Difference between revisions of "Timeline of global health"

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{{Attribute English Wikipedia|original-exists=yes}}
 
{{Attribute English Wikipedia|original-exists=yes}}
  
This page is a '''timeline of [[global health]]''', including major conferences, interventions, cures, and crises.
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This page is a '''timeline of [[wikipedia:global health|global health]]''', including major conferences, interventions, cures, and crises.
  
 
==Big picture==
 
==Big picture==
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During this pre-WWII era, there are three big trends that operate separately, but sometimes affect each other in development and outcomes.
 
During this pre-WWII era, there are three big trends that operate separately, but sometimes affect each other in development and outcomes.
  
First, a trend of urbanization (fueled by the [[Industrial Revolution]]) as well as greater global trade and migration leads to new challenges, including those in urban sanitation and infectious diseases/pandemics. Six global [[cholera]] pandemics happen in this period because of increased commerce and migration.<ref name="markel"/>{{rp|125}}
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First, a trend of urbanization (fueled by the [[wikipedia:Industrial Revolution|Industrial Revolution]]) as well as greater global trade and migration leads to new challenges, including those in urban sanitation and infectious diseases/pandemics. Six global [[wikipedia:cholera|cholera]] pandemics happen in this period because of increased commerce and migration.<ref name="markel"/>{{rp|125}}
  
Second, there is a lot of development on the underlying theory of disease, advancements in vaccine and antibiotic development, and a variety of experimental large-scale eradication and control programs. One big example: the [[germ theory of diseases]] begins to become accepted and popularized starting around 1850.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/contagion/germtheory.html |title=Germ Theory |publisher=Harvard |accessdate=April 13, 2016}}</ref> Another big example is the development of the smallpox vaccine by Edward Jenner in 1796.<ref name=Baxby1999/> Systematic eradication and control efforts include the [[Rockefeller Sanitary Commission]] and efforts to eradicate smallpox.<ref name="cugh.org">http://wayback.archive.org/web/20150918175742/http://cugh.org/sites/default/files/content/resources/modules/To%20Post%20Both%20Faculty%20and%20Trainees/29_Global_Health_In_Historical_Perspective_The_Uses_Of_History_FINAL.pptx.pdf</ref> Antitoxins and vaccines for numerous diseases including [[cholera]] and [[tuberculosis]] are developed during this period, building on a trend of greater understanding of and control over [[microorganisms]].<ref name="vaccine_timeline">{{cite web |url=http://www.historyofvaccines.org/timeline |title=Timeline – History of Vaccines |publisher=The College of Physicians of Philadelphia |accessdate=January 25, 2016}}</ref>
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Second, there is a lot of development on the underlying theory of disease, advancements in vaccine and antibiotic development, and a variety of experimental large-scale eradication and control programs. One big example: the [[wikipedia:germ theory of diseases|germ theory of diseases]] begins to become accepted and popularized starting around 1850.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/contagion/germtheory.html |title=Germ Theory |publisher=Harvard |accessdate=April 13, 2016}}</ref> Another big example is the development of the smallpox vaccine by Edward Jenner in 1796.<ref name=Baxby1999/> Systematic eradication and control efforts include the [[wikipedia:Rockefeller Sanitary Commission|Rockefeller Sanitary Commission]] and efforts to eradicate smallpox.<ref name="cugh.org">http://wayback.archive.org/web/20150918175742/http://cugh.org/sites/default/files/content/resources/modules/To%20Post%20Both%20Faculty%20and%20Trainees/29_Global_Health_In_Historical_Perspective_The_Uses_Of_History_FINAL.pptx.pdf</ref> Antitoxins and vaccines for numerous diseases including [[wikipedia:cholera|cholera]] and [[wikipedia:tuberculosis|tuberculosis]] are developed during this period, building on a trend of greater understanding of and control over [[wikipedia:microorganisms|microorganisms]].<ref name="vaccine_timeline">{{cite web |url=http://www.historyofvaccines.org/timeline |title=Timeline – History of Vaccines |publisher=The College of Physicians of Philadelphia |accessdate=January 25, 2016}}</ref>
  
A third theme during this era is the formation of various preliminary international alliances and conferences, including the [[International Sanitary Conferences]], [[Pan American Health Organization]], [[Office International d'Hygiène Publique]], and the [[League of Nations]] Health Committee. This is closely intertwined with the other two trends. For instance, the cholera pandemics mentioned above, as well as the growing scientific understanding of the germ theory of disease, are both key impetuses for the International Sanitary Conferences.<ref name="markel">{{cite web |url=http://s2.medicina.uady.mx/observatorio/docs/ee/ac/EE2014_Ac_Markel.pdf |title=Worldly approaches to global health: 1851 to the present |first=Howard |last=Markel |date=January 7, 2014 |accessdate=April 5, 2016}}</ref>{{rp|125}}
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A third theme during this era is the formation of various preliminary international alliances and conferences, including the [[wikipedia:International Sanitary Conferences|International Sanitary Conferences]], [[wikipedia:Pan American Health Organization|Pan American Health Organization]], [[wikipedia:Office International d'Hygiène Publique|Office International d'Hygiène Publique]], and the [[wikipedia:League of Nations|League of Nations]] Health Committee. This is closely intertwined with the other two trends. For instance, the cholera pandemics mentioned above, as well as the growing scientific understanding of the germ theory of disease, are both key impetuses for the International Sanitary Conferences.<ref name="markel">{{cite web |url=http://s2.medicina.uady.mx/observatorio/docs/ee/ac/EE2014_Ac_Markel.pdf |title=Worldly approaches to global health: 1851 to the present |first=Howard |last=Markel |date=January 7, 2014 |accessdate=April 5, 2016}}</ref>{{rp|125}}
  
 
===1940s–early 1960s (post-WWII era)===
 
===1940s–early 1960s (post-WWII era)===
Following the end of [[World War II]], the first batch of big organizations, both international and national (with international cooperation), including the [[United Nations]] and [[World Health Organization]] (WHO), form.<ref name="markel"/> Beginning with the [[United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration]] for relief of victims of war in 1943, there is a big push to begin creating large scale health initiatives, non-governmental organizations, and worldwide global health programs by the United Nations to improve quality of life around the world. [[UNICEF]], the World Health Organization, as well as the UNRRA are all part of United Nations efforts to benefit global health beginning with developing countries. These various programs aim to aid in economic endeavors by providing loans, direct disease prevention programs, health education, etc.
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Following the end of [[wikipedia:World War II|World War II]], the first batch of big organizations, both international and national (with international cooperation), including the [[wikipedia:United Nations|United Nations]] and [[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]] (WHO), form.<ref name="markel"/> Beginning with the [[wikipedia:United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration|United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration]] for relief of victims of war in 1943, there is a big push to begin creating large scale health initiatives, non-governmental organizations, and worldwide global health programs by the United Nations to improve quality of life around the world. [[wikipedia:UNICEF|UNICEF]], the World Health Organization, as well as the UNRRA are all part of United Nations efforts to benefit global health beginning with developing countries. These various programs aim to aid in economic endeavors by providing loans, direct disease prevention programs, health education, etc.
  
 
===Late 1960s–1970s===
 
===Late 1960s–1970s===
  
After wrapping up complications caused by the end of the war, there is an international energy put in into eradication, beginning with the complete smallpox eradication in 1979. There is greater dissatisfaction with WHO for its focus on disease/infection control at the expense of trying to improve general living conditions, as well as disappointment at its low budget and staffing. This atmosphere spurs other organizations to provide their own forms of aid.<ref name="palilonis">{{cite web |url=http://bioethics.wfu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Topic-3-A-Brief-History-of-Global-Health.pdf |title=An Introduction to Global Health and Global Health Ethics: A Brief History of Global Health |author= M. A. Palilonis |accessdate=April 13, 2016}}</ref>{{rp|6}}<ref name="markel"/>{{rp|126}} The [[Alma Ata Declaration]] and selective [[primary healthcare]] are created to express urgent action by all governments and citizens to protect and promote the health of all people equally.<ref name="Alma Ata Declaration">WHO. [http://www.who.int/publications/almaata_declaration_en.pdf Declaration from the website of the World Health Organization].</ref> More organizations form following these new active attitudes toward global health, including the [[International Agency for Research on Cancer]] and the [[Doctors Without Borders]] organization. Publications like the [[WHO Model List of Essential Medicines]] highlight basic medicines required by most adults and children to survive, and set priorities for healthcare fund allocation in third world countries.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/essentialmedicines/en/|title=WHO Model Lists of Essential Medicines|publisher=}}</ref> Generally, there is more buy-in for the idea that direct, targeted efforts to address healthcare could be worthwhile and benefit many countries.
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After wrapping up complications caused by the end of the war, there is an international energy put in into eradication, beginning with the complete smallpox eradication in 1979. There is greater dissatisfaction with WHO for its focus on disease/infection control at the expense of trying to improve general living conditions, as well as disappointment at its low budget and staffing. This atmosphere spurs other organizations to provide their own forms of aid.<ref name="palilonis">{{cite web |url=http://bioethics.wfu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Topic-3-A-Brief-History-of-Global-Health.pdf |title=An Introduction to Global Health and Global Health Ethics: A Brief History of Global Health |author= M. A. Palilonis |accessdate=April 13, 2016}}</ref>{{rp|6}}<ref name="markel"/>{{rp|126}} The [[wikipedia:Alma Ata Declaration|Alma Ata Declaration]] and selective [[wikipedia:primary healthcare|primary healthcare]] are created to express urgent action by all governments and citizens to protect and promote the health of all people equally.<ref name="Alma Ata Declaration">WHO. [http://www.who.int/publications/almaata_declaration_en.pdf Declaration from the website of the World Health Organization].</ref> More organizations form following these new active attitudes toward global health, including the [[wikipedia:International Agency for Research on Cancer|International Agency for Research on Cancer]] and the [[wikipedia:Doctors Without Borders|Doctors Without Borders]] organization. Publications like the [[wikipedia:WHO Model List of Essential Medicines|WHO Model List of Essential Medicines]] highlight basic medicines required by most adults and children to survive, and set priorities for healthcare fund allocation in third world countries.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/essentialmedicines/en/|title=WHO Model Lists of Essential Medicines|publisher=}}</ref> Generally, there is more buy-in for the idea that direct, targeted efforts to address healthcare could be worthwhile and benefit many countries.
  
 
===1980s–2000===
 
===1980s–2000===
  
Certain specific efforts increase in efficiency and productivity, including improvement in maternal and child health and a focus on [[HIV/AIDS]], [[tuberculosis]], and [[malaria]] (the 'Big Three') in developing countries. During this time period, the [[child survival revolution]] (CSR), which helps reduce child mortality in the developing world, and [[GOBI-FFF]] are both advocated by [[James P. Grant]].<ref name="David Bornstein 2007 pp. 250">David Bornstein (2007). How to Change the World: Social Entrepreneurs and the Power of New Ideas New York: Oxford University Press pp. 250</ref> The [[World Summit for Children]] also takes place, becoming one of the largest ever gathering of heads of states and government to commit a set of goals to improve the well-being of children. Finally, HIV/AIDS becomes the focus of many governmental and non-governmental organizations, leading to the formation of the Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) by efforts of the World Health Organization.<ref name="palilonis"/>{{rp|6}} However, these health organizations also make significant advancements to tuberculosis treatments, including the [[DOTS]] strategy and the formation of the [[Stop TB Partnership]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.stoptb.org/|title=Stop TB Partnership - Home Page|publisher=}}</ref>
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Certain specific efforts increase in efficiency and productivity, including improvement in maternal and child health and a focus on [[wikipedia:HIV/AIDS|HIV/AIDS]], [[wikipedia:tuberculosis|tuberculosis]], and [[wikipedia:malaria|malaria]] (the 'Big Three') in developing countries. During this time period, the [[wikipedia:child survival revolution|child survival revolution]] (CSR), which helps reduce child mortality in the developing world, and [[wikipedia:GOBI-FFF|GOBI-FFF]] are both advocated by [[wikipedia:James P. Grant|James P. Grant]].<ref name="David Bornstein 2007 pp. 250">David Bornstein (2007). How to Change the World: Social Entrepreneurs and the Power of New Ideas New York: Oxford University Press pp. 250</ref> The [[wikipedia:World Summit for Children|World Summit for Children]] also takes place, becoming one of the largest ever gathering of heads of states and government to commit a set of goals to improve the well-being of children. Finally, HIV/AIDS becomes the focus of many governmental and non-governmental organizations, leading to the formation of the Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) by efforts of the World Health Organization.<ref name="palilonis"/>{{rp|6}} However, these health organizations also make significant advancements to tuberculosis treatments, including the [[wikipedia:DOTS|DOTS]] strategy and the formation of the [[wikipedia:Stop TB Partnership|Stop TB Partnership]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.stoptb.org/|title=Stop TB Partnership - Home Page|publisher=}}</ref>
  
 
===2000s and beyond===
 
===2000s and beyond===
  
UN's [[Millennium Development Goals]] establishes health care as an important goal (not just combating infectious diseases).<ref name="palilonis"/>{{rp|7}} Later in 2015, the [[Sustainable Development Goals]] build on the MDGs to outline the objectives that will transform our world by ending poverty, helping the environment, and improving health and education. More specific disease-targeting organizations are created primarily to fund healthcare plans in developing countries, including the  [[President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief]] and [[The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/|title=Home - The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria|publisher=}}</ref> These organizations (especially the WHO) adopt new strategies and initiatives, including the [[3 by 5 Initiative]] to widen the access to [[antiretroviral treatment]], the [[WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control]], etc.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/fctc/en/|title=World Health Organization|publisher=}}</ref> Private large donors such as the [[Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation]] begin to play an important role in shaping the funding landscape and direction of efforts in global health.
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UN's [[wikipedia:Millennium Development Goals|Millennium Development Goals]] establishes health care as an important goal (not just combating infectious diseases).<ref name="palilonis"/>{{rp|7}} Later in 2015, the [[wikipedia:Sustainable Development Goals|Sustainable Development Goals]] build on the MDGs to outline the objectives that will transform our world by ending poverty, helping the environment, and improving health and education. More specific disease-targeting organizations are created primarily to fund healthcare plans in developing countries, including the  [[wikipedia:President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief|President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief]] and [[wikipedia:The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria|The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/|title=Home - The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria|publisher=}}</ref> These organizations (especially the WHO) adopt new strategies and initiatives, including the [[wikipedia:3 by 5 Initiative|3 by 5 Initiative]] to widen the access to [[wikipedia:antiretroviral treatment|antiretroviral treatment]], the [[wikipedia:WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control|WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control]], etc.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/fctc/en/|title=World Health Organization|publisher=}}</ref> Private large donors such as the [[wikipedia:Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation|Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation]] begin to play an important role in shaping the funding landscape and direction of efforts in global health.
  
 
==Full timeline==
 
==Full timeline==
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! Year !! Event type !! Event !! Disease name !! Geographic location
 
! Year !! Event type !! Event !! Disease name !! Geographic location
 
|-
 
|-
| 1747 || Medical advancement || The first reported [[clinical trial]] is conducted by [[James Lind]] in 1747 to identify treatment for [[scurvy]].<ref>{{cite journal | url = https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1720613/pdf/v076p00F64.pdf | pmc=1720613 | pmid=9059193 | volume=76 | title=James Lind (1716–94) of Edinburgh and the treatment of scurvy | date=January 1997 | author=Dunn PM | journal=Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. | pages=F64–5 | doi=10.1136/fn.76.1.f64}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Superforecasting: The Art and Science of Prediction |first1=Philip E. |last1=Tetlock |first2=Dan |last2=Gardner |year=2015}}</ref> || [[Scurvy]] ||
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| 1747 || Medical advancement || The first reported [[wikipedia:clinical trial|clinical trial]] is conducted by [[wikipedia:James Lind|James Lind]] in 1747 to identify treatment for [[wikipedia:scurvy|scurvy]].<ref>{{cite journal | url = https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1720613/pdf/v076p00F64.pdf | pmc=1720613 | pmid=9059193 | volume=76 | title=James Lind (1716–94) of Edinburgh and the treatment of scurvy | date=January 1997 | author=Dunn PM | journal=Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. | pages=F64–5 | doi=10.1136/fn.76.1.f64}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Superforecasting: The Art and Science of Prediction |first1=Philip E. |last1=Tetlock |first2=Dan |last2=Gardner |year=2015}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Scurvy|Scurvy]] ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1796 || Discovery || The [[smallpox vaccine]] is the first successful [[vaccine]] to be developed, introduced by scientist [[Edward Jenner]]. He observes that milkmaids who previously caught [[cowpox]] did not later catch [[smallpox]] by showing that the inoculated cowpox protected against inoculated smallpox.<ref name=Baxby1999>{{cite journal|last=Baxby|first=Derrick|title=Edward Jenner's Inquiry; a bicentenary analysis|journal=Vaccine|year=1999|volume=17|issue=4|pages=301–7|doi=10.1016/S0264-410X(98)00207-2|pmid=9987167}}</ref> || [[Smallpox]] ||
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| 1796 || Discovery || The [[wikipedia:smallpox vaccine|smallpox vaccine]] is the first successful [[wikipedia:vaccine|vaccine]] to be developed, introduced by scientist [[wikipedia:Edward Jenner|Edward Jenner]]. He observes that milkmaids who previously caught [[wikipedia:cowpox|cowpox]] did not later catch [[wikipedia:smallpox|smallpox]] by showing that the inoculated cowpox protected against inoculated smallpox.<ref name=Baxby1999>{{cite journal|last=Baxby|first=Derrick|title=Edward Jenner's Inquiry; a bicentenary analysis|journal=Vaccine|year=1999|volume=17|issue=4|pages=301–7|doi=10.1016/S0264-410X(98)00207-2|pmid=9987167}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Smallpox|Smallpox]] ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1813 || Policy || The [[Vaccine Act of 1813]] is an Act of the [[12th United States Congress|Twelfth Congress of the United States]] to encourage [[vaccination]] against [[smallpox]]. The Act is the first [[federal law]] concerning [[consumer protection]] and [[pharmaceuticals]].<ref>[http://www.fda.gov/AboutFDA/WhatWeDo/History/Origin/ucm124403.htm US FDA, ''FDA's Origin'', accessed 25-Jan-2010]</ref> The authority to regulate vaccines is given to the states after the Act is repealed in May 1822.<ref name=Act>[http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/cases/vaccines/vac_act_1813.pdf TWELFTH CONGRESS. SESS. II. CH. 35,36,37.]</ref> || Smallpox || [[United States]]
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| 1813 || Policy || The [[wikipedia:Vaccine Act of 1813|Vaccine Act of 1813]] is an Act of the [[wikipedia:12th United States Congress|Twelfth Congress of the United States]] to encourage [[wikipedia:vaccination|vaccination]] against [[wikipedia:smallpox|smallpox]]. The Act is the first [[wikipedia:federal law|federal law]] concerning [[wikipedia:consumer protection|consumer protection]] and [[wikipedia:pharmaceuticals|pharmaceuticals]].<ref>[http://www.fda.gov/AboutFDA/WhatWeDo/History/Origin/ucm124403.htm US FDA, ''FDA's Origin'', accessed 25-Jan-2010]</ref> The authority to regulate vaccines is given to the states after the Act is repealed in May 1822.<ref name=Act>[http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/cases/vaccines/vac_act_1813.pdf TWELFTH CONGRESS. SESS. II. CH. 35,36,37.]</ref> || Smallpox || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1817–1824 || Crisis || The [[1817–24 cholera pandemic|first cholera pandemic]] begins near [[Calcutta]], reaching most of Asia. It is thought to have killed over 100,000 people.<ref name=seven-pandemics>{{cite web|title=Cholera's seven pandemics|url=http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/cholera-s-seven-pandemics-1.758504|publisher = [[CBC News]]|date = May 9, 2008|accessdate = April 23, 2016}}</ref> || Cholera || [[India]], [[Thailand]], [[Philippines]], [[Java]], [[Oman]], [[China]], [[Japan]], [[Persian Gulf]], [[Iraq]], [[Syria]], [[Transcaucasia]], [[Astrakhan]] ([[Russia]]), [[Zanzibar]], and [[Mauritius]].
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| 1817–1824 || Crisis || The [[wikipedia:1817–24 cholera pandemic|first cholera pandemic]] begins near [[wikipedia:Calcutta|Calcutta]], reaching most of Asia. It is thought to have killed over 100,000 people.<ref name=seven-pandemics>{{cite web|title=Cholera's seven pandemics|url=http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/cholera-s-seven-pandemics-1.758504|publisher = [[wikipedia:CBC News|CBC News]]|date = May 9, 2008|accessdate = April 23, 2016}}</ref> || Cholera || [[wikipedia:India|India]], [[wikipedia:Thailand|Thailand]], [[wikipedia:Philippines|Philippines]], [[wikipedia:Java|Java]], [[wikipedia:Oman|Oman]], [[wikipedia:China|China]], [[wikipedia:Japan|Japan]], [[wikipedia:Persian Gulf|Persian Gulf]], [[wikipedia:Iraq|Iraq]], [[wikipedia:Syria|Syria]], [[wikipedia:Transcaucasia|Transcaucasia]], [[wikipedia:Astrakhan|Astrakhan]] ([[wikipedia:Russia|Russia]]), [[wikipedia:Zanzibar|Zanzibar]], and [[wikipedia:Mauritius|Mauritius]].
 
|-
 
|-
| 1829–1851 || Crisis || The [[1829–51 cholera pandemic|second cholera pandemic]], known as the Asiatic Cholera Pandemic, arguably starts along the [[Ganges river]]. It is the first to reach Europe and North America. Like in the [[1817–24 cholera pandemic|first one]], fatalities reach six figures.<ref name=seven-pandemics/> || Cholera || India, western and eastern Asia, [[Europe]], [[Americas]].
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| 1829–1851 || Crisis || The [[wikipedia:1829–51 cholera pandemic|second cholera pandemic]], known as the Asiatic Cholera Pandemic, arguably starts along the [[wikipedia:Ganges river|Ganges river]]. It is the first to reach Europe and North America. Like in the [[wikipedia:1817–24 cholera pandemic|first one]], fatalities reach six figures.<ref name=seven-pandemics/> || Cholera || India, western and eastern Asia, [[wikipedia:Europe|Europe]], [[wikipedia:Americas|Americas]].
 
