Difference between revisions of "Timeline of infection control"

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This is a '''timeline of {{w|infection control}}'''.
 
This is a '''timeline of {{w|infection control}}'''.
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== Sample questions ==
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* What events describe the introduction of chemical agents designed to inactivate or destroy microorganisms?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Disinfectant introduction".
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* What are events desctibing the discovery and/or introduction of disinfection methods other chemical agents?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Disinfection method".
  
 
==Big picture==
 
==Big picture==
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{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
! Time period !! Development summary !! More details
 
! Time period !! Development summary !! More details
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|-
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| 1990s || || {{w|Cubicle curtain}} design undergoes a period of rapid growth in the decade.<ref>Zelinsky, Marilyn. "Clients talk about... cubicle curtains." ''Interiors'' 156.9 (Sept 1997): 58.</ref>
 
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|}
 
|}
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== Visual data ==
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=== Google Trends ===
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The image shows {{w|Google Trends}} data for "infection" and "quarantine" search terms from January 2004 to June 2020.<ref>{{cite web |title=Google Trends |url=https://trends.google.com/trends/explore?date=all&q=infection,quarantine |website=trends.google.com |accessdate=26 June 2020}}</ref> The latter peaks in March 2020, during the {{w|COVID-19 pandemic}}, the month when the {{w|United States}} becomes the country with the highest number of confirmed {{w|COVID-19}} infections.
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[[File:Infection Google Trends.png|thumb|center|800px]]
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=== Wikipedia views ===
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The image shows {{w|Wikipedia}} views desktop data for the articles {{w|Infection}}, {{w|Quarantine}}, and {{w|Infection control}}. Three local maximums in 2008, 2015, and 2020 closely match the {{w|2009 swine flu pandemic}}, the {{w|Western African Ebola virus epidemic}}, and the {{w|COVID-19 pandemic}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Wikipedia views |url=https://wikipediaviews.org/displayviewsformultiplemonths.php?pages[0]=Infection&pages[1]=Infection+control&pages[2]=Quarantine&allmonths=allmonths&language=en&drilldown=desktop |website=wikipediaviews.org |accessdate=26 June 2020}}</ref>
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[[File:Infection Control Wikipedia Views.png|thumb|center|550px]]
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The image shows desktop, mobile-web, desktop-spider, mobile-web-spider, and mobile-app {{w|Wikipedia}} views data for the article {{w|Infection control}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Wikipedia views |url=https://wikipediaviews.org/displayviewsformultiplemonths.php?page=Infection+control&allmonths=allmonths-api&language=en&drilldown=all |website=wikipediaviews.org |accessdate=26 June 2020}}</ref>
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[[File:Infection Wikipedia Views.png|thumb|center|550px]]
  
 
==Full timeline==
 
==Full timeline==
  
 
{| class="sortable wikitable"
 
{| class="sortable wikitable"
! Year !! Event type !! Infection type !! Details !! Country/region
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! Year !! Event type !! Infection type !! Details !! Present time country/region
 
|-
 
|-
| c.3000 BC || || || Ancient Egyptians use palm wine and vinegar to rinse the abdominal cavities of human and animal cadavers prior to embalming.<ref name="oie.int">{{cite web |last1=BLANCOU |first1=J. |title=History of disinfection from early times until the end of the 18th century |url=https://www.oie.int/doc/ged/D8963.PDF |website=oie.int |accessdate=3 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Egypt}}
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| c.3000 BC || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || Ancient Egyptians use palm wine and vinegar to rinse the abdominal cavities of human and animal cadavers prior to embalming.<ref name="oie.int">{{cite web |last1=BLANCOU |first1=J. |title=History of disinfection from early times until the end of the 18th century |url=https://www.oie.int/doc/ged/D8963.PDF |website=oie.int |accessdate=3 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Egypt}}
 
|-
 
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| 800 BC || || || The oldest reference to disinfection of premises with a chemical product seems to be that described by [[w:Homer (Homero)|Homer]] in book xii of the ''{{w|Odyssey}}'', where the hero, having killed his rivals, demands that sulphur be burnt in the house which they had occupied.<ref name="oie.int"/> ||
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| 800 BC || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || The oldest reference to disinfection of premises with a chemical product seems to be that described by [[w:Homer (Homero)|Homer]] in book xii of the ''{{w|Odyssey}}'', where the hero, having killed his rivals, demands that sulphur be burnt in the house which they had occupied.<ref name="oie.int"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1363 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || Microbial pathogens || Alcohol as an {{w|antiseptic}} is recommended for wound treatment by French physician {{w|Guy de Chauliac}}.<ref name="Block">{{cite book |last1=Block |first1=Seymour Stanton |title=Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=3f-kPJ17_TYC&pg=PA229&lpg=PA229&dq=1363+++Alcohol+is+already+used+as+an+antiseptic.&source=bl&ots=KnIjEt4ON0&sig=ACfU3U19gDSSAKOZfh3tqGXdv6oIFH6fBQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjF25rkucbpAhXwHrkGHSxCCB0Q6AEwDHoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=1363%20%20%20Alcohol%20is%20already%20used%20as%20an%20antiseptic.&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
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| 1363 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || Microbial pathogens || Alcohol as an {{w|antiseptic}} is recommended for wound treatment by French physician {{w|Guy de Chauliac}}.<ref name="Block">{{cite book |last1=Block |first1=Seymour Stanton |title=Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=3f-kPJ17_TYC&pg=PA229&lpg=PA229&dq=1363+++Alcohol+is+already+used+as+an+antiseptic.&source=bl&ots=KnIjEt4ON0&sig=ACfU3U19gDSSAKOZfh3tqGXdv6oIFH6fBQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjF25rkucbpAhXwHrkGHSxCCB0Q6AEwDHoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=1363%20%20%20Alcohol%20is%20already%20used%20as%20an%20antiseptic.&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
 
