask Makers Are Part Of A Larger History |url=https://www.sideeffectspublicmedia.org/post/covid-19-mask-makers-are-part-larger-history |website=sideeffectspublicmedia.org |accessdate=17 September 2020}}</ref> || || [[File:Spanish flu in 1918, Police officers in masks, Seattle Police Department detail, from- 165-WW-269B-25-police-l (cropped).jpg|thumb|center|200px|Seattle police wearing masks in December 1918]]
+
| 1967 || || Model introduction || The {{w|3M}} mask starts being produced by the {{w|Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company}}.<ref name="globaltimes.cn"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1918 || {{w|Influenza}} || Anti-mask movement || {{w|Anti-Mask League of San Francisco}} || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Detail, Co-op Cafeteria detail, Colleges and Universities - University of California - University of California, Berkeley, California. Open air barber shop during influenza epidemic - NARA - 26428662 (cropped).jpg|thumb|center|150px|Barbers wearing masks during the epidemic]]
+
| 1972 || || Model introduction || {{w|3M}} introduces the first single use [[w:N95 mask|N95]] respirator mask.<ref name="gizmodo.coms"/><ref name="Bhartendua"/> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Mascarilla N95.jpg|thumb|center|150px|N95 respirator]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1919 || || || The {{w|United States Bureau of Mines}} initiates the first respirator certification program, and certifies the first respirator.<ref name="cdc.govi">{{cite web |title=100 Years of Respiratory Protection History |url=https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npptl/Respiratory-Protection-history.html |website=cdc.gov |accessdate=17 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1973 || || Model introduction || The pleated design made of non-woven fabric is introduced.<ref name="Face Masks in Japan: 100 Years Running"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1919 || || || By the end of the {{w|1918 flu pandemic}}, most scientists and health commissions come to a consensus about the benefits of wearing masks.<ref name="fastcompany.comss">{{cite web |title=A brief history of people refusing to wear masks |url=https://www.fastcompany.com/90500617/a-brief-history-of-people-refusing-to-wear-masks |website=fastcompany.com |accessdate=17 September 2020}}</ref> || || [[File:1919FluVictimsTokyo.jpg|thumb|center|200px|1919 Tokyo, Japan]]
+
| 1975 || || Research || A study by Ritter shows that, although surgical masks do not contain airborne contaminants, they act to deflect the droplets out of the sides of the mask when the wearer talks or breaths.<ref name="SUTTON"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1920 || || Hospital use || The use of masks becomes routine practice in the operating room.<ref name="Aschenbrenner"/> ||
+
| 1976 || Microbial infection || Research || Study on the effect of surgical mask movement on facial areas (eg, under the chin, eyes, nose) concludes that the dissemination of skin bacteria could be attributable to the friction (ie, wiggling) that occurs between surgical masks and these areas of microbial skin contamination during talking.<ref name="dsdssds"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1926 || || Hospital use || A clinical study first demonstrates a potential link between wearing masks and reduced surgical site infection.<ref name="Aschenbrenner"/> ||
+
| 1981 || Surgical wound infection || Research || A study on the influence of surgical masks on the risk of surgical wound infections concludes that wearing surgical masks "have little relevance to the well-being of patients undergoing routine general surgical procedures and that wearing surgical masks could be abandoned as a standard of practice."<ref name="dsdssds"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1927 || || Hospital use || German surgeon {{w|Martin Kirschner}} describes the necessity of wearing a facemask in his multi-volume operational theory in the chapter ''Measures to combat infections''.<ref name="Fangerau"/> || {{w|Germany}}
+
| 1981 || || Research || A study is conducted to determine whether the wearing of surgical masks influences the risk of surgical wound infections. In this study, no surgical masks are worn by surgical staff in the operating room. A total of 1,049 surgical procedures with skin incisions are performed, and a surgical wound infection rate of 1.8% is identified. This rate is significantly lower than that experienced before the trial commenced (P<0.05). It is concluded that the standard practice of wearing surgical masks could be abandoned.<ref name="SUTTON"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1927 || || || American bacteriologist {{w|Edwin O. Jordan}} publishes his definitive study, which determines that masks are effective when worn by patients already sick or by those directly exposed to victims, including nurses and physicians. Jordan also acknowledges, however, that “masks are uncomfortable and inconvenient, as anyone who has worn them can testify” and require a great deal of “discipline, self-imposed or other.<ref name="healthaffairs.orgrr">{{cite web |title=Flu Masks Failed In 1918, But We Need Them Now |url=https://www.healthaffairs.org/do/10.1377/hblog20200508.769108/full/ |website=healthaffairs.org |accessdate=17 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1984 || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || Research || Researchers conduct a randomly controlled trial on women having gynaecological surgery. Women are randomly allocated to lists staffed entirely by masked or unmasked teams. The trial is discontinued within a week after the third case of postoperative infection in the unmasked group, representing three out of five patients, whereas none of four patients develop infections in the masked group.<ref name="SUTTON"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1929 || || || ""At the Academy of Medicine’s session yesterday, the knowledgeable Professor Marchoux made an announcement of the greatest interest and relevance today; he recommends, particularly for doctors and hospital staff, wearing a light structure, hat veil or mask, in addition to spectacles, on the face, so as to protect against the projection of septic droplets when flu patients under treatment sneeze, cough or speak.” (Le Journal, 13 February 1929)"<ref name="newseye.euv"/> ||
+
| 1984 || Wound infection || Research || A study on wounds sutured in an emergency department notes that there is no significant difference in infection rates whether or not masks were worn.<ref name="SUTTON"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1929 || {{w|Meningitis}} || || During a meningitis outbreak in China, the government encourages citizens to use masks and avoid public gatherings.<ref name="sixthtone.comt"/> || {{w|China}}
+
| 1987 || || Research || Researchers show that even when masks are worn correctly, the airflow during inhalation could bypass the mask material, resulting in reduced filtering efficacy and an increased health risk for dental operators.<ref name="Efficacyvv">{{cite journal |last1=CHECCHI |first1=LUIGI |last2=MONTEVECCHI |first2=MARCO |last3=MORESCHI |first3=ANNALISA |last4=GRAZIOSI |first4=FRANCESCA |last5=TADDEI |first5=PAOLA |last6=VIOLANTE |first6=FRANCESCO SAVERIO |title=Efficacy of three face masks in preventing inhalation of airborne contaminants in dental practice |doi=10.14219/jada.archive.2005.0288 |pmid=16060468 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7093848/}}</ref> || 
 