|-
 
|-
| 1847 || Crisis || The [[1847 North American typhus epidemic]] occurs. The outbreak of epidemic typhus is caused by a massive Irish emigration in 1847,<ref>{{Cite journal| issn = 0022-1899| volume = 136| issue = 6| pages = 813–821| last1 = Gelston| first1 = A. L.| last2 = Jones| first2 = T. C.| title = Typhus fever: report of an epidemic in New York City in 1847| journal = The Journal of Infectious Diseases| date = December 1977| pmid = 336803}}</ref> during the [[Great Famine (Ireland)|Great Famine]], aboard crowded and disease-ridden "[[coffin ship]]s". || Canada, United States || Typhus
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| 1847 || Crisis || The [[wikipedia:1847 North American typhus epidemic|1847 North American typhus epidemic]] occurs. The outbreak of epidemic typhus is caused by a massive Irish emigration in 1847,<ref>{{Cite journal| issn = 0022-1899| volume = 136| issue = 6| pages = 813–821| last1 = Gelston| first1 = A. L.| last2 = Jones| first2 = T. C.| title = Typhus fever: report of an epidemic in New York City in 1847| journal = The Journal of Infectious Diseases| date = December 1977| pmid = 336803}}</ref> during the [[wikipedia:Great Famine (Ireland)|Great Famine]], aboard crowded and disease-ridden "[[wikipedia:coffin ship|coffin ship]]s". || Canada, United States || Typhus
 
|-
 
|-
| 1851 || Discovery || [[Theodor Bilharz]] discovers the parasite responsible for [[schistosomiasis]]. During an autopsy, he discovered the trematode worm that is the main cause of urinary schistosomiasis,<ref name=Schisto>{{cite book | last = Jordan | first = Peter | title = Schistosomiasis | publisher = Cambridge University Press | location = Cambridge | year = 1985 | isbn = 0-521-30312-5 | page = 1}}</ref> which is a disease caused by [[flatworm|parasitic flatworms]] called [[schistosomes]]. It is also known as snail fever.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://patient.info/doctor/schistosomiasis-pro |title=Schistosomiasis. Katayama fever, parasite tropical disease |website=Patient |publisher=EMIS Group plc.}}</ref> ||  [[Schistosomiasis]] ||  
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| 1851 || Discovery || [[wikipedia:Theodor Bilharz|Theodor Bilharz]] discovers the parasite responsible for [[wikipedia:schistosomiasis|schistosomiasis]]. During an autopsy, he discovered the trematode worm that is the main cause of urinary schistosomiasis,<ref name=Schisto>{{cite book | last = Jordan | first = Peter | title = Schistosomiasis | publisher = Cambridge University Press | location = Cambridge | year = 1985 | isbn = 0-521-30312-5 | page = 1}}</ref> which is a disease caused by [[wikipedia:flatworm|parasitic flatworms]] called [[wikipedia:schistosomes|schistosomes]]. It is also known as snail fever.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://patient.info/doctor/schistosomiasis-pro |title=Schistosomiasis. Katayama fever, parasite tropical disease |website=Patient |publisher=EMIS Group plc.}}</ref> ||  [[wikipedia:Schistosomiasis|Schistosomiasis]] ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1851 || Organization || The first of the [[International Sanitary Conferences]] is held in Paris. The French government organizes it to help stop the spread of yellow fever, cholera, and plague. Twelve countries participate, with each participating country sending a physician and a diplomat as representatives.<ref name="markel" /> || || [[France]]
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| 1851 || Organization || The first of the [[wikipedia:International Sanitary Conferences|International Sanitary Conferences]] is held in Paris. The French government organizes it to help stop the spread of yellow fever, cholera, and plague. Twelve countries participate, with each participating country sending a physician and a diplomat as representatives.<ref name="markel" /> || || [[wikipedia:France|France]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1854 || Crisis || Severe [[Broad Street cholera outbreak]] occurs in the Soho district of London, England. It proves to be central to the development of modern [[epidemiology]].<ref name="ghh">{{cite web |url=http://www.globalhealthhub.org/timeline |title=Global Health Timeline |accessdate=April 8, 2016}}</ref> || [[Cholera]] || [[England]]
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| 1854 || Crisis || Severe [[wikipedia:Broad Street cholera outbreak|Broad Street cholera outbreak]] occurs in the Soho district of London, England. It proves to be central to the development of modern [[wikipedia:epidemiology|epidemiology]].<ref name="ghh">{{cite web |url=http://www.globalhealthhub.org/timeline |title=Global Health Timeline |accessdate=April 8, 2016}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Cholera|Cholera]] || [[wikipedia:England|England]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1855 || Crisis || [[Third plague pandemic]] begins in the Yunnan province of China and spreads beyond the country in the aftermath of the [[Panthay Rebellion]].<ref name=ghh/> This bubonic plague pandemic spreads to all inhabited continents and kills 12 million people. || [[Bubonic plague]] || [[China]] (origin)
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| 1855 || Crisis || [[wikipedia:Third plague pandemic|Third plague pandemic]] begins in the Yunnan province of China and spreads beyond the country in the aftermath of the [[wikipedia:Panthay Rebellion|Panthay Rebellion]].<ref name=ghh/> This bubonic plague pandemic spreads to all inhabited continents and kills 12 million people. || [[wikipedia:Bubonic plague|Bubonic plague]] || [[wikipedia:China|China]] (origin)
 
|-
 
|-
| 1863 || Organization || [[International Committee of the Red Cross]], a private humanitarian institution, is founded by [[Henry Dunant]] and [[Gustave Moynier]]. Based in Geneva, Switzerland, it starts as a committee of five and goes on to be very influential and win three Nobel Peace Prizes.<ref name="NobelFactsorg">{{cite web|url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/lists/organizations.html|title=Nobel Laureates Facts&nbsp;— Organizations|publisher=[[Nobel Foundation]]|accessdate=2009-10-13}}</ref> The Red Cross plays a key role in providing emergency medical relief in war-torn areas, and its work helps contains the spread of infectious disease in these environments.<ref name=imva>{{cite web|url = http://www.imva.org/pages/orgfrm.htm|title = The Major International Health Organizations|accessdate = August 30, 2016}}</ref> || || [[Switzerland]] ([[Geneva]])
+
| 1863 || Organization || [[wikipedia:International Committee of the Red Cross|International Committee of the Red Cross]], a private humanitarian institution, is founded by [[wikipedia:Henry Dunant|Henry Dunant]] and [[wikipedia:Gustave Moynier|Gustave Moynier]]. Based in Geneva, Switzerland, it starts as a committee of five and goes on to be very influential and win three Nobel Peace Prizes.<ref name="NobelFactsorg">{{cite web|url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/lists/organizations.html|title=Nobel Laureates Facts&nbsp;— Organizations|publisher=[[wikipedia:Nobel Foundation|Nobel Foundation]]|accessdate=2009-10-13}}</ref> The Red Cross plays a key role in providing emergency medical relief in war-torn areas, and its work helps contains the spread of infectious disease in these environments.<ref name=imva>{{cite web|url = http://www.imva.org/pages/orgfrm.htm|title = The Major International Health Organizations|accessdate = August 30, 2016}}</ref> || || [[wikipedia:Switzerland|Switzerland]] ([[wikipedia:Geneva|Geneva]])
 
|-
 
|-
| 1880 || Discovery || Microorganisms responsible for [[malaria]] are identified by [[Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran]]. They belong to the genus Plasmodium, and their over 100 species can infect a variety of species, including birds, reptiles, birds, and many mammals.<ref name=ghh/> || [[Malaria]] ||
+
| 1880 || Discovery || Microorganisms responsible for [[wikipedia:malaria|malaria]] are identified by [[wikipedia:Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran|Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran]]. They belong to the genus Plasmodium, and their over 100 species can infect a variety of species, including birds, reptiles, birds, and many mammals.<ref name=ghh/> || [[wikipedia:Malaria|Malaria]] ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1882 || Discovery || Microorganisms responsible for [[tuberculosis]] are identified by Robert Koch. They infect the lungs as a pathogen of the mammalian respiratory system.<ref name=ghh/> || [[Tuberculosis]] ||
+
| 1882 || Discovery || Microorganisms responsible for [[wikipedia:tuberculosis|tuberculosis]] are identified by Robert Koch. They infect the lungs as a pathogen of the mammalian respiratory system.<ref name=ghh/> || [[wikipedia:Tuberculosis|Tuberculosis]] ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1893 || Publication || The International List of Causes of Death, a predecessor to the [[International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems]], is adopted. It is based on the classification of causes of death that was used by the City of Paris, which represented German, English, and Swiss classifications.<ref name=ghh/> || ||
+
| 1887 || Organization || A one-room laboratory is created as an experiment within the Marine Hospital Service (MHS), which is charged with preventing people with cholera, yellow fever, and other diseases from entering the United States. This would eventually morph into the [[wikipedia:National Institutes of Health|National Institutes of Health]] (NIH), a group of institutes and centers that funds $30 billion annually in biomedical research as of 2016. It is the world's biggest funder of biomedical research.<ref name="Encyclopedia of Epidemiology">{{cite book|last1=|first1=|title=Encyclopedia of Epidemiology|edition=Sarah Boslaugh|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=A1F2AwAAQBAJ&pg=PA715&lpg=PA715&dq=1930+Congress+changes+the+name+of+the+Hygienic+Laboratory+to+the+National+Institute+of+Health.&source=bl&ots=WkpSAILhW5&sig=n_8lr_sRdZBr7RHwii6xDR4Oz68&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiNzJntuOXSAhWEPpAKHW8ZDrUQ6AEIMzAE#v=onepage&q=1930%20Congress%20changes%20the%20name%20of%20the%20Hygienic%20Laboratory%20to%20the%20National%20Institute%20of%20Health.&f=false|accessdate=20 March 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=History|url=https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/who-we-are/history|website=nih.gov|accessdate=20 March 2017}}</ref> || Cholera, yellow fever, other diseases || United States
 
|-
 
|-
| 1902 || Organization || The [[Pan American Health Organization]] is established as the Pan-American Sanitary Bureau in response to [[yellow fever]] epidemics.<ref name=markel /><ref name=ghh/> || [[Yellow fever]] (initially) ||
+
| 1893 || Publication || The International List of Causes of Death, a predecessor to the [[wikipedia:International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems|International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems]], is adopted. It is based on the classification of causes of death that was used by the City of Paris, which represented German, English, and Swiss classifications.<ref name=ghh/> || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1907 || Organization || The [[Office International d'Hygiène Publique]] (OIHP) is founded. The OIHP helps to refine [[quarantine]] policies.<ref name=markel /> || || [[France]]
+
| 1902 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:Pan American Health Organization|Pan American Health Organization]] is established as the Pan-American Sanitary Bureau in response to [[wikipedia:yellow fever|yellow fever]] epidemics.<ref name=markel /><ref name=ghh/> || [[wikipedia:Yellow fever|Yellow fever]] (initially) ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1913 || Organization || The [[Rockefeller Foundation]] is founded by [[Standard Oil]] owner [[John D. Rockefeller]] in 1913. Its primary objectives include supporting prejudice-free education in the US through monetary donations, and establishing various public health departments for universities such as the [[Johns Hopkins School of Public Health]] and the [[Harvard School of Public Health]].<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.rockefellerfoundation.org/uploads/files/812e6b1a-4785-4d58-b2e3-77eb3f5a2b0d-1913-1914.pdf|title = The Rockefeller Foundation Annual Report 1913–14|publisher = [[Rockefeller Foundation]]|accessdate = June 14, 2016}}</ref><ref name=jhpublichealth>{{cite web|url = http://www.jhsph.edu/school_at_a_glance/index.html|title = History|publisher = Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health|accessdate = June 14, 2016}}</ref><ref name=hpublichealth>{{cite web|url = http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/history-of-the-school/|title = History|publisher = Harvard School of Public Health|accessdate = June 14, 2016}}</ref> || || United States (New York City, New York)
+
| 1907 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:Office International d'Hygiène Publique|Office International d'Hygiène Publique]] (OIHP) is founded. The OIHP helps to refine [[wikipedia:quarantine|quarantine]] policies.<ref name=markel /> || || [[wikipedia:France|France]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1918 || Crisis || The [[1918 flu pandemic]] (Spanish flu) is a deadly pandemic involving the [[Influenza A virus subtype H1N1]] that infected over 500 million people all over the world, predominantly affecting healthy young individuals.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.pasteur.fr/infosci/conf/CRC/Grippe_CRC.ppt |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20151117020243/http://www.pasteur.fr/infosci/conf/CRC/Grippe_CRC.ppt |archivedate=November 17, 2015 |title = ''Institut Pasteur. La Grippe Espagnole de 1918'' (Powerpoint presentation in French)}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | title=Historical Estimates of World Population |url=https://www.census.gov/population/international/data/worldpop/table_history.php|accessdate=29 March 2013}}</ref> || [[Influenza]] || France (origin, possibly disputed)
+
| 1913 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:Rockefeller Foundation|Rockefeller Foundation]] is founded by [[wikipedia:Standard Oil|Standard Oil]] owner [[wikipedia:John D. Rockefeller|John D. Rockefeller]] in 1913. Its primary objectives include supporting prejudice-free education in the US through monetary donations, and establishing various public health departments for universities such as the [[wikipedia:Johns Hopkins School of Public Health|Johns Hopkins School of Public Health]] and the [[wikipedia:Harvard School of Public Health|Harvard School of Public Health]].<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.rockefellerfoundation.org/uploads/files/812e6b1a-4785-4d58-b2e3-77eb3f5a2b0d-1913-1914.pdf|title = The Rockefeller Foundation Annual Report 1913–14|publisher = [[wikipedia:Rockefeller Foundation|Rockefeller Foundation]]|accessdate = June 14, 2016}}</ref><ref name=jhpublichealth>{{cite web|url = http://www.jhsph.edu/school_at_a_glance/index.html|title = History|publisher = Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health|accessdate = June 14, 2016}}</ref><ref name=hpublichealth>{{cite web|url = http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/history-of-the-school/|title = History|publisher = Harvard School of Public Health|accessdate = June 14, 2016}}</ref> || || United States (New York City, New York)
 
|-
 
|-
| 1922 || Organization || The [[League of Nations]] Health Committee and Health Section is established in January 1920 as a direct response to the [[Paris Peace Conference, 1919|Paris Peace Conference]] that concluded the [[First World War]], with a primary goal to prevent war and maintain world peace.<ref>See Article 23, {{cite web|url=http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/leagcov.asp|title=Covenant of the League of Nations}}, {{cite web|url=http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Versailles|title=Treaty of Versailles}} and [[Minority Treaties|Minority Rights Treaties]].</ref><ref name="who_history_league">{{cite web |url=http://www.who.int/archives/fonds_collections/bytitle/fonds_3/en/ |title=Archives of the League of Nations, Health Section Files |publisher=World Health Organization |accessdate=April 8, 2016}}</ref> || || [[Geneva, Switzerland]]
+
| 1918 || Crisis || The [[wikipedia:1918 flu pandemic|1918 flu pandemic]] (Spanish flu) is a deadly pandemic involving the [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H1N1|Influenza A virus subtype H1N1]] that infected over 500 million people all over the world, predominantly affecting healthy young individuals.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.pasteur.fr/infosci/conf/CRC/Grippe_CRC.ppt |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20151117020243/http://www.pasteur.fr/infosci/conf/CRC/Grippe_CRC.ppt |archivedate=November 17, 2015 |title = ''Institut Pasteur. La Grippe Espagnole de 1918'' (Powerpoint presentation in French)}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | title=Historical Estimates of World Population |url=https://www.census.gov/population/international/data/worldpop/table_history.php|accessdate=29 March 2013}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Influenza|Influenza]] || France (origin, possibly disputed)
 
|-
 
|-
| 1927 || Discovery || The [[BCG vaccine]] for tuberculosis is developed in 1927. A small dose of Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) is recommended to be given to healthy babies close to the time of birth as a preventative drug, especially in third world countries where tuberculosis is common.<ref name=ghh/><ref name=WHO2007>{{cite journal|title=Revised BCG vaccination guidelines for infants at risk for HIV infection.|journal=Wkly Epidemiol Rec|date=May 25, 2007|volume=82|issue=21|pages=193–196|pmid=17526121|url=http://www.who.int/wer/2007/wer8221.pdf}}</ref> || Tuberculosis ||
+
| 1922 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:League of Nations|League of Nations]] Health Committee and Health Section is established in January 1920 as a direct response to the [[wikipedia:Paris Peace Conference, 1919|Paris Peace Conference]] that concluded the [[wikipedia:First World War|First World War]], with a primary goal to prevent war and maintain world peace.<ref>See Article 23, {{cite web|url=http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/leagcov.asp|title=Covenant of the League of Nations}}, {{cite web|url=http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Versailles|title=Treaty of Versailles}} and [[wikipedia:Minority Treaties|Minority Rights Treaties]].</ref><ref name="who_history_league">{{cite web |url=http://www.who.int/archives/fonds_collections/bytitle/fonds_3/en/ |title=Archives of the League of Nations, Health Section Files |publisher=World Health Organization |accessdate=April 8, 2016}}</ref> || || [[wikipedia:Geneva, Switzerland|Geneva, Switzerland]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1928 || Discovery || [[Penicillin]] is an [[antibiotic]] discovered by [[Alexander Fleming]] in 1928, and its widespread use as a treatment for infections began in 1942. It is primarily used to treat bacterial infection caused by [[staphylococcus|staphylococci]] and [[streptococcus|streptococci]], and is among the first antibiotics to become highly effective. Though it still remains prevalent today, following widespread use, many forms of bacteria have developed a resistance against it.<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite book|title=Oxford Handbook of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology|year=2009|publisher=OUP Oxford|isbn=978-0-19-103962-1|page=56|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=5W-WBQAAQBAJ&pg=PT56}}</ref> || [[Staphylococci]] and [[streptococci]] ||
+
| 1927 || Discovery || The [[wikipedia:BCG vaccine|BCG vaccine]] for tuberculosis is developed in 1927. A small dose of Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) is recommended to be given to healthy babies close to the time of birth as a preventative drug, especially in third world countries where tuberculosis is common.<ref name=ghh/><ref name=WHO2007>{{cite journal|title=Revised BCG vaccination guidelines for infants at risk for HIV infection.|journal=Wkly Epidemiol Rec|date=May 25, 2007|volume=82|issue=21|pages=193–196|pmid=17526121|url=http://www.who.int/wer/2007/wer8221.pdf}}</ref> || Tuberculosis ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1930 || Discovery || Researchers from Europe estimate that some time in the early 1930s a form of simian immunodeficiency virus, [[Simian immunodeficiency virus|SIV]], is transmitted to humans in central Africa. The mutated virus is later identified as the first of other human immunodeficiency viruses, [[HIV-1]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn9949-timeline-hiv-and-aids.html#.U-UHyfldV8E|title=Timeline: HIV and AIDS|first=John|last=Pickrell|publisher=}}</ref> || [[HIV-1]] || Europe
+
| 1928 || Discovery || [[wikipedia:Penicillin|Penicillin]] is an [[wikipedia:antibiotic|antibiotic]] discovered by [[wikipedia:Alexander Fleming|Alexander Fleming]] in 1928, and its widespread use as a treatment for infections began in 1942. It is primarily used to treat bacterial infection caused by [[wikipedia:staphylococcus|staphylococci]] and [[wikipedia:streptococcus|streptococci]], and is among the first antibiotics to become highly effective. Though it still remains prevalent today, following widespread use, many forms of bacteria have developed a resistance against it.<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite book|title=Oxford Handbook of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology|year=2009|publisher=OUP Oxford|isbn=978-0-19-103962-1|page=56|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=5W-WBQAAQBAJ&pg=PT56}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Staphylococci|Staphylococci]] and [[wikipedia:streptococci|streptococci]] ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1943 || Organization || [[United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration]] (UNRRA) is founded for relief of victims of war in 1943, and becomes part of the [[United Nations]] in 1945. Primarily run by the United States, but representing 44 total nations, the UNRRA has a general purpose of providing basic necessities (including food and water, shelter, clothing, medical needs, etc.) to aid the relief of victims of war. Most of its operations would shut down in 1947.<ref>{{cite web |url = http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/policy/1943/431109a.html |title = Agreement for United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration |publisher=Ibiblio.org}}</ref>|| || Agreement signed in the United States (White House)
+
| 1930 || Discovery || Researchers from Europe estimate that some time in the early 1930s a form of simian immunodeficiency virus, [[wikipedia:Simian immunodeficiency virus|SIV]], is transmitted to humans in central Africa. The mutated virus is later identified as the first of other human immunodeficiency viruses, [[wikipedia:HIV-1|HIV-1]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn9949-timeline-hiv-and-aids.html#.U-UHyfldV8E|title=Timeline: HIV and AIDS|first=John|last=Pickrell|publisher=}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:HIV-1|HIV-1]] || Europe
 
|-
 
|-
| 1945 || Organization || The [[World Bank Group]] is formed as part of five [[international organizations]] to make leveraged loans to non-first-world countries, aiding in their economic endeavors to further develop. Based in [[Washington D.C.]], it is the biggest development bank in the world, with a mission to end extreme poverty and build shared prosperity. In 2014 alone, the WBG would provide approximately $61 billion in loans and assistance to these developing countries.<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.undg.org/index.cfm?P=13 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131013080255/http://www.undg.org/index.cfm?P=13 |archivedate=October 13, 2013 |title=UNDG Members |publisher=United Nations Development Group |accessdate=2012-05-27}}</ref><ref name="bicusa1">{{cite web|title = The World Bank, Press release: "World Bank Group Commitments Rise Sharply in FY14 Amid Organizational Change|url = http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2014/07/01/world-bank-group-commitments-rise-sharply-in-fy14-amid-organizational-change|date = July 1, 2014|accessdate = June 14, 2016}}</ref> || || United States (Washington D.C.)
+
| 1943 || Organization || [[wikipedia:United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration|United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration]] (UNRRA) is founded for relief of victims of war in 1943, and becomes part of the [[wikipedia:United Nations|United Nations]] in 1945. Primarily run by the United States, but representing 44 total nations, the UNRRA has a general purpose of providing basic necessities (including food and water, shelter, clothing, medical needs, etc.) to aid the relief of victims of war. Most of its operations would shut down in 1947.<ref>{{cite web |url = http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/policy/1943/431109a.html |title = Agreement for United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration |publisher=Ibiblio.org}}</ref>|| || Agreement signed in the United States (White House)
 
|-
 
|-
| 1946 || Organization || [[UNICEF]], also known as the United Nations Children's Emergency Fund, is founded in December 1946 by the [[United Nations General Assembly]] to provide food and healthcare to children in countries that were severely destroyed by the effects of [[World War II]]. One of its most popular fundraising programs is the [[Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF]] program, where kids collect money for children in need instead of candy at the houses they visit on Halloween.<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unicef.org/sowc96/50years.htm|title=Fifty years for children|publisher=|accessdate=9 July 2015}}</ref> || || United States (New York City)
+
| 1945 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:World Bank Group|World Bank Group]] is formed as part of five [[wikipedia:international organizations|international organizations]] to make leveraged loans to non-first-world countries, aiding in their economic endeavors to further develop. Based in [[wikipedia:Washington D.C.|Washington D.C.]], it is the biggest development bank in the world, with a mission to end extreme poverty and build shared prosperity. In 2014 alone, the WBG would provide approximately $61 billion in loans and assistance to these developing countries.<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.undg.org/index.cfm?P=13 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20131013080255/http://www.undg.org/index.cfm?P=13 |archivedate=October 13, 2013 |title=UNDG Members |publisher=United Nations Development Group |accessdate=2012-05-27}}</ref><ref name="bicusa1">{{cite web|title = The World Bank, Press release: "World Bank Group Commitments Rise Sharply in FY14 Amid Organizational Change|url = http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2014/07/01/world-bank-group-commitments-rise-sharply-in-fy14-amid-organizational-change|date = July 1, 2014|accessdate = June 14, 2016}}</ref> || || United States (Washington D.C.)
 