|-
 
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| 1523 || ''{{w|Cordon sanitaire}}'' || {{w|Plague}} || During a plague outbreak in {{w|Birgu}}, {{w|Malta}}, the town is cordoned off by guards to prevent the disease from spreading to the rest of the island.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Luttrell |first1=Anthony |title=The Making of Christian Malta: From the Early Middle Ages to 1530 |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=c3BQDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA56&lpg=PA56&dq=Birgu+1523+plague+cordon&source=bl&ots=9sNART0OXM&sig=ACfU3U0_1gDnIW6jrnPXQFSGqOenvf6O6A&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwi8gPTa6MfpAhWcGbkGHfUkAQsQ6AEwAHoECAsQAQ#v=onepage&q=Birgu%201523%20plague%20cordon&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|Malta}}  
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| 1523 || Protection (‘‘{{w|cordon sanitaire}}’’) || {{w|Plague}} || During a plague outbreak in {{w|Birgu}}, {{w|Malta}}, the town is cordoned off by guards to prevent the disease from spreading to the rest of the island.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Luttrell |first1=Anthony |title=The Making of Christian Malta: From the Early Middle Ages to 1530 |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=c3BQDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA56&lpg=PA56&dq=Birgu+1523+plague+cordon&source=bl&ots=9sNART0OXM&sig=ACfU3U0_1gDnIW6jrnPXQFSGqOenvf6O6A&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwi8gPTa6MfpAhWcGbkGHfUkAQsQ6AEwAHoECAsQAQ#v=onepage&q=Birgu%201523%20plague%20cordon&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|Malta}}  
 
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| 1523 || || || English scholar {{w|Anthony Fitzherbert}} recommends removal of animals which have died from 'murrain' ({{w|anthrax}}), except the skin (which is sent to a tannery) and the head (which 'was to be placed on a pole to notify to others "that sickness existed in the township" ')<ref name="oie.int"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
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| 1523 || Protection method || || English scholar {{w|Anthony Fitzherbert}} recommends removal of animals which have died from 'murrain' ({{w|anthrax}}), except the skin (which is sent to a tannery) and the head (which 'was to be placed on a pole to notify to others "that sickness existed in the township" ')<ref name="oie.int"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1598 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || The word ''disinfectant'' is first recorded in writing, with the meaning "to cure, to heale".<ref name="Seymour"/> ||
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| 1598 || Concept development || || The word ''disinfectant'' is first recorded in writing, with the meaning "to cure, to heale".<ref name="Seymour"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1605 || || || The word ''septic'' is first recorded, which means "putrefying".<ref name="Seymour"/> ||
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| 1605 || Concept development || || The word ''septic'' is first recorded, which means "putrefying".<ref name="Seymour"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1658 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || The word ''disinfectant'' is used in a more modern sense, to remove infection.<ref name="Seymour"/> ||
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| 1658 || Concept development || || The word ''disinfectant'' is used in a more modern sense, to remove infection.<ref name="Seymour"/> ||
 
|-  
 
|-  
| 1659 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || {{w|Potassium permanganate}} is first obtained by German-Dutch chemist {{w|Johann Rudolf Glauber}}.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Ahmed |first1=Khalid Abdelazez Mohamed |title=Exploitation of KMnO4 material as precursors for the fabrication of manganese oxide nanomaterials |doi=10.1016/j.jtusci.2015.06.005 |url=https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1658365515001132}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Report of the ... Annual Proceedings of the Louisiana State Pharmaceutical Association |publisher=Louisiana State Pharmaceutical Association |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=qd3qAAAAMAAJ&q=1659+Potassium+permanganate&dq=1659+Potassium+permanganate&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwifpMeZ6sfpAhUDJrkGHbxtB50Q6AEIKDAA}}</ref> || {{w|Netherlands}}
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| 1659 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || {{w|Potassium permanganate}} is first obtained by German-Dutch chemist {{w|Johann Rudolf Glauber}}.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Ahmed |first1=Khalid Abdelazez Mohamed |title=Exploitation of KMnO4 material as precursors for the fabrication of manganese oxide nanomaterials |doi=10.1016/j.jtusci.2015.06.005 |url=https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1658365515001132}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Report of the ... Annual Proceedings of the Louisiana State Pharmaceutical Association |publisher=Louisiana State Pharmaceutical Association |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=qd3qAAAAMAAJ&q=1659+Potassium+permanganate&dq=1659+Potassium+permanganate&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwifpMeZ6sfpAhUDJrkGHbxtB50Q6AEIKDAA}}</ref> || {{w|Netherlands}}
 