|-
 
|-
| 1930 || || || Walker publishes data confirming the value of face masks in preventing infection of surgical wounds.<ref name="Spooner"/> ||
+
| 1989 || || Research || Research shows no increase in the cases of infection following {{w|cardiac catheterization}} procedures when caps and masks were not worn.<ref name="SUTTON"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1934 || || || An influenza epidemic in Japan triggers a different relationship with masks for the citizens, that of social courtesy. Infected people become conscientious about not passing on germs to others, and masks are no longer only worn by healthy individuals trying to avoid illness.<ref name="indiabioscience.orges"/> || {{w|Japan}}
+
| 1991 || || Research || A study on the effectiveness of surgical masks concludes that operating room staff not immediately in the vicinity of the surgical site do not pose an infection hazard, and that it is not necessary for these staff to wear surgical masks.<ref name="SUTTON"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1935 || || || Facemasks are mentioned in an edition of the book ''Assistance for operating staff''.<ref name="Fangerau"/> ||  
+
| 1991 || || Research || An article by Wildsmith claims that masks should be worn when spinal or extradural anaesthesia is performed. He comments on the importance of the mask, stating that “the anterior nares and mouth are relatively close to, and usually immediately above, the sterile field” in such procedures.<ref name="SUTTON"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1935 || || || Study by Meleney further confirms the value of face masks in preventing infection of surgical wounds.<ref name="Spooner"/> ||  
+
| 1991 || || Research || A study looking at the correlation between surgical masks and the incidence of postoperative wound infection finds that surgical procedures performed with masks have a surgical wound infection rate of 4.7% (3.7 to 5.8%, 95% confidence limit), whereas surgical procedures performed without masks have a surgical wound infection rate of 3.5% (2.6 to 4.5%). The bacterial culture from both groups is found to be similar.<ref name="SUTTON"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1937 || || || During the {{w|Second Sino-Japanese War}}, face masks become essential protection against chemical and biological warfare.<ref name="sixthtone.comt">{{cite web |title=A Brief History of Face Masks in China |url=https://www.sixthtone.com/news/1005177/a-brief-history-of-face-masks-in-china |website=sixthtone.com |accessdate=18 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|China}}
+
| 1992 || || Research || A study on the effectiveness of surgical face masks in reducing bacterial surface contamination produced by dispersal of organisms from the upper airway finds that the unmasked group shows a statistically significant increase in the number of microbial colonies.<ref name="SUTTON"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1937 || || || Study by Hart and Davis confirms the value of face masks in preventing infection of surgical wounds.<ref name="Spooner"/> ||
+
| 1992 || Aerobic and anaerobic skin bacteria || Research || A study by Tunevall finds almost identical air counts of aerobic and anaerobic skin bacteria whether or not masks were worn by operating staff, with no postoperative infections being found during the study, involving 22 operations.<ref name="SUTTON"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1948–1950 || || || After a period of decline since the end of the Spanish flu, the use of face masks quickly becomes common again during several major flu outbreaks around this time.<ref name="sciencenorway.no">{{cite web |title=Face masks: Why do different countries in the world have such different recommendations? |url=https://sciencenorway.no/cultural-history-disease-health/face-masks-why-do-different-countries-in-the-world-have-such-different-recommendations/1689385 |website=sciencenorway.no |accessdate=11 September 2020}}</ref> ||    
+
| 1993 || || Research || Leyland hypothesizes that masks "filter bacteria from the nose and mouth into aggregates of sufficient size as to be affected by gravity, hence falling, rather than remaining atomized and being expelled from the operating theatre by the air change system."<ref name="SUTTON"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1958 || || || Kiser and Hitchcock report on a mask that combines the deflection and filtration princip1es. This plastic mask diverts the flow of breath backward on either side. Filter material near the side outlets is designed to trap the deflected organisms.<ref name="Spooner"/> ||
+
| 1993 || || Research || A study recommends that {{w|obstetrician}}s should wear face shields or eyeglasses to protect against facial contamination, reporting that obstetricians commonly receive blood or {{w|amniotic fluid}} splashes to the face during deliveries (50% during caesarean delivery and 32% during vaginal delivery).<ref name="SUTTON"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1958 || || || Andersen develops a sampling chamber to collect airborne particles in several categories of decreasing particle size.<ref name="Spooner"/> ||
+
| 1995 || || Research || A study shows no significant difference in the infection rate between surgical mask users and staff wearing surgical visors.<ref name="SUTTON"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1959 || || || Adam evaluates a fitted filter mask and finds it more efficient than gauze masks.<ref name="Spooner"/> ||
+
| 1995 || || Hospital use || The N95 respirator becomes a healthcare standard in epidemics.<ref name="gizmodo.coms"/><ref name="seventrustgroup.com">{{cite web |title=KN95 Face Mask(KN95 FFP2) |url=https://seventrustgroup.com/products/face-mask/kn95-face-mask.html |website=seventrustgroup.com |accessdate=29 September 2020}}</ref> || ||[[File:SH9550-Cropped.jpg|thumb|center|150px|N95 respirator]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1960 || || || Rockwood and O’Donoghuelg report that the length of time a filter mask retains its efficiency is three hours, confirming the inefficiency of absorbing gauze masks, and stressing the fact that the proper use of the best mask available could prevent infection.<ref name="Spooner"/> ||
+
| 1998 || || Recommendation || The US {{w|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention}} (CDC) and the {{w|World Health Organization}} recommend using cotton masks to protect from viral hemorrhagic fevers in low-resource healthcare settings in Africa if respirators or medical masks were not available.<ref name="adwww"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1961 || Bacterial pathogens || || Musselman reports on a mask designed to be used only once and then discarded. The mask incorporates a filter in a plastic shell that is shaped to fit the face. An elastic band secures it in place. Excellent bacterial filtration is reported.<ref name="Spooner"/> ||
+
| 1999 || Bacterial infection || Research || A study on the environmental effect of various gown protections in a mock operating room setting finds that the wearing of a surgical face mask in the hallway or the operating room has no effect on the bacterial counts in either the hallway or the operating room.<ref name="SUTTON"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1961 || || || {{w|3M}} releases a “bubble” surgical mask that takes its inspiration from the cup of a bra. When 3M learns it can’t block pathogens, the mask is re-branded as a “dust” mask."<ref name="fastcompany.comsssa"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2001 || || Research || Researchers in {{w|Tasmania}} conclude that surgical masks should not be mandatory for anaesthetists in "the setting of a modern operating theater, with laminar flow/steriflow systems". They also note the available evidence suggests "surgical masks offer incomplete protection from airborne bacteria and viruses".<ref name="dsssssssssssss">{{cite journal |last1=Sutton |first1=Brett Andrew|title=Do Anaesthetists Need to Wear Surgical Masks in the Operating Theatre? A Literature Review with Evidence-Based Recommendations |doi=10.1177/0310057X0102900402 |url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/11832106_Do_Anaesthetists_Need_to_Wear_Surgical_Masks_in_the_Operating_Theatre_A_Literature_Review_with_Evidence-Based_Recommendations}}</ref> || {{w|Australia}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1966–1968 || || || The use of face masks in Japan becomes even more common during several major flu outbreaks happening around this time.<ref name="sciencenorway.no"/> || {{w|Japan}}    
+
| 2002 || {{w|Severe acute respiratory syndrome}} || General use || The {{w|2002–2004 SARS outbreak}} prompts a mask resurgence in China, Hong Kong and across most of East Asia and Southeast Asia.<ref name="The Mask"/> In East Asian countries besides {{w|Japan}} and {{w|China}}, the public practice is first forged.<ref name="globaltimes.cn"/><ref name="theatlantic.comdsa"/> || {{w|East Asia}}, {{w|Southeast Asia}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1967 || || || The {{w|3M}} mask starts being produced by the {{w|Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company}}.<ref name="globaltimes.cn"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2003 || {{w|Severe acute respiratory syndrome}} || Research || A comparative study on a sample size of 111 individuals in {{w|Hong Kong}} finds that healthcare workers who wore paper masks had lower risks of [[w:Severe acute respiratory syndrome|SARS]] infection.<ref name="royalsociety.orgww"/> || {{w|China}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1972 || || || The N95 respirator mask is invented.<ref name="gizmodo.coms"/> || || [[File:Mascarilla N95.jpg|thumb|center|150px|]]
+
| 2003 || || Model introduction || Unicharm introduces 3D masks, which stand away from the mouth to make breathing easier, and to keep makeup from smearing.<ref name="Face Masks in Japan: 100 Years Running"/> || {{w|Japan}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2004 || {{w|Severe acute respiratory syndrome}} || Research || A comparative study in {{w|Guangdong Province}}, {{w|China}}, finds that healthcare workers who wear both layer gauze and paper masks have lower risks of [[w:Severe acute respiratory syndrome|SARS]] infection.<ref name="royalsociety.orgww"/> || {{w|China}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1995 || || || The N95 respirator becomes a healthcare standard in epidemics.<ref name="gizmodo.coms"/> || |
+
| 2005 || {{w|Influenza}} || Recommendation || The U.S. {{w|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention}} issues recommendations for the appropriate use of medical masks as part of a group of influenza control strategies in healthcare settings.<ref name="nap.edus">{{cite web |title=Use and Reuse of Respiratory Protective Devices for Influenza Control |url=https://www.nap.edu/read/11637/chapter/5 |website=nap.edu |accessdate=29 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2002 || || || The {{w|2002–2004 SARS outbreak}} prompts a mask resurgence in China, Hong Kong and across most of East Asia and Southeast Asia.<ref name="The Mask"/> In East Asian countries besides {{w|Japan}} and {{w|China}}, the public practice was first forged.<ref name="globaltimes.cn"/><ref name="theatlantic.comdsa"/> || {{w|East Asia}}, {{w|Southeast Asia}}
+
| 2006 || {{w|Severe acute respiratory syndrome}} || Research || A study on healthcare workers wearing N95 masks during the SARS epidemic concludes that the use of N95 masks may cause the healthcare workers to develop headaches and wearing them for shorter amounts of time may reduce the frequency and severity of the headaches.<ref name="">{{cite web |title=Partly false claim: Continually wearing a mask causes hypercapnia |url=https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-factcheck-coronavirus-mask-hypercapni-idUSKBN22H2H1 |website=reuters.com |accessdate=28 September 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || || || A comparative study by Seto et al. on a sample size of 111 individuals in Hong Kong finds that healthcare workers who wore paper masks had lower risks of [[w:Severe acute respiratory syndrome|SARS]] infection.<ref name="royalsociety.orgww"/> || {{w|China}}
+
| 2006 || || Model introduction || Researchers at the {{w|University of Pittsburgh}} share their method of making face masks with a Hanes Heavyweight 100 per cent pre-shrunk cotton T-shirt. It involves cutting the shirt into one outer layer and eight inner layers, then tying the pieces together and around the wearer’s head.<ref name="sfasaa">{{cite web |title=How to make a face mask with T-shirts, vacuum bags and tea towels |url=https://www.ctvnews.ca/health/coronavirus/how-to-make-a-face-mask-with-t-shirts-vacuum-bags-and-tea-towels-1.4873627 |website=ctvnews.ca |accessdate=28 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2004 || || || A comparative study by Yin et al. on a sample size of 268 individuals Guangdong Province finds that healthcare workers who wore both layer gauze and paper masks had lower risks of [[w:Severe acute respiratory syndrome|SARS]] infection.<ref name="royalsociety.orgww"/> || {{w|China}}  
+
| 2006 || {{w|Influenza}} || Recommendation || The US {{w|Institute of Medicine}} prepares a report about the reusability of face masks during an influenza pandemic.<ref name="adwww"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || || || A comparative study by Liu et al. on a sample size of 447 individuals in Beijing finds that healthcare workers who wore cotton masks had significantly lower risks of [[w:Severe acute respiratory syndrome|SARS]] infection.<ref name="royalsociety.orgww"/> || {{w|China}}
+
| 2007 || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || Hospital use || Preliminary work in Australia shows very low acceptance of and compliance with mask use by hospital doctors and nurses.<ref>{{cite web |title=N95 Masks From Taiwan & China Reliable N95 Mask Manufacturers & N95 Respirator Suppliers |url=http://www.manufacturers.com.tw/beauty/Mask-N95.html |website=manufacturers.com.tw |accessdate=29 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Australia}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || || || "85 million N95s were distributed to combat the 2009 swine flu pandemic" ||
+
| 2008 || || Research || A study comparing surgical and respirator masks with homemade masks made from tea towels finds that homemade masks are not as effective, but might still provide “a significant degree of protection.”<ref name="sfasaa"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009–2011 || || || The {{w|2009 swine flu pandemic}} sees further upsurges of prophylactic mask-wearing in Japan, regardless of government advice.<ref name="We share what we exhale"/> || {{w|Japan}}
+
| 2009 || {{w|Severe acute respiratory syndrome}} || Research || A comparative study by Liu et al. on a sample size of 447 individuals in Beijing finds that healthcare workers who wore cotton masks had significantly lower risks of [[w:Severe acute respiratory syndrome|SARS]] infection.<ref name="royalsociety.orgww"/> || {{w|China}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2011 || || || A survey of mask use conducted in Tokyo shows that face masks are worn as protection against infection or to avoid spreading infections to others, but also as a general form of protection and as a sign of respect and responsibility.<ref name="sciencenorway.no"/> || {{w|Japan}}
+
| 2009 || {{w|Swine influenza}} || General use || About 85 million N95 masks are distributed to combat the [[w:2009 swine flu pandemic|swine flu pandemic]].<ref>{{cite web |title=Why We’re Running Out of Masks |url=https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2020/04/why-were-running-out-of-masks-in-the-coronavirus-crisis/609757/ |website=theatlantic.com |accessdate=30 September 2020}}</ref> || 
 