|-
 
|-
| 1946 || Organization || [[Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]] is founded initially as the Communicable Diseases Center. The CDC is a US [[List of federal agencies in the United States|federal agency]] under the [[Department of Health and Human Services]], and is considered the leading national public health institute in the United States. Its main goal is to protect [[public health]] by controlling and preventing disease, disability, and injury.<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.cdc.gov|title = CDC Home Page|accessdate = June 14, 2016}}</ref> || Malaria (initially) || United States (Atlanta, Georgia)
+
| 1946 || Organization || [[wikipedia:UNICEF|UNICEF]], also known as the United Nations Children's Emergency Fund, is founded in December 1946 by the [[wikipedia:United Nations General Assembly|United Nations General Assembly]] to provide food and healthcare to children in countries that were severely destroyed by the effects of [[wikipedia:World War II|World War II]]. One of its most popular fundraising programs is the [[wikipedia:Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF|Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF]] program, where kids collect money for children in need instead of candy at the houses they visit on Halloween.<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unicef.org/sowc96/50years.htm|title=Fifty years for children|publisher=|accessdate=9 July 2015}}</ref> || || United States (New York City)
 
|-
 
|-
| 1947 || Crisis || A cholera epidemic takes 20,000 lives in Egypt in 1947 and 1948; this helps spur the international community to action. The [[World Medical Association]] is created on September 17 when 27 different countries sent physicians to meet up in Paris.<ref>{{cite web|title=History of WHO|author=World Health Organization|url=http://www.who.int/library/historical/access/who/index.en.shtml|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20061207150944/http://www.who.int/library/historical/access/who/index.en.shtml|archivedate=2006-12-07}}</ref> || Cholera || [[Egypt]]
+
| 1946 || Organization || [[wikipedia:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]] is founded initially as the Communicable Diseases Center. The CDC is a US [[wikipedia:List of federal agencies in the United States|federal agency]] under the [[wikipedia:Department of Health and Human Services|Department of Health and Human Services]], and is considered the leading national public health institute in the United States. Its main goal is to protect [[wikipedia:public health|public health]] by controlling and preventing disease, disability, and injury.<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.cdc.gov|title = CDC Home Page|accessdate = June 14, 2016}}</ref> || Malaria (initially) || United States (Atlanta, Georgia)
 
|-
 
|-
| 1947 || Program launch || In the United States, the [[National Malaria Eradication Program]] (NMEP) is launched in July. Prior to the launch of this program, malaria is an endemic across the United States, concentrated in the southeastern states. This federal program would successfully eradicate malaria in the United States by 1951.<ref name="who_60th"/><ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2011/feb/24/stopping-malaria-wrong-road/|title = Stopping Malaria: The Wrong Road|publisher = ''[[The New York Review of Books]]''|last = Horton|first = Richard|authorlink = Richard Horton (editor)|date = February 24, 2011|accessdate = June 14, 2016}}</ref> || Malaria || United States
+
| 1947 || Crisis || A cholera epidemic takes 20,000 lives in Egypt in 1947 and 1948; this helps spur the international community to action. The [[wikipedia:World Medical Association|World Medical Association]] is created on September 17 when 27 different countries sent physicians to meet up in Paris.<ref>{{cite web|title=History of WHO|author=World Health Organization|url=http://www.who.int/library/historical/access/who/index.en.shtml|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20061207150944/http://www.who.int/library/historical/access/who/index.en.shtml|archivedate=2006-12-07}}</ref> || Cholera || [[wikipedia:Egypt|Egypt]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1948 || Organization || The [[World Health Organization]] is established in April 1948 as a part of the [[United Nations]] that specializes in international [[public health]]. The WHO constitution is signed by a total of 61 countries on July 22 of 1946, and holds a meeting of the [[World Health Assembly]] on July 24 of 1948. With a focus on eradicating disease, the WHO played a huge role in the [[eradication of smallpox]] and is currently working on prevention and treatment of [[HIV/AIDS]], [[malaria]], [[tuberculosis]], etc.<ref name=ghh/><ref name=Fin2013>{{cite web|title=Programme budget 2014–2015|url=http://www.who.int/about/resources_planning/A66_R2_en.pdf|website=who.int|accessdate=23 February 2015|date=24 May 2013}}</ref> || Smallpox (initially) || Switzerland ([[Geneva]])
+
| 1947 || Program launch || In the United States, the [[wikipedia:National Malaria Eradication Program|National Malaria Eradication Program]] (NMEP) is launched in July. Prior to the launch of this program, malaria is an endemic across the United States, concentrated in the southeastern states. This federal program would successfully eradicate malaria in the United States by 1951.<ref name="who_60th"/><ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2011/feb/24/stopping-malaria-wrong-road/|title = Stopping Malaria: The Wrong Road|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:The New York Review of Books|The New York Review of Books]]''|last = Horton|first = Richard|authorlink = Richard Horton (editor)|date = February 24, 2011|accessdate = June 14, 2016}}</ref> || Malaria || United States
 
|-
 
|-
| 1948 || Medical advancement || The first published [[randomized controlled trial]] (RCT) in medicine appears in a paper entitled "[[Streptomycin]] treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis", which describes a [[Medical Research Council (UK)|Medical Research Council]] investigation.<ref name="MRC-1948">{{Cite journal | author = Streptomycin in Tuberculosis Trials Committee | title = Streptomycin treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. A Medical Research Council investigation| journal = [[Br Med J]] | volume = 2 | issue = 4582 | pages = 769–82 | year = 1948 | doi = 10.1136/bmj.2.4582.769 | pmid = 18890300 | pmc = 2091872 }}</ref><ref name="Brown-1998">{{cite news |title= Landmark study made research resistant to bias |author= Brown D |newspaper= [[Washington Post]] |date=1998-11-02 }}</ref><ref name="Shikata-2006">{{Cite journal |vauthors=Shikata S, Nakayama T, Noguchi Y, Taji Y, Yamagishi H | title = Comparison of effects in randomized controlled trials with observational studies in digestive surgery | journal = [[Ann Surg]] | volume = 244 | issue = 5 | pages = 668–76 | year = 2006 | doi = 10.1097/01.sla.0000225356.04304.bc | pmc=1856609 | pmid = 17060757 }}</ref> One of the authors of this paper is [[Austin Bradford Hill]], who is credited as having conceived the modern RCT.<ref name="Stolberg-2004">{{Cite journal |vauthors=Stolberg HO, Norman G, Trop I | title = Randomized controlled trials | journal = [[Am J Roentgenol]] | volume = 183 | issue = 6 | pages = 1539–44 | year = 2004 | url = http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/183/6/1539 | pmid = 15547188 | doi=10.2214/ajr.183.6.01831539}}</ref> || Tuberculosis (initially) ||
+
| 1948 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]] is established in April 1948 as a part of the [[wikipedia:United Nations|United Nations]] that specializes in international [[wikipedia:public health|public health]]. The WHO constitution is signed by a total of 61 countries on July 22 of 1946, and holds a meeting of the [[wikipedia:World Health Assembly|World Health Assembly]] on July 24 of 1948. With a focus on eradicating disease, the WHO played a huge role in the [[wikipedia:eradication of smallpox|eradication of smallpox]] and is currently working on prevention and treatment of [[wikipedia:HIV/AIDS|HIV/AIDS]], [[wikipedia:malaria|malaria]], [[wikipedia:tuberculosis|tuberculosis]], etc.<ref name=ghh/><ref name=Fin2013>{{cite web|title=Programme budget 2014–2015|url=http://www.who.int/about/resources_planning/A66_R2_en.pdf|website=who.int|accessdate=23 February 2015|date=24 May 2013}}</ref> || Smallpox (initially) || Switzerland ([[wikipedia:Geneva|Geneva]])
 
|-
 
|-
| 1950 || Medical advancement || Mass tuberculosis immunization is under way with the [[BCG vaccine]]. This vaccine is recommended to be given intradermally, immediately after birth. This vaccine is mandatory to attend school in France between 1950 and 2007, introduced in Brazil in 1967, and to the Philippines in 1979.<ref name="who_60th">{{cite web |url=http://www.who.int/features/history/WHO_60th_anniversary_chronology.pdf |title=WHO in 60 years: a chronology of public health milestones |publisher=World Health Organization |accessdate=April 2, 2016}}</ref><ref>Loi n° 50-7 du 5 janvier 1950</ref><ref>décret n° 2007-1111 du 17 juillet 2007</ref> || Tuberculosis ||
+
| 1948 || Medical advancement || The first published [[wikipedia:randomized controlled trial|randomized controlled trial]] (RCT) in medicine appears in a paper entitled "[[wikipedia:Streptomycin|Streptomycin]] treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis", which describes a [[wikipedia:Medical Research Council (UK)|Medical Research Council]] investigation.<ref name="MRC-1948">{{Cite journal | author = Streptomycin in Tuberculosis Trials Committee | title = Streptomycin treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. A Medical Research Council investigation| journal = [[wikipedia:Br Med J|Br Med J]] | volume = 2 | issue = 4582 | pages = 769–82 | year = 1948 | doi = 10.1136/bmj.2.4582.769 | pmid = 18890300 | pmc = 2091872 }}</ref><ref name="Brown-1998">{{cite news |title= Landmark study made research resistant to bias |author= Brown D |newspaper= [[wikipedia:Washington Post|Washington Post]] |date=1998-11-02 }}</ref><ref name="Shikata-2006">{{Cite journal |vauthors=Shikata S, Nakayama T, Noguchi Y, Taji Y, Yamagishi H | title = Comparison of effects in randomized controlled trials with observational studies in digestive surgery | journal = [[wikipedia:Ann Surg|Ann Surg]] | volume = 244 | issue = 5 | pages = 668–76 | year = 2006 | doi = 10.1097/01.sla.0000225356.04304.bc | pmc=1856609 | pmid = 17060757 }}</ref> One of the authors of this paper is [[wikipedia:Austin Bradford Hill|Austin Bradford Hill]], who is credited as having conceived the modern RCT.<ref name="Stolberg-2004">{{Cite journal |vauthors=Stolberg HO, Norman G, Trop I | title = Randomized controlled trials | journal = [[wikipedia:Am J Roentgenol|Am J Roentgenol]] | volume = 183 | issue = 6 | pages = 1539–44 | year = 2004 | url = http://www.ajronline.org/cgi/content/full/183/6/1539 | pmid = 15547188 | doi=10.2214/ajr.183.6.01831539}}</ref> || Tuberculosis (initially) ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1952 || Program launch || The global yaws control program is launched by WHO and UNICEF. The WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS) is created to establish a worldwide network of laboratories to collaborate and monitor influenza viruses.<ref name="who_60th"/> || [[Yaws]] ||
+
| 1950 || Medical advancement || Mass tuberculosis immunization is under way with the [[wikipedia:BCG vaccine|BCG vaccine]]. This vaccine is recommended to be given intradermally, immediately after birth. This vaccine is mandatory to attend school in France between 1950 and 2007, introduced in Brazil in 1967, and to the Philippines in 1979.<ref name="who_60th">{{cite web |url=http://www.who.int/features/history/WHO_60th_anniversary_chronology.pdf |title=WHO in 60 years: a chronology of public health milestones |publisher=World Health Organization |accessdate=April 2, 2016}}</ref><ref>Loi n° 50-7 du 5 janvier 1950</ref><ref>décret n° 2007-1111 du 17 juillet 2007</ref> || Tuberculosis ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1952 || Crisis || A [[polio]] epidemic occurs in the United States. Polio is a serious, and potentially deadly or crippling, infection disease.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.cdc.gov/polio/about/|title = What is Polio?|publisher = [[Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]]|accessdate = June 14, 2016 |date=October 3, 2014}}</ref> By the mid-20th Century, breakouts of polio present a major health concern for children in the United States. In 1952, at the height of an epidemic, Jonas Salk introduces a vaccine for the disease, which has existed for thousands of years. The vaccine is able to help eradicate breakouts of polio in many parts of the world.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dm52sa.html|title = Salk produces polio vaccine|publisher = [[PBS]]|accessdate = June 14, 2016}}</ref> || Polio || United States
+
| 1952 || Program launch || The global yaws control program is launched by WHO and UNICEF. The WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS) is created to establish a worldwide network of laboratories to collaborate and monitor influenza viruses.<ref name="who_60th"/> || [[wikipedia:Yaws|Yaws]] ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1955 || Medical advancement || The first inactivated polio vaccine by [[Jonah Salk]] is announced as safe and effective. Originally developed in 1952, this vaccine is researched by a team at the [[University of Pittsburgh]] and required many years of testing.<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.salk.edu/about/history-of-salk/jonas-salk/|title = History of Salk: About Salk|accessdate = June 14, 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Offit|first=Paul A.|title=The Cutter Incident: How America's First Polio Vaccine Led to the Growing Vaccine Crisis|publisher=Yale University Press|year=2007|page=38|isbn=0-300-12605-0}}</ref> || Polio || United States (Pittsburgh)
+
| 1952 || Crisis || A [[wikipedia:polio|polio]] epidemic occurs in the United States. Polio is a serious, and potentially deadly or crippling, infection disease.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.cdc.gov/polio/about/|title = What is Polio?|publisher = [[wikipedia:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]]|accessdate = June 14, 2016 |date=October 3, 2014}}</ref> By the mid-20th Century, breakouts of polio present a major health concern for children in the United States. In 1952, at the height of an epidemic, Jonas Salk introduces a vaccine for the disease, which has existed for thousands of years. The vaccine is able to help eradicate breakouts of polio in many parts of the world.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dm52sa.html|title = Salk produces polio vaccine|publisher = [[wikipedia:PBS|PBS]]|accessdate = June 14, 2016}}</ref> || Polio || United States
 
|-
 
|-
| 1958 || Program launch || Smallpox eradication program is launched by [[World Health Assembly]]. Smallpox is officially eradicated by 1980, and is known as the first disease to be combated and eradicated on a global scale.<ref name="who_60th"/> || Smallpox ||
+
| 1955 || Medical advancement || The first inactivated polio vaccine by [[wikipedia:Jonah Salk|Jonah Salk]] is announced as safe and effective. Originally developed in 1952, this vaccine is researched by a team at the [[wikipedia:University of Pittsburgh|University of Pittsburgh]] and required many years of testing.<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.salk.edu/about/history-of-salk/jonas-salk/|title = History of Salk: About Salk|accessdate = June 14, 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Offit|first=Paul A.|title=The Cutter Incident: How America's First Polio Vaccine Led to the Growing Vaccine Crisis|publisher=Yale University Press|year=2007|page=38|isbn=0-300-12605-0}}</ref> || Polio || United States (Pittsburgh)
 
|-
 
|-
| 1961 || Organization || [[United States Agency for International Development]], also known as USAID, is formed in 1961 by President [[John F. Kennedy]] by Executive Order to administer civilian [[foreign aid]]. The primary goal of USAID is to "partner to end [[extreme poverty]] and to promote resilient, [[democracy|democratic]] societies while advancing the security and prosperity of the United States." It focuses on disaster relief, poverty relief, technical cooperation on global issues, U.S. bilateral interests, and socioeconomic development.<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.usaid.gov/policy/ads/400/fsa.pdf |title=USAID: Automated Directives System 400 |format=PDF |date= |accessdate=2013-05-27}}</ref><ref name="auto">{{cite web|url=http://www.usaid.gov/about_usaid/PDACG100.pdf|archiveurl=http://wayback.archive.org/web/20111019114149/http://www.usaid.gov/about_usaid/PDACG100.pdf|archivedate=2011-10-19 |title=USAID Primer: What We Do and How We Do It |format=PDF |date= |accessdate=2011-03-12}}</ref><ref name="auto"/> || || United States
+
| 1958 || Program launch || Smallpox eradication program is launched by [[wikipedia:World Health Assembly|World Health Assembly]]. Smallpox is officially eradicated by 1980, and is known as the first disease to be combated and eradicated on a global scale.<ref name="who_60th"/> || Smallpox ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1963 || Medical advancement || Oral polio vaccine licensed. Oral polio vaccines were developed by medical researcher [[Albert Sabin]], and became used commercially in the early 1960s. They soon become an important basic [[health system]] medicine on the [[World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines]].<ref name="who_60th"/><ref name=WHO2014/><ref>{{cite journal|last1=Smith|first1=DR|last2=Leggat|first2=PA|title=Pioneering figures in medicine: Albert Bruce Sabin--inventor of the oral polio vaccine.|journal=The Kurume medical journal|date=2005|volume=52|issue=3|pages=111–6|pmid=16422178|doi=10.2739/kurumemedj.52.111}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=WHO Model List of EssentialMedicines|url=http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/93142/1/EML_18_eng.pdf?ua=1|work=World Health Organization|accessdate=22 April 2014|date=October 2013}}</ref> || Polio ||
+
| 1961 || Organization || [[wikipedia:United States Agency for International Development|United States Agency for International Development]], also known as USAID, is formed in 1961 by President [[wikipedia:John F. Kennedy|John F. Kennedy]] by Executive Order to administer civilian [[wikipedia:foreign aid|foreign aid]]. The primary goal of USAID is to "partner to end [[wikipedia:extreme poverty|extreme poverty]] and to promote resilient, [[wikipedia:democracy|democratic]] societies while advancing the security and prosperity of the United States." It focuses on disaster relief, poverty relief, technical cooperation on global issues, U.S. bilateral interests, and socioeconomic development.<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.usaid.gov/policy/ads/400/fsa.pdf |title=USAID: Automated Directives System 400 |format=PDF |date= |accessdate=2013-05-27}}</ref><ref name="auto">{{cite web|url=http://www.usaid.gov/about_usaid/PDACG100.pdf|archiveurl=http://wayback.archive.org/web/20111019114149/http://www.usaid.gov/about_usaid/PDACG100.pdf|archivedate=2011-10-19 |title=USAID Primer: What We Do and How We Do It |format=PDF |date= |accessdate=2011-03-12}}</ref><ref name="auto"/> || || United States
 
|-
 
|-
| 1965 || Organization || [[International Agency for Research on Cancer]], also known as the IARC, is an organization created to conduct research into the causes of cancer, and to collect and publish data regarding [[cancer]] occurrence worldwide. It is established as an intergovernmental agency in 1965, part of the [[World Health Organization]] and the [[United Nations]].<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www-dep.iarc.fr/|title = International Agency for Research on Cancer|accessdate = June 14, 2016}}</ref>  || [[Cancer]] || France (Lyons)
+
| 1963 || Medical advancement || Oral polio vaccine licensed. Oral polio vaccines were developed by medical researcher [[wikipedia:Albert Sabin|Albert Sabin]], and became used commercially in the early 1960s. They soon become an important basic [[wikipedia:health system|health system]] medicine on the [[wikipedia:World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines|World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines]].<ref name="who_60th"/><ref name=WHO2014/><ref>{{cite journal|last1=Smith|first1=DR|last2=Leggat|first2=PA|title=Pioneering figures in medicine: Albert Bruce Sabin--inventor of the oral polio vaccine.|journal=The Kurume medical journal|date=2005|volume=52|issue=3|pages=111–6|pmid=16422178|doi=10.2739/kurumemedj.52.111}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=WHO Model List of EssentialMedicines|url=http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/93142/1/EML_18_eng.pdf?ua=1|work=World Health Organization|accessdate=22 April 2014|date=October 2013}}</ref>  || Polio ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1970 || Organization || [[Population Services International]] (PSI) is created as a [[nonprofit organization|nonprofit]] [[Global health|global health organization]] with programs targeting malaria, child survival, HIV, and reproductive health. PSI provides life-saving products, clinical services and [[behavior change communication]]s.<ref name=psi-about-us>{{cite web|url = http://www.psi.org/about/at-a-glance/|title = PSI at a Glance|publisher = [[Population Services International]]|accessdate = September 2, 2016}}</ref><ref name=bridgespan-psi>{{cite web|url = http://www.bridgespan.org/getattachment/d7e46705-2a3b-47a5-a531-3634b19963d6/Profile-Population-Services-International.aspx |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160915042750/http://www.bridgespan.org/getattachment/d7e46705-2a3b-47a5-a531-3634b19963d6/Profile-Population-Services-International.aspx |archivedate=September 15, 2016 |title = Population Services International: Funding Growth|publisher = [[Bridgespan Group]]|accessdate = September 2, 2016}}</ref><ref name=givewell-psi>{{cite web|url = http://www.givewell.org/international/charities/PSI|title = Population Services International (PSI)|publisher = [[GiveWell]]|date = February 1, 2011|accessdate = September 2, 2016}}</ref> || [[Malaria]], [[HIV/AIDS]], child survival, and reproductive health || [[Washington, D.C.]] (operates worldwide)
+
| 1965 || Organization || [[wikipedia:International Agency for Research on Cancer|International Agency for Research on Cancer]], also known as the IARC, is an organization created to conduct research into the causes of cancer, and to collect and publish data regarding [[wikipedia:cancer|cancer]] occurrence worldwide. It is established as an intergovernmental agency in 1965, part of the [[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]] and the [[wikipedia:United Nations|United Nations]].<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www-dep.iarc.fr/|title = International Agency for Research on Cancer|accessdate = June 14, 2016}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Cancer|Cancer]] || France (Lyons)
 
|-
 
|-
| 1971 || Organization || The [[Doctors Without Borders]] organization, or Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), is founded in France in response to the [[Nigerian Civil War]]. As an international [[humanitarian aid]] [[non-governmental organization]] (NGO), Doctors Without Borders creates projects in third world countries that are battling severe [[Endemic (epidemiology)|endemic diseases]]. It is also a [[Nobel Peace Prize]] laureate, and focuses on war-torn countries.<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.msf.org/msf/about-msf/about-msf_home.cfm |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110822024221/http://msf.org/msf/about-msf/about-msf_home.cfm |archivedate=August 22, 2011 |title = About MSF|publisher = Médecins Sans Frontières.|accessdate = August 31, 2011}}</ref> Unlike the Red Cross (an organization with a broadly similar mandate), MSF is willing to enter war-torn areas without the permission of authorities.<ref name=imva/> || || Switzerland (Geneva)(founded in France)
+
| 1970 || Organization || [[wikipedia:Population Services International|Population Services International]] (PSI) is created as a [[wikipedia:nonprofit organization|nonprofit]] [[wikipedia:Global health|global health organization]] with programs targeting malaria, child survival, HIV, and reproductive health. PSI provides life-saving products, clinical services and [[wikipedia:behavior change communication|behavior change communication]]s.<ref name=psi-about-us>{{cite web|url = http://www.psi.org/about/at-a-glance/|title = PSI at a Glance|publisher = [[wikipedia:Population Services International|Population Services International]]|accessdate = September 2, 2016}}</ref><ref name=bridgespan-psi>{{cite web|url = http://www.bridgespan.org/getattachment/d7e46705-2a3b-47a5-a531-3634b19963d6/Profile-Population-Services-International.aspx |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160915042750/http://www.bridgespan.org/getattachment/d7e46705-2a3b-47a5-a531-3634b19963d6/Profile-Population-Services-International.aspx |archivedate=September 15, 2016 |title = Population Services International: Funding Growth|publisher = [[wikipedia:Bridgespan Group|Bridgespan Group]]|accessdate = September 2, 2016}}</ref><ref name=givewell-psi>{{cite web|url = http://www.givewell.org/international/charities/PSI|title = Population Services International (PSI)|publisher = [[wikipedia:GiveWell|GiveWell]]|date = February 1, 2011|accessdate = September 2, 2016}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Malaria|Malaria]], [[wikipedia:HIV/AIDS|HIV/AIDS]], child survival, and reproductive health || [[wikipedia:Washington, D.C.|Washington, D.C.]] (operates worldwide)
 
|-
 
|-
| 1974 || Program launch || The Onchocerciasis Control Programme is launched in response to the dramatic consequences of the [[onchocerciasis]] epidemic in West Africa by the [[World Health Organization]] (WHO), with help by three other UN agencies – the [[World Bank]], the [[Food and Agriculture Organization]] (FAO), and the [[United Nations Development Programme]] (UNDP).<ref name="who_60th"/> || [[Onchocerciasis]] ||
+
| 1971 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:Doctors Without Borders|Doctors Without Borders]] organization, or Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), is founded in France in response to the [[wikipedia:Nigerian Civil War|Nigerian Civil War]]. As an international [[wikipedia:humanitarian aid|humanitarian aid]] [[wikipedia:non-governmental organization|non-governmental organization]] (NGO), Doctors Without Borders creates projects in third world countries that are battling severe [[wikipedia:Endemic (epidemiology)|endemic diseases]]. It is also a [[wikipedia:Nobel Peace Prize|Nobel Peace Prize]] laureate, and focuses on war-torn countries.<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.msf.org/msf/about-msf/about-msf_home.cfm |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110822024221/http://msf.org/msf/about-msf/about-msf_home.cfm |archivedate=August 22, 2011 |title = About MSF|publisher = Médecins Sans Frontières.|accessdate = August 31, 2011}}</ref> Unlike the Red Cross (an organization with a broadly similar mandate), MSF is willing to enter war-torn areas without the permission of authorities.<ref name=imva/> || || Switzerland (Geneva)(founded in France)
 