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| 1666 || ''{{w|Cordon sanitaire}}'' || {{w|Plague}} || The English village of {{w|Eyam}} famously imposes a cordon sanitaire on itself after an outbreak of the {{w|bubonic plague}} in the community.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Brauer |first1=Fred |last2=Castillo-Chavez |first2=Carlos |last3=Feng |first3=Zhilan |title=Mathematical Models in Epidemiology |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=Qm21DwAAQBAJ&pg=PA40&dq=%221666%22+%22eyam%22+%22plague%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiC87WqkMjpAhX_F7kGHWvjBCYQ6AEIYzAH#v=onepage&q=%221666%22%20%22eyam%22%20%22plague%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Rhodes |first1=Ebenezer |title=Peak Scenery; Or, The Derbyshire Tourist |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=RjhAAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA31&dq=%221666%22+%22eyam%22+%22plague%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiC87WqkMjpAhX_F7kGHWvjBCYQ6AEIbjAI#v=onepage&q=%221666%22%20%22eyam%22%20%22plague%22&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
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| 1666 || Protection (‘‘{{w|cordon sanitaire}}’’) || {{w|Plague}} || The English village of {{w|Eyam}} famously imposes a cordon sanitaire on itself after an outbreak of the {{w|bubonic plague}} in the community.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Brauer |first1=Fred |last2=Castillo-Chavez |first2=Carlos |last3=Feng |first3=Zhilan |title=Mathematical Models in Epidemiology |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=Qm21DwAAQBAJ&pg=PA40&dq=%221666%22+%22eyam%22+%22plague%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiC87WqkMjpAhX_F7kGHWvjBCYQ6AEIYzAH#v=onepage&q=%221666%22%20%22eyam%22%20%22plague%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Rhodes |first1=Ebenezer |title=Peak Scenery; Or, The Derbyshire Tourist |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=RjhAAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA31&dq=%221666%22+%22eyam%22+%22plague%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiC87WqkMjpAhX_F7kGHWvjBCYQ6AEIbjAI#v=onepage&q=%221666%22%20%22eyam%22%20%22plague%22&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
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| 1675 || || Microbial pathogens || {{w|Antonie Van Leuwenhoek}} discovers microorganisms.<ref name="History and Evolution of Surface Disinfectants">{{cite web |title=History and Evolution of Surface Disinfectants |url=http://blog.pdihc.com/blog/april-2018 |website=pdihc.com |accessdate=3 April 2020}}</ref> ||
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| 1675 || Scientific development || Microbial pathogens || {{w|Antonie Van Leuwenhoek}} discovers microorganisms.<ref name="History and Evolution of Surface Disinfectants">{{cite web |title=History and Evolution of Surface Disinfectants |url=http://blog.pdihc.com/blog/april-2018 |website=pdihc.com |accessdate=3 April 2020}}</ref> ||
 
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| 1676 || || Microbial pathogens || Dutch scientist {{w|Antonie Van Leuwenhoek}} first sees bacteria.<ref name="Seymour"/> In the same year, he discovers that vinegar kills some microorganisms.<ref name="History and Evolution of Surface Disinfectants"/> "It was not until 1676 that Van Leeuwenhoek offered the first scientific proof of the action of acids on 'animalcules', which he had discovered using the microscope of his own invention."<ref name="oie.int"/> || {{w|Netherlands}}
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| 1676 || || Microbial pathogens || Dutch scientist {{w|Antonie Van Leuwenhoek}} first sees bacteria.<ref name="Seymour"/> In the same year, he discovers that vinegar kills some microorganisms.<ref name="History and Evolution of Surface Disinfectants"/> Van Leuwenhoek provides the first scientific proof of the action of acids on 'animalcules', which he discovered using the microscope of his own invention.<ref name="oie.int"/> || {{w|Netherlands}}
 
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| 1708–1712 || ''{{w|Cordon sanitaire}}'' || {{w|Plague}} || "During the Great Northern War plague outbreak of 1708–1712, cordons sanitaires were established around affected towns like Stralsund and Königsberg; one was also established around the whole Duchy of Prussia and another one between Scania and the Danish isles along the Sound, with Saltholm as the central quarantine station" ||
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| 1708–1712 || Protection (‘‘{{w|cordon sanitaire}}’’) || {{w|Plague}} || A broad cordon sanitaire is extended around the border of the former Duchy of Prussia during a plague outbreak. Those crossing into the exclave are quarantined.<ref>{{cite web |title=Great Northern War plague outbreak |url=https://alchetron.com/Great-Northern-War-plague-outbreak |website=alchetron.com |accessdate=7 July 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Russia}}
 
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| 1715 || || || Italian physician {{w|Giovanni Maria Lancisi}} recommends using {{w|vinegar}} (or vinegar water) for disinfecting objects (and even animals or persons) which have been in contact with cases of {{w|cattle plague}}.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Spinage |first1=Clive |title=Cattle Plague: A History |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=uk3MBgAAQBAJ&pg=PT641&lpg=PT641&dq=Lancisi+1715+vinegar&source=bl&ots=xJkEP_KOfe&sig=ACfU3U0cgTPcyeMGkp9oB9dZF4GndknZEw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiToOnzlsjpAhVFD7kGHUUOAzYQ6AEwAHoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=Lancisi%201715%20vinegar&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Taylor |first1=William P. |title=Rinderpest and Peste des Petits Ruminants: Virus Plagues of Large and Small Ruminants |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=Q70ffyHl2YAC&dq=Lancisi+1715+vinegar&source=gbs_navlinks_s}}</ref><ref name="oie.int"/> || {{w|Italy}}
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| 1715 || Disinfection method || {{w|Cattle plague}} || Italian physician {{w|Giovanni Maria Lancisi}} recommends using {{w|vinegar}} (or vinegar water) for disinfecting objects (and even animals or persons) which have been in contact with cases of {{w|cattle plague}}.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Spinage |first1=Clive |title=Cattle Plague: A History |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=uk3MBgAAQBAJ&pg=PT641&lpg=PT641&dq=Lancisi+1715+vinegar&source=bl&ots=xJkEP_KOfe&sig=ACfU3U0cgTPcyeMGkp9oB9dZF4GndknZEw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiToOnzlsjpAhVFD7kGHUUOAzYQ6AEwAHoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=Lancisi%201715%20vinegar&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Taylor |first1=William P. |title=Rinderpest and Peste des Petits Ruminants: Virus Plagues of Large and Small Ruminants |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=Q70ffyHl2YAC&dq=Lancisi+1715+vinegar&source=gbs_navlinks_s}}</ref><ref name="oie.int"/> || {{w|Italy}}
 