|-
 
|-
| 2012 || || || A dense wave of smog in China prompts a large-scale use of masks. The term "PM2.5" begins to enter public awareness, and mask models such as N95 and KN90, which can filter out this fine particulate matter, become highly popular.<ref name="globaltimes.cn"/> || {{w|China}} || [[File:Shanghai haze in Huangpu Distract 20131206.jpg|thumb|center|200px|Smog in Shanghai, 6 December 2013]]
+
| 2009 || {{w|Influenza}} ([[w:H1N1 influenza virus|H1N1]]) || Recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} discusses the option of using cloth masks to protect wearers from acquiring infection during the {{w|Swine flu pandemic}}.<ref name="adwww"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2012 || || || A comparative study by Zhang et al. on a sample size of 56 individuals in Beijing finds that cloth mask use did not significantly decrease the risk of H1N1 infection in health care setting.<ref name="royalsociety.orgww">{{cite web |title=Face masks and coverings for the general public: Behavioural knowledge, effectiveness of cloth coverings and public messaging |url=https://royalsociety.org/-/media/policy/projects/set-c/set-c-facemasks.pdf?la=en-GB&hash=A22A87CB28F7D6AD9BD93BBCBFC2BB24 |website=royalsociety.org |accessdate=12 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|China}}
+
| 2009 || || Research || Research reports on the possibility of the [[w:N95 mask|N95]] respirator mask to be sterilized, but advises it not to be washed with soap, warm water, alcohol or bleach. The study concludes that "even exposure to ultraviolet radiation or using a microwave oven is not advisable since these methods damage the electrostatic charge and significantly reduce the filtration capacity".<ref name="Bhartendua"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2012 || || || Study at the University of North Carolina and the University of Michigan finds that, to be effective, masks must be worn consistently and early — as soon as flu season begins. The study also shows that masks work best in combination with other measures, particularly frequent hand-washing.<ref name="nbcnews.comsssa">{{cite web |title=Coronavirus mask guidance remains unclear. Here's how history can help |url=https://www.nbcnews.com/think/opinion/coronavirus-mask-guidance-remains-unclear-here-s-how-history-can-ncna1174451 |website=nbcnews.com |accessdate=13 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2009–2011 || {{w|Swine influenza}} || General use || The {{w|2009 swine flu pandemic}} sees further upsurges of prophylactic mask-wearing in Japan, regardless of government advice.<ref name="We share what we exhale"/> || {{w|Japan}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2013 || || || A study at {{w|University of Cambridge}} compares homemade masks made out of a variety of household materials with surgical masks on their efficacy in offering protection during an influenza pandemic. All the masks studied in the report are found to reduce the number of microorganisms expelled into the air by volunteers, at least to an extent. Masks from dish/​cleaning towels or cotton blend t‑shirts are found to be considerably effective in capturing small particles (stopping 83% and 74% of the particles, respectively).<ref name="indiabioscience.orges"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}} || [[File:Homemade cloth face mask (03).jpg|thumb|center|200px|Homemade cloth face mask]]
+
| 2011 || || Research || A survey of mask use conducted in Tokyo shows that face masks are worn as protection against infection or to avoid spreading infections to others, but also as a general form of protection and as a sign of respect and responsibility.<ref name="sciencenorway.no"/> || {{w|Japan}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2015 || || || Study by a team of Indian scientists on the dispersion of particles expelled during coughing/​sneezing using aerodynamic simulation techniques finds that larger droplets emitted from coughing/​sneezing can be blocked by a mask. A mask reduces the distance travelled by smaller droplets from nearly 2 meters to less than 30 cm. At the same time, maintaining a physical distance of at least 2 meters is greatly beneficial as even the particles that escaped the mask in the study could carry the virus no farther than 1.5 metres.<ref name="indiabioscience.orges"/> ||
+
| 2012 || || General use || A dense wave of smog in China prompts a large-scale use of masks. The term "PM2.5" begins to enter public awareness, and mask models such as N95 and KN90, which can filter out this fine particulate matter, become highly popular.<ref name="globaltimes.cn"/> || {{w|China}} || [[File:Shanghai haze in Huangpu Distract 20131206.jpg|thumb|center|200px|Smog in Shanghai, 6 December 2013]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 2018 || || || Medical anthropologist Christos Lynteris publishes article prompting readers to think about surgical masks as masks, bodily prostheses that transform the identity of the wearer. The gauze mask has both practical and performative significance. Practically, it creates a barrier against the inhalation of invisible airborne pathogens. At the same time, it performs symbolically the idea of a regime against airborne pathogens.<ref name="We share what we exhale"/> ||
+
| 2012 || [[w:Influenza A virus subtype H1N1|H1N1 influenza]] || Research || A comparative study by Zhang et al. on a sample size of 56 individuals in Beijing finds that cloth mask use did not significantly decrease the risk of [[w:Influenza A virus subtype H1N1|H1N1]] infection in health care setting.<ref name="royalsociety.orgww">{{cite web |title=Face masks and coverings for the general public: Behavioural knowledge, effectiveness of cloth coverings and public messaging |url=https://royalsociety.org/-/media/policy/projects/set-c/set-c-facemasks.pdf?la=en-GB&hash=A22A87CB28F7D6AD9BD93BBCBFC2BB24 |website=royalsociety.org |accessdate=12 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|China}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2018 || {{w|Influenza}} || Study || A study concludes that if only 20 percent of people use masks, it wouldn’t make a difference for the spread of {{w|influenza}}. The effect is found to be substancial at 50 percent compliance, with the use of high-filtration surgical masks.<ref name="dgyhy">{{cite web |title=The Face Mask Debate Reveals a Scientific Double Standard |url=https://www.wired.com/story/the-face-mask-debate-reveals-a-scientific-double-standard/ |website=wired.com |accessdate=13 September 2020}}</ref> || ||
+
| 2012 || {{w|Influenza}} || Research || Study at the University of North Carolina and the University of Michigan finds that, to be effective, masks must be worn consistently and early — as soon as flu season begins. The study also shows that masks work best in combination with other measures, particularly frequent hand-washing.<ref name="nbcnews.comsssa">{{cite web |title=Coronavirus mask guidance remains unclear. Here's how history can help |url=https://www.nbcnews.com/think/opinion/coronavirus-mask-guidance-remains-unclear-here-s-how-history-can-ncna1174451 |website=nbcnews.com |accessdate=13 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}} 
 