|-
 
|-
| 1976 || Discovery || The [[Ebola]] virus (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is first identified in 1976. Ebola is a [[viral hemorrhagic fever]] found in primates, primarily in humans, that is caused by [[ebolaviruses]]. The first symptoms include [[sore throat]], [[muscular pain]], [[headaches]], and a strong [[fever]], then resulting in [[internal bleeding]] and death.<ref name="who_60th"/><ref name=WHO2014>{{cite web | title = Ebola virus disease Fact sheet No. 103|url=http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs103/en/|work=World Health Organization | date = September 2014}}</ref> || [[Ebola]] || [[Democratic Republic of the Congo]]
+
| 1974 || Program launch || The Onchocerciasis Control Programme is launched in response to the dramatic consequences of the [[wikipedia:onchocerciasis|onchocerciasis]] epidemic in West Africa by the [[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]] (WHO), with help by three other UN agencies – the [[wikipedia:World Bank|World Bank]], the [[wikipedia:Food and Agriculture Organization|Food and Agriculture Organization]] (FAO), and the [[wikipedia:United Nations Development Programme|United Nations Development Programme]] (UNDP).<ref name="who_60th"/> || [[wikipedia:Onchocerciasis|Onchocerciasis]] ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1977 || Publication || [[WHO Model List of Essential Medicines]] is first published by the [[World Health Organization]], and included a total of 204 [[pharmaceutical drugs]]. Thereafter, the WHO updates the list every two years, and created separate sections for adults and children, including medicines from [[anaesthetics]] to medicines for diseases of joints (as shown in the 19th edition, published in April 2015).<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite web|title=Comparative Table of Medicines on the WHO Essential Medicines Lists from 1977–2011|publisher=World Health Organization|url=http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/essentialmedicines/EMLsChanges1977_2011.xls |format=XLS|accessdate=2013-12-30}}</ref><ref name=WHO2015E>{{cite web |url=http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/essentialmedicines/EML2015_8-May-15.pdf |title=19th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (April 2015) |date=April 2015 |accessdate=May 10, 2015 |publisher=WHO }}</ref> || ||
+
| 1976 || Discovery || The [[wikipedia:Ebola|Ebola]] virus (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is first identified in 1976. Ebola is a [[wikipedia:viral hemorrhagic fever|viral hemorrhagic fever]] found in primates, primarily in humans, that is caused by [[wikipedia:ebolaviruses|ebolaviruses]]. The first symptoms include [[wikipedia:sore throat|sore throat]], [[wikipedia:muscular pain|muscular pain]], [[wikipedia:headaches|headaches]], and a strong [[wikipedia:fever|fever]], then resulting in [[wikipedia:internal bleeding|internal bleeding]] and death.<ref name="who_60th"/><ref name=WHO2014>{{cite web | title = Ebola virus disease Fact sheet No. 103|url=http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs103/en/|work=World Health Organization | date = September 2014}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Ebola|Ebola]] || [[wikipedia:Democratic Republic of the Congo|Democratic Republic of the Congo]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1977 || Organization || [[PATH (global health organization)|PATH]] (formerly Program for Appropriate Technology in Health) is founded. PATH is an international, nonprofit global health organization based in Seattle. It is best known for developing and adapting technologies, such as improved vaccination devices and new tools to prevent cervical cancer, to address the health needs of developing countries.<ref name="Doughton">{{cite news|last=Doughton|first=Sandi|title=The Seattle nonprofit PATH picks a new leader|url=http://seattletimes.com/html/localnews/2017845210_path27m.html|accessdate=15 February 2013|newspaper=The Seattle Times|date=26 March 2012 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160118150320/http://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/the-seattle-nonprofit-path-picks-a-new-leader/ |archivedate=January 18, 2016}}</ref> In the 21st century, the Gates Foundation would fund PATH and its subsidiaries to the tune of over a billion dollars, helping it grow to massive scale.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.xconomy.com/seattle/2009/02/04/path-fueled-by-bill-gates-fortune-builds-global-health-hothouse-in-seattle/|title = PATH, Fueled by Bill Gates' Fortune, Builds Global Health Hothouse in Seattle|date = February 4, 2009|accessdate = September 2, 2016|publisher = [[XConomy]]}}</ref><ref name="iati-pub">{{cite web |url=https://iatiregistry.org/publisher/bmgf |title=Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation |accessdate=August 28, 2016 |publisher=IATI Registry |date=2016-08-16}}</ref> || || United States (Seattle, Washington)
+
| 1977 || Publication || [[wikipedia:WHO Model List of Essential Medicines|WHO Model List of Essential Medicines]] is first published by the [[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]], and included a total of 204 [[wikipedia:pharmaceutical drugs|pharmaceutical drugs]]. Thereafter, the WHO updates the list every two years, and created separate sections for adults and children, including medicines from [[wikipedia:anaesthetics|anaesthetics]] to medicines for diseases of joints (as shown in the 19th edition, published in April 2015).<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite web|title=Comparative Table of Medicines on the WHO Essential Medicines Lists from 1977–2011|publisher=World Health Organization|url=http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/essentialmedicines/EMLsChanges1977_2011.xls |format=XLS|accessdate=2013-12-30}}</ref><ref name=WHO2015E>{{cite web |url=http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/essentialmedicines/EML2015_8-May-15.pdf |title=19th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (April 2015) |date=April 2015 |accessdate=May 10, 2015 |publisher=WHO }}</ref> || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1978 || Declaration || The [[Alma Ata Declaration]] is established during the International Conference on [[Primary Health Care]] (PHC). The purpose of this conference is to develop a plan for primary health care across the world, especially benefiting the [[developing countries]] to keep a spirit of cooperation. As a result, the Declaration of Alma-Ata is adopted, and expresses the urgent worldwide need for a better health system to be place.<ref>{{cite report|title=Primary Health Care: Report of the International Conference on Primary Health Care|location=Geneva|publisher=World Health Organization|year=1978|url=http://www.unicef.org/about/history/files/Alma_Ata_conference_1978_report.pdf}}</ref> The Declaration promotes health as a human right.<ref name=ghh/> || || [[Kazakhstan]]
+
| 1977 || Organization || [[wikipedia:PATH (global health organization)|PATH]] (formerly Program for Appropriate Technology in Health) is founded. PATH is an international, nonprofit global health organization based in Seattle. It is best known for developing and adapting technologies, such as improved vaccination devices and new tools to prevent cervical cancer, to address the health needs of developing countries.<ref name="Doughton">{{cite news|last=Doughton|first=Sandi|title=The Seattle nonprofit PATH picks a new leader|url=http://seattletimes.com/html/localnews/2017845210_path27m.html|accessdate=15 February 2013|newspaper=The Seattle Times|date=26 March 2012 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160118150320/http://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/the-seattle-nonprofit-path-picks-a-new-leader/ |archivedate=January 18, 2016}}</ref> In the 21st century, the Gates Foundation would fund PATH and its subsidiaries to the tune of over a billion dollars, helping it grow to massive scale.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.xconomy.com/seattle/2009/02/04/path-fueled-by-bill-gates-fortune-builds-global-health-hothouse-in-seattle/|title = PATH, Fueled by Bill Gates' Fortune, Builds Global Health Hothouse in Seattle|date = February 4, 2009|accessdate = September 2, 2016|publisher = [[wikipedia:XConomy|XConomy]]}}</ref><ref name="iati-pub">{{cite web |url=https://iatiregistry.org/publisher/bmgf |title=Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation |accessdate=August 28, 2016 |publisher=IATI Registry |date=2016-08-16}}</ref> || || United States (Seattle, Washington)
 
|-
 
|-
| 1979 || Medical advancement || Eradication of [[smallpox]] (last naturally occurring case recorded). The eradication effort dates back to the time of [[Edward Jenner]], an English physician who demonstrated that cowpox could protect humans from smallpox, thus beginning the eradication of smallpox on a regional scale.<ref>{{cite book |last=Handcock |first=Gordon |title=The Story of Trinity |location=Trinity |publisher=The Trinity Historical Society |page=1 |isbn=0-9810017-0-X}}</ref> In 1813, the [[U.S. Congress]] passed the [[Vaccine Act of 1813|Vaccine Act]] to provide total access to the smallpox vaccine to the public in the United States.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.iias.nl/sites/default/files/IIAS_NL48_39.pdf|title=Against all odds: vanquishing smallpox in far-flung Japan|accessdate=July 14, 2015|date=2007}}</ref> Similar measures were taken in other countries, and following the [[1972 outbreak of smallpox in Yugoslavia]], the disease is completely eradicated in 1979.<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite journal |first=Colette |last=Flight |url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/smallpox_03.shtml |title=Smallpox: Eradicating the Scourge |work=[[BBC History]] |date=February 17, 2011 |accessdate=July 28, 2015}}</ref> || Smallpox || Worldwide
+
| 1978 || Declaration || The [[wikipedia:Alma Ata Declaration|Alma Ata Declaration]] is established during the International Conference on [[wikipedia:Primary Health Care|Primary Health Care]] (PHC). The purpose of this conference is to develop a plan for primary health care across the world, especially benefiting the [[wikipedia:developing countries|developing countries]] to keep a spirit of cooperation. As a result, the Declaration of Alma-Ata is adopted, and expresses the urgent worldwide need for a better health system to be place.<ref>{{cite report|title=Primary Health Care: Report of the International Conference on Primary Health Care|location=Geneva|publisher=World Health Organization|year=1978|url=http://www.unicef.org/about/history/files/Alma_Ata_conference_1978_report.pdf}}</ref> The Declaration promotes health as a human right.<ref name=ghh/> || || [[wikipedia:Kazakhstan|Kazakhstan]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1982 || Program launch || The [[child survival revolution]] (CSR) is an effort started by [[James P. Grant]] and [[UNICEF]] in collaboration with other organizations (such as the [[Rockefeller Foundation]], [[UNDP]], the [[World Bank]], and the [[WHO]]) to reduce child mortality in the developing world. Grant advocates [[GOBI-FFF]], a form of selective [[primary healthcare]] (which helps child development and increases maternal health and reduces child mortality).<ref name="David Bornstein 2007 pp. 250"/> The entire CSR effort would last from 1982 to the 1990s.<ref name="gautam">{{cite web |url=http://www.huffingtonpost.com/kul-chandra-gautam/child-mortality_b_1619727.html |title=USAID and UNICEF: A Winning Partnership for Child Survival and Development |author=Kul Chandra Gautam |date=August 22, 2012 |publisher=Huffington Post}}</ref> || ||
+
| 1979 || Medical advancement || Eradication of [[wikipedia:smallpox|smallpox]] (last naturally occurring case recorded). The eradication effort dates back to the time of [[wikipedia:Edward Jenner|Edward Jenner]], an English physician who demonstrated that cowpox could protect humans from smallpox, thus beginning the eradication of smallpox on a regional scale.<ref>{{cite book |last=Handcock |first=Gordon |title=The Story of Trinity |location=Trinity |publisher=The Trinity Historical Society |page=1 |isbn=0-9810017-0-X}}</ref> In 1813, the [[wikipedia:U.S. Congress|U.S. Congress]] passed the [[wikipedia:Vaccine Act of 1813|Vaccine Act]] to provide total access to the smallpox vaccine to the public in the United States.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.iias.nl/sites/default/files/IIAS_NL48_39.pdf|title=Against all odds: vanquishing smallpox in far-flung Japan|accessdate=July 14, 2015|date=2007}}</ref> Similar measures were taken in other countries, and following the [[wikipedia:1972 outbreak of smallpox in Yugoslavia|1972 outbreak of smallpox in Yugoslavia]], the disease is completely eradicated in 1979.<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite journal |first=Colette |last=Flight |url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/smallpox_03.shtml |title=Smallpox: Eradicating the Scourge |work=[[wikipedia:BBC History|BBC History]] |date=February 17, 2011 |accessdate=July 28, 2015}}</ref> || Smallpox || Worldwide
 
|-
 
|-
| 1984 || Program launch || [[Demographic and Health Surveys]] (DHS) is conceived.<ref name="fabic">{{cite web |url=http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/90/8/11-095513/en/ |date=September 1, 2011 |title=A systematic review of Demographic and Health Surveys: data availability and utilization for research |publisher=World Health Organization |accessdate=July 20, 2016}}</ref> The DHS Program is responsible for collecting and disseminating accurate, nationally representative data on health and population in developing countries. || ||
+
| 1982 || Program launch || The [[wikipedia:child survival revolution|child survival revolution]] (CSR) is an effort started by [[wikipedia:James P. Grant|James P. Grant]] and [[wikipedia:UNICEF|UNICEF]] in collaboration with other organizations (such as the [[wikipedia:Rockefeller Foundation|Rockefeller Foundation]], [[wikipedia:UNDP|UNDP]], the [[wikipedia:World Bank|World Bank]], and the [[wikipedia:WHO|WHO]]) to reduce child mortality in the developing world. Grant advocates [[wikipedia:GOBI-FFF|GOBI-FFF]], a form of selective [[wikipedia:primary healthcare|primary healthcare]] (which helps child development and increases maternal health and reduces child mortality).<ref name="David Bornstein 2007 pp. 250"/> The entire CSR effort would last from 1982 to the 1990s.<ref name="gautam">{{cite web |url=http://www.huffingtonpost.com/kul-chandra-gautam/child-mortality_b_1619727.html |title=USAID and UNICEF: A Winning Partnership for Child Survival and Development |author=Kul Chandra Gautam |date=August 22, 2012 |publisher=Huffington Post}}</ref> || ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1984 || Program launch || [[wikipedia:Demographic and Health Surveys|Demographic and Health Surveys]] (DHS) is conceived.<ref name="fabic">{{cite web |url=http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/90/8/11-095513/en/ |date=September 1, 2011 |title=A systematic review of Demographic and Health Surveys: data availability and utilization for research |publisher=World Health Organization |accessdate=July 20, 2016}}</ref> The DHS Program is responsible for collecting and disseminating accurate, nationally representative data on health and population in developing countries. || ||
 
|-  
 
|-  
| 1986 || Program launch || The Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) is launched by the [[World Health Organization]] (WHO). This program is designed to evaluate the scope of the global AIDS pandemic and to provide an organized international response to the deadly disease. By the late 1900s, the GPA would be implemented in more than 160 countries around the world.<ref name="who_60th"/><ref>{{cite web|url = https://apps.nlm.nih.gov/againsttheodds/exhibit/action_on_aids/global_response.cfm |title=Action on AIDS: The Global Response |website=Against the Odds |publisher = [[National Institutes of Health]]|accessdate = June 14, 2016}}</ref> || HIV/AIDS ||
+
| 1986 || Program launch || The Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) is launched by the [[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]] (WHO). This program is designed to evaluate the scope of the global AIDS pandemic and to provide an organized international response to the deadly disease. By the late 1900s, the GPA would be implemented in more than 160 countries around the world.<ref name="who_60th"/><ref>{{cite web|url = https://apps.nlm.nih.gov/againsttheodds/exhibit/action_on_aids/global_response.cfm |title=Action on AIDS: The Global Response |website=Against the Odds |publisher = [[wikipedia:National Institutes of Health|National Institutes of Health]]|accessdate = June 14, 2016}}</ref> || HIV/AIDS ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1987 || Organization || [[Partners In Health]], a [[health care]] organization, is founded by [[Paul Farmer]], [[Ophelia Dahl]], Thomas J. White,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://archive.boston.com/bostonglobe/obituaries/articles/2011/01/08/tom_white_one_of_bostons_greatest_philanthropists_dies/|title=Tom White, one of Boston's greatest philanthropists, dies|website=Boston.com|access-date=2016-03-23}}</ref> Todd McCormack, and [[Jim Kim|Jim Yong Kim]].<ref>{{cite book|last=Kidder|first=Tracy|title=[[Mountains Beyond Mountains]]: The Quest of Dr. Paul Farmer, a Man Who Would Cure the World|year=2004|publisher=Random House|isbn=978-0-8129-7301-3|page=317}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/ezra-klein/post/in-kim-an-activist-to-lead-the-world-bank/2011/08/25/gIQAXmc0VS_blog.html|title=In Kim, an activist to lead the World Bank|last=Klein|first=Ezra|date=2011-08-25|newspaper=The Washington Post|language=en-US|issn=0190-8286|access-date=2016-03-23}}</ref> In the next 30 years, the organization pioneers community-based healthcare models, conducts post-earthquake rebuilding after the [[2010 Haiti earthquake]], and forms partnerships with other organizations (such as governments as well as the [[Clinton Health Access Initiative]]) to combat diseases including [[HIV/AIDS]].<ref>{{cite web|url = https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2012/10/the-moral-medical-mission-partners-in-health-25-years-on/262974/|title = The Moral Medical Mission: Partners In Health, 25 Years On|last = Hamblin|first = James|date = October 1, 2012|accessdate = August 30, 2016|publisher = ''[[The Atlantic]]''}}</ref> || || [[United States]] ([[Boston, Massachusetts]])
+
| 1987 || Organization || [[wikipedia:Partners In Health|Partners In Health]], a [[wikipedia:health care|health care]] organization, is founded by [[wikipedia:Paul Farmer|Paul Farmer]], [[wikipedia:Ophelia Dahl|Ophelia Dahl]], Thomas J. White,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://archive.boston.com/bostonglobe/obituaries/articles/2011/01/08/tom_white_one_of_bostons_greatest_philanthropists_dies/|title=Tom White, one of Boston's greatest philanthropists, dies|website=Boston.com|access-date=2016-03-23}}</ref> Todd McCormack, and [[wikipedia:Jim Kim|Jim Yong Kim]].<ref>{{cite book|last=Kidder|first=Tracy|title=[[wikipedia:Mountains Beyond Mountains|Mountains Beyond Mountains]]: The Quest of Dr. Paul Farmer, a Man Who Would Cure the World|year=2004|publisher=Random House|isbn=978-0-8129-7301-3|page=317}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/ezra-klein/post/in-kim-an-activist-to-lead-the-world-bank/2011/08/25/gIQAXmc0VS_blog.html|title=In Kim, an activist to lead the World Bank|last=Klein|first=Ezra|date=2011-08-25|newspaper=The Washington Post|language=en-US|issn=0190-8286|access-date=2016-03-23}}</ref> In the next 30 years, the organization pioneers community-based healthcare models, conducts post-earthquake rebuilding after the [[wikipedia:2010 Haiti earthquake|2010 Haiti earthquake]], and forms partnerships with other organizations (such as governments as well as the [[wikipedia:Clinton Health Access Initiative|Clinton Health Access Initiative]]) to combat diseases including [[wikipedia:HIV/AIDS|HIV/AIDS]].<ref>{{cite web|url = https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2012/10/the-moral-medical-mission-partners-in-health-25-years-on/262974/|title = The Moral Medical Mission: Partners In Health, 25 Years On|last = Hamblin|first = James|date = October 1, 2012|accessdate = August 30, 2016|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:The Atlantic|The Atlantic]]''}}</ref> || || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]] ([[wikipedia:Boston, Massachusetts|Boston, Massachusetts]])
 
|-
 
|-
| 1988 || Program launch || The [[Global Polio Eradication Initiative]] (GPEI) is established by the WHO, UNICEF, and the [[Rotary Foundation]] during a large [[public health]] effort to eradicate the [[poliomyelitis]] (polio) disease worldwide. The main goal of the GPEI is to eliminate polio from all countries by the year 2000, and the last recorded case of the disease in the Americas is logged in [[Peru]] in August 1991.<ref name="who_60th"/><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.polioeradication.org/content/general/LatestNews200707.asp |title=First Lady of Nigeria inaugurates vaccination campaigns |accessdate=2008-01-24 |date=30 July 2007 |work=The Global Polio Eradication Initiative |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20071209001901/http://www.polioeradication.org/content/general/LatestNews200707.asp <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = 2007-12-09}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title = Polio Eradication {{!}} Global Health Strategies|url = http://www.globalhealthstrategies.com/issues/polio-eradication|website = www.globalhealthstrategies.com|access-date = 2016-02-11|first = Global Health|last = Strategies}}</ref> || Polio ||
+
| 1988 || Program launch || The [[wikipedia:Global Polio Eradication Initiative|Global Polio Eradication Initiative]] (GPEI) is established by the WHO, UNICEF, and the [[wikipedia:Rotary Foundation|Rotary Foundation]] during a large [[wikipedia:public health|public health]] effort to eradicate the [[wikipedia:poliomyelitis|poliomyelitis]] (polio) disease worldwide. The main goal of the GPEI is to eliminate polio from all countries by the year 2000, and the last recorded case of the disease in the Americas is logged in [[wikipedia:Peru|Peru]] in August 1991.<ref name="who_60th"/><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.polioeradication.org/content/general/LatestNews200707.asp |title=First Lady of Nigeria inaugurates vaccination campaigns |accessdate=2008-01-24 |date=30 July 2007 |work=The Global Polio Eradication Initiative |archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20071209001901/http://www.polioeradication.org/content/general/LatestNews200707.asp <!-- Bot retrieved archive --> |archivedate = 2007-12-09}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title = Polio Eradication {{!}} Global Health Strategies|url = http://www.globalhealthstrategies.com/issues/polio-eradication|website = www.globalhealthstrategies.com|access-date = 2016-02-11|first = Global Health|last = Strategies}}</ref> || Polio ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1990 || Publication || The [[Global Burden of Disease Study]] (GBD) is commissioned by the [[World Bank]]. As a comprehensive global research program, it studies the [[disability]] and [[Death|mortality]] that are directly caused by major diseases, injuries, and other [[risk factors]]. The general definition of "global burden of disease" is the "collective [[disease burden]] produced by all the diseases in the world."<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite journal|last1=Das|first1=P|title=The story of GBD 2010: a "super human" effort|journal=Lancet|date=2012|volume=380|issue=9859|pages=2067–2070|doi=10.1016/s0140-6736(12)62174-6}}</ref> || ||
+
| 1990 || Publication || The [[wikipedia:Global Burden of Disease Study|Global Burden of Disease Study]] (GBD) is commissioned by the [[wikipedia:World Bank|World Bank]]. As a comprehensive global research program, it studies the [[wikipedia:disability|disability]] and [[wikipedia:Death|mortality]] that are directly caused by major diseases, injuries, and other [[wikipedia:risk factors|risk factors]]. The general definition of "global burden of disease" is the "collective [[wikipedia:disease burden|disease burden]] produced by all the diseases in the world."<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite journal|last1=Das|first1=P|title=The story of GBD 2010: a "super human" effort|journal=Lancet|date=2012|volume=380|issue=9859|pages=2067–2070|doi=10.1016/s0140-6736(12)62174-6}}</ref> || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1990 || Organization || The [[World Summit for Children]] takes place. The summit has the then-largest-ever gathering of heads of state and government to commit to a set of goals to improve the well-being of children worldwide by the year 2000. It is the first time a UN conference set a broad agenda for a wide range of goals in health, education, nutrition and human rights.<ref name="gautam"/> || ||
+
| 1990 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:World Summit for Children|World Summit for Children]] takes place. The summit has the then-largest-ever gathering of heads of state and government to commit to a set of goals to improve the well-being of children worldwide by the year 2000. It is the first time a UN conference set a broad agenda for a wide range of goals in health, education, nutrition and human rights.<ref name="gautam"/> || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1993 || Publication || The first edition of ''[[Disease Control Priorities Project|Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries]]'' (DCP1) is published. The DCPP is a project that seeks to determine the priorities for disease control around the world, focusing efforts in [[developing countries]] and low-income countries.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://dcp-3.org/about-project |title=About the Project |accessdate=March 30, 2016}}</ref><ref name=about>{{cite web|url=http://www.dcp2.org/page/main/About.html|title = About DCPP|publisher = Disease Control Priorities Project|accessdate = 2012-12-18 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120606081701/http://www.dcp2.org/page/main/About.html |archivedate=June 6, 2012}}</ref> || ||
+
| 1993 || Publication || The first edition of ''[[wikipedia:Disease Control Priorities Project|Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries]]'' (DCP1) is published. The DCPP is a project that seeks to determine the priorities for disease control around the world, focusing efforts in [[wikipedia:developing countries|developing countries]] and low-income countries.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://dcp-3.org/about-project |title=About the Project |accessdate=March 30, 2016}}</ref><ref name=about>{{cite web|url=http://www.dcp2.org/page/main/About.html|title = About DCPP|publisher = Disease Control Priorities Project|accessdate = 2012-12-18 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120606081701/http://www.dcp2.org/page/main/About.html |archivedate=June 6, 2012}}</ref> || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1993 || Publication || The 1993 [[World Development Report]] on investing in global health is published. This report "changed the terms of discourse in international health development" by prioritizing health problems with a large disease burden for which cost-effective interventions were available.<ref>{{cite web |jstor=10.1086/452312 |title=Reviewed Work: World Development Report 1993: Investing in Health by World Bank |author= Michael R. Reich |publisher=The University of Chicago Press}}</ref> || ||
+
| 1993 || Publication || The 1993 [[wikipedia:World Development Report|World Development Report]] on investing in global health is published. This report "changed the terms of discourse in international health development" by prioritizing health problems with a large disease burden for which cost-effective interventions were available.<ref>{{cite web |jstor=10.1086/452312 |title=Reviewed Work: World Development Report 1993: Investing in Health by World Bank |author= Michael R. Reich |publisher=The University of Chicago Press}}</ref> || ||
 
|-
 
|-
|1993||Organization||The [[Global Initiative for Traditional Systems of Health]] is created by the [[Pan American Health Organisation]] in order to bring into policy focus the importance of traditional (indigenous) medicine in the daily lives and healthcare of the majority of the population in [[Developing country|developing countries]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Global Initiatives For Traditional Systems of Health|url=http://www.giftsofhealth.org/home|accessdate=18 November 2016}}</ref>||||United States (Washington D.C.)
+
|1993||Organization||The [[wikipedia:Global Initiative for Traditional Systems of Health|Global Initiative for Traditional Systems of Health]] is created by the [[wikipedia:Pan American Health Organisation|Pan American Health Organisation]] in order to bring into policy focus the importance of traditional (indigenous) medicine in the daily lives and healthcare of the majority of the population in [[wikipedia:Developing country|developing countries]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Global Initiatives For Traditional Systems of Health|url=http://www.giftsofhealth.org/home|accessdate=18 November 2016}}</ref>||||United States (Washington D.C.)
 
