Timeline of hepatology

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This is a timeline of hepatology, listing significant events in the development of the field.

Big picture

Time period Development summary
Ancient history Infectious jaundice is the most imposing clinical picture in hepatology and has occupied physicians for more than 2,500 years.[1]
19th century Cystic diseases of kidney and liver are recognized in the 19th Century.[2] Extensive liver or portal vein system surgery is carried out since the second half of the century.[3]
<1990s Hepatology is viewed generally as a subset of the field of gastroenterology.[4] In the 20th century, Hepatitis A, B and C virus are detected. Surgical treatment techniques for liver diseases are not included in textbooks on hepatology until 1965.[3]
1990s< Hepatology has developed substantially over the past 3 decades, from one that featured many diagnoses but very few therapeutic interventions to a specialty in which we can effectively prevent and treat many liver diseases.[4] In the 1990s, a rapid expansion of knowledge boosted the field of hepatology, with new discoveries having revolutionized the field. It is now possible to characterize and treat many more liver diseases. Newer medications in the form of interferon alfa and nucleoside analogues were added for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis. Liver transplantation has been established as an effective therapy for patients with end-stage liver disease.[5] During the past 30 years, the introduction of more sophisticated techniques, newly developed instruments and anaesthetic procedures, and a better management of intraoperative haemodynamics, are responsible for the enormous progress in the surgical treatment of liver diseases.[3]