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| 1716 || || || "An edict of Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, in 1716, decreed that the clothing of persons who had attended animals affected by cattle plague should be aired and 'exposed to flame'. There were heavy penalties for contravention: branding, forced labour for perpetuity and even flagellation followed by hanging"<ref name="oie.int"/> ||
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| 1716 || Policy || {{w|Cattle plague}} || {{w|Frederick the Great}} in Prussia introduces policy mandating that the clothing of persons who have attended animals affected by cattle plague should be aired and 'exposed to flame'.<ref name="oie.int"/> || {{w|Germany}}, ex-Prussian territories
 
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| 1718 || || || French naturalist {{w|Louis Joblot}} sterilizes a hay infusion by boiling it for 15 minutes and then sealing the container.<ref name="Rogers">{{cite book |last1=Rogers |first1=Wayne J |title=Healthcare Sterilisation: Introduction & Standard Practices, Volume 1, Volume 1 |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=O_wlDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA47&dq=Joblot+1718++sterilise+an+infusion+of+hay+by+boiling+it+for+fifteen+minutes+and+then+sealing+the+container&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwipwPWKmcjpAhUcDrkGHdenD_UQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=Joblot%201718%20%20sterilise%20an%20infusion%20of%20hay%20by%20boiling%20it%20for%20fifteen%20minutes%20and%20then%20sealing%20the%20container&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Stanton Block |first1=Seymour |title=Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=3f-kPJ17_TYC&pg=PA16&dq=Joblot+1718++sterilise+an+infusion+of+hay+by+boiling+it+for+fifteen+minutes+and+then+sealing+the+container&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwipwPWKmcjpAhUcDrkGHdenD_UQ6AEIMTAB#v=onepage&q=Joblot%201718%20%20sterilise%20an%20infusion%20of%20hay%20by%20boiling%20it%20for%20fifteen%20minutes%20and%20then%20sealing%20the%20container&f=false}}</ref><ref name="oie.int"/> || {{w|France}}
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| 1718 || Disinfection method introduction || || French naturalist {{w|Louis Joblot}} sterilizes a hay infusion by boiling it for 15 minutes and then sealing the container.<ref name="Rogers">{{cite book |last1=Rogers |first1=Wayne J |title=Healthcare Sterilisation: Introduction & Standard Practices, Volume 1, Volume 1 |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=O_wlDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA47&dq=Joblot+1718++sterilise+an+infusion+of+hay+by+boiling+it+for+fifteen+minutes+and+then+sealing+the+container&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwipwPWKmcjpAhUcDrkGHdenD_UQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=Joblot%201718%20%20sterilise%20an%20infusion%20of%20hay%20by%20boiling%20it%20for%20fifteen%20minutes%20and%20then%20sealing%20the%20container&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Stanton Block |first1=Seymour |title=Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=3f-kPJ17_TYC&pg=PA16&dq=Joblot+1718++sterilise+an+infusion+of+hay+by+boiling+it+for+fifteen+minutes+and+then+sealing+the+container&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwipwPWKmcjpAhUcDrkGHdenD_UQ6AEIMTAB#v=onepage&q=Joblot%201718%20%20sterilise%20an%20infusion%20of%20hay%20by%20boiling%20it%20for%20fifteen%20minutes%20and%20then%20sealing%20the%20container&f=false}}</ref><ref name="oie.int"/> || {{w|France}}
 
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| 1730 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || {{w|Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor}} decrees that stables which have housed glanderous horses should be plastered with {{w|quicklime}}. Such arrangements figure in numerous texts published in Europe around the time.<ref name="oie.int"/> || {{w|Europe}}
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| 1719 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || {{w|Thymol}} is first isolated by the German chemist [[w:Caspar Neumann (chemist)|Caspar Neumann]].<ref>{{cite journal|first=Carolo |last=Neuman |date=1724 |title=De Camphora |journal=Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London |volume=33 |issue=389 |pages=321–332 |url=http://rstl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/33/381-391/321.full.pdf+html |doi=10.1098/rstl.1724.0061|doi-access=free }} On page 324, Neumann mentions that in 1719 (MDCCXIX) he distilled some essential oils from various herbs. On page 326, he mentions that during the course of these experiments, he obtained a crystalline substance from thyme oil, which he called "''Camphora Thymi''" ({{w|camphor}} of thyme). (Neumann gave the name "camphor" not only to the specific substance that today is called camphor, but to any crystalline substance that precipitated from a volatile, fragrant oil from some plant.)</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
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|-
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| 1730 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || {{w|Glanders}} infection || {{w|Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor}} decrees that stables which have housed glanderous horses should be plastered with {{w|quicklime}}. Such arrangements figure in numerous texts published in Europe around the time.<ref name="oie.int"/> || {{w|Europe}}
 