|-
 
|-
| 1994 || Organization || The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights ([[TRIPS Agreement]]) is an [[international agreement]] administered by the [[World Trade Organization]] (WTO) that sets down minimum standards for many forms of [[intellectual property]] (IP) regulation as applied to nationals of other WTO members.<ref>See TRIPS Art. 1(3).</ref> Applied to global health, the most visible conflict has been over [[HIV/AIDS]] drugs in Africa. The [[Doha Declaration]] is issued in November 2001, indicating that TRIPS should not prevent states from dealing with public health crises.<ref>cf. Timmermann, Cristian, and Henk van den Belt. 2013. Intellectual property and global health: from corporate social responsibility to the access to knowledge movement. Liverpool Law Review 34 (1):47–73. [http://edepot.wur.nl/252885 also available at http://edepot.wur.nl/252885]</ref> || || signed in Uruguay  
+
| 1994 || Organization || The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights ([[wikipedia:TRIPS Agreement|TRIPS Agreement]]) is an [[wikipedia:international agreement|international agreement]] administered by the [[wikipedia:World Trade Organization|World Trade Organization]] (WTO) that sets down minimum standards for many forms of [[wikipedia:intellectual property|intellectual property]] (IP) regulation as applied to nationals of other WTO members.<ref>See TRIPS Art. 1(3).</ref> Applied to global health, the most visible conflict has been over [[wikipedia:HIV/AIDS|HIV/AIDS]] drugs in Africa. The [[wikipedia:Doha Declaration|Doha Declaration]] is issued in November 2001, indicating that TRIPS should not prevent states from dealing with public health crises.<ref>cf. Timmermann, Cristian, and Henk van den Belt. 2013. Intellectual property and global health: from corporate social responsibility to the access to knowledge movement. Liverpool Law Review 34 (1):47–73. [http://edepot.wur.nl/252885 also available at http://edepot.wur.nl/252885]</ref> || || signed in Uruguay  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1995 || Program launch || International Commission for the Certification of Dracunculiasis Eradication is established by the WHO to evaluate the status of countries applying for the certification of dracunculiasis eradication. The requirements for a country to be deemed "free of transmission" include zero indigenous cases over a complete year.<ref name="who_60th"/><ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.who.int/dracunculiasis/certification/en/|title = Dracunculiasis: Certification|publisher = [[World Health Organization]]|accessdate = June 14, 2016}}</ref> || [[Dracunculiasis]] || Switzerland (Geneva)
+
| 1995 || Program launch || International Commission for the Certification of Dracunculiasis Eradication is established by the WHO to evaluate the status of countries applying for the certification of dracunculiasis eradication. The requirements for a country to be deemed "free of transmission" include zero indigenous cases over a complete year.<ref name="who_60th"/><ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.who.int/dracunculiasis/certification/en/|title = Dracunculiasis: Certification|publisher = [[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]]|accessdate = June 14, 2016}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Dracunculiasis|Dracunculiasis]] || Switzerland (Geneva)
 
|-
 
|-
| 1995 || Program launch || [[DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment, Short-Course)]] strategy for tuberculosis is launched by the [[World Health Organization]]. This is the [[tuberculosis]] control strategy that is deemed the best curative method by the WHO, adopting the motto that "the most cost-effective way to stop the spread of TB in communities with high incidence is to cure it."<ref name=who_60th/><ref>As of 1997, in its revised guidelines for national TB control programs, WHO increasingly stopped spelling out the DOTS acronym. This is due to the perceived overemphasis on the directly observed therapy component (DOT), which is only one of the five essential components of DOTS. See ''Treatment of TB: Guidelines for National Programmes.'' World Health Organization. WHO/TB/97.220. 1997</ref> || Tuberculosis ||
+
| 1995 || Program launch || [[wikipedia:DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment, Short-Course)|DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment, Short-Course)]] strategy for tuberculosis is launched by the [[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]]. This is the [[wikipedia:tuberculosis|tuberculosis]] control strategy that is deemed the best curative method by the WHO, adopting the motto that "the most cost-effective way to stop the spread of TB in communities with high incidence is to cure it."<ref name=who_60th/><ref>As of 1997, in its revised guidelines for national TB control programs, WHO increasingly stopped spelling out the DOTS acronym. This is due to the perceived overemphasis on the directly observed therapy component (DOT), which is only one of the five essential components of DOTS. See ''Treatment of TB: Guidelines for National Programmes.'' World Health Organization. WHO/TB/97.220. 1997</ref> || Tuberculosis ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1996 || Organization || The [[Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS]] (UNAIDS) is established to advocate for coordinated global action regarding the spread of [[HIV/AIDS]] across the world. The program aims to slow the spread of the disease so the [[epidemic]] does not become a [[pandemic]] by providing adequate leadership to provide effective action on the epidemic.<ref name=who_60th/> || HIV/AIDS || Switzerland (Geneva)
+
| 1996 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS|Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS]] (UNAIDS) is established to advocate for coordinated global action regarding the spread of [[wikipedia:HIV/AIDS|HIV/AIDS]] across the world. The program aims to slow the spread of the disease so the [[wikipedia:epidemic|epidemic]] does not become a [[wikipedia:pandemic|pandemic]] by providing adequate leadership to provide effective action on the epidemic.<ref name=who_60th/> || HIV/AIDS || Switzerland (Geneva)
 
|-
 
|-
|1999 || Program launch ||[[Médecins Sans Frontières]] launch the [[Campaign for Access to Essential Medicines]]. It pushes to lower the prices of existing drugs, vaccines and diagnostic tests, to stimulate research and development into new treatments for diseases ([[tuberculosis]] among them) that primarily affect the poor.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Butler|first=Christopher|title=Human Rights and the World Trade Organization: The Right to Essential Medicines and the TRIPS Agreement|journal=Journal of International Law & Policy|year=2007|volume=5|pages=1–27|url=http://www.law.upenn.edu/journals/jil/jilp/articles/5-1_Butler_Christopher.pdf|accessdate=4 September 2016}}</ref>|| ||
+
|1999 || Program launch ||[[wikipedia:Médecins Sans Frontières|Médecins Sans Frontières]] launch the [[wikipedia:Campaign for Access to Essential Medicines|Campaign for Access to Essential Medicines]]. It pushes to lower the prices of existing drugs, vaccines and diagnostic tests, to stimulate research and development into new treatments for diseases ([[wikipedia:tuberculosis|tuberculosis]] among them) that primarily affect the poor.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Butler|first=Christopher|title=Human Rights and the World Trade Organization: The Right to Essential Medicines and the TRIPS Agreement|journal=Journal of International Law & Policy|year=2007|volume=5|pages=1–27|url=http://www.law.upenn.edu/journals/jil/jilp/articles/5-1_Butler_Christopher.pdf|accessdate=4 September 2016}}</ref>|| ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2000 || Program launch || [[Stop TB Partnership]] is launched to eliminate [[tuberculosis]] as a public health problem across international borders. Previously administered by the World Health Organization, the partnership is now hosted by the [[UNOPS|United Nations Office for Project Services]] (UNOPS).<ref name="who_60th" /><ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.stoptb.org/about/|title = About Us|publisher = Stop TB Partnership|accessdate = June 14, 2016}}</ref> || Tuberculosis || Switzerland (Geneva)
+
| 2000 || Program launch || [[wikipedia:Stop TB Partnership|Stop TB Partnership]] is launched to eliminate [[wikipedia:tuberculosis|tuberculosis]] as a public health problem across international borders. Previously administered by the World Health Organization, the partnership is now hosted by the [[wikipedia:UNOPS|United Nations Office for Project Services]] (UNOPS).<ref name="who_60th" /><ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.stoptb.org/about/|title = About Us|publisher = Stop TB Partnership|accessdate = June 14, 2016}}</ref> || Tuberculosis || Switzerland (Geneva)
 
|-
 
|-
| 2000 || Organization || The [[Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network]] is launched by the World Health Organization. During a medical crisis, this organization ensures the correct technical expertise will be located in the critical areas in an event of an outbreak.<ref name=who_60th/> || ||
+
| 2000 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network|Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network]] is launched by the World Health Organization. During a medical crisis, this organization ensures the correct technical expertise will be located in the critical areas in an event of an outbreak.<ref name=who_60th/> || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2000 || Organization || [[Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation]] (BMGF) is founded by [[Bill Gates]] and his wife [[Melinda Gates]].<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.gatesfoundation.org/Who-We-Are/General-Information/History|title = Who We Are: History|publisher = [[Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation]]|accessdate = August 30, 2016}}</ref> It is currently the largest transparently operated [[private foundation]] in the world. This non-governmental organization aims to reduce extreme poverty and improve healthcare around the world, and has been praised as well as critiqued for its influence on the global health landscape.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.alliancemagazine.org/magazine/issue/september-2011/|title = September 2011 issue: Living with the Gates Foundation|publisher = ''[[Alliance Magazine]]''|accessdate = August 30, 2016}}</ref><ref name="garrett gates">{{Cite web |url=http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20070101faessay86103/laurie-garrett/the-challenge-of-global-health.html |title=The Challenge of Global Health |website=Foreign Affairs |publisher=The Council on Foreign Relations, Inc. |date=February 2007 |first=Laurie |last=Garrett |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070202021448/http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20070101faessay86103/laurie-garrett/the-challenge-of-global-health.html |archivedate=February 2, 2007}}</ref><ref name="ReferenceB">{{cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/16/science/16malaria.html|title=Gates Foundation's Influence Criticized|date=16 February 2008|work=The New York Times}}</ref><ref name="LA">{{Cite news|last1=Piller|first1=Charles|last2=Smith|first2=Doug|title=Unintended victims of Gates Foundation generosity|newspaper=[[Los Angeles Times]]| date=2007-12-16|url=http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-gates16dec16,0,6256166,full.story?coll=la-home-center}}</ref> According to foundation grants data available in the [[International Aid Transparency Initiative]] database, the foundation has, since 2009, granted about $10 billion to infectious disease control, malaria, AIDS, and tuberculosis control, health policy and administrative management, and basic health care (see [[Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation#Grants made|Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation § Grants made]] for more).<ref name="iati-pub"/> || ||
+
| 2000 || Organization || [[wikipedia:Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation|Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation]] (BMGF) is founded by [[wikipedia:Bill Gates|Bill Gates]] and his wife [[wikipedia:Melinda Gates|Melinda Gates]].<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.gatesfoundation.org/Who-We-Are/General-Information/History|title = Who We Are: History|publisher = [[wikipedia:Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation|Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation]]|accessdate = August 30, 2016}}</ref> It is currently the largest transparently operated [[wikipedia:private foundation|private foundation]] in the world. This non-governmental organization aims to reduce extreme poverty and improve healthcare around the world, and has been praised as well as critiqued for its influence on the global health landscape.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.alliancemagazine.org/magazine/issue/september-2011/|title = September 2011 issue: Living with the Gates Foundation|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:Alliance Magazine|Alliance Magazine]]''|accessdate = August 30, 2016}}</ref><ref name="garrett gates">{{Cite web |url=http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20070101faessay86103/laurie-garrett/the-challenge-of-global-health.html |title=The Challenge of Global Health |website=Foreign Affairs |publisher=The Council on Foreign Relations, Inc. |date=February 2007 |first=Laurie |last=Garrett |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070202021448/http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20070101faessay86103/laurie-garrett/the-challenge-of-global-health.html |archivedate=February 2, 2007}}</ref><ref name="ReferenceB">{{cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/16/science/16malaria.html|title=Gates Foundation's Influence Criticized|date=16 February 2008|work=The New York Times}}</ref><ref name="LA">{{Cite news|last1=Piller|first1=Charles|last2=Smith|first2=Doug|title=Unintended victims of Gates Foundation generosity|newspaper=[[wikipedia:Los Angeles Times|Los Angeles Times]]| date=2007-12-16|url=http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-gates16dec16,0,6256166,full.story?coll=la-home-center}}</ref> According to foundation grants data available in the [[wikipedia:International Aid Transparency Initiative|International Aid Transparency Initiative]] database, the foundation has, since 2009, granted about $10 billion to infectious disease control, malaria, AIDS, and tuberculosis control, health policy and administrative management, and basic health care (see [[wikipedia:Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation#Grants made|Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation § Grants made]] for more).<ref name="iati-pub"/> || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2000 || Declaration, publication || At a United Nations Summit in 2000, member nations declare eight [[Millennium Development Goals]] (MDGs), which reflect the major challenges facing human development globally, to be achieved by 2015.<ref>{{cite journal|title=Resolution adopted by the General Assembly, 55/2|date=18 September 2000|publisher=United Nations|url=http://www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.pdf}}</ref> The declaration is matched by unprecedented global investment by donor and recipient countries. According to the UN, these MDGs provided an important framework for development and significant progress has been made in a number of areas.<ref name=":0">{{cite web
+
| 2000 || Declaration, publication || At a United Nations Summit in 2000, member nations declare eight [[wikipedia:Millennium Development Goals|Millennium Development Goals]] (MDGs), which reflect the major challenges facing human development globally, to be achieved by 2015.<ref>{{cite journal|title=Resolution adopted by the General Assembly, 55/2|date=18 September 2000|publisher=United Nations|url=http://www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.pdf}}</ref> The declaration is matched by unprecedented global investment by donor and recipient countries. According to the UN, these MDGs provided an important framework for development and significant progress has been made in a number of areas.<ref name=":0">{{cite web
 
| url = https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld
 
| url = https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld
 
| title = Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development .:. Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform
 
| title = Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development .:. Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform
Line 194: Line 196:
 
}}</ref>  However, progress would turn out to be uneven and some of the MDGs are not fully realized including maternal, newborn and child health and reproductive health.<ref name=":0" /> || ||
 
}}</ref>  However, progress would turn out to be uneven and some of the MDGs are not fully realized including maternal, newborn and child health and reproductive health.<ref name=":0" /> || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2000 || Program launch || The [[GAVI Alliance]], a public-private global health partnership, forms to promote the use of vaccines and increase the access to immunization in developing countries.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.gavi.org/about/mission/history/|title = History of Gavi|publisher = [[GAVI Alliance]]|accessdate = August 30, 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Boseley |first=Sarah |url=https://www.theguardian.com/society/sarah-boseley-global-health/2011/nov/17/vaccines-pharmaceuticals-industry |title=Green light from Gavi for cervical cancer vaccine |publisher=Guardian |date=2011-11-17 |accessdate=2014-04-29}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|author=25 January 2013 |url=http://allafrica.com/stories/201301251157.html |title=AllAfrica |publisher=AllAfrica |date=2013-01-25 |accessdate=2014-04-29}}</ref> It brings together developing countries and donor governments, working with the [[World Health Organization]], [[UNICEF]], the [[World Bank]], and other organizations.<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unicef.org/supply/index_gavi.html |title=Supplies and Logistics - GAVI |publisher=UNICEF |date=2007-04-09 |accessdate=2013-01-27}}</ref> The Gates Foundation would be a major funder of GAVI, spending billions of dollars on it.<ref name="iati-pub"/><ref>{{cite web|url = http://philanthropynewsdigest.org/news/gates-foundation-pledges-1.55-billion-to-gavi-alliance|title = Gates Foundation Pledges $1.55 Billion to GAVI Alliance|date = January 29, 2015|accessdate = September 2, 2016|publisher = Philanthropy News Digest}}</ref> || || Switzerland (Geneva)
+
| 2000 || Program launch || The [[wikipedia:GAVI Alliance|GAVI Alliance]], a public-private global health partnership, forms to promote the use of vaccines and increase the access to immunization in developing countries.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.gavi.org/about/mission/history/|title = History of Gavi|publisher = [[wikipedia:GAVI Alliance|GAVI Alliance]]|accessdate = August 30, 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Boseley |first=Sarah |url=https://www.theguardian.com/society/sarah-boseley-global-health/2011/nov/17/vaccines-pharmaceuticals-industry |title=Green light from Gavi for cervical cancer vaccine |publisher=Guardian |date=2011-11-17 |accessdate=2014-04-29}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|author=25 January 2013 |url=http://allafrica.com/stories/201301251157.html |title=AllAfrica |publisher=AllAfrica |date=2013-01-25 |accessdate=2014-04-29}}</ref> It brings together developing countries and donor governments, working with the [[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]], [[wikipedia:UNICEF|UNICEF]], the [[wikipedia:World Bank|World Bank]], and other organizations.<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unicef.org/supply/index_gavi.html |title=Supplies and Logistics - GAVI |publisher=UNICEF |date=2007-04-09 |accessdate=2013-01-27}}</ref> The Gates Foundation would be a major funder of GAVI, spending billions of dollars on it.<ref name="iati-pub"/><ref>{{cite web|url = http://philanthropynewsdigest.org/news/gates-foundation-pledges-1.55-billion-to-gavi-alliance|title = Gates Foundation Pledges $1.55 Billion to GAVI Alliance|date = January 29, 2015|accessdate = September 2, 2016|publisher = Philanthropy News Digest}}</ref> || || Switzerland (Geneva)
 
|-
 
|-
| 2001 || Program launch || The [[Measles Initiative]], also known as the Measles & Rubella Initiative (MRI), is launched as a partnership among leaders in [[public health]] and supports the goal of reducing deaths by the [[measles]] disease globally by 90% by 2010 compared to the estimates in 2000.<ref name="who_60th" /> || Measles ||
+
| 2001 || Program launch || The [[wikipedia:Measles Initiative|Measles Initiative]], also known as the Measles & Rubella Initiative (MRI), is launched as a partnership among leaders in [[wikipedia:public health|public health]] and supports the goal of reducing deaths by the [[wikipedia:measles|measles]] disease globally by 90% by 2010 compared to the estimates in 2000.<ref name="who_60th" /> || Measles ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2001 || Declaration || The [[Doha Declaration]] on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health is adopted by the [[WTO Ministerial Conference of 2001]] in [[Doha]] on November 14, 2001. It reaffirms flexibility of [[TRIPS]] member states in circumventing [[patent]] rights for better access to [[essential medicines]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/minist_e/min05_e/final_text_e.htm#public_health|title=WTO - Ministerial conferences - Hong Kong 6th Ministerial - Ministerial declaration|publisher=}}</ref> || || [[Qatar]] ([[Doha]])
+
| 2001 || Declaration || The [[wikipedia:Doha Declaration|Doha Declaration]] on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health is adopted by the [[wikipedia:WTO Ministerial Conference of 2001|WTO Ministerial Conference of 2001]] in [[wikipedia:Doha|Doha]] on November 14, 2001. It reaffirms flexibility of [[wikipedia:TRIPS|TRIPS]] member states in circumventing [[wikipedia:patent|patent]] rights for better access to [[wikipedia:essential medicines|essential medicines]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/minist_e/min05_e/final_text_e.htm#public_health|title=WTO - Ministerial conferences - Hong Kong 6th Ministerial - Ministerial declaration|publisher=}}</ref> || || [[wikipedia:Qatar|Qatar]] ([[wikipedia:Doha|Doha]])
 
|-
 
|-
| 2001 || Organization || The [[Center for Global Development]] (CGD), a nonprofit think tank based on [[Washington, D.C.]] that focuses on [[international development]], is founded by [[Edward W. Scott]], [[C. Fred Bergsten]], and [[Nancy Birdsall]].<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.openphilanthropy.org/blog/history-philanthropy-case-study-founding-center-global-development|title = History of Philanthropy Case Study: The Founding of the Center for Global Development|last = Karnofsky|first = Holden|date = June 15, 2016|accessdate = June 26, 2016|authorlink = Holden Karnofsky|publisher = [[Open Philanthropy Project]]}}</ref> CGD would go on to publish influential global health publications such as ''[[Millions Saved|Millions Saved: Proven Successes in Global Health]]'' under the umbrella of its Global Health Policy Research Network.<ref name=ghprn>{{cite web|url = http://www.cgdev.org/initiative/global-health-policy-research-network|title = Global Health Policy Research Network. The Global Health Policy Research Network served as an umbrella for a large number of CGD initiatives that undertook original, focused research on high-priority global health policy issues.|publisher = [[Center for Global Development]]|accessdate = June 26, 2016}}</ref><ref name=millions-saved-givewell>{{cite web|url = http://www.givewell.org/Millions-Saved|title = Center for Global Development, Millions Saved Project|date = June 1, 2013|accessdate = June 26, 2016|publisher = [[GiveWell]]}}</ref> A report by a CGD working group on [[advance market commitments]] for vaccines, prepared between 2003 and 2005, would play a key role in the launch of the first AMC in 2009.<ref name=making-markets-vaccines/><ref name=cgd-amc/><ref name=open-phil-cgd-support>{{cite web|url = http://www.openphilanthropy.org/focus/us-policy/miscellaneous/center-global-development-general-support-2016|title = Center for Global Development — General Support 2016|publisher = [[Open Philanthropy Project]]|date = February 24, 2016|accessdate = August 30, 2016}}</ref> || || United States (incorporated; serves the whole world)
+
| 2001 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:Center for Global Development|Center for Global Development]] (CGD), a nonprofit think tank based on [[wikipedia:Washington, D.C.|Washington, D.C.]] that focuses on [[wikipedia:international development|international development]], is founded by [[wikipedia:Edward W. Scott|Edward W. Scott]], [[wikipedia:C. Fred Bergsten|C. Fred Bergsten]], and [[wikipedia:Nancy Birdsall|Nancy Birdsall]].<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.openphilanthropy.org/blog/history-philanthropy-case-study-founding-center-global-development|title = History of Philanthropy Case Study: The Founding of the Center for Global Development|last = Karnofsky|first = Holden|date = June 15, 2016|accessdate = June 26, 2016|authorlink = Holden Karnofsky|publisher = [[wikipedia:Open Philanthropy Project|Open Philanthropy Project]]}}</ref> CGD would go on to publish influential global health publications such as ''[[wikipedia:Millions Saved|Millions Saved: Proven Successes in Global Health]]'' under the umbrella of its Global Health Policy Research Network.<ref name=ghprn>{{cite web|url = http://www.cgdev.org/initiative/global-health-policy-research-network|title = Global Health Policy Research Network. The Global Health Policy Research Network served as an umbrella for a large number of CGD initiatives that undertook original, focused research on high-priority global health policy issues.|publisher = [[wikipedia:Center for Global Development|Center for Global Development]]|accessdate = June 26, 2016}}</ref><ref name=millions-saved-givewell>{{cite web|url = http://www.givewell.org/Millions-Saved|title = Center for Global Development, Millions Saved Project|date = June 1, 2013|accessdate = June 26, 2016|publisher = [[wikipedia:GiveWell|GiveWell]]}}</ref> A report by a CGD working group on [[wikipedia:advance market commitments|advance market commitments]] for vaccines, prepared between 2003 and 2005, would play a key role in the launch of the first AMC in 2009.<ref name=making-markets-vaccines/><ref name=cgd-amc/><ref name=open-phil-cgd-support>{{cite web|url = http://www.openphilanthropy.org/focus/us-policy/miscellaneous/center-global-development-general-support-2016|title = Center for Global Development — General Support 2016|publisher = [[wikipedia:Open Philanthropy Project|Open Philanthropy Project]]|date = February 24, 2016|accessdate = August 30, 2016}}</ref> || || United States (incorporated; serves the whole world)
 
|-
 
|-
| 2002 || Organization || [[The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria]] (also called the Global Fund or GFATM) is founded as an international [[financing]] organization that disburses monetary resources to aid prevention and treatment of the three biggest diseases in third world countries (AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria)."<ref name="theglobalfund1">{{cite web|url=http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/about/diseases/ |title=Fighting AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria |publisher=The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria |accessdate=2012-01-26 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120207072548/http://theglobalfund.org/en/about/diseases |archivedate=February 7, 2012}}</ref> Beginning its operations in January 2002, the Global Fund has its [[secretariat (administrative office)|secretariat]] based in Geneva, Switzerland.<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/about/whoweare/history/ |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130622013504/http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/about/history/ |archivedate=June 22, 2013 |title=Our History |publisher=The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria |accessdate=2013-07-18}}</ref> [[Bill Gates]] is one of the first private donors that provided seed money for this project.<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/about/secretariat/contact/ |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120126185121/http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/about/secretariat/contact |archivedate=January 26, 2012 |title=Secretariat Structure and Contacts |publisher=The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria |accessdate=2012-01-26}}</ref><ref name="google1">{{cite web|url=https://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5h6Ih8CYz1SqAKYjI-SiowJgu8BSA?docId=CNG.07d4a47a8ce76f0e07e322726bdf65a2.6f1 |archiveurl=https://archive.fo/EsE9Y |archivedate=January 24, 2013 |title=AFP: Global Fund faces billion-dollar gap |publisher= Google.com |date=2011-05-19 |accessdate=2012-01-26 |first=Marlowe |last=Hood}}</ref> The Gates Foundation would continue to be a major donor to the Global Fund, with several commitments of over 100 million dollars.<ref name="iati-pub"/><ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.gatesfoundation.org/Media-Center/Press-Releases/2006/08/Global-Fund-Announces-$500-Million-Contribution|title = Global Fund Announces $500 Million Contribution From Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation|publisher = [[Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation]]|date = August 1, 2006|accessdate = September 2, 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.gatesfoundation.org/Media-Center/Press-Releases/2012/01/Foundation-Commits-$750-Million-to-Global-Fund|title = Foundation Commits $750 Million to Global Fund|publisher = [[Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation]]|date = January 1, 2012|accessdate = September 2, 2016}}</ref>|| HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, Malaria || Switzerland (Geneva)
+
| 2002 || Organization || [[wikipedia:The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria|The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria]] (also called the Global Fund or GFATM) is founded as an international [[wikipedia:financing|financing]] organization that disburses monetary resources to aid prevention and treatment of the three biggest diseases in third world countries (AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria)."<ref name="theglobalfund1">{{cite web|url=http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/about/diseases/ |title=Fighting AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria |publisher=The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria |accessdate=2012-01-26 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120207072548/http://theglobalfund.org/en/about/diseases |archivedate=February 7, 2012}}</ref> Beginning its operations in January 2002, the Global Fund has its [[wikipedia:secretariat (administrative office)|secretariat]] based in Geneva, Switzerland.<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/about/whoweare/history/ |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130622013504/http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/about/history/ |archivedate=June 22, 2013 |title=Our History |publisher=The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria |accessdate=2013-07-18}}</ref> [[wikipedia:Bill Gates|Bill Gates]] is one of the first private donors that provided seed money for this project.<ref name=ghh/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/about/secretariat/contact/ |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120126185121/http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/about/secretariat/contact |archivedate=January 26, 2012 |title=Secretariat Structure and Contacts |publisher=The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria |accessdate=2012-01-26}}</ref><ref name="google1">{{cite web|url=https://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5h6Ih8CYz1SqAKYjI-SiowJgu8BSA?docId=CNG.07d4a47a8ce76f0e07e322726bdf65a2.6f1 |archiveurl=https://archive.fo/EsE9Y |archivedate=January 24, 2013 |title=AFP: Global Fund faces billion-dollar gap |publisher= Google.com |date=2011-05-19 |accessdate=2012-01-26 |first=Marlowe |last=Hood}}</ref> The Gates Foundation would continue to be a major donor to the Global Fund, with several commitments of over 100 million dollars.<ref name="iati-pub"/><ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.gatesfoundation.org/Media-Center/Press-Releases/2006/08/Global-Fund-Announces-$500-Million-Contribution|title = Global Fund Announces $500 Million Contribution From Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation|publisher = [[wikipedia:Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation|Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation]]|date = August 1, 2006|accessdate = September 2, 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.gatesfoundation.org/Media-Center/Press-Releases/2012/01/Foundation-Commits-$750-Million-to-Global-Fund|title = Foundation Commits $750 Million to Global Fund|publisher = [[wikipedia:Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation|Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation]]|date = January 1, 2012|accessdate = September 2, 2016}}</ref>|| HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, Malaria || Switzerland (Geneva)
 
