Timeline of gastroenterology

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This is a timeline of gastroenterology, attempting to describe significant events in the development of the field. Advances in endoscopy are largely described.

Big picture

Time period Development summary
17th century The first scientific studies of the digestive system are performed by Jan Baptist van Helmont.[1]
19th century A major advance in treatment in the 19th century is the use of gastric lavage (washing out of the stomach) to treat stomach poisoning; this becomes a standard treatment for all forms of gastric irritation, and the long tube used to introduce the lavage fluid is also adapted to view the stomach for diagnostic use.[1] The late century sees rapid advances in the understanding of the physiology and biochemistry of the digestive tract.[2]
1960s Societies of endoscopy become widely established and provided, for persons in gastroenterology training, courses in the appropriate indications for endoscopic investigation and formal teaching of the techniques involved.[3]
20th century In the 1960s and 1970s, advancements are made with endoscope lenght, improved visualization, and greater control.[4] Since the 1970s, endoscopy starts becomming the incontrovertible tool of gastroenterology.[3]

Full timeline

Year Event type Details Location
1767 Scientific development Johann Georg Ritter von Zimmermann writes an important work on dysentery.[5] Germany
1777 Scientific development Maximilian Stoll in Vienna describes cancer of the gallbladder.[6][7] Austria
1805 Scientific development German physician Philipp Bozzini makes the first attempt to observe inside the living human body by devising a tin tube illuminated by a wax candle fitted with a mirror, to examine the urinary tract, the rectum, and the pharynx. This is the earliest description of endoscopy.[8][9][10][11][12][13] Germany
1823 Scientific development English physician William Prout demonstrates thet the stomach contains free hydrochloric acid.[14][15][16][17] United Kingdom
1824 Literature William Prout publishes On the nature of acid and saline matters usually existing in the stomach of animals.[17] United Kingdom
1833 Literature (book) American surgeon William Beaumont publishes Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion. Beaumont is known as the "Father of Gastric Physiology" following his research on human digestion.[18] United States
1868 Medical development German physician Adolf Kussmaul performs the first gastroscopy.[19][20][21] Germany
1871 Medical development Austrian laryngologist Karl Stoerk in Vienna demonstrates an esophagoscope made of two telescopic metal tubes.[22] Austria
1876 Scientific development German pathologist Karl Wilhelm Von Kupffer first describes the properties of some liver cells now called Kupffer cell.[23][24][25] Germany
1879 Technology American inventor Thomas Edison invents the incandescent light bulb.[26] United States
1880 Medical development English otorinologist Morrel Mackenzie designs a speculum type of esophagoscope.[22]
1881 Medical development Polish surgeon Jan Mikulicz-Radecki introduces the use of electric light to examine the esophagus.[22]
1883 Medical development German physiologist Karl Hugo Kroneker and Samuel James Meltzer make first use of kymograph to measure activity of the digestive tract.[27][28][29]
1886 Medical development Jan Mikulicz-Radecki introduces the first esophagoscope using "Mignon" small bulb.[26]
1894 Medical development American gynecologist Howard Atwood Kelly at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore introduces rigid sigmoidoscopy. In the same year, he writes article A New Method of Examination and Treatment of Diseases of the Rectum and Sigmoid Flexure. His instrument and technique would endure until the 1970s.[26] United States
1897 Organization The American Gastroenterological Association is formed.[30] United States
1911 Medical development H. Eisner introduces the rigid endoscope.[26]
1915 Scientific development American chemist Jesse Francis McClendon tests acidity of human stomach in situ.[31][32][33] United States
1940 Medical development The Cameron-Schindler gastroscope is introduced.[26]
1945 Medical development Eder semi-flexible gastroscope model 105 is introduced.[26]
1921 Medical development American medical doctor Walter Alvarez performs the first cutaneous electrogastrography (EEG).[34][35][36][37] United States
1932 Medical development German physician Rudolf Schindler and Georg Wolf develop a flexible gastroscope.[38][39][40] United States
1932 Scientific development American gastroenterologist Burrill Bernard Crohn describes Crohn's disease.[41][42][43] United States