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| 1745 || || || A decree in {{w|Oldenburg}} prescribes the cleaning with {{w|caustic soda}} of troughs from which cattle with plague have fed, and the cleaning of the woodwork and walls of their houses with lime-wash.<ref name="oie.int"/> || {{w|Germany}}
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| 1745 || Policy || {{w|Plague}} || A decree in {{w|Oldenburg}} prescribes the cleaning with {{w|caustic soda}} of troughs from which cattle with plague have fed, and the cleaning of the woodwork and walls of their houses with lime-wash.<ref name="oie.int"/> || {{w|Germany}}
 
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| 1770 || ''{{w|Cordon sanitaire}}'' || {{w|Plague}} || [[w:House of Habsburg|Habsburg]] {{w|Empress Maria Theresa}} sets up a {{w|cordon sanitaire}} between {{w|Austria}} and the {{w|Ottoman Empire}} to prevent people and goods infected with plague from crossing the border. Cotton and wool are held in storehouses for weeks, with peasants paid to sleep on the bales and monitored to see if they show signs of disease.<ref>{{cite web |title=Top 10 Historic Ways To Beat Plagues |url=https://listverse.com/2020/04/18/top-10-historic-ways-to-beat-plagues/ |website=listverse.com |accessdate=26 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Austrian Empire}} region
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| 1770 || Protection (‘‘{{w|cordon sanitaire}}’’) || {{w|Plague}} || [[w:House of Habsburg|Habsburg]] {{w|Empress Maria Theresa}} sets up a {{w|cordon sanitaire}} between {{w|Austria}} and the {{w|Ottoman Empire}} to prevent people and goods infected with plague from crossing the border. Cotton and wool are held in storehouses for weeks, with peasants paid to sleep on the bales and monitored to see if they show signs of disease.<ref>{{cite web |title=Top 10 Historic Ways To Beat Plagues |url=https://listverse.com/2020/04/18/top-10-historic-ways-to-beat-plagues/ |website=listverse.com |accessdate=26 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Austrian Empire}} region
 
|-
 
|-
| 1771 || || || "Thus, a decree issued by the Council of the King of France (June 1771) stipulated that 'animals killed or dead from epizootic disease may not be abandoned in forests, thrown into rivers or placed on rubbish dumps, nor may they be buried in stables, courtyards, gardens or elsewhere within the precincts of towns and villages"<ref name="oie.int"/> ||
+
| 1771 || Policy || Epizootic infection || Policy is introduced in France stipulating that animals killed or dead from epizootic disease may not be abandoned in forests, thrown into rivers or placed on rubbish dumps, nor may they be buried in stables, courtyards, gardens or elsewhere within the precincts of towns and villages.<ref name="oie.int"/> || {{w|France}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1774 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || Microbial pathogens || [[w:Swedish people|Swedish]] chemist {{w|Carl Wilhelm Scheele}} discovers {{w|chlorine}}.<ref name="Hugo">{{cite journal |last1=Hugo |first1=W.B. |title=A brief history of heat and chemical preservation and disinfect ion |journal=Journal of Applied Bacteriology |url=https://sfamjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1991.tb04657.x |accessdate=3 April 2020}}</ref> ||
+
| 1774 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || Microbial pathogens || [[w:Swedish people|Swedish]] chemist {{w|Carl Wilhelm Scheele}} discovers {{w|chlorine}}.<ref name="Hugo">{{cite journal |last1=Hugo |first1=W.B. |title=A brief history of heat and chemical preservation and disinfect ion |journal=Journal of Applied Bacteriology |url=https://sfamjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1991.tb04657.x |accessdate=3 April 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1776 || || || Italian biologist {{w|Lazzaro Spallanzani}} demonstrates that it was impossible for 'spontaneous generation' of microorganisms to occur once the fluid they lived in had been boiled for an hour.<ref name="oie.int"/><ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|Italy}}
+
| 1776 || Scientific development || || Italian biologist {{w|Lazzaro Spallanzani}} demonstrates that it is impossible for 'spontaneous generation' of microorganisms to occur once the fluid they lived in has been boiled for an hour.<ref name="oie.int"/><ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|Italy}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1784 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || A decree issued by the Council of the King of France obliges the owners of animals affected by contagious diseases to burn or scald all harnesses, wagons and any other objects which has been in contact with these animals.<ref name="oie.int"/> || {{w|France}}
+
| 1784 || Policy || Non-human animal contagious diseases || A decree issued by the Council of the King of France obliges the owners of animals affected by contagious diseases to burn or scald all harnesses, wagons and any other objects which has been in contact with these animals.<ref name="oie.int"/> || {{w|France}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1789 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || "{{w|Potassium hypochlorite}} was first produced in 1789 by Claude Louis Berthollet in his laboratory located in Javel in Paris" || {{w|France}}