|-
 
|-
| 2019–2020 || {{w|Surveillance}} || || During the [[w:2019–20 Hong Kong protests|Hong Kong protests]], face masks are worn as both a political statement and as a tool for disguising identity from closed-circuit TV cameras. They would become so popular that the government would go so far as to try to ban them, immediately elevating them to a symbol of revolt.<ref name="The Mask"/> || {{w|Hong Kong}} || [[File:Watson queue for face masks 20200130 DSCF2199 (49464278376).jpg|thumb|center|150px|]]
+
| 2013 || {{w|Influenza}} || Research || A study at {{w|University of Cambridge}} compares homemade masks made out of a variety of household materials with surgical masks on their efficacy in offering protection during an influenza pandemic. All the masks studied in the report are found to reduce the number of microorganisms expelled into the air by volunteers, at least to an extent. Masks from dish/​cleaning towels or cotton blend t‑shirts are found to be considerably effective in capturing small particles (stopping 83% and 74% of the particles, respectively).<ref name="indiabioscience.orges"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}} || [[File:Homemade cloth face mask (03).jpg|thumb|center|200px|Homemade cloth face mask]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 2020 (April 15) || || {{w|Coronavirus disease 2019}} || Scientists claim having developed a {{w|biodegradable}} material for {{w|face mask}}s which is effective at removing particles smaller than 100 nanometres including viruses and has a high breathability.<ref>{{cite news |last1=Layt |first1=Stuart |title=Queensland researchers hit sweet spot with new mask material |url=https://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/national/queensland/queensland-researchers-hit-sweet-spot-with-new-mask-material-20200414-p54jr2.html |accessdate=22 August 2020 |work=Brisbane Times |date=14 April 2020 |language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=Technology (QUT) |first1=Queensland University of |title=New mask material can remove virus-size nanoparticles |url=https://www.qut.edu.au/news?id=161468 |website=QUT |accessdate=22 August 2020 |language=en}}</ref> || {{w|Australia}}
+
| 2013 || || Research || A study finds that vacuum bags, while being an unconventional option for at-home masks, are found to perform the strongest compared to other household alternatives.<ref name="sfasaa"/><ref>{{cite journal |title=Testing the Efficacy of Homemade Masks: Would They Protect in an Influenza Pandemic? |doi=10.1017/dmp.2013.43 |url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258525804_Testing_the_Efficacy_of_Homemade_Masks_Would_They_Protect_in_an_Influenza_Pandemic}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2020 (April 22) || || || A study by the U.S. {{w|National Academy of Medicine}} recommends wearing an anti-projection mask covering the nose and mouth, designed to retain droplets projected when speaking, coughing or sneezing and stop them dispersing in the immediate environment.<ref name="newseye.euv"/> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Rhode Island National Guard.jpg|thumb|center|200px|Rhode Island National Guardsmen sew face masks during the {{w|COVID-19 pandemic}}]]
+
| 2014 || Viral infection || Research || A cough simulation study suggests that a face shield, correctly manufactured and worn, could reduce a person’s viral exposure to a cough expelled less than 18 inches away by 96%.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Lindsley |first1=William G |last2=Noti |first2=John D |last3=Blachere |first3=Francoise M |last4=Szalajda |first4=Jonathan V |last5=Beezhold |first5=Donald H |title=Efficacy of face shields against cough aerosol droplets from a cough simulator |doi=10.1080/15459624.2013.877591 |pmid=24467190 |url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24467190/ |pmc=4734356}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Face shield and mask manufacturers |url=https://www.brigo.com/face-shield-manufacturers/ |website=brigo.com |accessdate=28 September 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2020 (April 27) || || || Face masks become mandatory for shopping and in public transportation in Germany.<ref name="Fangerau">{{cite journal |last1=Matuschek |first1=Christiane |last2=Moll |first2=Friedrich |last3=Fangerau |first3=Heiner |last4=Fischer |first4=Johannes C. |last5=Zänker |first5=Kurt |last6=van Griensven |first6=Martijn |last7=Schneider |first7=Marion |last8=Kindgen-Milles |first8=Detlef |last9=Knoefel |first9=Wolfram Trudo |last10=Lichtenberg |first10=Artur |last11=Tamaskovics |first11=Bálint |last12=Djiepmo-Njanang |first12=Freddy Joel |last13=Budach |first13=Wilfried |last14=Corradini |first14=Stefanie |last15=Häussinger |first15=Dieter |last16=Feldt |first16=Torsten |last17=Jensen |first17=Björn |last18=Pelka |first18=Rainer |last19=Orth |first19=Klaus |last20=Peiper |first20=Matthias |last21=Grebe |first21=Olaf |last22=Maas |first22=Kitti |last23=Bölke |first23=Edwin |last24=Haussmann |first24=Jan |title=The history and value of face masks |doi=10.1186/s40001-020-00423-4 |pmid=32576263 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309199/}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
+
| 2015 || Droplet infection || Research || Study by a team of Indian scientists on the dispersion of particles expelled during coughing/​sneezing using aerodynamic simulation techniques finds that larger droplets emitted from coughing/​sneezing can be blocked by a mask. A mask reduces the distance travelled by smaller droplets from nearly 2 meters to less than 30 cm. At the same time, maintaining a physical distance of at least 2 meters is greatly beneficial as even the particles that escaped the mask in the study could carry the virus no farther than 1.5 meters.<ref name="indiabioscience.orges"/> ||                 
 +
|-
 +
| 2015 || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || Research || Study comparing the efficacy of cloth masks with that of medical masks and controls (standard practice) among healthcare workers in Vietnam finds that rates of infection are consistently higher among those in the cloth mask group than in the medical mask and control groups. This finding suggests that risk for infection is higher for those wearing cloth masks.<ref name="adwww"/> || {{w|Vietnam}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2016 || || Model introduction || A “Small-Face Mask” is introduced in Japan. It would be ranked among the top ten masks for women in a 2018 survey so that “your dream to have a smaller face will come true.”<ref name="Face Masks in Japan: 100 Years Running"/> || {{w|Japan}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2017 || || General use || The Asia-Pacific region accounts for the largest sheet face mask market share ot 42.91% of the global market, with Japan as one of the leading markets in the region, accounting for the largest market share during the review period.<ref name="Market Highlights">{{cite web |title=Market Highlights |url=https://www.marketresearchfuture.com/reports/sheet-face-mask-market-6655 |website=marketresearchfuture.com |accessdate=28 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Asia-Pacific}} || [[File:Face mask at Great Wall China.jpg|thumb|center|150px|Face mask at Great Wall China]]
 +
|-
 +
| 2017 || || Research || Research reports on the possibility of the N95 respirator mask to be sterilized in a dry rice cooker for 3 min at 149–164 degrees Celsius.<ref name="Bhartendua"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2018 || || Recommendation || Medical anthropologist Christos Lynteris publishes article prompting readers to think about surgical masks as masks, bodily prostheses that transform the identity of the wearer. The gauze mask has both practical and performative significance. Practically, it creates a barrier against the inhalation of invisible airborne pathogens. At the same time, it performs symbolically the idea of a regime against airborne pathogens.<ref name="We share what we exhale"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2018 || {{w|Influenza}} || Research || A study concludes that if only 20 percent of people use masks, it wouldn’t make a difference for the spread of {{w|influenza}}. The effect is found to be substancial at 50 percent compliance, with the use of high-filtration surgical masks.<ref name="dgyhy">{{cite web |title=The Face Mask Debate Reveals a Scientific Double Standard |url=https://www.wired.com/story/the-face-mask-debate-reveals-a-scientific-double-standard/ |website=wired.com |accessdate=13 September 2020}}</ref> || || [[File:South Carolina National Guard assembles personal protective face masks (49894518717).jpg|thumb|center|150px|South Carolina National Guard assembles personal protective face masks]]
 +
|-
 +
| 2018 || || Production || About 4.3 million disposable masks are manufactured for personal use in Japan in this year.<ref name="Face Masks in Japan: 100 Years Running">{{cite web |title=Face Masks in Japan: 100 Years Running |url=https://restaurants-guide.tokyo/column/face-masks-in-japan-100-years-running/ |website=restaurants-guide.tokyo |accessdate=22 September 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Japan}} || [[File:Large face mask selection at smal convenience store Tokyo Japan (14657642737).jpg|thumb|center|150px|Face mask selection at small convenience store in Tokyo]]       
 +
|-
 +
| 2018 || || Market size || The global face masks market reaches approximately US$ 5.80 billion in this year.<ref>{{cite web |title=Global Face Masks Market |url=https://www.adroitmarketresearch.com/industry-reports/face-masks-market |website=adroitmarketresearch.com |accessdate=3 October 2020}}</ref> || Worldwide
 +
|-
 +
| 2019 || || Production || As of year, mainland China manufactures half the world output of masks.<ref>
 +
{{cite news
 +
| last1                = Bradsher
 +
| first1                = Keith
 +
| last2                = Alderman
 +
| first2                = Liz
 +
| title                = The World Needs Masks. China Makes Them, but Has Been Hoarding Them
 +
| url                  = https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/13/business/masks-china-coronavirus.html
 +
| work                  = The New York Times
 +
| date      = 2 April 2020
 +
| access-date          = 7 May 2020
 +
| quote                = China made half the world’s masks before the coronavirus emerged there, and it has expanded production nearly 12-fold since then.
 +
}}
 +
</ref> || {{w|China}} || [[File:Citizens of Wuhan lining up outside of a drug store to buy masks during the Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.jpg|thumb|center|150px|Citizens of {{w|Wuhan}} lining up outside of a drug store to buy masks during the Wuhan coronavirus outbreak]]
 +
|-
 +
| 2019 || || Market size || The global face mask industry surpasses US$7.24 billion in the year.<ref>{{cite web |title=Worldwide Face Mask Market Size to record notable gains through 2026 |url=https://www.marketwatch.com/press-release/worldwide-face-mask-market-size-to-record-notable-gains-through-2026-2020-08-26#:~:text=The%20ongoing%20coronavirus%20pandemic%20has,USD%203.14%20billion%20in%202026. |website=marketwatch.com |accessdate=3 October 2020}}</ref> || Worldwide
 +
|-
 +
| 2019 || || Market size || The protective face mask market size in {{w|North America}} surpasses US$ 470 million.<ref>{{cite web |title=Protective face mask market size |url=https://www.fortunebusinessinsights.com/protective-face-mask-market-103292 |website=fortunebusinessinsights.com |accessdate=3 October 2020}}</ref> || {{w|North America}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2019–2020 || {{w|Surveillance}} || Protester use || During the [[w:2019–20 Hong Kong protests|Hong Kong protests]], face masks are worn as both a political statement and as a tool for disguising identity from closed-circuit TV cameras. They would become so popular that the government would go so far as to try to ban them, immediately elevating them to a symbol of revolt.<ref name="The Mask"/> || {{w|Hong Kong}} || [[File:Before the protest speaking 20200223.png|thumb|center|150px|]]
 +
|-
 +
| 2020 (April 15) || {{w|Coronavirus disease 2019}} || Model introduction || Scientists claim having developed a {{w|biodegradable}} material for {{w|face mask}}s which is effective at removing particles smaller than 100 nanometres including viruses and has a high breathability.<ref>{{cite news |last1=Layt |first1=Stuart |title=Queensland researchers hit sweet spot with new mask material |url=https://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/national/queensland/queensland-researchers-hit-sweet-spot-with-new-mask-material-20200414-p54jr2.html |accessdate=22 August 2020 |work=Brisbane Times |date=14 April 2020 |language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=Technology (QUT) |first1=Queensland University of |title=New mask material can remove virus-size nanoparticles |url=https://www.qut.edu.au/news?id=161468 |website=QUT |accessdate=22 August 2020 |language=en}}</ref> || {{w|Australia}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2020 (April 22) || {{w|Coronavirus disease 2019}} || Recommendation || A study by the U.S. {{w|National Academy of Medicine}} recommends wearing an anti-projection mask covering the nose and mouth, designed to retain droplets projected when speaking, coughing or sneezing and stop them dispersing in the immediate environment.<ref name="newseye.euv"/> || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Rhode Island National Guard.jpg|thumb|center|200px|Rhode Island National Guardsmen sew face masks during the {{w|COVID-19 pandemic}}]]
 +
|-
 +
| 2020 (April 27) || {{w|Coronavirus disease 2019}} || Policy || Face masks become mandatory for shopping and in public transportation in Germany.<ref name="Fangerau">{{cite journal |last1=Matuschek |first1=Christiane |last2=Moll |first2=Friedrich |last3=Fangerau |first3=Heiner |last4=Fischer |first4=Johannes C. |last5=Zänker |first5=Kurt |last6=van Griensven |first6=Martijn |last7=Schneider |first7=Marion |last8=Kindgen-Milles |first8=Detlef |last9=Knoefel |first9=Wolfram Trudo |last10=Lichtenberg |first10=Artur |last11=Tamaskovics |first11=Bálint |last12=Djiepmo-Njanang |first12=Freddy Joel |last13=Budach |first13=Wilfried |last14=Corradini |first14=Stefanie |last15=Häussinger |first15=Dieter |last16=Feldt |first16=Torsten |last17=Jensen |first17=Björn |last18=Pelka |first18=Rainer |last19=Orth |first19=Klaus |last20=Peiper |first20=Matthias |last21=Grebe |first21=Olaf |last22=Maas |first22=Kitti |last23=Bölke |first23=Edwin |last24=Haussmann |first24=Jan |title=The history and value of face masks |doi=10.1186/s40001-020-00423-4 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309199/}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}} || [[File:FFP1 face mask, 2020 (cropped).jpg|thumb|center|150px|FFP1 face mask, 2020]]
 +
|-
 +
| 2020 (October 22) || {{w|Coronavirus disease 2019}} || Policy || Malaysia's health ministry states that Muslim women who wear {{w|niqab}} or {{w|purdah}} are still required to wear face masks to curb Covid-19, as those veils are considered non-medical mask and those wearing them are not exempted from regulations on face mask use devised by the {{w|World Health Organization}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Covid-19: Muslim women with ‘purdah’ or niqab not exempt from wearing face masks, says Dr Noor Hisham |url=https://malaysia.news.yahoo.com/dr-noor-hisham-muslim-women-110638844.html |website=malaysia.news.yahoo.com |access-date=9 December 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Malaysia}} || [[File:Niqab with nose string.jpg|thumb|center|130px|Niqab with nose string]]
 +
|-
 +
| 2020 (November 24) || {{w|Coronavirus disease 2019}} || Research || A study by the {{w|American Institute of Physics}} finds that if 70% of people wore surgical masks, the pandemic would be "eradicated."<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Kumar |first1=Sanjay |last2=Lee |first2=Heow Pueh |title=The perspective of fluid flow behavior of respiratory droplets and aerosols through the facemasks in context of SARS-CoV-2 |doi=10.1063/5.0029767 |url=https://aip.scitation.org/doi/full/10.1063/5.0029767}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Pandemic could be 'eradicated' if 70% of people wore surgical masks, researchers say |url=https://www.abcactionnews.com/news/national/coronavirus/pandemic-could-be-eradicated-if-70-of-people-wore-masks-researchers-say?fbclid=IwAR2TWP5fVV_twmz78MJILFUHwzXcsSaZmZWVGEdF8hYWZ8ZQgR5i2PaSP8M |website=abcactionnews.com |access-date=29 November 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2020 (November 30) || {{w|Coronavirus disease 2019}} || Recommendation || The U.S. {{w|Food and Drug Administration}} issues guidance on the use of dry heat to help support the single-user reuse of certain particulate filtering facepiece respirators. || {{w|United States}} || [[File:Surgical masks being decontaminated for reuse under ultraviolet light.jpg|thumb|center|150px|Surgical masks being decontaminated for reuse under ultraviolet light]]
 +
|-
 +
| 2023 || {{w|Coronavirus disease 2019}} || Market size || The European sheet face mask market is estimated to exceed US$284.6 million by this year.<ref name="Market Highlights"/> || {{w|Europe}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2026 || || Market size || The face mask market is expected to surpass US$21.2 billion by this year.<ref>{{cite web |title=Face mask market to surpass $21.2 billion by 2026 |url=https://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2020/03/31/2008963/0/en/Face-mask-market-to-surpass-21-2-billion-by-2026.html |website=globenewswire.com |accessdate=28 September 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2027 || || Market size || According to a study published by Polaris Market Research, the global face mask market is expected to surpass US$ 31.83 billion by this year.<ref>{{cite web |title=Face Mask Market To Surpass $31.83 Billion By 2027  |url=https://www.medgadget.com/2020/08/face-mask-market-to-surpass-31-83-billion-by-2027-cagr-24-6-polaris-market-research.html |website=medgadget.com |accessdate=3 October 2020}}</ref> || Worldwide
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
Line 225: Line 392:
 