1932 Organization The American College of Gastroenterology is founded.[44]
1932 Medical development German engineer Georg Wolff develops a semiflexible instrument with a flexible distal shaft, considered the first safe workable gastroscope.[4]
1934 Literature (journal) The American Journal of Gastroenterology is founded.[45] United States
1934 Literature (journal) The American Journal of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition is established.[46] United States
1937 Organization The British Society of Gastroenterology is founded.[2] United Kingdom
1940s Medical development Sclerotherapy of esophageal varices through rigid esophagoscope develops.[26]
1941 Organization The American Gastroscopic Club is founded.[3] United States
1943 Literature (journal) Medical journal Gastroenterology is established.[44]
Late 1940s Medical development Gastric and esophageal biobsies are introduced.[26]
Late 1940s Medical development The Eder-Chamberlain controlled tip gastroscope is introduced.[26]
1949 Medical development The Eder-Hufford esophagoscope is introduced.[26]
1952 Medical development Uji and Olympus Coroporation in Japan develop the gastrocamera.[26]
1954 Literature (journal) Medical journal Gastrointestinal Endoscopy is established.[47]
1954 Medical development H. Hopkins and N.S. Kapany describe a flexible fibroscope using glass fibers to transmit light.[26]
1957 Medical development Basil Hirschowitz passes a prototype instrument down his own throat, giving rise to fiber-optic endoscopy.[4]
1957 Scientific development Sakula and Shiner demonstrate a flat, small intestinal mucosa on biopsy of the small bowel of a chils with coeliac disease. The finding is of particular importance in the development of paediatric gastroenterology.[48]
1957 Medical development The fiberoptic endoscope is released.[3]
1958 Organization The World Gastroenterology Organisation is founded. It consists of a federation of over 100 member societies of gastroenterology, hepatology, endoscopy, and other related disciplines.[49]
1958 Literature (journal) Journal Diseases of the Colon & Rectum is established.[50]
1960 Medical development Physicians in Japan and the United States become actively engaged in developing instruments to visualize the colon.[26] Japan, United States
1961 Medical development American gastroenterologist Bergein Overholt conceives the idea of adapting fiberoptic technology to examination of the rectum and colon. United States
1960 Literature (journal) Medical journal Gut is established.[51]
1963 Medical development Basil Hirschowitz reports a fiberoscope evolved to include a controllable tip, forward-viewing optics, channels for insufflation, and aspiration and passage of accessories, including biopsy forceps.[26]
1963 Medical development Bergein Overholt develops a prototype flexible fiberoptic instrument.[4]
1965 Medical development The first total colonoscopy is performed in Sardinia, Italy.[4]
1966 Literature (journal) The Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology is founded.[52]
1968 Organization The European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology is founded.[48]
1968 Medical development William S McCune and colleagues in Chicago perform the first endoscopic cannulation of the duodenal ampulla.[4]
1969 Literature (journal) Medical journal Endoscopy is founded.[53]
1969 Medical development Japanese surgeon Hiromi Shinya performs the first polypectomy, removing a 1.5cm pedunculated polyp from the sigmoid colon of a 70-year-old Chinese man.[4] Japan
1970 Medical development The Olympus colonoscope is released, incorporating for the first time in any fiber-optic scope a four-way tip deflection.[26]
1970 Medical development A "panendoscope" to allow visualization of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum is introduced.[26]
1971 Medical development William I. Wolff and Hiromi Shinya begin performing colonic polyp removal with a wire snare placed through the biopsy channel of the colonoscope.[26]
1972 Medical development Vennes and Silvis publish their first 80 biliary cannulation attempts.[26]
1974 Medical development Sphincteroctomy is performed facilitating removal of two common bile duct stones and ushering a new era of therapeutic pancreaticobiliary endoscopy.[4]
1975 Medical development Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) becomes therapeutic. Endoscopic sphincteroctomy for non-surgical removal of biliary calculi.[26]