Full timeline

Year Event type Details Location
400 BC Field development Hippocrates describes liver abscess.[6]
100 CE Field development Greek physician Aretaeus of Cappadocia describes jaundice and its symptoms.[6][7]
c.980 – 1037 Field development Persian polymath Avicenna observes the significance of urine in the diagnosis of liver disease.[6]
1652 Field development Dutch surgeon Nicolaes Tulp first presents a clinical description of acute pancreatitis.[8] Netherlands
1718 Field development Heister describes a patient with chronic pancreatitis who was suffering from "melancholia".[9] Germany
1770 Field development French anatomist Antoine Portal notes the bleeding that occurs due to the presence of esophageal varices caused by portal hypertension in cirrhosis patients.[6]
1770 – 1830 Field development Manget, Bécourt, Sebire, and Haen all describe patients with chronic pancreatitis who are chronic alcohol abusers.[9]
1803 Field development Portal distinguishes inflammatory, gangrenous, and suppurative pancreatitis, calculi, cysts, atrophic, hypertrophic, cystic, and scirrhous pancreas as rather separate diseases.[9]
1812 Field development Harless describes the association of melancholia and melancholic madness with induration of the pancreas.[9]
1815 Field development Fleischmann reports the autopsy of a young man who had begun drinking strong beverages and had at autopsy a hard fibrosed pancreas.[9]
1844 Field development German physiologist Gabriel Valentin demonstrates how pancreatic enzymes are responsible for breaking down food during digestion.[6]
1846 Field development German chemist Justus Von Leibig discovers the pancreatic juice tyrosine.[10] [6] Germany
1852 Field development Bernard first reports the association between gallstones and acute pancreatitis.[11]
1854 Field development German pathologist Friedrich Theodor von Frerichs first describes Wilson's disease (named after Samuel Wilson).
1862 Field development Austin Flint describes the production of "stercorin".[12][13][14][6]
1875 Field development French physician Victor Charles Hanot describes the condition of cholangiolytic biliary cirrhosis (Hanot disease).[15][16][17][6] France
1882 Field development German surgeon Carl Langenbuch performs the first acknowledged open cholecystectomy.[18][19][20] Germany
1894 Field development Dieckhoff discusses syphilis as a cause of chronic pancreatitis.[9] Germany
1898 Field development German surgeon Werner Körte gives an overall description of advanced chronic pancreatitis: abdominal pain, fatty stools, glucosuria, jaundice and sometimes stenosis of the duodenum.[9] Germany
1901 Field development American physician Eugene Lindsay Opie describes impacted gallstones at autopsy.[11][21] United States
1903 Field development Moynihan describes a patient with chronic "typhoid pancreatitis".[9]
1943 Field development Harper and Raper produce a purified pancreozymin which greatly increases the enzyme content of pancreatic juice as distinct from the increase in volume evoked by secretin.[22]
1946 Field development Chronic pancreatitis is first described.[23][24][22]
1950 Organization The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases is established.[25] United States
1958 Field development American surgeon Francis Daniels Moore develops and performs the first liver transplantation in dog experimental models.[6] United States
1960 Literature Journal Gut is established.[26] United Kingdom
1961 Literature Journal Endoscopy is launched.[27]
1963 Field development American physician Thomas Starzl in Denver performs the first human liver transplant on a 3-year-old male with biliary atresia.[28][29][30][6] United States
1966 Organization The European Association for the Study of the Liver is founded.[31][32]
1969 Field development American physician Baruch Samuel Blumberg discovers the hepatitis B virus and goes on to develop the first hepatitis B vaccine.[6]
1973 Field development S.M. Feinstone discovers the Hepatitis A virus.[1]
1973 Literature Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease is published.[33]
1974 Organization The Foundation for Liver Research is established in the United Kingdom to develop and extend research into diseases of the human liver and to enhance medical research generally.[34] United Kingdom
1977 Field development M. Rizzetto at al. detect the delta virus.[1]
1981 Literature Peer-reviewed medical journal Hepatology is first issued.[35] United States
1982 Field development H. Thaler introduces the term postinfantile giant-cell hepatitis.[36][1]
1982 Literature Hepatology: a Textbook of Liver Disease is published by Zakim and Boyer.[37]
1983 Field development Hepatitis E virus is identified.[1]
1985 Field development German surgeon Erich Mühe carries out the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy.[38][39][40] Germany
1985 – 1990 Field development French surgeon Jacques Perissat experiments with intracorporeal lithotripsy.[41]
1987 Journal The Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology is established.[42] Canada
1987 Field development French surgeon Phillipe Mouret carries out his first cholecystectomy by means of electronic laparoscopy.[41][40]
1988 Field development French surgeon Francois Dubois performs a laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in Paris.[41] France
1989 Field development American virologist Daniel W. Bradley and British scientist Michael Houghton identify the hepatitis C virus, which was previously known as non-A, non-B hepatitis and could not be detected in the blood supply.[43][44][45]
1989 Journal The European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology is first issued.[46] United Kingdom
1992 Field development A blood test that could detect hepatitis C in donated blood is created.[47]
1994 Organization The International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association is established.[48] United States
1995 Literature Peer-reviewed medical journal Inflammatory Bowel Diseases is first issued.[49]
2003 Literature Journal Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology is established.[50] United States
2007 Organization The World Hepatitis Alliance is formed. The organization advocates and raises awareness for the elimination of viral hepatitis.[51]
2007 Literature Journal of Crohn's and Colitis is established.[52] United Kingdom
2007 Literature Peer-reviewed medical journal Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology is established.[53]
2009 Literature The World Journal of Hepatology is launched.[54]
2013 Literature Daniel Marks and Marcus Harbord publish Emergencies in Gastroenterology and Hepatology.[55]

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The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.