Feedback for the timeline can be provided at the following places:
 
Feedback for the timeline can be provided at the following places:
  
* FIXME
+
* [https://www.facebook.com/gccahsrevived/posts/693214598217887 Nursing] Facebook group
 +
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/512183596146032/permalink/629852554379135/ TheNursePath] Facebook group
 +
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/182455695745264/permalink/649938235663672/ Oklahoma nurses] Facebook group
 +
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/HPforGH/permalink/10157491340406847/ Health Professionals for Global Health] Facebook group
 +
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/779716525505605/permalink/2165441846933059/ HEALTHCARE QUALITY] Facebook group
 +
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/239651496455617/permalink/1043352869418805/ WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)] Facebook group
 +
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/205390834214844/permalink/342372850516641/ WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)] Facebook group
 +
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/TimelinesWiki/permalink/2705712993002382/ Timelines Wiki] Facebook group
 +
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/903174683177438/permalink/1666819700146262 Infection control nurses] Facebook group
 +
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/436338033674192/permalink/674403463200980 NursingNow Argentina2020] Facebook group
 +
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/237474230832259/permalink/352827159296965/ Twig + Tale Mask Makers] Facebook group
 +
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/1571123569819826/permalink/2682894198642752/ Microbiology Research Group] Facebook group
 +
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/155359696881/permalink/10159045974211882/ Microbiology & Immunology Research] Facebook group
 +
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/121052094770118/permalink/1411912452350736/ Cellular Biology, Bacteria, Fungi and Viruses] Facebook group
 +
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/560636171514842/permalink/685528499025608/ Food& water Microbiology] Facebook group
 +
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/135881236793/permalink/10157697402871794/ Medical Microbiology & Immunology] Facebook group
 +
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/2012590005641569/permalink/2808976699336225/ IFCAI - INFECTION CONTROL ACADEMY OF INDIA] Facebook group
 +
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/918828021821686/permalink/1213627162341769/ El mundo de las bacterias] Facebook group
 +
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/212983514320/permalink/10158813758669321/ Microbiology & Immunology] Facebook group
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* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/30179327242/permalink/10158691499132243/ Medical and Pharmaceutical Microbiology] Facebook group
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* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/557934550939365/permalink/3505832122816245/ Microbiology] Facebook group
 +
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/524131408044046/permalink/1108535106270337/ Bacteriology Lovers & Lerners] Facebook group
 +
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/126994007394292/permalink/3473032886123704/ •Micro::Molecular•biology- biotechnology] Facebook group
 +
* [https://www.facebook.com/VIRGO.InfectionControlToday/posts/10157435956761160 Infection Control Today] Facebook group
 +
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/444433399700524/permalink/865297830947410/ NIGERIAN INFECTIOUS DISEASES SOCIETY (NIDS)] Facebook group
 +
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/amazingmicrobiology/permalink/3726471440719276 Amazing Microbiology (Nepal)] Facebook group
 +
 
  
 
===What the timeline is still missing===
 
===What the timeline is still missing===
  
* {{w|Cloth face mask}}
+
* [https://www.abcactionnews.com/news/national/more-than-1-5-billion-masks-believed-to-have-entered-oceans-in-2020?fbclid=IwAR07i8hqtMp2mEGPRLa_FhxAyuvslauMIO3PKdx74nicY9A9SUgERJbJhfA]
* {{w|Face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic}}
+
* [https://bigthink.com/coronavirus/best-face-mask?utm_term=Autofeed&utm_medium=Social&facebook=1&utm_source=Facebook&fbclid=IwAR2adKhcuzCN17beoYNbf8JByUmZn0lkVRgX-zuUSkCUSovVNjlRkfwsmt4#Echobox=1609023928]
* [https://www.history.com/news/1918-spanish-flu-mask-wearing-resistance]
 
* [https://theeagle.com/news/health_fitness/c-force-forgotten-pandemic-history-and-resistance-of-face-masks/article_71a4d2b6-ca0e-11ea-9954-973fbf9f6ccd.html]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
 
===Timeline update strategy===
 
===Timeline update strategy===
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
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* [[Timeline of infection control]]
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* [[Timeline of hygiene]]
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* [[Timeline of epidemiology]]
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* [[Timeline of antibiotics]]
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* [[Timeline of bacteriology]]
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* [[Timeline of virology]]
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==External links==
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==References==
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{{Reflist|30em}}

Latest revision as of 20:55, 26 December 2020

This is a timeline of face masks, attempting to describe significant events related to the history and evolution of these healthcare products. This timeline focuses mainly on cloth and surgical masks, aimed at both healthcare workers and the public in general for airborne disease protection, and omitting complex devises such as self-contained breathing apparatuses.

Sample questions

The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:

  • What are some of the several hazards combated by face mask use?
    • Sort the full timeline column titled "Targeted hazard".
    • You will mostly see airborne diseases like influenza, SARS, and COVID-19. You will also find plague happening mostly in early events, as well as other non-infectious hazards like smoke.
  • What are some old historical records on the use of face masks?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Early use".
    • You will see some early events on use of face masks, previous to the scientific establishment on methods of transmission of disease.
  • What are some events related to the adoption of face masks in the healthcare environment?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Hospital use".
    • You will see early adoption of face masks in the healthcare environment, starting in the 19th century.
  • What are some events related to the adoption of face masks by the general population?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "General use".
    • You will see several boosts in use caused by epidemic outbreaks.
  • What are some events describing the introduction of new face mask prototypes?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Model introduction".
    • You will see the introduction of some prototypes, like the N95 mask.
  • What are some events describing research on different properties of face masks as well as research on hazardous agents combated by the former?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Research".
    • You will mostly see research focused on the effectivity of face masks, but also on hazardous agents and other studies related to basic science of incumbence.
  • What are some recommendations on use of face masks by authorities and important organizations?
  • What are some events related to the face mask industry?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Production".
  • What are some figures illustrating the face mask market size?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Market size".
    • You will see figures indicating global market size as well as some regional figures.
  • Other events are described under the following types: "Anti-mask movement", "Literature", "Policy", and "Protester use".