|-
 
|-
| 2002 || Organization || The [[Clinton Health Access Initiative]] launches as the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative under the [[Clinton Foundation]].<ref name=chai-launch>{{cite web|url = https://www.clintonfoundation.org/our-work/clinton-health-access-initiative/programs/hivaids|title = HIV/AIDS|publisher = [[Clinton Foundation]]|accessdate = June 26, 2016}}</ref><ref name=ip-chai>{{cite web|url = http://www.insidephilanthropy.com/home/2016/6/23/what-the-heck-does-the-clinton-foundation-actually-do.html|title = What the Heck Does the Clinton Foundation Actually DO?|last = Callahan|first = David|authorlink = David Callahan|publisher = [[Inside Philanthropy]]|date = June 23, 2016|accessdate = June 26, 2016}}</ref> In 2010, it becomes a standalone organization and is renamed the Clinton Health Access Initiative.<ref>{{cite news|url = https://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/14/us/politics/unease-at-clinton-foundation-over-finances-and-ambitions.html?hp&_r=1&&pagewanted=all|title = Unease at Clinton Foundation Over Finances and Ambitions|last = Confessore|first = Nicholas|last2 = Chozick|first2 = Amy|date = August 13, 2013|publisher = ''[[New York Times]]''}}</ref> As of 2016, the [[Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation]] is CHAI's biggest funder, having donated $60 million in 2015 alone.<ref name=ip-chai/> || HIV/AIDS (initially) || United States (incorporated; but primarily serves Africa)
+
| 2002 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:Clinton Health Access Initiative|Clinton Health Access Initiative]] launches as the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative under the [[wikipedia:Clinton Foundation|Clinton Foundation]].<ref name=chai-launch>{{cite web|url = https://www.clintonfoundation.org/our-work/clinton-health-access-initiative/programs/hivaids|title = HIV/AIDS|publisher = [[wikipedia:Clinton Foundation|Clinton Foundation]]|accessdate = June 26, 2016}}</ref><ref name=ip-chai>{{cite web|url = http://www.insidephilanthropy.com/home/2016/6/23/what-the-heck-does-the-clinton-foundation-actually-do.html|title = What the Heck Does the Clinton Foundation Actually DO?|last = Callahan|first = David|authorlink = David Callahan|publisher = [[wikipedia:Inside Philanthropy|Inside Philanthropy]]|date = June 23, 2016|accessdate = June 26, 2016}}</ref> In 2010, it becomes a standalone organization and is renamed the Clinton Health Access Initiative.<ref>{{cite news|url = https://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/14/us/politics/unease-at-clinton-foundation-over-finances-and-ambitions.html?hp&_r=1&&pagewanted=all|title = Unease at Clinton Foundation Over Finances and Ambitions|last = Confessore|first = Nicholas|last2 = Chozick|first2 = Amy|date = August 13, 2013|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:New York Times|New York Times]]''}}</ref> As of 2016, the [[wikipedia:Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation|Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation]] is CHAI's biggest funder, having donated $60 million in 2015 alone.<ref name=ip-chai/> || HIV/AIDS (initially) || United States (incorporated; but primarily serves Africa)
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2002 || Publication || The first World report on violence and health is launched in October 2002, offering the first review of the issue of violence around the world, including its definition, its aftereffects on the human race, and possible solutions.<ref name="who_60th" /><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/|title=WHO - World report on violence and health|publisher=}}</ref> || ||
 
| 2002 || Publication || The first World report on violence and health is launched in October 2002, offering the first review of the issue of violence around the world, including its definition, its aftereffects on the human race, and possible solutions.<ref name="who_60th" /><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en/|title=WHO - World report on violence and health|publisher=}}</ref> || ||
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| 2002 || Publication || The Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health is created by the British government to look into the effects of different intellectual property rights on developing countries and low-income citizens. The final report is published in September 2002.<ref name="who_60th" /><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.iprcommission.org/home.html|title=Commission on Intellectual Property Rights|publisher=}}</ref> || ||
 
| 2002 || Publication || The Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health is created by the British government to look into the effects of different intellectual property rights on developing countries and low-income citizens. The final report is published in September 2002.<ref name="who_60th" /><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.iprcommission.org/home.html|title=Commission on Intellectual Property Rights|publisher=}}</ref> || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2002 || Crisis || [[Severe acute respiratory syndrome]] (SARS) is a viral [[respiratory disease]] of [[zoonotic]] origin caused by the [[SARS coronavirus]]. A serious outbreak of SARS began in southern China in November 2002 and caused 8,096 cases and 774 deaths reported in 37 countries, with a majority of cases in Hong Kong.<ref name="who_60th" /> || SARS || China (but spread to multiple countries)
+
| 2002 || Crisis || [[wikipedia:Severe acute respiratory syndrome|Severe acute respiratory syndrome]] (SARS) is a viral [[wikipedia:respiratory disease|respiratory disease]] of [[wikipedia:zoonotic|zoonotic]] origin caused by the [[wikipedia:SARS coronavirus|SARS coronavirus]]. A serious outbreak of SARS began in southern China in November 2002 and caused 8,096 cases and 774 deaths reported in 37 countries, with a majority of cases in Hong Kong.<ref name="who_60th" /> || SARS || China (but spread to multiple countries)
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || Program launch || At the World Economic Forum in Davos in January, Bill Gates announces the [[Grand Challenges In Global Health]]. The initiative is funded by the Gates Foundation working with the [[National Institutes of Health]], and started with a $200 million grant to the [[Foundation for the National Institutes of Health]]. The fourteen grand challenges are announced in October 2003. Two new challenges are added in 2011.<ref name=GHC>{{cite journal|author=Tindana PO|year=2007 |url=http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.0040273|title= Grand Challenges in Global Health: Community Engagement in Research in Developing Countries|journal=PLoS Med|volume=4|issue=9|doi= 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040273|pages=e273}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.fnih.org/work/key-initiatives/grand-challenges-global-health |title=Grand Challenges in Global Health |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130903135429/http://fnih.org/work/key-initiatives/grand-challenges-global-health |archivedate=2013-09-03 |df= }}</ref> || ||
+
| 2003 || Program launch || At the World Economic Forum in Davos in January, Bill Gates announces the [[wikipedia:Grand Challenges In Global Health|Grand Challenges In Global Health]]. The initiative is funded by the Gates Foundation working with the [[wikipedia:National Institutes of Health|National Institutes of Health]], and started with a $200 million grant to the [[wikipedia:Foundation for the National Institutes of Health|Foundation for the National Institutes of Health]]. The fourteen grand challenges are announced in October 2003. Two new challenges are added in 2011.<ref name=GHC>{{cite journal|author=Tindana PO|year=2007 |url=http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.0040273|title= Grand Challenges in Global Health: Community Engagement in Research in Developing Countries|journal=PLoS Med|volume=4|issue=9|doi= 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040273|pages=e273}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.fnih.org/work/key-initiatives/grand-challenges-global-health |title=Grand Challenges in Global Health |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130903135429/http://fnih.org/work/key-initiatives/grand-challenges-global-health |archivedate=2013-09-03 |df= }}</ref> || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || Program launch || The [[3 by 5 Initiative]] is launched by the [[World Health Organization]] to provide [[antiretroviral treatment]] (ART) to patients with [[HIV/AIDS]] in low- and middle-income countries, beginning the scaling of ART across the world.<ref name="who_main">{{cite web |url=http://www.who.int/3by5/en/ |title=The 3 by 5 Initiative |accessdate=May 2, 2016 |publisher=World Health Organization}}</ref> The name "3 by 5" comes from the goal of treating 3 million people with this disease by 2005.<ref name="who_60th" /><ref name="eval">{{cite web |url=http://www.oecd.org/derec/canada/3by5-Evaluation-WHO.pdf |title=EVALUATION OF WHO's CONTRIBUTION TO "3 BY 5": Main Report |accessdate=May 2, 2016 |date=2006 |authors=Maria Ines Battistella Nemes |publisher=World Health Organization|display-authors=etal}}</ref> || HIV/AIDS ||
+
| 2003 || Program launch || The [[wikipedia:3 by 5 Initiative|3 by 5 Initiative]] is launched by the [[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]] to provide [[wikipedia:antiretroviral treatment|antiretroviral treatment]] (ART) to patients with [[wikipedia:HIV/AIDS|HIV/AIDS]] in low- and middle-income countries, beginning the scaling of ART across the world.<ref name="who_main">{{cite web |url=http://www.who.int/3by5/en/ |title=The 3 by 5 Initiative |accessdate=May 2, 2016 |publisher=World Health Organization}}</ref> The name "3 by 5" comes from the goal of treating 3 million people with this disease by 2005.<ref name="who_60th" /><ref name="eval">{{cite web |url=http://www.oecd.org/derec/canada/3by5-Evaluation-WHO.pdf |title=EVALUATION OF WHO's CONTRIBUTION TO "3 BY 5": Main Report |accessdate=May 2, 2016 |date=2006 |authors=Maria Ines Battistella Nemes |publisher=World Health Organization|display-authors=etal}}</ref> || HIV/AIDS ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || Publication || The [[WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control]] (WHO FCTC) is a [[treaty]] adopted by the 56th [[World Health Assembly]] in May 2003.<ref name="who-fctc">{{cite web | url=http://www.who.int/fctc/en/index.html | title=WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) | accessdate=2008-04-30 | publisher=[[WHO]] }}</ref> As one of the most quickly ratified treaties in United Nations history,<ref name="Nikogosian, Haik 2010">{{cite journal | last1 = Nikogosian | first1 = Haik | year = 2010 | title = WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: a key milestone | url = | journal = Bulletin of the World Health Organization | volume = 88 | issue = 2| page = 83 | doi=10.2471/blt.10.075895}}</ref> it is an international agreement that seeks to protect mankind from the deadly impacts of tobacco consumption and exposure to [[tobacco smoke]] by setting universal standards to limit its use worldwide.<ref name=ghh/><ref name="who-fctc" /><ref name="Brandt, Allan M 2007">Brandt, Allan M. The Cigarette Century: the Rise, Fall, and Deadly Persistence of the Product That Defined America. New York: Basic, 2007. Print.</ref> || ||
+
| 2003 || Publication || The [[wikipedia:WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control|WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control]] (WHO FCTC) is a [[wikipedia:treaty|treaty]] adopted by the 56th [[wikipedia:World Health Assembly|World Health Assembly]] in May 2003.<ref name="who-fctc">{{cite web | url=http://www.who.int/fctc/en/index.html | title=WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) | accessdate=2008-04-30 | publisher=[[wikipedia:WHO|WHO]] }}</ref> As one of the most quickly ratified treaties in United Nations history,<ref name="Nikogosian, Haik 2010">{{cite journal | last1 = Nikogosian | first1 = Haik | year = 2010 | title = WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: a key milestone | url = | journal = Bulletin of the World Health Organization | volume = 88 | issue = 2| page = 83 | doi=10.2471/blt.10.075895}}</ref> it is an international agreement that seeks to protect mankind from the deadly impacts of tobacco consumption and exposure to [[wikipedia:tobacco smoke|tobacco smoke]] by setting universal standards to limit its use worldwide.<ref name=ghh/><ref name="who-fctc" /><ref name="Brandt, Allan M 2007">Brandt, Allan M. The Cigarette Century: the Rise, Fall, and Deadly Persistence of the Product That Defined America. New York: Basic, 2007. Print.</ref> || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || Program launch || The [[President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief]] (PEPFAR) is launched. PEPFAR is a United States government initiative under United States President [[George W. Bush]] that addresses the global [[HIV/AIDS]] epidemic and helps save the lives of those suffering from the disease, primarily in Africa. The program provides [[antiretroviral treatment]] to 2 million HIV-infected people in resource-limited settings.<ref name=ghh/><ref name="Gerstenzang">[http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/02/18/MNL6V4DGE.DTL&type=politics "In Tanzania, Bush urges Congress to renew AIDS relief program as it is. Dems argue for less focus on abstinence, maybe more funding"] SFGate, from James Gerstenzang, ''[[The Los Angeles Times]]'', February 18, 2008.</ref> || HIV/AIDS || United States (targeting Africa)
+
| 2003 || Program launch || The [[wikipedia:President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief|President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief]] (PEPFAR) is launched. PEPFAR is a United States government initiative under United States President [[wikipedia:George W. Bush|George W. Bush]] that addresses the global [[wikipedia:HIV/AIDS|HIV/AIDS]] epidemic and helps save the lives of those suffering from the disease, primarily in Africa. The program provides [[wikipedia:antiretroviral treatment|antiretroviral treatment]] to 2 million HIV-infected people in resource-limited settings.<ref name=ghh/><ref name="Gerstenzang">[http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/02/18/MNL6V4DGE.DTL&type=politics "In Tanzania, Bush urges Congress to renew AIDS relief program as it is. Dems argue for less focus on abstinence, maybe more funding"] SFGate, from James Gerstenzang, ''[[wikipedia:The Los Angeles Times|The Los Angeles Times]]'', February 18, 2008.</ref> || HIV/AIDS || United States (targeting Africa)
 
|-
 
|-
| 2004 || Publication || The Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health is adopted by the [[World Health Organization]], to report the development of the strategy to improve nutrition and physical health and its importance in the prevention of disease across the world.<ref name="who_60th" /><ref>{{cite journal|title=The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity|first1=Adrian|last1=Bauman|first2=Cora L|last2=Craig|date=24 August 2005|publisher=|journal=Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act|volume=2|page=10|doi=10.1186/1479-5868-2-10|pmid=16120214|pmc=1242353}}</ref> || ||
+
| 2004 || Publication || The Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health is adopted by the [[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]], to report the development of the strategy to improve nutrition and physical health and its importance in the prevention of disease across the world.<ref name="who_60th" /><ref>{{cite journal|title=The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity|first1=Adrian|last1=Bauman|first2=Cora L|last2=Craig|date=24 August 2005|publisher=|journal=Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act|volume=2|page=10|doi=10.1186/1479-5868-2-10|pmid=16120214|pmc=1242353}}</ref> || ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2005 || Program launch || To address the social factors that lead to poor health and health inequities, the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) is created by the World Health Organization in March, supported by global health partners.<ref name="who_60th" /><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/social_determinants/thecommission/en/|title=WHO - Commission on Social Determinants of Health, 2005–2008|publisher=}}</ref> || ||
 
| 2005 || Program launch || To address the social factors that lead to poor health and health inequities, the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) is created by the World Health Organization in March, supported by global health partners.<ref name="who_60th" /><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/social_determinants/thecommission/en/|title=WHO - Commission on Social Determinants of Health, 2005–2008|publisher=}}</ref> || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2005 || Program launch || The [[Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health]] (PMNCH), chaired by [[Graça Machel]], is launched by the WHO to achieve universal access to comprehensive, high-quality reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health care.<ref name="who_60th" /> || ||
+
| 2005 || Program launch || The [[wikipedia:Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health|Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health]] (PMNCH), chaired by [[wikipedia:Graça Machel|Graça Machel]], is launched by the WHO to achieve universal access to comprehensive, high-quality reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health care.<ref name="who_60th" /> || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2006 || Publication || The second edition of ''Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries'' (DCP2) is published to essentially provide a "checkup" for health care services across the world and global health as a whole. It reports how certain countries have accomplished stable and wide-reaching healthcare systems, achieving health priorities in [[developing countries]], improvements in closely related sectors, etc.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://dcp-3.org/dcp2 |title=DCP2 |accessdate=March 30, 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11728/|title=Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries|editor-first1=Dean T.|editor-last1=Jamison|editor-first2=Joel G.|editor-last2=Breman|editor-first3=Anthony R.|editor-last3=Measham|editor-first4=George|editor-last4=Alleyne|editor-first5=Mariam|editor-last5=Claeson|editor-first6=David B.|editor-last6=Evans|editor-first7=Prabhat|editor-last7=Jha|editor-first8=Anne|editor-last8=Mills|editor-first9=Philip|editor-last9=Musgrove|date=1 January 2006|publisher=World Bank|via=PubMed|pmid=21250309}}</ref> || ||
+
| 2006 || Publication || The second edition of ''Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries'' (DCP2) is published to essentially provide a "checkup" for health care services across the world and global health as a whole. It reports how certain countries have accomplished stable and wide-reaching healthcare systems, achieving health priorities in [[wikipedia:developing countries|developing countries]], improvements in closely related sectors, etc.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://dcp-3.org/dcp2 |title=DCP2 |accessdate=March 30, 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11728/|title=Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries|editor-first1=Dean T.|editor-last1=Jamison|editor-first2=Joel G.|editor-last2=Breman|editor-first3=Anthony R.|editor-last3=Measham|editor-first4=George|editor-last4=Alleyne|editor-first5=Mariam|editor-last5=Claeson|editor-first6=David B.|editor-last6=Evans|editor-first7=Prabhat|editor-last7=Jha|editor-first8=Anne|editor-last8=Mills|editor-first9=Philip|editor-last9=Musgrove|date=1 January 2006|publisher=World Bank|via=PubMed|pmid=21250309}}</ref> || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2007 || Organization || The [[Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation]] (IHME), a research institute working in the area of [[global health]] statistics and impact evaluation at the [[University of Washington]] in Seattle, is launched in June based on a core grant of $105 million primarily funded by the [[Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation]].<ref>{{cite news|last1=Paulson|first1=Tom|title=$105 million Gates gift helps start global health center|url=http://www.seattlepi.com/local/article/105-million-Gates-gift-helps-start-global-1239473.php|accessdate=9 May 2010|publisher=Seattle PI|date=4 June 2007}}</ref> The emergence of IHME has been argued to have introduced competition to the field of global health metrics, which was previously a field where WHO maintained a monopoly.<ref>{{Cite journal |url=https://assets.documentcloud.org/documents/3406781/RudanComment2013GBD.pdf |first1=Igor |last1=Rudan |first2=Kit Yee |last2=Chan |title=Global health metrics needs collaboration and competition |date=December 18, 2014 |accessdate=January 27, 2017 |doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62006-7 |journal=[[The Lancet]]}}</ref> || || United States (Seattle)
+
| 2007 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation|Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation]] (IHME), a research institute working in the area of [[wikipedia:global health|global health]] statistics and impact evaluation at the [[wikipedia:University of Washington|University of Washington]] in Seattle, is launched in June based on a core grant of $105 million primarily funded by the [[wikipedia:Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation|Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation]].<ref>{{cite news|last1=Paulson|first1=Tom|title=$105 million Gates gift helps start global health center|url=http://www.seattlepi.com/local/article/105-million-Gates-gift-helps-start-global-1239473.php|accessdate=9 May 2010|publisher=Seattle PI|date=4 June 2007}}</ref> The emergence of IHME has been argued to have introduced competition to the field of global health metrics, which was previously a field where WHO maintained a monopoly.<ref>{{Cite journal |url=https://assets.documentcloud.org/documents/3406781/RudanComment2013GBD.pdf |first1=Igor |last1=Rudan |first2=Kit Yee |last2=Chan |title=Global health metrics needs collaboration and competition |date=December 18, 2014 |accessdate=January 27, 2017 |doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62006-7 |journal=[[wikipedia:The Lancet|The Lancet]]}}</ref> || || United States (Seattle)
 