+
| 1789 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || French chemist {{w|Claude Louis Berthollet}} produces {{w|potassium hypochlorite}} for the first time in his laboratory located in Javel in Paris.<ref>{{cite web |title=Bleach |url=http://hydro-land.com/e/ligne-en/doc/Eaux-Javel.html |website=hydro-land.com |accessdate=7 July 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Stéphane |first1=Bernard |last2=Giesbert |first2=Franz-Olivier |title=Petite et grande histoire des rues de Paris, Volume 1 |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=GOYQAQAAMAAJ&q=Potassium+hypochlorite++1789++Claude+Louis+Berthollet&dq=Potassium+hypochlorite++1789++Claude+Louis+Berthollet&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjZv-OY_rnqAhXKD7kGHQJHDHMQ6AEwA3oECAQQAg}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1789 || || || Tennant prepares a bleaching powder, as distinct from a liquid, by passing chlorine gas into a slurry of slaked lime.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
+
| 1789 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || Scottish chemist {{w|Charles Tennant}} prepares a bleaching powder, as distinct from a liquid, by passing chlorine gas into a slurry of slaked lime.<ref>{{cite book |title=Britain in the Hanoverian Age, 1714-1837: An Encyclopedia |edition=Gerald Newman, Leslie Ellen Brown, A. J. Graham Cummings, Jack Fruchtman (Jr.).), Peter A. Tasch |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=ZhaBz_5OZiUC&pg=RA4-PA693-IA5&lpg=RA4-PA693-IA5&dq=Tennant+1789+bleach&source=bl&ots=z0UgHGAXHI&sig=ACfU3U0YGLnvzILTx-8Apg0x7m3g9WXZBw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjXu7_MwLvqAhUSIrkGHZJ0DkQQ6AEwAHoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=Tennant%201789%20bleach&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Materials and Expertise in Early Modern Europe: Between Market and Laboratory |edition=Ursula Klein, E. C. Spary |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=0TBhqoUJjo8C&pg=PA340&lpg=PA340&dq=Tennant+1789+bleach&source=bl&ots=q5OIcMsy41&sig=ACfU3U1I_YkLy0rZznvOtScBUpzOy9_HNQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjXu7_MwLvqAhUSIrkGHZJ0DkQQ6AEwC3oECAwQAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false}}</ref><ref name="Hugo"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1793 || ''{{w|Cordon sanitaire}}'' || {{w|Yellow fever}} || During a yellow fever epidemic in {{w|Philadelphia}}, roads and bridges leading to the city are blocked off by soldiers from the local militia to prevent the illness from spreading. || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1793 || Protection (‘‘{{w|cordon sanitaire}}’’) || {{w|Yellow fever}} || During a yellow fever epidemic in {{w|Philadelphia}}, roads and bridges leading to the city are blocked off by soldiers from the local militia to prevent the illness from spreading.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Cohn |first1=Samuel K. |title=Yellow Fever |doi=10.1093/oso/9780198819660.003.0018 |url=https://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/oso/9780198819660.001.0001/oso-9780198819660-chapter-18}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1794 || || || English physician {{w|Erasmus Darwin}} recommends that if cattle plague are introduced into England, all cattle within a five mile radius of any confirmed outbreak should be 'immediately slaughtered, and consumed within the circumscribed district; and their hides put into quicklime before proper inspectors'.<ref name="oie.int"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 1794 || Protection || {{w|Plague}} || English physician {{w|Erasmus Darwin}} recommends that if cattle plague are introduced into England, all cattle within a five mile radius of any confirmed outbreak should be 'immediately slaughtered, and consumed within the circumscribed district; and their hides put into quicklime before proper inspectors'.<ref name="oie.int"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1801 || || General || The first hospital for infectious diseases is established in {{w|London}}.<ref name="Hewlett">{{cite journal |last1=Smith |first1=Philip W. |last2=Watkins |first2=Kristin |last3=Hewlett |first3=Angela |journal=American Journal of Infection Control |url=https://cha.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/AJIC-2012-Infection-Control-Through-the-Ages.pdf|title=Infection control through the ages
+
| 1800 || Infrastructure || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}}, communicable infection || A Hospital for Sick Children is established in {{w|Paris}}, initially admitting infectious cases, with consequent high mortality from cross-infection.<ref name="Wright">{{cite journal |last1=Wright |first1=David |title=Infection control throughout history |doi=10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70726-1 |url=https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(14)70726-1/fulltext}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
 