Big picture

Key developments

Time period Development summary More details
Before 19th century Early development of masks The earliest recorded face mask-like objects in history date to the 6th century BC.[1] In the 14th century, the Black Death in Europe greatly promotes the emergence of functional face mask-like objects.[1] In the 17th century, Charles de Lorme’s miasma-inspired leather overcoat and bird mask doesn’t prevent anyone from contracting the plague.[2][3][3]
19th century Scientific backing establishment The design of the mask takes a big step forward in this century,[1] throughout which doctors continue to go without masks while workers in factories are encouraged to use them to help filter particle-ridden air[2], as there is an understanding of the usefulness of face masks in factories.[2] In the mid-century, German scientists conduct studies with industrial dust and bacteria and their relationship with respiratory health.[4] By the late 1870s, scientists learn about bacteria, and the miasma theory falls from fashion as the modern field of microbiology emerges.[5] In the latter half of the century, face masks begin to be worn in hospital settings, when medical research starts being benefited considerably from Louis Pasteur’s work.[3][6] The modern surgical face mask comes into use around the time that germs and viruses start reshaping medical understandings of disease.[7][8] In the 1880s, Robert Koch identifies the bacteria that cause tuberculosis and cholera. Before his discovery, dirt was simply dirt, and people knew nothing of threatening microbes or viruses.[7] In 1897, Jan Mikulicz-Radecki publishes the first study supporting the use of a mask in surgery.[9][10]
20th century (first half) Widespread adoption by the healthcare system Throughout the early decades of the century, various styles of masks are patented. Most commonly, masks are made of cotton gauze and held in place with a metal frame.[2] In Japan, the mask business flourished during the Taishō period (1912-26).[11] In the 1920s, the surgical mask is used first in the operating rooms of Germany and the United States.[12] By the late 1920s, the use of gauze face masks is widespread.[13][6] In the 1930s, medical masks start to be replaced by disposable paper masks.[10] In the mid-1930s, variations of the gauze type masks begin to appear.[13] During the 1930s and 1940s, gauze and cloth masks are also used by healthcare workers to protect themselves from tuberculosis.[14] In the 1940s, with the introduction of antibiotics, and their rapid acceptance as a means of controlling infection, interest in surgical masks decrease.[13]
20th century (second half) Adoption by the general population In the late 1950s there is a renewed interest in surgical masks.[13] Asians, especially in Japan, China and Taiwan, start wearing masks for a host of cultural and environmental reasons, including non-medical ones.[15] In the 1960s, modern disposable masks grow in popularity.[2] In the mid-1960s, the use of disposable items made of paper and fleece is introduced all over the world after having started in the United States.[12] In the 1980s, flu masks gradually reappear when the hay fever mask becomes common in Japan.[16] In the 1990s, after being used in industrial applications for decades, the N95 mask is adopted in clinical settings with the rise of drug-resistant tuberculosis.[5]
21st century (pre-COVID-19) Increase in face mask use throughout the world Mask-wearing increases in the early years of the current century with the SARS outbreak and avian influenza[17]
21st century (post-COVID-19) Massive adoption and compulsory use throughout the world Worldwide mask-wearing use suddenly explodes with the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic, with many countries mandating its use in public places. As of 2020, face mask use is part of the everyday landscape all troughout the world, especially in urban areas. However, as of 2020, experts continue to debate the effectiveness of face masks in preventing the spread of diseases. Policies, laws, and practical considerations vary from region to region, as well as people’s attitudes, reflecting their cultural values and history.[18]

Summary by mask type

Masks/respirator type Advantages Disadvantages
Bandana Better than nothing. Decreases droplets spray from more than 8 feet to about 4 feet. An adequate piece of cloth can be repurposed. Washable, reusable. Droplet reduction by only about 50 per cent and neck fleeces increasing the amount of spray, probably by dispersing the largest droplets into many smaller droplets.[19]
-occupyboston (6224348389).jpg
Homemade cloth mask Better than bandanas. Hand-made cotton face coverings eliminate 70 to 90 per cent of the spray, depending on the layers and the pleating.[19] Washable, reusable. Single-layer masks may only provide 1% particle filtration.[20]
Homemade cloth face mask (01).jpg
Neck gaiters and balaclavas Washable, reusable. Synthetic fabric, which is often used, isn't as effective as cotton in preventing the spread of small particles. Moreover, neck gaiters made of synthetic fleece can be harmful as they essentially aerosolize the wearer's respiratory droplets.[20]
Neck gaiter1.jpg
Store-bought cloth mask High quality masks could be 80-95 percent protective.[20] Washable, reusable. Low-quality masks made of very thin materials could still be 10-20 percent protective.[20]
Protective masks vending machine in Karviná, Czech Republic
Disposable surgical mask Diligent wearing in public spaces can significantly reduce the spread of respiratory infection.[20] Not reusable.[21]
Surgical face mask.jpg
N95 respirator It offers the most protection against COVID 2019 and other respiratory diseases. Reduces droplet transmission to less than 0.1 per cent.[19] It can't be washed.[21]
Mascarilla N95.jpg
KN95 respirator Similarly to N95 masks, it captures about 95% of tiny particles in the air.[22] Not reusable.[21]
Corona Face mask KN95 (50576539878).jpg
Face shield It protects the entire face. Droplets can disperse over a wide area in both lateral and longitudinal directions. Aerosol-sized droplet particles from coughs or sneezes escape from the gaps in the bottom and on the sides of the shield.[23]
Face shield and denim mask

Visual data

Wikipedia views

The image shows pageviews of the English Wikipedia page Face mask from July 2015 to November 2020. See how pageviews increased dramatically since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic.[24]

Face mask Wikipedia views.png

Google Trends

The image below shows Google Trends data for "Face mask" (topic), from January 2004 to December 2020. The image also shows interest by country, with higher values in darker blue.[25]

Face mask Google Trends.png


The image below shows Google Trends data for "Cloth face mask" (topic), from January 2004 to December 2020. The image also shows interest by country, with higher values in darker blue.[26]