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See also

External links


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  2. Friedman, Scott L. "A 'Cyst'ematic approach to PLD". 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Kuntz, Erwin; Kuntz, Hans-Dieter. Hepatology, Principles and Practice: History, Morphology, Biochemistry, Diagnostics, Clinic, Therapy. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "So You Want to Be a Hepatologist?". astrojournal.org. Retrieved 1 October 2018. 
  5. Ramrakhiani, S; Bacon, BR. "Hepatology in the new millennium. Advances in viral hepatitis, hepatic disorders, and liver transplantation.". PMID 11026919. 
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 "Hepatology History". news-medical.net. Retrieved 3 September 2018. 
  7. Bassari, Ramez; Koea, Jonathan B. "Jaundice associated pruritis: A review of pathophysiology and treatment". PMC 4316083Freely accessible. PMID 25663760. doi:10.3748/wjg.v21.i5.1404. 
  8. "Acute Pancreatitis A Historical Perspective". researchgate.net. Retrieved 1 October 2018. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 Howard, John M.; Hess, Walter. History of the Pancreas: Mysteries of a Hidden Organ. 
  10. Netters Essential Physiology. CTI Reviews. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 "Acute Gallstone Pancreatitis". researchgate.net. Retrieved 19 September 2018. 
  12. Medical Review, Volumes 35-36. St. Louis Medical Review Association. 
  13. Transactions of the First Pan-American Medical Congress, Part 2. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1895. 
  14. Flint, Austin. Handbook of physiology. 
  15. Sebastian, Anton. A Dictionary of the History of Medicine. 
  16. Wain, Harry. The story behind the word: some interesting origins of medical terms. 
  17. Bogousslavsky, Julien. Following Charcot: A Forgotten History of Neurology and Psychiatry. 
  18. Landmark Papers in General Surgery (Graham MacKay, Richard Molloy, Patrick O'Dwyer ed.). 
  19. Landmark Papers in General Surgery (Graham MacKay, Richard Molloy, Patrick O'Dwyer ed.). 
  20. Jarnagin, William R. Blumgart's Surgery of the Liver, Pancreas and Biliary Tract E-Book: Expert Consult - Online. 
  21. Lightner, AM; Kirkwood, KS. "Pathophysiology of gallstone pancreatitis.". 
  22. 22.0 22.1 "A clinical study of chronic pancreatitis" (PDF). gut.bmj.com. Retrieved 19 September 2018. 
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  27. "Endoscopy Journal". esge.com. Retrieved 13 September 2018. 
  28. In Her Lifetime: Female Morbidity and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Committee to Study Female Morbidity and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa, Institute of Medicine. 
  29. Hakim, Nadey. Introduction to Organ Transplantation. 
  30. Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology in Liver Transplantation (E. Bücheler, Volkmar Nicolas, C.E. Broelsch, X. Rogiers, G. Krupski ed.). 
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  32. "European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL". bionity.com. Retrieved 19 September 2018. 
  33. "Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease". ebah.com.br. Retrieved 1 October 2018. 
  34. "Foundation for Liver Research". liver-research.org.uk. Retrieved 13 September 2018. 
  35. "List of Issues Hepatology". journal-of-hepatology.eu. Retrieved 19 September 2018. 
  36. Kuntz, Erwin; Kuntz, Hans-Dieter. Hepatology: Textbook and Atlas. 
  37. "Hepatology: A textbook of liver disease". gastrojournal.org. Retrieved 1 October 2018. 
  38. Litynski, GS. "Erich Mühe and the rejection of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (1985): a surgeon ahead of his time.". PMC 3015244Freely accessible. PMID 10036125. 
  39. Robotic Approaches to Colon and Rectal Surgery (Howard Ross, Sang Lee, Bradley J. Champagne, Alessio Pigazzi, David E. Rivadeneira ed.). 
  40. 40.0 40.1 Essentials of Pediatric Endoscopic Surgery (Amulya K. Saxena, Michael E. Höllwarth ed.). 
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 Litynski, Grzegorz S. "Mouret, Dubois, and Perissat: The Laparoscopic Breakthrough in Europe (1987-1988)". PMC 3015318Freely accessible. PMID 10444020. 
  42. "Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology". hindawi.com. Retrieved 19 September 2018. 
  43. Payne, Susan. Viruses: From Understanding to Investigation. 
  44. Molecular Diagnostics: Techniques and Applications for the Clinical Laboratory (Wayne W. Grody, Robert M. Nakamura, Frederick L. Kiechle, Charles Strom ed.). 
  45. Weber, Georg F. Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer. 
  46. "European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology". 
  47. "Pre-1990 transfusions may have infected thousands with hepatitis C". edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 21 September 2018. 
  48. Pitt, Henry A. "International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association: who are we and where are we going?". PMC 2023894Freely accessible. PMID 18333134. doi:10.1080/13651820600835967. 
  49. "Volume 1, Issue 1, 1 February 1995". academic.oup.com. Retrieved 19 September 2018. 
  50. "Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology". scimagojr.com. Retrieved 21 September 2018. 
  51. "OUR STORY". worldhepatitisalliance.org. Retrieved 19 September 2018. 
  52. "Journal of Crohn's and Colitis". academic.oup.com. Retrieved 19 September 2018. 
  53. "Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology". tandfonline.com. Retrieved 1 October 2018. 
  54. "World Journal of Hepatology". wjgnet.com. Retrieved 4 September 2018. 
  55. "Emergencies in Gastroenterology and Hepatology". books.google.com.ar. Retrieved 1 October 2018.