|-
 
|-
| 1803 || || || The word '{{w|germ}}', in relation to a {{w|smallpox}} infection, is printed.<ref name="Seymour"/> ||
+
| 1801 || Infrastructure || General || The first hospital for infectious diseases is established in {{w|London}}.<ref name="Hewlett">{{cite journal |last1=Smith |first1=Philip W. |last2=Watkins |first2=Kristin |last3=Hewlett |first3=Angela |journal=American Journal of Infection Control |url=https://cha.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/AJIC-2012-Infection-Control-Through-the-Ages.pdf|title=Infection control through the ages}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1811 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || Microbial pathogens || {{w|Chlorine dioxide}} is discovered.<ref>{{cite web |title=OVERVIEW OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE (CLO2) |url=http://www.afinitica.com/arnews/?q=node/92 |website=afinitica.com |accessdate=26 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Wilson |first1=Charles L. |last2=Droby |first2=Samir |title=Microbial Food Contamination |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=2vN64QtjI2UC&pg=PA6&lpg=PA6&dq=1811+Chlorine+dioxide+is+discovered&source=bl&ots=I7jW8ehJRe&sig=ACfU3U06z_UEtmrnhJ3Lo_KI_aw1KU5OKw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiqrOOBzNLpAhXSHLkGHeEKC6kQ6AEwC3oECAwQAQ#v=onepage&q=1811%20Chlorine%20dioxide%20is%20discovered&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Schmidt |first1=Ronald H. |last2=Rodrick |first2=Gary E. |title=Food Safety Handbook |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=87Eimlt7dMMC&pg=PA396&lpg=PA396&dq=1811+Chlorine+dioxide+is+discovered&source=bl&ots=p035rVGjJY&sig=ACfU3U2qE0ue-H03gu9_h-qWuMZN2hlkCQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiqrOOBzNLpAhXSHLkGHeEKC6kQ6AEwDHoECA0QAQ#v=onepage&q=1811%20Chlorine%20dioxide%20is%20discovered&f=false}}</ref> ||
+
| 1803 || Concept development || {{w|Smallpox}} || The word '{{w|germ}}', in relation to a {{w|smallpox}} infection, is printed.<ref name="Seymour"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1813–1814 || || || "During the 1813–14 Malta plague epidemic, the main urban settlements of Malta (Valletta, Floriana and the Three Cities) and rural settlements with a high mortality rate (Birkirkara, Qormi, Żebbuġ and later Xagħra) were cordoned off by the military to prevent people from entering or leaving" ||
+
| 1811 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || Microbial pathogens || {{w|Chlorine dioxide}} is discovered.<ref>{{cite web |title=OVERVIEW OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE (CLO2) |url=http://www.afinitica.com/arnews/?q=node/92 |website=afinitica.com |accessdate=26 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Wilson |first1=Charles L. |last2=Droby |first2=Samir |title=Microbial Food Contamination |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=2vN64QtjI2UC&pg=PA6&lpg=PA6&dq=1811+Chlorine+dioxide+is+discovered&source=bl&ots=I7jW8ehJRe&sig=ACfU3U06z_UEtmrnhJ3Lo_KI_aw1KU5OKw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiqrOOBzNLpAhXSHLkGHeEKC6kQ6AEwC3oECAwQAQ#v=onepage&q=1811%20Chlorine%20dioxide%20is%20discovered&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Schmidt |first1=Ronald H. |last2=Rodrick |first2=Gary E. |title=Food Safety Handbook |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=87Eimlt7dMMC&pg=PA396&lpg=PA396&dq=1811+Chlorine+dioxide+is+discovered&source=bl&ots=p035rVGjJY&sig=ACfU3U2qE0ue-H03gu9_h-qWuMZN2hlkCQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiqrOOBzNLpAhXSHLkGHeEKC6kQ6AEwDHoECA0QAQ#v=onepage&q=1811%20Chlorine%20dioxide%20is%20discovered&f=false}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1821 || ''{{w|Cordon sanitaire}}'' || Concept development || The term {{w|cordon sanitaire}} dates to this year.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Smart |first1=William |title=Economic Annals of the Nineteenth Century ...: 1821-1830 |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=vgjRAAAAMAAJ&q=cordon+sanitaire+1821&dq=cordon+sanitaire+1821&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjHp6-z983pAhXCILkGHesIDB8Q6AEIVDAF}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Bourgon |first1=Jean Ignace Joseph |title=Abrégé de l'histoire de France, Volume 2 |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=KVEvAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA826&dq=cordon+sanitaire+1821&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjHp6-z983pAhXCILkGHesIDB8Q6AEIdzAJ#v=onepage&q=cordon%20sanitaire%201821&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Salas-Vives |first1=Pere |last2=Pujadas-Mora |first2=Joana-Maria |title=Cordons Sanitaires and the Rationalisation Process in Southern Europe (Nineteenth-Century Majorca) |doi=10.1017/mdh.2018.25 |pmid=29886862 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6113753/}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
+
| 1813–1814 || Protection (‘‘{{w|cordon sanitaire}}’’) || {{w|Plague}} || During the {{w|1813–1814 Malta plague epidemic}}, cordon sanitaires are implemented in the main urban settlements and rural settlements with a high mortality rate. People are prevented from entering or leaving.<ref>{{cite web |title=Inspector of Hospitals Ralph Green – Introduction |url=http://www.maltaramc.com/articles/contents/plague1813.html |website=maltaramc.com |accessdate=7 July 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Aspects of the demography of modern Malta.: a study of the human geography of the Maltese Islands |url=http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/9175/2/6106-vol2.pdf?UkUDh:CyT |website=etheses.dur.ac.uk |accessdate=7 July 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Malta}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1823 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || French chemist {{w|Antoine Germain Labarraque}} uses {{w|hypochlorite}} as a deodorant and disinfectant in a cat-gut factory.<ref name="Hugo"/> || {{w|France}}
+
| 1818 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || {{w|Louis Jacques Thénard}} first produces {{w|hydrogen peroxide}} by reacting {{w|barium peroxide}} with {{w|nitric acid}}.<ref>{{Cite journal
 +
| title = Observations sur des nouvelles combinaisons entre l'oxigène et divers acides
 +
| author = L. J. Thénard
 +
| journal = {{w|Annales de chimie et de physique}} |series=2nd Series
 +
| volume = 8
 +
| year =1818
 +
| pages = 306–312
 +