1976 Medical development Lutz and Rosch incorporate ultrasound into a standard endoscope when passing an ultrasound probe through an accessory port of an endoscope.[4] They report the use of 4 MHz Siemens ultrasonic probe, passed through a biopsy channel of an existing Olympus endoscope.[26] Germany
1979 Literature (journal) The Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology is founded.[54]
1979 Medical development Ponsky completes the first percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG).[26]
1980 Medical development Strohm and DiMagno introduce their own prototype echoendoscopes.[4]
1980 Medical development Gauderer and Ponsky describe the technique of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.[26]
1980 Medical development An ultrasonic probe with fixed-frequency transducer is incorporated into the tip of conventional fiberscope.[26]
1982 Literature (journal) The Indian Journal of Gastroenterology is established.[55] India
1982 Literature (journal) The Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition is established.[56]
1983 Medeical development Video endoscopy is introduced.[26]
1985 Medical development Ultrasonic transducers with variable frequencies are incorporated into video scopes which are available by the time.[26]
1985 Medical development Endoscopic control of non-variceal gastrointestinal hemorrhage is introduced.[26]
Mid 1980s Medical development The sonde enteroscope is developed.[26]
1987 Literature (journal) The Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology is launched.[57] Canada
1987 Literature (journal) Medical journal Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics is established.[58]
1988 Medical development Endoscopic hemostasis clips are introduced.[26]
Late 1980s Medical development Japanese Olympus Corporation and Fujinon become first industry leaders in videoendoscopy.[26] Japan
1989 Literature (journal) The European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology is founded.[59]
1989 Literature (journal) Medical journal Neurogastroenterology & Motility is established.[60]
1990 Medical development Endoscopic variceal ligation is introduced.[26]
Early 1990s Medical development The argon plasma coagulation is introduced as a medical endoscopic procedure.[26]
1991 Medical development Giancarlo Caletti performs on submucosal lessions of the stomach the first endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration.[4]
1991 Medical development Wiersema et al. demonstrate the ability to perform fine needle aspiration of nodes and lesions for the diagnosis of neoplasms of the mediastium and upper and lower gastrointestinal tract.[26]
1992 Literature (journal) The United European Gastroenterology is founded.[61]
1995 Literature (journal) Medical journal Inflammatory Bowel Diseases is first issued.[62]
1995 Literature (journal) The World Journal of Gastroenterology is established.[63]
2001 Yamamoto describes "total enteroscopy with a non-surgical steerable double-balloon method".[26]
2001 Medical development The United States Food and Drug Administration approves use of a capsule device for imaging of a small intestine. Images are transmitted wirelessly from a capsule to a data recorder worn by the patient.[26] United States
2001 Medical development Yamamoto introduces double-balloon small bowel enteroscope.[26]
2001 Medical development Video capsule endoscopy is introduced.[26]
2003 Medical development Medical journal Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology is first issued.[64]
2003 Medical development Endoscopic mucosal resection is introduced.[26]
2005 Award Australian scientists Barry Marshall and Robin Warren are awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease".[65]
2005 Medical development Highly definition video colonoscopy is introduced.[26]
2007 Literature (journal) The Journal of Crohn's and Colitis is first issued.[66]
2007 Literature (journal) Medical journal Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology is first issued.[67]
2008 Literature (journal) Medical journal Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology is first issued.[68]
2010 Literature (journal) Open access medical journal Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology is established.[69]
2012 Organization GI Forum is founded as an online community where individuals discuss and share information relevant to gastroenterology and hepatology.[70]
2012 Medical development Hemostatic powders are introduced for endoscopy.[26]
2013 Medical development FUSE omnidirectional endoscopy is introduced.[26]

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How the timeline was built

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See also

External links


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