Cloth face mask Google Trends.png


Full timeline

Year Targeted hazard Event type Details Location
9000 BP Early use Early well-documented masks are found in the Judaean Desert.[27] Middle East
69 BC–30 BC Early use Cleopatra VII Philopator is famous for using several different combinations to create "the ultimate face masks".[28] Egypt
1619 Plague Early use The invention of the "beak doctor" costume used against the plague is attributed to Charles de Lorme, who adopts the idea of a full head-to-toe protective garment,[29] modeled after a soldier's canvas gown which goes from the neck to the ankle.[29][30][31] The over-clothing garment, as well as leggings, gloves, boots, and a hat, are made of waxed leather.[32] The garment is impregnated with similar fragrant items as the beak mask.[33] France
Plague doctor outfit from Germany (17th century).
1720 Plague Early use Paintings from Marseille during the last major outbreak of bubonic plague in western Europe show gravediggers and people handling bodies with cloth around their faces.[5] France
1827 Research Scottish scientist Robert Brown discovers the later called "Brownian motion" which theoretically proves the protective effect of masks on dust.[1] The theory states that collisions of rapidly moving gas molecules causes the random bouncing motion of extremely small particles. This understanding would lead to the development of the first particulate respirator.[4] United Kingdom
1848 Mining pollution Model introduction Lewis Hassley in the United States develops a mask for miners, obtaining the first patent for a protective mask.[1][1] United States
1861 Bacteria Research French scientist Louis Pasteur proves the presence of bacteria in the air. This makes more people pay attention to the design of modern masks.[1] France
1877 Smoke Model introduction The Nealy Smoke Mask is invented and patented in England as the first filter type firefighter protective apparatus.[4][34] United Kingdom
1879 General use One of the first domestically produced masks is advertised in newspapers in Japan.[11] Japan
1895 Noxious fumes Recommendation Henrot suggests equipping the privates in Madagascar with face masks to protect them from noxious fumes. By this time this idea is considered comical if not downright ridiculous.[3] Madagascar
1897 Hospital-acquired infection Model introduction Polish surgeon Jan Mikulicz-Radecki describes a surgical mask composed on one layer of gauze.[35] The practice of using face masks is considered to be introduced by him.[6] Poland
Jan Mikulicz-Radecki
1897 Tuberculosis Research German hygienist Carl Flügge publishes his works on the development of droplet infections as part of his research on tuberculosis.[12] Flügge, along with Jan Mikulicz-Radecki, suggest the idea of a facemask after having demonstrated the presence of bacterial droplets from the nose and mouth.[36][12] Germany
Carl Flügge
1897 Hospital-acquired infection Hospital use Doctors start wearing early surgical masks.[5]
1898 Hospital-acquired infection Hospital use Huebner recommends masks made of two layers of gauze, worn at a distance from the nose, to be used during operations.[35]
1899 Hospital-acquired infection Model introduction A French doctor develops a mask made of six layers of gauze and sews it on the collar of a surgical gown. The user only needs to flip the collar up when using it. It would gradually evolve into a form that could be freely tied and hung on the ears with a looped strap, thus giving birth to the modern mask.[1] France
1905 Scarlet fever Research American physician Alice Hamilton publishes an article proposing that scarlet fever is transmitted through droplet infection, thus recommends that masks be worn in hospitals.[35] [6][36] United States
Alice Hamilton in 1893
1910 Hospital-acquired infection Hospital use The application of face covers starts becoming common in surgery and the general hospitals.[12]
1910 Pneumonic plague General use During an epidemic of pneumonic plague in Manchuria, Malaysian physician Wu Lien-teh argues that the disease is transmitted through airborne contact, and develops masks to be worn by medical personnel and the general public.[6][37] This marks the beginning of an ethic of wearing masks in China during public-health emergencies.[38][7] China
1915 Infantile paralysis Hospital use Meltzer recommends fine mesh gauze masks to cover the faces of patients with infantile paralysis and the faces of personnel attending them.[35]
1917 Dust Model introduction The first commercial dust respirator is invented.[16]
1918 Diphtheria Hospital use G. H. Weaver in Chicago reports that over a two-year period the incidence of diphtheria contracted by attendants of infected patients was reduced to zero after wearing masks of double thickness gauze.[35][36][9] United States
1918 Influenza General use During the 1918 flu pandemic, people again starts to wear face masks. However, while the practice whould endure in China due to continued outbreaks, it would be largely forgotten in the United States and other countries.[39][7]
A nurse wears a cloth mask while treating a patient in Washington, DC
1918 Influenza Recommendation The U.S. Academy of Medicine recommends that masks be worn to avoid the spread of flu among health staff.[3] United States
1918 Influenza Production During the 1918 flu pandemic, the Red Cross encourages women to sew masks.[40]
Seattle police wearing masks in December 1918
1918 Influenza Anti-mask movement After San Francisco enforces the wearing of masks during the 1918 flu pandemic, the Anti-Mask League of San Francisco is formed as an anti-mask movement with the purpose to fight for the mask-wearing mandate to be repealed.[41][42] United States
Barbers wearing masks during the epidemic
1918 Research The first study producing a specification for surgical masks is published. This study finds extreme variations in the numbers of layers and quality of gauze of which masks are made, with researchers undertaking a series of tests to determine how many layers were needed to provide complete filtration.[43]
1919 Mining pollution Model introduction The United States Bureau of Mines initiates the first respirator certification program, and certifies the first respirator.[4] United States
1919 Influenza Research By the end of the 1918 flu pandemic, most scientists and health commissions come to a consensus about the benefits of wearing masks.[44]
1919 Tokyo, Japan
1920 Hospital-acquired infection Hospital use The use of masks becomes routine practice in the operating room.[36]
1920 Research Kellogg and MacMillan undertake an array of tests on masks, and conclude that they have not been demonstrated to have a degree of efficiency that would warrant mandatory use.[45][43] United States
1923 Ash and smoke General use In the aftermath of the Great Kanto Earthquake, people in Tokyo and Yokohama wear masks to protect themselves from all of the ash and smoke. By this time, Kotobuki Mask by Uchiyama Takeshoten becomes the first registered trademark product.[46] Japan
1924 Plague General use Gauze masks are used during the so-called second Manchurian plague epidemic.[14] United States
1926 Hospital-acquired infection Hospital use A clinical study first demonstrates a potential link between wearing masks and reduced surgical site infection.[36] The effectiveness of surgical masks on patient infection reduction is established by research.[47]
1927 Hospital-acquired infection Hospital use German surgeon Martin Kirschner describes the necessity of wearing a facemask in his multi-volume operational theory in the chapter Measures to combat infections.[12] Germany
1927 Hospital-acquired infection Research American bacteriologist Edwin O. Jordan publishes his definitive study, which determines that masks are effective when worn by patients already sick or by those directly exposed to victims, including nurses and physicians. Jordan also acknowledges, however, that “masks are uncomfortable and inconvenient, as anyone who has worn them can testify” and require a great deal of “discipline, self-imposed or other.”[48] United States
1929 Influenza Hospital use Professor Marchoux at the National Academy of Medicine recommends, particularly for doctors and hospital staff, wearing a light structure, hat veil or mask, in addition to spectacles, on the face, in order to protect against the projection of septic droplets from flu patients.[3] United States
1929 Meningitis Recommendation During a meningitis outbreak in China, the government encourages citizens to use masks and avoid public gatherings.[49][50] China
1930 Surgical wound infection Hospital use Walker publishes data confirming the value of face masks in preventing infection of surgical wounds.[13]
1934 Influenza General use An influenza epidemic in Japan triggers a different relationship with masks for the citizens, that of social courtesy. Infected people become conscientious about not passing on germs to others, and masks are no longer only worn by healthy individuals trying to avoid illness.[37] The Japanese government actively encourages its citizens to wear masks on public transportation, in theaters, and any other place people gather. This practice is reinforced to the point where those without a mask are sometimes barred from entry.[46] Japan
1935 Hospital-acquired infection Literature Face masks are mentioned in an edition of the book Assistance for operating staff.[12]
1935 Hospital-acquired infection Research Study by Meleney further confirms the value of face masks in preventing infection of surgical wounds.[13]
1936 Hospital-acquired infection Research A study reports on the results of a nine-year prospective study suggesting that use of surgical masks could contribute to surgical wound infections.[47]
1937 Chemical and biological weapons General use During the Second Sino-Japanese War, face masks become essential protection against chemical and biological warfare.[49] China
1937 Hospital-acquired infection Research Study by Hart and Davis confirms the value of face masks in preventing infection of surgical wounds.[13]
1948 Bacterial infection Research Study shows that large numbers of bacteria are liberated into the air from desquamated skin and clothing as a result of normal body activity, and that air in the operating room is contaminated more regularly and to a greater degree by the liberation of dust from clothing than by sneezing.[43]
1948–1950 Influenza Research After a period of decline since the end of the Spanish flu, the use of face masks quickly becomes common again during several major flu outbreaks around this time.[51]
1950 Air pollution Model introduction White gauze masks are first produced in Japan, as well as simple cloth ones without a wire frame. Previously, early masks were black, brown or green, in order to disguise dirt or stains from repeated use. New white masks are not only a response to industrialization and its subsequent pollution, but also used to combat the pollen from Japanese cedars that thrive off of the extra carbon dioxide.[46] Japan
1956 Staphylococcus aureus Research Hare confirms that staphylococcus aureus is carried in the anterior nares in 50% of the population, but finds it was generally only expelled from the nose during sneezing and snorting.[43]
1958 Research Kiser and Hitchcock report on a mask that combines the deflection and filtration principles. This plastic mask diverts the flow of breath backward on either side. Filter material near the side outlets is designed to trap the deflected organisms.[13]
1958 Research Andersen develops a sampling chamber to collect airborne particles in several categories of decreasing particle size.[13]
1959 Research Adam evaluates a fitted filter mask and finds it more efficient than gauze masks.[13]
1959 Nasal bacteria Research Shooter finds that few, if any, nasal bacteria are expelled into the air during quiet breathing, despite heavy nasal colonization.[43]
1960 Research Rockwood and O’Donoghuelg report that the length of time a filter mask retains its efficiency is three hours, confirming the inefficiency of absorbing gauze masks, and stressing the fact that the proper use of the best mask available could prevent infection.[13]
1961 Bacterial pathogens Model introduction Musselman reports on a mask designed to be used only once and then discarded. The mask incorporates a filter in a plastic shell that is shaped to fit the face. An elastic band secures it in place. Excellent bacterial filtration is reported.[13]
1961 Dust Model introduction 3M releases a “bubble” surgical mask that takes its inspiration from the cup of a bra. When 3M learns it can’t block pathogens, the mask is re-branded as a “dust” mask."[5] United States
1962 Hospital acquired bacterial infection Research Davis shows that desquamated skin, not expelled particulate matter, is the source of most common bacteria dispersed into the air of hospital wards.[43]
1966–1968 Influenza General use The use of face masks in Japan becomes even more common during several major flu outbreaks happening around this time.[51] Japan
1967 Model introduction The 3M mask starts being produced by the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company.[1] United States
1972 Model introduction 3M introduces the first single use N95 respirator mask.[2][9] United States
N95 respirator
1973 Model introduction The pleated design made of non-woven fabric is introduced.[46]
1975 Research A study by Ritter shows that, although surgical masks do not contain airborne contaminants, they act to deflect the droplets out of the sides of the mask when the wearer talks or breaths.[43]
1976 Microbial infection Research Study on the effect of surgical mask movement on facial areas (eg, under the chin, eyes, nose) concludes that the dissemination of skin bacteria could be attributable to the friction (ie, wiggling) that occurs between surgical masks and these areas of microbial skin contamination during talking.[47]
1981 Surgical wound infection Research A study on the influence of surgical masks on the risk of surgical wound infections concludes that wearing surgical masks "have little relevance to the well-being of patients undergoing routine general surgical procedures and that wearing surgical masks could be abandoned as a standard of practice."[47]
1981 Research A study is conducted to determine whether the wearing of surgical masks influences the risk of surgical wound infections. In this study, no surgical masks are worn by surgical staff in the operating room. A total of 1,049 surgical procedures with skin incisions are performed, and a surgical wound infection rate of 1.8% is identified. This rate is significantly lower than that experienced before the trial commenced (P<0.05). It is concluded that the standard practice of wearing surgical masks could be abandoned.[43]
1984 Hospital-acquired infection Research Researchers conduct a randomly controlled trial on women having gynaecological surgery. Women are randomly allocated to lists staffed entirely by masked or unmasked teams. The trial is discontinued within a week after the third case of postoperative infection in the unmasked group, representing three out of five patients, whereas none of four patients develop infections in the masked group.[43]