|-
 
|-
| 2007 || Organization || [[GiveWell]], a charity evaluator, is founded. GiveWell has investigated the effectiveness of numerous charities in global health and has reviewed reports including those published by the [[Disease Control Priorities Project]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://blog.givewell.org/2011/11/04/some-considerations-against-more-investment-in-cost-effectiveness-estimates|title = Some Considerations Against More Investment in Cost-Effectiveness Estimates|date = 2011-11-04|accessdate = 2012-12-18|publisher = [[GiveWell]]|last = Karnofsky|first = Holden}}</ref> A spinoff known as the [[Open Philanthropy Project]] begins as GiveWell Labs in 2011 and gets its current name in 2014.<ref name="open_phil_progress">{{cite web |url=http://www.openphilanthropy.org/about/progress-to-date |title=Progress to Date |publisher=Open Philanthropy Project |accessdate= March 21, 2016}}</ref> Most of GiveWell's top-recommended charities are in the field of global health, including current top recommendations [[Against Malaria Foundation]], [[Schistosomiasis Control Initiative]], and [[Deworm the World Initiative]], as well as previous recommended charities [[VillageReach]] and [[Stop TB Partnership]].<ref name=givewell-toprated>{{cite web|url=http://www.givewell.org/charities/top-charities/|title= Top Charities|publisher =  GiveWell|accessdate = November 20, 2015}}</ref> In 2015, GiveWell-recommended charities raise a total of $110.1 million based on GiveWell's charities, of which $56 million goes to the recommended charities in global health.<ref name=givewell-2015-money-moved>{{cite web|url = http://blog.givewell.org/2016/05/13/givewells-money-moved-web-traffic-2015/|title = GiveWell's money moved and web traffic in 2015|date = May 13, 2016|accessdate = May 14, 2016|last = Heishman|first = Tyler|publisher = GiveWell}}</ref>|| || United States
+
| 2007 || Organization || [[wikipedia:GiveWell|GiveWell]], a charity evaluator, is founded. GiveWell has investigated the effectiveness of numerous charities in global health and has reviewed reports including those published by the [[wikipedia:Disease Control Priorities Project|Disease Control Priorities Project]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://blog.givewell.org/2011/11/04/some-considerations-against-more-investment-in-cost-effectiveness-estimates|title = Some Considerations Against More Investment in Cost-Effectiveness Estimates|date = 2011-11-04|accessdate = 2012-12-18|publisher = [[wikipedia:GiveWell|GiveWell]]|last = Karnofsky|first = Holden}}</ref> A spinoff known as the [[wikipedia:Open Philanthropy Project|Open Philanthropy Project]] begins as GiveWell Labs in 2011 and gets its current name in 2014.<ref name="open_phil_progress">{{cite web |url=http://www.openphilanthropy.org/about/progress-to-date |title=Progress to Date |publisher=Open Philanthropy Project |accessdate= March 21, 2016}}</ref> Most of GiveWell's top-recommended charities are in the field of global health, including current top recommendations [[wikipedia:Against Malaria Foundation|Against Malaria Foundation]], [[wikipedia:Schistosomiasis Control Initiative|Schistosomiasis Control Initiative]], and [[wikipedia:Deworm the World Initiative|Deworm the World Initiative]], as well as previous recommended charities [[wikipedia:VillageReach|VillageReach]] and [[wikipedia:Stop TB Partnership|Stop TB Partnership]].<ref name=givewell-toprated>{{cite web|url=http://www.givewell.org/charities/top-charities/|title= Top Charities|publisher =  GiveWell|accessdate = November 20, 2015}}</ref> In 2015, GiveWell-recommended charities raise a total of $110.1 million based on GiveWell's charities, of which $56 million goes to the recommended charities in global health.<ref name=givewell-2015-money-moved>{{cite web|url = http://blog.givewell.org/2016/05/13/givewells-money-moved-web-traffic-2015/|title = GiveWell's money moved and web traffic in 2015|date = May 13, 2016|accessdate = May 14, 2016|last = Heishman|first = Tyler|publisher = GiveWell}}</ref>|| || United States
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || Program launch || The launch of the first [[advance market commitments|advance market commitment]] (AMC) is formally announced by the GAVI Alliance. It is for a pneumococcal vaccine and is funded by $1.5 billion from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the governments of the United Kingdom, Canada, Russia, and Norway, with a promise of an additional $1.3 billion through 2015 from the GAVI Alliance.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.gavi.org/library/news/press-releases/2009/gavi-partners-fulfill-promise-to-fight-pneumococcal-disease/|title = GAVI partners fulfill promise to fight pneumococcal disease|date = June 12, 2009|accessdate = August 30, 2016|publisher = [[GAVI Alliance]]}}</ref> AMCs had been explored in a Center for Global Development Working Group from 2003 to 2005,<ref name=making-markets-vaccines>{{cite web|url = http://www.cgdev.org/initiative/making-markets-vaccines|title = Making Markets for Vaccines / Advance Market Commitments|publisher = [[Center for Global Development]]|accessdate = August 30, 2016}}</ref><ref name=cgd-amc>{{cite web|url = http://www.cgdev.org/page/advance-market-commitment|title = Advance Market Commitment|publisher = [[Center for Global Development]]|accessdate = August 30, 2016}}</ref><ref name=open-phil-cgd-support/> and work on funding for the pneumococcal vaccine AMC had begun in 2007. || Pneumococcal infection ||  
+
| 2009 || Program launch || The launch of the first [[wikipedia:advance market commitments|advance market commitment]] (AMC) is formally announced by the GAVI Alliance. It is for a pneumococcal vaccine and is funded by $1.5 billion from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the governments of the United Kingdom, Canada, Russia, and Norway, with a promise of an additional $1.3 billion through 2015 from the GAVI Alliance.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.gavi.org/library/news/press-releases/2009/gavi-partners-fulfill-promise-to-fight-pneumococcal-disease/|title = GAVI partners fulfill promise to fight pneumococcal disease|date = June 12, 2009|accessdate = August 30, 2016|publisher = [[wikipedia:GAVI Alliance|GAVI Alliance]]}}</ref> AMCs had been explored in a Center for Global Development Working Group from 2003 to 2005,<ref name=making-markets-vaccines>{{cite web|url = http://www.cgdev.org/initiative/making-markets-vaccines|title = Making Markets for Vaccines / Advance Market Commitments|publisher = [[wikipedia:Center for Global Development|Center for Global Development]]|accessdate = August 30, 2016}}</ref><ref name=cgd-amc>{{cite web|url = http://www.cgdev.org/page/advance-market-commitment|title = Advance Market Commitment|publisher = [[wikipedia:Center for Global Development|Center for Global Development]]|accessdate = August 30, 2016}}</ref><ref name=open-phil-cgd-support/> and work on funding for the pneumococcal vaccine AMC had begun in 2007. || Pneumococcal infection ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2013 || Crisis || The [[West African Ebola virus epidemic]] is the most widespread epidemic of [[Ebola]] in recorded history, beginning in 2013 and continuing through the next two years, mainly affecting three [[West Africa]]n countries.<ref name="who.int1">{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/dg/speeches/2016/executive-board-138/en/|title=WHO – WHO Director-General addresses the Executive Board|work=World Health Organization|accessdate=27 January 2016}}</ref>  || Ebola ||
+
| 2013 || Crisis || The [[wikipedia:West African Ebola virus epidemic|West African Ebola virus epidemic]] is the most widespread epidemic of [[wikipedia:Ebola|Ebola]] in recorded history, beginning in 2013 and continuing through the next two years, mainly affecting three [[wikipedia:West Africa|West Africa]]n countries.<ref name="who.int1">{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/dg/speeches/2016/executive-board-138/en/|title=WHO – WHO Director-General addresses the Executive Board|work=World Health Organization|accessdate=27 January 2016}}</ref>  || Ebola ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2015 || Publication || Building on the MDGs, a new Sustainable Development Agenda with 17 [[Sustainable Development Goals]] (SDGs) is established for the years 2016–2030. The SDGs are an intergovernmental set of aspiration goals with 169 targets<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/70/1&Lang=E|title=United Nations Official Document|publisher=}}</ref> that aim to transform our world into a better place by ending [[poverty]] and [[hunger]], helping the environment, improving [[health]] and [[education]], etc.<ref name=":0" /><ref>[http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/4538pressowg13.pdf Press release - UN General Assembly's Open Working Group proposes sustainable development goals, 19. July 2014]</ref>  The first goal is an ambitious and historic pledge to end poverty.<ref name=":1">{{cite web
+
| 2015 || Publication || Building on the MDGs, a new Sustainable Development Agenda with 17 [[wikipedia:Sustainable Development Goals|Sustainable Development Goals]] (SDGs) is established for the years 2016–2030. The SDGs are an intergovernmental set of aspiration goals with 169 targets<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/70/1&Lang=E|title=United Nations Official Document|publisher=}}</ref> that aim to transform our world into a better place by ending [[wikipedia:poverty|poverty]] and [[wikipedia:hunger|hunger]], helping the environment, improving [[wikipedia:health|health]] and [[wikipedia:education|education]], etc.<ref name=":0" /><ref>[http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/4538pressowg13.pdf Press release - UN General Assembly's Open Working Group proposes sustainable development goals, 19. July 2014]</ref>  The first goal is an ambitious and historic pledge to end poverty.<ref name=":1">{{cite web
 
| url = http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sdgoverview/
 
| url = http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sdgoverview/
 
| title = Sustainable Development Goals
 
| title = Sustainable Development Goals
Line 245: Line 247:
 
| 2015 || Publication || ''Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development'' is adopted by the 193 countries of the UN General Assembly. On 25 September 2015, the 193 countries of the UN General Assembly adopt the 2030 Development Agenda titled ''Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development''.<ref name=":1" /> || ||
 
| 2015 || Publication || ''Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development'' is adopted by the 193 countries of the UN General Assembly. On 25 September 2015, the 193 countries of the UN General Assembly adopt the 2030 Development Agenda titled ''Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development''.<ref name=":1" /> || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2015 || Publication || ''[[To Save Humanity]]'' is published. The book contains nearly 100 essays regarding today's most pressing global health issues.<ref>{{cite journal | last1 = Hoffman | first1 = S.J. | year = 2011 | title = Ending Medical Complicity in State-Sponsored Torture | url = | journal = The Lancet | volume = 378 | issue = 9802| pages = 1535–1537 | doi = 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60816-7 }}</ref> The essays are authored by global figures in politics, science, and advocacy ranging from [[Bill Clinton]] to [[Peter Piot]], and address a wide range of issues including vaccinations, antimicrobial resistance, health coverage, tobacco use, research methodology, climate change, equity, access to medicine, and media coverage of health research. || ||
+
| 2015 || Publication || ''[[wikipedia:To Save Humanity|To Save Humanity]]'' is published. The book contains nearly 100 essays regarding today's most pressing global health issues.<ref>{{cite journal | last1 = Hoffman | first1 = S.J. | year = 2011 | title = Ending Medical Complicity in State-Sponsored Torture | url = | journal = The Lancet | volume = 378 | issue = 9802| pages = 1535–1537 | doi = 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60816-7 }}</ref> The essays are authored by global figures in politics, science, and advocacy ranging from [[wikipedia:Bill Clinton|Bill Clinton]] to [[wikipedia:Peter Piot|Peter Piot]], and address a wide range of issues including vaccinations, antimicrobial resistance, health coverage, tobacco use, research methodology, climate change, equity, access to medicine, and media coverage of health research. || ||
 
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| 2016 || Publication || As of April 2016, four of nine volumes of the third edition of the [[Disease Control Priorities Project]] (DCP3) have been published online. The nine volumes include essential surgery, reproductive health, cancer, mental disorders, cardiovascular disorders, major infectious diseases, injury prevention, child development, and a summary volume.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.givingwhatwecan.org/blog/2014-05-13/toby-ord-and-dcp3|title = Toby Ord and DCP3|last = Hutchinson|first = Michelle|date = May 13, 2014|accessdate = May 14, 2014|publisher = [[Giving What We Can]]}}</ref> || ||
+
| 2016 || Publication || As of April 2016, four of nine volumes of the third edition of the [[wikipedia:Disease Control Priorities Project|Disease Control Priorities Project]] (DCP3) have been published online. The nine volumes include essential surgery, reproductive health, cancer, mental disorders, cardiovascular disorders, major infectious diseases, injury prevention, child development, and a summary volume.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.givingwhatwecan.org/blog/2014-05-13/toby-ord-and-dcp3|title = Toby Ord and DCP3|last = Hutchinson|first = Michelle|date = May 13, 2014|accessdate = May 14, 2014|publisher = [[wikipedia:Giving What We Can|Giving What We Can]]}}</ref> || ||
 
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| 2016 || Organization || The [[Chan Zuckerberg Initiative]], run by [[Facebook]] principal founder and CEO [[Mark Zuckerberg]] and his wife [[Priscilla Chan (philanthropist)|Priscilla Chan]], announces its plan to create Chan Zuckerberg Science with $3 billion in funding over the next decade. Chan Zuckerberg Science's goal is to accelerate progress in the eradication of all diseases by the end of the 21st century. Of this, $600 million would be spent on a Biohub in [[San Francisco]], to allow for easy interaction and collaboration between scientists at UCSF, [[University of California, Berkeley]], [[Stanford University]], and other universities in the area, as well as engineers and others.<ref>{{cite news|url = https://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/22/technology/mark-zuckerberg-priscilla-chan-3-billion-pledge-fight-disease.html?_r=0|title = Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan Pledge $3 Billion to Fighting Disease|last = Bender|first = Katie|date = September 21, 2016|accessdate = September 22, 2016|publisher = ''[[New York Times]]''}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url = https://techcrunch.com/2016/09/21/chan-zuckerberg-initiative-announces-investment-to-cure-disease/|title = Chan Zuckerberg Initiative announces $3 billion investment to cure disease|last = Constine|first = Josh|date = September 21, 2016|accessdate = September 22, 2016|publisher = ''[[TechCrunch]]''}}</ref> Commentators see the move as audacious but a worthwhile goal, while noting that the amount of funding is small relative to overall money spent on biomedical research.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/09/23/495184078/whats-the-prognosis-for-mark-zuckerbergs-3-billion-health-plan|title = What's The Prognosis For $3 Billion Zuckerberg Health Plan?|last = Brink|first = Susan|date = September 23, 2016|accessdate = November 13, 2016|publisher = [[NPR]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url = https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2016/10/04/mark-zuckerberg-and-priscilla-chan-want-to-cure-all-diseases-can-they/|title = Here's what is promising, and troubling, about Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan's plan to 'cure all diseases.'|last = Youde|first = Jeremy|date = October 4, 2016|accessdate = November 13, 2016|publisher = ''[[Washington Post]]''}}</ref> || ||  
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| 2016 || Organization || The [[wikipedia:Chan Zuckerberg Initiative|Chan Zuckerberg Initiative]], run by [[wikipedia:Facebook|Facebook]] principal founder and CEO [[wikipedia:Mark Zuckerberg|Mark Zuckerberg]] and his wife [[wikipedia:Priscilla Chan (philanthropist)|Priscilla Chan]], announces its plan to create Chan Zuckerberg Science with $3 billion in funding over the next decade. Chan Zuckerberg Science's goal is to accelerate progress in the eradication of all diseases by the end of the 21st century. Of this, $600 million would be spent on a Biohub in [[wikipedia:San Francisco|San Francisco]], to allow for easy interaction and collaboration between scientists at UCSF, [[wikipedia:University of California, Berkeley|University of California, Berkeley]], [[wikipedia:Stanford University|Stanford University]], and other universities in the area, as well as engineers and others.<ref>{{cite news|url = https://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/22/technology/mark-zuckerberg-priscilla-chan-3-billion-pledge-fight-disease.html?_r=0|title = Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan Pledge $3 Billion to Fighting Disease|last = Bender|first = Katie|date = September 21, 2016|accessdate = September 22, 2016|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:New York Times|New York Times]]''}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url = https://techcrunch.com/2016/09/21/chan-zuckerberg-initiative-announces-investment-to-cure-disease/|title = Chan Zuckerberg Initiative announces $3 billion investment to cure disease|last = Constine|first = Josh|date = September 21, 2016|accessdate = September 22, 2016|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:TechCrunch|TechCrunch]]''}}</ref> Commentators see the move as audacious but a worthwhile goal, while noting that the amount of funding is small relative to overall money spent on biomedical research.<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2016/09/23/495184078/whats-the-prognosis-for-mark-zuckerbergs-3-billion-health-plan|title = What's The Prognosis For $3 Billion Zuckerberg Health Plan?|last = Brink|first = Susan|date = September 23, 2016|accessdate = November 13, 2016|publisher = [[wikipedia:NPR|NPR]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url = https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2016/10/04/mark-zuckerberg-and-priscilla-chan-want-to-cure-all-diseases-can-they/|title = Here's what is promising, and troubling, about Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan's plan to 'cure all diseases.'|last = Youde|first = Jeremy|date = October 4, 2016|accessdate = November 13, 2016|publisher = ''[[wikipedia:Washington Post|Washington Post]]''}}</ref> || ||  
 
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==Meta information on the timeline==
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===How the timeline was built===
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The initial version of the timeline was written by [[User:Issa|Issa Rice]].
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{{funding info}} is available.
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===Feedback and comments===
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Feedback for the timeline can be provided at the following places:
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* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/HPforGH/permalink/10157452904736847/ Health Professionals for Global Health] Facebook group
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* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/779716525505605/permalink/2143814759095768/ HEALTHCARE QUALITY] Facebook group
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* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/CenterForGlobalInitiatives/permalink/10158892247964391 Center for Global Initiatives] Facebook group
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* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/239651496455617/permalink/1033403927080366/ WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)] Facebook group
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* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/205390834214844/permalink/332571264830133/ WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)] Facebook group
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* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/1655211431431305/permalink/2794522454166858 Global Healthspan Policy Institute] Facebook group
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* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/935951796838416/permalink/1059864997780428/ World Health organization (WHO)] Facebook group
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===What the timeline is still missing===
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* Yawei Zhang's book ''Encyclopedia of Global Health'' has a timeline at the beginning that seems solid, so it would be good to incorporate info from there.
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* Quotes from Vipul (quoted with permission):
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** "See also http://www.victorianweb.org/science/health/health10.html "
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** "I think it can be helpful to highlight how in the first half of the 19th century, medieval diseases such as smallpox and the plague began to be overtaken by the diseases of density and industrial environments such as cholera, typhus, typhoid, etc. in Europe and the United States"
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** "and stuff on the way cholera, typhus, typhoid, etc. became bigger, spurred by urbanization, industralization, and greater trade and commerce"
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** "Cholera probably spread India -> Europe -> US"
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===Timeline update strategy===
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
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=== General ===
 
=== General ===
  
* [[List of diseases eliminated from the United States]]
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* [[wikipedia:List of diseases eliminated from the United States|List of diseases eliminated from the United States]]
 
* [[Timeline of vaccines]]
 
* [[Timeline of vaccines]]
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* [[Timeline of infection control]]
  
 
=== Disease timelines ===
 
=== Disease timelines ===
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=== Others ===
 
=== Others ===
  
* [[Priority-setting in global health]]
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* [[wikipedia:Priority-setting in global health|Priority-setting in global health]]
 
* [[Timeline of nonprofit evaluation]]
 
* [[Timeline of nonprofit evaluation]]
* [[Timeline of psychiatry]] (timeline of mental health)
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* [[wikipedia:Timeline of psychiatry|Timeline of psychiatry]] (timeline of mental health)
  
 
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[[wikipedia:Category:Global health|Category:Global health]]
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[[wikipedia:Category:World history|Category:World history]]

Latest revision as of 19:57, 1 October 2020

The content on this page is forked from the English Wikipedia page entitled "Timeline of global health". The original page still exists at Timeline of global health. The original content was released under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License (CC-BY-SA), so this page inherits this license.

This page is a timeline of global health, including major conferences, interventions, cures, and crises.

Big picture

Late 1700s–1930s (pre-WWII era)

During this pre-WWII era, there are three big trends that operate separately, but sometimes affect each other in development and outcomes.

First, a trend of urbanization (fueled by the Industrial Revolution) as well as greater global trade and migration leads to new challenges, including those in urban sanitation and infectious diseases/pandemics. Six global cholera pandemics happen in this period because of increased commerce and migration.[1]:125

Second, there is a lot of development on the underlying theory of disease, advancements in vaccine and antibiotic development, and a variety of experimental large-scale eradication and control programs. One big example: the germ theory of diseases begins to become accepted and popularized starting around 1850.[2] Another big example is the development of the smallpox vaccine by Edward Jenner in 1796.[3] Systematic eradication and control efforts include the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission and efforts to eradicate smallpox.[4] Antitoxins and vaccines for numerous diseases including cholera and tuberculosis are developed during this period, building on a trend of greater understanding of and control over microorganisms.[5]

A third theme during this era is the formation of various preliminary international alliances and conferences, including the International Sanitary Conferences, Pan American Health Organization, Office International d'Hygiène Publique, and the League of Nations Health Committee. This is closely intertwined with the other two trends. For instance, the cholera pandemics mentioned above, as well as the growing scientific understanding of the germ theory of disease, are both key impetuses for the International Sanitary Conferences.[1]:125

1940s–early 1960s (post-WWII era)

Following the end of World War II, the first batch of big organizations, both international and national (with international cooperation), including the United Nations and World Health Organization (WHO), form.[1] Beginning with the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration for relief of victims of war in 1943, there is a big push to begin creating large scale health initiatives, non-governmental organizations, and worldwide global health programs by the United Nations to improve quality of life around the world. UNICEF, the World Health Organization, as well as the UNRRA are all part of United Nations efforts to benefit global health beginning with developing countries. These various programs aim to aid in economic endeavors by providing loans, direct disease prevention programs, health education, etc.

Late 1960s–1970s

After wrapping up complications caused by the end of the war, there is an international energy put in into eradication, beginning with the complete smallpox eradication in 1979. There is greater dissatisfaction with WHO for its focus on disease/infection control at the expense of trying to improve general living conditions, as well as disappointment at its low budget and staffing. This atmosphere spurs other organizations to provide their own forms of aid.[6]:6[1]:126 The Alma Ata Declaration and selective primary healthcare are created to express urgent action by all governments and citizens to protect and promote the health of all people equally.[7] More organizations form following these new active attitudes toward global health, including the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the Doctors Without Borders organization. Publications like the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines highlight basic medicines required by most adults and children to survive, and set priorities for healthcare fund allocation in third world countries.[8] Generally, there is more buy-in for the idea that direct, targeted efforts to address healthcare could be worthwhile and benefit many countries.

1980s–2000

Certain specific efforts increase in efficiency and productivity, including improvement in maternal and child health and a focus on HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria (the 'Big Three') in developing countries. During this time period, the child survival revolution (CSR), which helps reduce child mortality in the developing world, and GOBI-FFF are both advocated by James P. Grant.[9] The World Summit for Children also takes place, becoming one of the largest ever gathering of heads of states and government to commit a set of goals to improve the well-being of children. Finally, HIV/AIDS becomes the focus of many governmental and non-governmental organizations, leading to the formation of the Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) by efforts of the World Health Organization.[6]:6 However, these health organizations also make significant advancements to tuberculosis treatments, including the DOTS strategy and the formation of the Stop TB Partnership.[10]

2000s and beyond

UN's Millennium Development Goals establishes health care as an important goal (not just combating infectious diseases).[6]:7 Later in 2015, the Sustainable Development Goals build on the MDGs to outline the objectives that will transform our world by ending poverty, helping the environment, and improving health and education. More specific disease-targeting organizations are created primarily to fund healthcare plans in developing countries, including the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.[11] These organizations (especially the WHO) adopt new strategies and initiatives, including the 3 by 5 Initiative to widen the access to antiretroviral treatment, the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, etc.[12] Private large donors such as the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation begin to play an important role in shaping the funding landscape and direction of efforts in global health.

Full timeline

Inclusion criteria

The following events are selected for inclusion in the timeline:

  • Major medical advances, such as the first vaccines or antibiotics for important diseases.
  • Major disease outbreaks, particularly those that played a key role in identifying key medical facts about the nature of disease or epidemiology.
  • Key programs, innovations, and strategies in delivery of treatments and healthcare supply chains.
  • Government policies or healthcare systems that are the first of their kind in the world, or have global significance for some other reason.
  • The forming of trans-national organizations and private foundations that either directly deal with global health, or fund and manage other organizations that do. Note that we also include some emergency medical relief organizations, because they have played an important role in identifying and combating disease outbreaks in the aftermath of natural or man-made disaster.
  • Important conferences related to global health. For conferences held regularly, we only include an event for the first time the conference was held, or if there was a particularly influential conference.

We do not include:

  • Incremental advances in medical science except the most important ones.
  • Rollouts of policies by different governments, or changes to local healthcare structures, except those that are pioneering. To understand healthcare at the country level, you can see the timelines of healthcare by country.
  • Incremental changes to existing trans-national organizations or private foundations in their global health programs, except those that have significance as pioneering new approaches to global health.

Timeline

Year Event type Event Disease name Geographic location
1747 Medical advancement The first reported clinical trial is conducted by James Lind in 1747 to identify treatment for scurvy.[13][14] Scurvy
1796 Discovery The smallpox vaccine is the first successful vaccine to be developed, introduced by scientist Edward Jenner. He observes that milkmaids who previously caught cowpox did not later catch smallpox by showing that the inoculated cowpox protected against inoculated smallpox.[3] Smallpox
1813 Policy The Vaccine Act of 1813 is an Act of the Twelfth Congress of the United States to encourage vaccination against smallpox. The Act is the first federal law concerning consumer protection and pharmaceuticals.[15] The authority to regulate vaccines is given to the states after the Act is repealed in May 1822.[16] Smallpox United States
1817–1824 Crisis The first cholera pandemic begins near Calcutta, reaching most of Asia. It is thought to have killed over 100,000 people.[17] Cholera India, Thailand, Philippines, Java, Oman, China, Japan, Persian Gulf, Iraq, Syria, Transcaucasia, Astrakhan (Russia), Zanzibar, and Mauritius.
1829–1851 Crisis The second cholera pandemic, known as the Asiatic Cholera Pandemic, arguably starts along the Ganges river. It is the first to reach Europe and North America. Like in the first one, fatalities reach six figures.[17] Cholera India, western and eastern Asia, Europe, Americas.
1847 Crisis The 1847 North American typhus epidemic occurs. The outbreak of epidemic typhus is caused by a massive Irish emigration in 1847,[18] during the Great Famine, aboard crowded and disease-ridden "coffin ships". Canada, United States Typhus
1851 Discovery Theodor Bilharz discovers the parasite responsible for schistosomiasis. During an autopsy, he discovered the trematode worm that is the main cause of urinary schistosomiasis,[19] which is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms called schistosomes. It is also known as snail fever.[20] Schistosomiasis
1851 Organization The first of the International Sanitary Conferences is held in Paris. The French government organizes it to help stop the spread of yellow fever, cholera, and plague. Twelve countries participate, with each participating country sending a physician and a diplomat as representatives.[1] France
1854 Crisis Severe Broad Street cholera outbreak occurs in the Soho district of London, England. It proves to be central to the development of modern epidemiology.[21] Cholera England
1855 Crisis Third plague pandemic begins in the Yunnan province of China and spreads beyond the country in the aftermath of the Panthay Rebellion.[21] This bubonic plague pandemic spreads to all inhabited continents and kills 12 million people. Bubonic plague China (origin)
1863 Organization International Committee of the Red Cross, a private humanitarian institution, is founded by Henry Dunant and Gustave Moynier. Based in Geneva, Switzerland, it starts as a committee of five and goes on to be very influential and win three Nobel Peace Prizes.[22] The Red Cross plays a key role in providing emergency medical relief in war-torn areas, and its work helps contains the spread of infectious disease in these environments.[23] Switzerland (Geneva)
1880 Discovery Microorganisms responsible for malaria are identified by Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran. They belong to the genus Plasmodium, and their over 100 species can infect a variety of species, including birds, reptiles, birds, and many mammals.[21] Malaria
1882 Discovery Microorganisms responsible for tuberculosis are identified by Robert Koch. They infect the lungs as a pathogen of the mammalian respiratory system.[21] Tuberculosis
1887 Organization A one-room laboratory is created as an experiment within the Marine Hospital Service (MHS), which is charged with preventing people with cholera, yellow fever, and other diseases from entering the United States. This would eventually morph into the National Institutes of Health (NIH), a group of institutes and centers that funds $30 billion annually in biomedical research as of 2016. It is the world's biggest funder of biomedical research.[24][25] Cholera, yellow fever, other diseases United States
1893 Publication The International List of Causes of Death, a predecessor to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, is adopted. It is based on the classification of causes of death that was used by the City of Paris, which represented German, English, and Swiss classifications.[21]
1902 Organization The Pan American Health Organization is established as the Pan-American Sanitary Bureau in response to yellow fever epidemics.[1][21] Yellow fever (initially)
1907 Organization The Office International d'Hygiène Publique (OIHP) is founded. The OIHP helps to refine quarantine policies.[1] France
1913 Organization The Rockefeller Foundation is founded by Standard Oil owner John D. Rockefeller in 1913. Its primary objectives include supporting prejudice-free education in the US through monetary donations, and establishing various public health departments for universities such as the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health and the Harvard School of Public Health.[21][26][27][28] United States (New York City, New York)
1918 Crisis The 1918 flu pandemic (Spanish flu) is a deadly pandemic involving the Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 that infected over 500 million people all over the world, predominantly affecting healthy young individuals.[29][30] Influenza France (origin, possibly disputed)
1922 Organization The League of Nations Health Committee and Health Section is established in January 1920 as a direct response to the Paris Peace Conference that concluded the First World War, with a primary goal to prevent war and maintain world peace.[31][32] Geneva, Switzerland
1927 Discovery The BCG vaccine for tuberculosis is developed in 1927. A small dose of Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) is recommended to be given to healthy babies close to the time of birth as a preventative drug, especially in third world countries where tuberculosis is common.[21][33] Tuberculosis
1928 Discovery Penicillin is an antibiotic discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928, and its widespread use as a treatment for infections began in 1942. It is primarily used to treat bacterial infection caused by staphylococci and streptococci, and is among the first antibiotics to become highly effective. Though it still remains prevalent today, following widespread use, many forms of bacteria have developed a resistance against it.[21][34] Staphylococci and streptococci
1930 Discovery Researchers from Europe estimate that some time in the early 1930s a form of simian immunodeficiency virus, SIV, is transmitted to humans in central Africa. The mutated virus is later identified as the first of other human immunodeficiency viruses, HIV-1.[35] HIV-1 Europe
1943 Organization United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) is founded for relief of victims of war in 1943, and becomes part of the United Nations in 1945. Primarily run by the United States, but representing 44 total nations, the UNRRA has a general purpose of providing basic necessities (including food and water, shelter, clothing, medical needs, etc.) to aid the relief of victims of war. Most of its operations would shut down in 1947.[36] Agreement signed in the United States (White House)
1945 Organization The World Bank Group is formed as part of five international organizations to make leveraged loans to non-first-world countries, aiding in their economic endeavors to further develop. Based in Washington D.C., it is the biggest development bank in the world, with a mission to end extreme poverty and build shared prosperity. In 2014 alone, the WBG would provide approximately $61 billion in loans and assistance to these developing countries.[21][37][38] United States (Washington D.C.)
1946 Organization UNICEF, also known as the United Nations Children's Emergency Fund, is founded in December 1946 by the United Nations General Assembly to provide food and healthcare to children in countries that were severely destroyed by the effects of World War II. One of its most popular fundraising programs is the Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF program, where kids collect money for children in need instead of candy at the houses they visit on Halloween.[21][39] United States (New York City)
1946 Organization Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is founded initially as the Communicable Diseases Center. The CDC is a US federal agency under the Department of Health and Human Services, and is considered the leading national public health institute in the United States. Its main goal is to protect public health by controlling and preventing disease, disability, and injury.[21][40] Malaria (initially) United States (Atlanta, Georgia)
1947 Crisis A cholera epidemic takes 20,000 lives in Egypt in 1947 and 1948; this helps spur the international community to action. The World Medical Association is created on September 17 when 27 different countries sent physicians to meet up in Paris.[41] Cholera Egypt
1947 Program launch In the United States, the National Malaria Eradication Program (NMEP) is launched in July. Prior to the launch of this program, malaria is an endemic across the United States, concentrated in the southeastern states. This federal program would successfully eradicate malaria in the United States by 1951.[42][43] Malaria United States
1948 Organization The World Health Organization is established in April 1948 as a part of the United Nations that specializes in international public health. The WHO constitution is signed by a total of 61 countries on July 22 of 1946, and holds a meeting of the World Health Assembly on July 24 of 1948. With a focus on eradicating disease, the WHO played a huge role in the eradication of smallpox and is currently working on prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, etc.[21][44] Smallpox (initially) Switzerland (Geneva)
1948 Medical advancement The first published randomized controlled trial (RCT) in medicine appears in a paper entitled "Streptomycin treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis", which describes a Medical Research Council investigation.[45][46][47] One of the authors of this paper is Austin Bradford Hill, who is credited as having conceived the modern RCT.[48] Tuberculosis (initially)
1950 Medical advancement Mass tuberculosis immunization is under way with the BCG vaccine. This vaccine is recommended to be given intradermally, immediately after birth. This vaccine is mandatory to attend school in France between 1950 and 2007, introduced in Brazil in 1967, and to the Philippines in 1979.[42][49][50] Tuberculosis
1952 Program launch The global yaws control program is launched by WHO and UNICEF. The WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS) is created to establish a worldwide network of laboratories to collaborate and monitor influenza viruses.[42] Yaws
1952 Crisis A polio epidemic occurs in the United States. Polio is a serious, and potentially deadly or crippling, infection disease.[51] By the mid-20th Century, breakouts of polio present a major health concern for children in the United States. In 1952, at the height of an epidemic, Jonas Salk introduces a vaccine for the disease, which has existed for thousands of years. The vaccine is able to help eradicate breakouts of polio in many parts of the world.[52] Polio United States
1955 Medical advancement The first inactivated polio vaccine by Jonah Salk is announced as safe and effective. Originally developed in 1952, this vaccine is researched by a team at the University of Pittsburgh and required many years of testing.[21][53][54] Polio United States (Pittsburgh)
1958 Program launch Smallpox eradication program is launched by World Health Assembly. Smallpox is officially eradicated by 1980, and is known as the first disease to be combated and eradicated on a global scale.[42] Smallpox
1961 Organization United States Agency for International Development, also known as USAID, is formed in 1961 by President John F. Kennedy by Executive Order to administer civilian foreign aid. The primary goal of USAID is to "partner to end extreme poverty and to promote resilient, democratic societies while advancing the security and prosperity of the United States." It focuses on disaster relief, poverty relief, technical cooperation on global issues, U.S. bilateral interests, and socioeconomic development.[21][55][56][56] United States
1963 Medical advancement Oral polio vaccine licensed. Oral polio vaccines were developed by medical researcher Albert Sabin, and became used commercially in the early 1960s. They soon become an important basic health system medicine on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[42][57][58][59] Polio
1965 Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer, also known as the IARC, is an organization created to conduct research into the causes of cancer, and to collect and publish data regarding cancer occurrence worldwide. It is established as an intergovernmental agency in 1965, part of the World Health Organization and the United Nations.[60] Cancer France (Lyons)
1970 Organization Population Services International (PSI) is created as a nonprofit global health organization with programs targeting malaria, child survival, HIV, and reproductive health. PSI provides life-saving products, clinical services and behavior change communications.[61][62][63] Malaria, HIV/AIDS, child survival, and reproductive health Washington, D.C. (operates worldwide)
1971 Organization The Doctors Without Borders organization, or Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), is founded in France in response to the Nigerian Civil War. As an international humanitarian aid non-governmental organization (NGO), Doctors Without Borders creates projects in third world countries that are battling severe endemic diseases. It is also a Nobel Peace Prize laureate, and focuses on war-torn countries.[21][64] Unlike the Red Cross (an organization with a broadly similar mandate), MSF is willing to enter war-torn areas without the permission of authorities.[23] Switzerland (Geneva)(founded in France)
1974 Program launch The Onchocerciasis Control Programme is launched in response to the dramatic consequences of the onchocerciasis epidemic in West Africa by the World Health Organization (WHO), with help by three other UN agencies – the World Bank, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).[42] Onchocerciasis
1976 Discovery The Ebola virus (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is first identified in 1976. Ebola is a viral hemorrhagic fever found in primates, primarily in humans, that is caused by ebolaviruses. The first symptoms include sore throat, muscular pain, headaches, and a strong fever, then resulting in internal bleeding and death.[42][57] Ebola Democratic Republic of the Congo
1977 Publication WHO Model List of Essential Medicines is first published by the World Health Organization, and included a total of 204 pharmaceutical drugs. Thereafter, the WHO updates the list every two years, and created separate sections for adults and children, including medicines from anaesthetics to medicines for diseases of joints (as shown in the 19th edition, published in April 2015).[21][65][66]
1977 Organization PATH (formerly Program for Appropriate Technology in Health) is founded. PATH is an international, nonprofit global health organization based in Seattle. It is best known for developing and adapting technologies, such as improved vaccination devices and new tools to prevent cervical cancer, to address the health needs of developing countries.[67] In the 21st century, the Gates Foundation would fund PATH and its subsidiaries to the tune of over a billion dollars, helping it grow to massive scale.[68][69] United States (Seattle, Washington)
1978 Declaration The Alma Ata Declaration is established during the International Conference on Primary Health Care (PHC). The purpose of this conference is to develop a plan for primary health care across the world, especially benefiting the developing countries to keep a spirit of cooperation. As a result, the Declaration of Alma-Ata is adopted, and expresses the urgent worldwide need for a better health system to be place.[70] The Declaration promotes health as a human right.[21] Kazakhstan
1979 Medical advancement Eradication of smallpox (last naturally occurring case recorded). The eradication effort dates back to the time of Edward Jenner, an English physician who demonstrated that cowpox could protect humans from smallpox, thus beginning the eradication of smallpox on a regional scale.[71] In 1813, the U.S. Congress passed the Vaccine Act to provide total access to the smallpox vaccine to the public in the United States.[72] Similar measures were taken in other countries, and following the 1972 outbreak of smallpox in Yugoslavia, the disease is completely eradicated in 1979.[21][73] Smallpox Worldwide
1982 Program launch The child survival revolution (CSR) is an effort started by James P. Grant and UNICEF in collaboration with other organizations (such as the Rockefeller Foundation, UNDP, the World Bank, and the WHO) to reduce child mortality in the developing world. Grant advocates GOBI-FFF, a form of selective primary healthcare (which helps child development and increases maternal health and reduces child mortality).[9] The entire CSR effort would last from 1982 to the 1990s.[74]
1984 Program launch Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) is conceived.[75] The DHS Program is responsible for collecting and disseminating accurate, nationally representative data on health and population in developing countries.
1986 Program launch The Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) is launched by the World Health Organization (WHO). This program is designed to evaluate the scope of the global AIDS pandemic and to provide an organized international response to the deadly disease. By the late 1900s, the GPA would be implemented in more than 160 countries around the world.[42][76] HIV/AIDS
1987 Organization Partners In Health, a health care organization, is founded by Paul Farmer, Ophelia Dahl, Thomas J. White,[77] Todd McCormack, and Jim Yong Kim.[78][79] In the next 30 years, the organization pioneers community-based healthcare models, conducts post-earthquake rebuilding after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, and forms partnerships with other organizations (such as governments as well as the Clinton Health Access Initiative) to combat diseases including HIV/AIDS.[80] United States (Boston, Massachusetts)
1988 Program launch The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) is established by the WHO, UNICEF, and the Rotary Foundation during a large public health effort to eradicate the poliomyelitis (polio) disease worldwide. The main goal of the GPEI is to eliminate polio from all countries by the year 2000, and the last recorded case of the disease in the Americas is logged in Peru in August 1991.[42][81][82] Polio
1990 Publication The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) is commissioned by the World Bank. As a comprehensive global research program, it studies the disability and mortality that are directly caused by major diseases, injuries, and other risk factors. The general definition of "global burden of disease" is the "collective disease burden produced by all the diseases in the world."[21][83]
1990 Organization The World Summit for Children takes place. The summit has the then-largest-ever gathering of heads of state and government to commit to a set of goals to improve the well-being of children worldwide by the year 2000. It is the first time a UN conference set a broad agenda for a wide range of goals in health, education, nutrition and human rights.[74]
1993 Publication The first edition of Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries (DCP1) is published. The DCPP is a project that seeks to determine the priorities for disease control around the world, focusing efforts in developing countries and low-income countries.[84][85]
1993 Publication The 1993 World Development Report on investing in global health is published. This report "changed the terms of discourse in international health development" by prioritizing health problems with a large disease burden for which cost-effective interventions were available.[86]
1993 Organization The Global Initiative for Traditional Systems of Health is created by the Pan American Health Organisation in order to bring into policy focus the importance of traditional (indigenous) medicine in the daily lives and healthcare of the majority of the population in developing countries.[87] United States (Washington D.C.)
1994 Organization The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) is an international agreement administered by the World Trade Organization (WTO) that sets down minimum standards for many forms of intellectual property (IP) regulation as applied to nationals of other WTO members.[88] Applied to global health, the most visible conflict has been over HIV/AIDS drugs in Africa. The Doha Declaration is issued in November 2001, indicating that TRIPS should not prevent states from dealing with public health crises.[89] signed in Uruguay
1995 Program launch International Commission for the Certification of Dracunculiasis Eradication is established by the WHO to evaluate the status of countries applying for the certification of dracunculiasis eradication. The requirements for a country to be deemed "free of transmission" include zero indigenous cases over a complete year.[42][90] Dracunculiasis Switzerland (Geneva)
1995 Program launch DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment, Short-Course) strategy for tuberculosis is launched by the World Health Organization. This is the tuberculosis control strategy that is deemed the best curative method by the WHO, adopting the motto that "the most cost-effective way to stop the spread of TB in communities with high incidence is to cure it."[42][91] Tuberculosis
1996 Organization The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) is established to advocate for coordinated global action regarding the spread of HIV/AIDS across the world. The program aims to slow the spread of the disease so the epidemic does not become a pandemic by providing adequate leadership to provide effective action on the epidemic.[42] HIV/AIDS Switzerland (Geneva)
1999 Program launch Médecins Sans Frontières launch the Campaign for Access to Essential Medicines. It pushes to lower the prices of existing drugs, vaccines and diagnostic tests, to stimulate research and development into new treatments for diseases (tuberculosis among them) that primarily affect the poor.[92]
2000 Program launch Stop TB Partnership is launched to eliminate tuberculosis as a public health problem across international borders. Previously administered by the World Health Organization, the partnership is now hosted by the United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS).[42][93] Tuberculosis Switzerland (Geneva)
2000 Organization The Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network is launched by the World Health Organization. During a medical crisis, this organization ensures the correct technical expertise will be located in the critical areas in an event of an outbreak.[42]
2000 Organization Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) is founded by Bill Gates and his wife Melinda Gates.[94] It is currently the largest transparently operated private foundation in the world. This non-governmental organization aims to reduce extreme poverty and improve healthcare around the world, and has been praised as well as critiqued for its influence on the global health landscape.[95][96][97][98] According to foundation grants data available in the International Aid Transparency Initiative database, the foundation has, since 2009, granted about $10 billion to infectious disease control, malaria, AIDS, and tuberculosis control, health policy and administrative management, and basic health care (see Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation § Grants made for more).[69]
2000 Declaration, publication At a United Nations Summit in 2000, member nations declare eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which reflect the major challenges facing human development globally, to be achieved by 2015.[99] The declaration is matched by unprecedented global investment by donor and recipient countries. According to the UN, these MDGs provided an important framework for development and significant progress has been made in a number of areas.[100][101] However, progress would turn out to be uneven and some of the MDGs are not fully realized including maternal, newborn and child health and reproductive health.[100]
2000 Program launch The GAVI Alliance, a public-private global health partnership, forms to promote the use of vaccines and increase the access to immunization in developing countries.[102][103][104] It brings together developing countries and donor governments, working with the World Health Organization, UNICEF, the World Bank, and other organizations.[21][105] The Gates Foundation would be a major funder of GAVI, spending billions of dollars on it.[69][106] Switzerland (Geneva)
2001 Program launch The Measles Initiative, also known as the Measles & Rubella Initiative (MRI), is launched as a partnership among leaders in public health and supports the goal of reducing deaths by the measles disease globally by 90% by 2010 compared to the estimates in 2000.[42] Measles
2001 Declaration The Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health is adopted by the WTO Ministerial Conference of 2001 in Doha on November 14, 2001. It reaffirms flexibility of TRIPS member states in circumventing patent rights for better access to essential medicines.[107] Qatar (Doha)
2001 Organization The Center for Global Development (CGD), a nonprofit think tank based on Washington, D.C. that focuses on international development, is founded by Edward W. Scott, C. Fred Bergsten, and Nancy Birdsall.[108] CGD would go on to publish influential global health publications such as Millions Saved: Proven Successes in Global Health under the umbrella of its Global Health Policy Research Network.[109][110] A report by a CGD working group on advance market commitments for vaccines, prepared between 2003 and 2005, would play a key role in the launch of the first AMC in 2009.[111][112][113] United States (incorporated; serves the whole world)
2002 Organization The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (also called the Global Fund or GFATM) is founded as an international financing organization that disburses monetary resources to aid prevention and treatment of the three biggest diseases in third world countries (AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria)."[114] Beginning its operations in January 2002, the Global Fund has its secretariat based in Geneva, Switzerland.[115] Bill Gates is one of the first private donors that provided seed money for this project.[21][116][117] The Gates Foundation would continue to be a major donor to the Global Fund, with several commitments of over 100 million dollars.[69][118][119] HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, Malaria Switzerland (Geneva)
2002 Organization The Clinton Health Access Initiative launches as the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative under the Clinton Foundation.[120][121] In 2010, it becomes a standalone organization and is renamed the Clinton Health Access Initiative.[122] As of 2016, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is CHAI's biggest funder, having donated $60 million in 2015 alone.[121] HIV/AIDS (initially) United States (incorporated; but primarily serves Africa)
2002 Publication The first World report on violence and health is launched in October 2002, offering the first review of the issue of violence around the world, including its definition, its aftereffects on the human race, and possible solutions.[42][123]
2002 Publication The Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health is created by the British government to look into the effects of different intellectual property rights on developing countries and low-income citizens. The final report is published in September 2002.[42][124]
2002 Crisis Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory disease of zoonotic origin caused by the SARS coronavirus. A serious outbreak of SARS began in southern China in November 2002 and caused 8,096 cases and 774 deaths reported in 37 countries, with a majority of cases in Hong Kong.[42] SARS China (but spread to multiple countries)
2003 Program launch At the World Economic Forum in Davos in January, Bill Gates announces the Grand Challenges In Global Health. The initiative is funded by the Gates Foundation working with the National Institutes of Health, and started with a $200 million grant to the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health. The fourteen grand challenges are announced in October 2003. Two new challenges are added in 2011.[125][126]
2003 Program launch The 3 by 5 Initiative is launched by the World Health Organization to provide antiretroviral treatment (ART) to patients with HIV/AIDS in low- and middle-income countries, beginning the scaling of ART across the world.[127] The name "3 by 5" comes from the goal of treating 3 million people with this disease by 2005.[42][128] HIV/AIDS
2003 Publication The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) is a treaty adopted by the 56th World Health Assembly in May 2003.[129] As one of the most quickly ratified treaties in United Nations history,[130] it is an international agreement that seeks to protect mankind from the deadly impacts of tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke by setting universal standards to limit its use worldwide.[21][129][131]
2003 Program launch The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is launched. PEPFAR is a United States government initiative under United States President George W. Bush that addresses the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and helps save the lives of those suffering from the disease, primarily in Africa. The program provides antiretroviral treatment to 2 million HIV-infected people in resource-limited settings.[21][132] HIV/AIDS United States (targeting Africa)
2004 Publication The Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health is adopted by the World Health Organization, to report the development of the strategy to improve nutrition and physical health and its importance in the prevention of disease across the world.[42][133]
2005 Program launch To address the social factors that lead to poor health and health inequities, the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) is created by the World Health Organization in March, supported by global health partners.[42][134]
2005 Program launch The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health (PMNCH), chaired by Graça Machel, is launched by the WHO to achieve universal access to comprehensive, high-quality reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health care.[42]
2006 Publication The second edition of Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries (DCP2) is published to essentially provide a "checkup" for health care services across the world and global health as a whole. It reports how certain countries have accomplished stable and wide-reaching healthcare systems, achieving health priorities in developing countries, improvements in closely related sectors, etc.[135][136]
2007 Organization The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), a research institute working in the area of global health statistics and impact evaluation at the University of Washington in Seattle, is launched in June based on a core grant of $105 million primarily funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.[137] The emergence of IHME has been argued to have introduced competition to the field of global health metrics, which was previously a field where WHO maintained a monopoly.[138] United States (Seattle)
2007 Organization GiveWell, a charity evaluator, is founded. GiveWell has investigated the effectiveness of numerous charities in global health and has reviewed reports including those published by the Disease Control Priorities Project.[139] A spinoff known as the Open Philanthropy Project begins as GiveWell Labs in 2011 and gets its current name in 2014.[140] Most of GiveWell's top-recommended charities are in the field of global health, including current top recommendations Against Malaria Foundation, Schistosomiasis Control Initiative, and Deworm the World Initiative, as well as previous recommended charities VillageReach and Stop TB Partnership.[141] In 2015, GiveWell-recommended charities raise a total of $110.1 million based on GiveWell's charities, of which $56 million goes to the recommended charities in global health.[142] United States
2009 Program launch The launch of the first advance market commitment (AMC) is formally announced by the GAVI Alliance. It is for a pneumococcal vaccine and is funded by $1.5 billion from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the governments of the United Kingdom, Canada, Russia, and Norway, with a promise of an additional $1.3 billion through 2015 from the GAVI Alliance.[143] AMCs had been explored in a Center for Global Development Working Group from 2003 to 2005,[111][112][113] and work on funding for the pneumococcal vaccine AMC had begun in 2007. Pneumococcal infection
2013 Crisis The West African Ebola virus epidemic is the most widespread epidemic of Ebola in recorded history, beginning in 2013 and continuing through the next two years, mainly affecting three West African countries.[144] Ebola
2015 Publication Building on the MDGs, a new Sustainable Development Agenda with 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is established for the years 2016–2030. The SDGs are an intergovernmental set of aspiration goals with 169 targets[145] that aim to transform our world into a better place by ending poverty and hunger, helping the environment, improving health and education, etc.[100][146] The first goal is an ambitious and historic pledge to end poverty.[147]
2015 Publication Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is adopted by the 193 countries of the UN General Assembly. On 25 September 2015, the 193 countries of the UN General Assembly adopt the 2030 Development Agenda titled Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.[147]
2015 Publication To Save Humanity is published. The book contains nearly 100 essays regarding today's most pressing global health issues.[148] The essays are authored by global figures in politics, science, and advocacy ranging from Bill Clinton to Peter Piot, and address a wide range of issues including vaccinations, antimicrobial resistance, health coverage, tobacco use, research methodology, climate change, equity, access to medicine, and media coverage of health research.
2016 Publication As of April 2016, four of nine volumes of the third edition of the Disease Control Priorities Project (DCP3) have been published online. The nine volumes include essential surgery, reproductive health, cancer, mental disorders, cardiovascular disorders, major infectious diseases, injury prevention, child development, and a summary volume.[149]
2016 Organization The Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, run by Facebook principal founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg and his wife Priscilla Chan, announces its plan to create Chan Zuckerberg Science with $3 billion in funding over the next decade. Chan Zuckerberg Science's goal is to accelerate progress in the eradication of all diseases by the end of the 21st century. Of this, $600 million would be spent on a Biohub in San Francisco, to allow for easy interaction and collaboration between scientists at UCSF, University of California, Berkeley, Stanford University, and other universities in the area, as well as engineers and others.[150][151] Commentators see the move as audacious but a worthwhile goal, while noting that the amount of funding is small relative to overall money spent on biomedical research.[152][153]

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by Issa Rice.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

Feedback and comments

Feedback for the timeline can be provided at the following places:

What the timeline is still missing

  • Yawei Zhang's book Encyclopedia of Global Health has a timeline at the beginning that seems solid, so it would be good to incorporate info from there.
  • Quotes from Vipul (quoted with permission):
    • "See also http://www.victorianweb.org/science/health/health10.html "
    • "I think it can be helpful to highlight how in the first half of the 19th century, medieval diseases such as smallpox and the plague began to be overtaken by the diseases of density and industrial environments such as cholera, typhus, typhoid, etc. in Europe and the United States"
    • "and stuff on the way cholera, typhus, typhoid, etc. became bigger, spurred by urbanization, industralization, and greater trade and commerce"
    • "Cholera probably spread India -> Europe -> US"

Timeline update strategy

See also

References

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