1984 Wound infection Research A study on wounds sutured in an emergency department notes that there is no significant difference in infection rates whether or not masks were worn.[43]
1987 Research Researchers show that even when masks are worn correctly, the airflow during inhalation could bypass the mask material, resulting in reduced filtering efficacy and an increased health risk for dental operators.[52]
1989 Research Research shows no increase in the cases of infection following cardiac catheterization procedures when caps and masks were not worn.[43]
1991 Research A study on the effectiveness of surgical masks concludes that operating room staff not immediately in the vicinity of the surgical site do not pose an infection hazard, and that it is not necessary for these staff to wear surgical masks.[43]
1991 Research An article by Wildsmith claims that masks should be worn when spinal or extradural anaesthesia is performed. He comments on the importance of the mask, stating that “the anterior nares and mouth are relatively close to, and usually immediately above, the sterile field” in such procedures.[43]
1991 Research A study looking at the correlation between surgical masks and the incidence of postoperative wound infection finds that surgical procedures performed with masks have a surgical wound infection rate of 4.7% (3.7 to 5.8%, 95% confidence limit), whereas surgical procedures performed without masks have a surgical wound infection rate of 3.5% (2.6 to 4.5%). The bacterial culture from both groups is found to be similar.[43]
1992 Research A study on the effectiveness of surgical face masks in reducing bacterial surface contamination produced by dispersal of organisms from the upper airway finds that the unmasked group shows a statistically significant increase in the number of microbial colonies.[43]
1992 Aerobic and anaerobic skin bacteria Research A study by Tunevall finds almost identical air counts of aerobic and anaerobic skin bacteria whether or not masks were worn by operating staff, with no postoperative infections being found during the study, involving 22 operations.[43]
1993 Research Leyland hypothesizes that masks "filter bacteria from the nose and mouth into aggregates of sufficient size as to be affected by gravity, hence falling, rather than remaining atomized and being expelled from the operating theatre by the air change system."[43]
1993 Research A study recommends that obstetricians should wear face shields or eyeglasses to protect against facial contamination, reporting that obstetricians commonly receive blood or amniotic fluid splashes to the face during deliveries (50% during caesarean delivery and 32% during vaginal delivery).[43]
1995 Research A study shows no significant difference in the infection rate between surgical mask users and staff wearing surgical visors.[43]
1995 Hospital use The N95 respirator becomes a healthcare standard in epidemics.[2][53]
N95 respirator
1998 Recommendation The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization recommend using cotton masks to protect from viral hemorrhagic fevers in low-resource healthcare settings in Africa if respirators or medical masks were not available.[14]
1999 Bacterial infection Research A study on the environmental effect of various gown protections in a mock operating room setting finds that the wearing of a surgical face mask in the hallway or the operating room has no effect on the bacterial counts in either the hallway or the operating room.[43]
2001 Research Researchers in Tasmania conclude that surgical masks should not be mandatory for anaesthetists in "the setting of a modern operating theater, with laminar flow/steriflow systems". They also note the available evidence suggests "surgical masks offer incomplete protection from airborne bacteria and viruses".[54] Australia
2002 Severe acute respiratory syndrome General use The 2002–2004 SARS outbreak prompts a mask resurgence in China, Hong Kong and across most of East Asia and Southeast Asia.[8] In East Asian countries besides Japan and China, the public practice is first forged.[1][38] East Asia, Southeast Asia
2003 Severe acute respiratory syndrome Research A comparative study on a sample size of 111 individuals in Hong Kong finds that healthcare workers who wore paper masks had lower risks of SARS infection.[55] China
2003 Model introduction Unicharm introduces 3D masks, which stand away from the mouth to make breathing easier, and to keep makeup from smearing.[46] Japan
2004 Severe acute respiratory syndrome Research A comparative study in Guangdong Province, China, finds that healthcare workers who wear both layer gauze and paper masks have lower risks of SARS infection.[55] China
2005 Influenza Recommendation The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issues recommendations for the appropriate use of medical masks as part of a group of influenza control strategies in healthcare settings.[56] United States
2006 Severe acute respiratory syndrome Research A study on healthcare workers wearing N95 masks during the SARS epidemic concludes that the use of N95 masks may cause the healthcare workers to develop headaches and wearing them for shorter amounts of time may reduce the frequency and severity of the headaches.[57]
2006 Model introduction Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh share their method of making face masks with a Hanes Heavyweight 100 per cent pre-shrunk cotton T-shirt. It involves cutting the shirt into one outer layer and eight inner layers, then tying the pieces together and around the wearer’s head.[58] United States
2006 Influenza Recommendation The US Institute of Medicine prepares a report about the reusability of face masks during an influenza pandemic.[14] United States
2007 Hospital-acquired infection Hospital use Preliminary work in Australia shows very low acceptance of and compliance with mask use by hospital doctors and nurses.[59] Australia
2008 Research A study comparing surgical and respirator masks with homemade masks made from tea towels finds that homemade masks are not as effective, but might still provide “a significant degree of protection.”[58]
2009 Severe acute respiratory syndrome Research A comparative study by Liu et al. on a sample size of 447 individuals in Beijing finds that healthcare workers who wore cotton masks had significantly lower risks of SARS infection.[55] China
2009 Swine influenza General use About 85 million N95 masks are distributed to combat the swine flu pandemic.[60]
2009 Influenza (H1N1) Recommendation The World Health Organization discusses the option of using cloth masks to protect wearers from acquiring infection during the Swine flu pandemic.[14]
2009 Research Research reports on the possibility of the N95 respirator mask to be sterilized, but advises it not to be washed with soap, warm water, alcohol or bleach. The study concludes that "even exposure to ultraviolet radiation or using a microwave oven is not advisable since these methods damage the electrostatic charge and significantly reduce the filtration capacity".[9]
2009–2011 Swine influenza General use The 2009 swine flu pandemic sees further upsurges of prophylactic mask-wearing in Japan, regardless of government advice.[7] Japan
2011 Research A survey of mask use conducted in Tokyo shows that face masks are worn as protection against infection or to avoid spreading infections to others, but also as a general form of protection and as a sign of respect and responsibility.[51] Japan
2012 General use A dense wave of smog in China prompts a large-scale use of masks. The term "PM2.5" begins to enter public awareness, and mask models such as N95 and KN90, which can filter out this fine particulate matter, become highly popular.[1] China
Smog in Shanghai, 6 December 2013
2012 H1N1 influenza Research A comparative study by Zhang et al. on a sample size of 56 individuals in Beijing finds that cloth mask use did not significantly decrease the risk of H1N1 infection in health care setting.[55] China
2012 Influenza Research Study at the University of North Carolina and the University of Michigan finds that, to be effective, masks must be worn consistently and early — as soon as flu season begins. The study also shows that masks work best in combination with other measures, particularly frequent hand-washing.[61] United States
2013 Influenza Research A study at University of Cambridge compares homemade masks made out of a variety of household materials with surgical masks on their efficacy in offering protection during an influenza pandemic. All the masks studied in the report are found to reduce the number of microorganisms expelled into the air by volunteers, at least to an extent. Masks from dish/​cleaning towels or cotton blend t‑shirts are found to be considerably effective in capturing small particles (stopping 83% and 74% of the particles, respectively).[37] United Kingdom
Homemade cloth face mask
2013 Research A study finds that vacuum bags, while being an unconventional option for at-home masks, are found to perform the strongest compared to other household alternatives.[58][62]
2014 Viral infection Research A cough simulation study suggests that a face shield, correctly manufactured and worn, could reduce a person’s viral exposure to a cough expelled less than 18 inches away by 96%.[63][64]
2015 Droplet infection Research Study by a team of Indian scientists on the dispersion of particles expelled during coughing/​sneezing using aerodynamic simulation techniques finds that larger droplets emitted from coughing/​sneezing can be blocked by a mask. A mask reduces the distance travelled by smaller droplets from nearly 2 meters to less than 30 cm. At the same time, maintaining a physical distance of at least 2 meters is greatly beneficial as even the particles that escaped the mask in the study could carry the virus no farther than 1.5 meters.[37]
2015 Hospital-acquired infection Research Study comparing the efficacy of cloth masks with that of medical masks and controls (standard practice) among healthcare workers in Vietnam finds that rates of infection are consistently higher among those in the cloth mask group than in the medical mask and control groups. This finding suggests that risk for infection is higher for those wearing cloth masks.[14] Vietnam
2016 Model introduction A “Small-Face Mask” is introduced in Japan. It would be ranked among the top ten masks for women in a 2018 survey so that “your dream to have a smaller face will come true.”[46] Japan
2017 General use The Asia-Pacific region accounts for the largest sheet face mask market share ot 42.91% of the global market, with Japan as one of the leading markets in the region, accounting for the largest market share during the review period.[65] Asia-Pacific
Face mask at Great Wall China
2017 Research Research reports on the possibility of the N95 respirator mask to be sterilized in a dry rice cooker for 3 min at 149–164 degrees Celsius.[9]
2018 Recommendation Medical anthropologist Christos Lynteris publishes article prompting readers to think about surgical masks as masks, bodily prostheses that transform the identity of the wearer. The gauze mask has both practical and performative significance. Practically, it creates a barrier against the inhalation of invisible airborne pathogens. At the same time, it performs symbolically the idea of a regime against airborne pathogens.[7]
2018 Influenza Research A study concludes that if only 20 percent of people use masks, it wouldn’t make a difference for the spread of influenza. The effect is found to be substancial at 50 percent compliance, with the use of high-filtration surgical masks.[66]
South Carolina National Guard assembles personal protective face masks
2018 Production About 4.3 million disposable masks are manufactured for personal use in Japan in this year.[46] Japan
Face mask selection at small convenience store in Tokyo
2018 Market size The global face masks market reaches approximately US$ 5.80 billion in this year.[67] Worldwide
2019 Production As of year, mainland China manufactures half the world output of masks.[68] China
Citizens of Wuhan lining up outside of a drug store to buy masks during the Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
2019 Market size The global face mask industry surpasses US$7.24 billion in the year.[69] Worldwide
2019 Market size The protective face mask market size in North America surpasses US$ 470 million.[70] North America
2019–2020 Surveillance Protester use During the Hong Kong protests, face masks are worn as both a political statement and as a tool for disguising identity from closed-circuit TV cameras. They would become so popular that the government would go so far as to try to ban them, immediately elevating them to a symbol of revolt.[8] Hong Kong
Before the protest speaking 20200223.png
2020 (April 15) Coronavirus disease 2019 Model introduction Scientists claim having developed a biodegradable material for face masks which is effective at removing particles smaller than 100 nanometres including viruses and has a high breathability.[71][72] Australia
2020 (April 22) Coronavirus disease 2019 Recommendation A study by the U.S. National Academy of Medicine recommends wearing an anti-projection mask covering the nose and mouth, designed to retain droplets projected when speaking, coughing or sneezing and stop them dispersing in the immediate environment.[3] United States
Rhode Island National Guardsmen sew face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic
2020 (April 27) Coronavirus disease 2019 Policy Face masks become mandatory for shopping and in public transportation in Germany.[12] Germany
FFP1 face mask, 2020
2020 (October 22) Coronavirus disease 2019 Policy Malaysia's health ministry states that Muslim women who wear niqab or purdah are still required to wear face masks to curb Covid-19, as those veils are considered non-medical mask and those wearing them are not exempted from regulations on face mask use devised by the World Health Organization.[73] Malaysia
Niqab with nose string
2020 (November 24) Coronavirus disease 2019 Research A study by the American Institute of Physics finds that if 70% of people wore surgical masks, the pandemic would be "eradicated."[74][75]
2020 (November 30) Coronavirus disease 2019 Recommendation The U.S. Food and Drug Administration issues guidance on the use of dry heat to help support the single-user reuse of certain particulate filtering facepiece respirators. United States
Surgical masks being decontaminated for reuse under ultraviolet light
2023 Coronavirus disease 2019 Market size The European sheet face mask market is estimated to exceed US$284.6 million by this year.[65] Europe
2026 Market size The face mask market is expected to surpass US$21.2 billion by this year.[76]
2027 Market size According to a study published by Polaris Market Research, the global face mask market is expected to surpass US$ 31.83 billion by this year.[77] Worldwide

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References

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