| url = https://books.google.com/?id=-N43AAAAMAAJ&pg=PA306#v=onepage}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1827 || || || English surgeon [[w:Thomas Alcock (surgeon)|Thomas Alcock]] shows the possibility to use {{w|hypochlorite}} for disinfection.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 1821 || Protection (‘‘{{w|cordon sanitaire}}’’) || Concept development || The term {{w|cordon sanitaire}} dates to this year.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Smart |first1=William |title=Economic Annals of the Nineteenth Century ...: 1821-1830 |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=vgjRAAAAMAAJ&q=cordon+sanitaire+1821&dq=cordon+sanitaire+1821&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjHp6-z983pAhXCILkGHesIDB8Q6AEIVDAF}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Bourgon |first1=Jean Ignace Joseph |title=Abrégé de l'histoire de France, Volume 2 |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=KVEvAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA826&dq=cordon+sanitaire+1821&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjHp6-z983pAhXCILkGHesIDB8Q6AEIdzAJ#v=onepage&q=cordon%20sanitaire%201821&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Salas-Vives |first1=Pere |last2=Pujadas-Mora |first2=Joana-Maria |title=Cordons Sanitaires and the Rationalisation Process in Southern Europe (Nineteenth-Century Majorca) |doi=10.1017/mdh.2018.25 |pmid=29886862 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6113753/}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1829 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || {{w|Lugol's iodine}} is first made by French physician {{w|Jean Guillaume Auguste Lugol}}.<ref name=Pre2009>{{cite book|last1=Preedy|first1=Victor R.|last2=Burrow|first2=Gerard N.|last3=Watson|first3=Ronald Ross|title=Comprehensive Handbook of Iodine: Nutritional, Biochemical, Pathological and Therapeutic Aspects|date=2009|publisher=Academic Press|isbn=9780080920863|page=135|language=en|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170812100039/https://books.google.ca/books?id=7v7g5XoCQQwC&pg=PA135}}</ref><ref name=Sn2005>{{cite book|last1=Sneader|first1=Walter|title=Drug Discovery: A History|date=2005|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|isbn=9780471899792|page=67|language=en|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170826071343/https://books.google.ca/books?id=Cb6BOkj9fK4C&pg=PA67}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
+
| 1823 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || French chemist {{w|Antoine Germain Labarraque}} uses {{w|hypochlorite}} as a deodorant and disinfectant in a cat-gut factory.<ref name="Hugo"/> || {{w|France}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1831 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || English chemist {{w|William Henry}} investigates the disinfection of infected clothing using heat rendered them harmless. Henry devises a jacketed dry heat (hot air) steriliser.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 1827 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || English surgeon [[w:Thomas Alcock (surgeon)|Thomas Alcock]] shows the possibility to use {{w|hypochlorite}} for disinfection.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1832 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || "Apart from the burning of aromatic herbs and the use of chlorine gas in the Paisley cholera epidemic of 1832, the first reasoned attempt to sterilize air"<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
+
| 1829 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || {{w|Lugol's iodine}} is first made by French physician {{w|Jean Guillaume Auguste Lugol}}.<ref name=Pre2009>{{cite book|last1=Preedy|first1=Victor R.|last2=Burrow|first2=Gerard N.|last3=Watson|first3=Ronald Ross|title=Comprehensive Handbook of Iodine: Nutritional, Biochemical, Pathological and Therapeutic Aspects|date=2009|publisher=Academic Press|page=135|language=en|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170812100039/https://books.google.ca/books?id=7v7g5XoCQQwC&pg=PA135}}</ref><ref name=Sn2005>{{cite book|last1=Sneader|first1=Walter|title=Drug Discovery: A History|date=2005|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|page=67|language=en|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170826071343/https://books.google.ca/books?id=Cb6BOkj9fK4C&pg=PA67}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1834 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || Microbial pathogens || German chemist {{w|Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge}} discovers a {{w|phenol}}, now known as {{w|carbolic acid}}, which he derives in an impure form from {{w|coal tar}}. ||
+
| 1831 || Disinfection method introduction || || English chemist {{w|William Henry}} investigates the disinfection of infected clothing using heat rendered them harmless. Henry devises a jacketed dry heat (hot air) steriliser.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1834 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || {{w|Hypochlorous acid}} is discovered by French chemist {{w|Antoine Jérôme Balard}} by adding, to a flask of chlorine gas, a dilute suspension of {{w|mercury(II) oxide}} in water.<ref>See:
+
| 1832 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || {{w|Cholera}} || English surgeon {{w|Joseph Lister}} introduces the first reasoned attempt to sterilize air during a cholera epidemic.<ref name="Hugo"/><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Hugo |first1=W.B. |title=A brief history of heat and chemical preservation and disinfection |journal=Journal of Applied Bacteriology |url=https://sfamjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1991.tb04657.x}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1834 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || Microbial pathogens || German chemist {{w|Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge}} discovers a {{w|phenol}}, now known as {{w|carbolic acid}}, which he derives in an impure form from {{w|coal tar}}. ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1834 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || {{w|Hypochlorous acid}} is discovered by French chemist {{w|Antoine Jérôme Balard}} by adding, to a flask of chlorine gas, a dilute suspension of {{w|mercury(II) oxide}} in water.<ref>See:
 
*  {{cite journal |last1=Balard |first1=A. J. |title=Recherches sur la nature des combinaisons décolorantes du chlore |journal=Annales de Chimie et de Physique |date=1834 |volume=57 |pages=225–304 |url=https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=ien.35556014128060;view=1up;seq=230 |series=2nd series |trans-title=Investigations into the nature of bleaching compounds of chlorine |language=French}} From p. 246:  ''" … il est beaucoup plus commode … environ d'eau distillée."'' ( … it is much easier to pour, into  flasks full of chlorine, red mercury oxide [that has been] reduced to a fine powder by grinding and diluted in about twelve times its weight of distilled water.)  
 
*  {{cite journal |last1=Balard |first1=A. J. |title=Recherches sur la nature des combinaisons décolorantes du chlore |journal=Annales de Chimie et de Physique |date=1834 |volume=57 |pages=225–304 |url=https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=ien.35556014128060;view=1up;seq=230 |series=2nd series |trans-title=Investigations into the nature of bleaching compounds of chlorine |language=French}} From p. 246:  ''" … il est beaucoup plus commode … environ d'eau distillée."'' ( … it is much easier to pour, into  flasks full of chlorine, red mercury oxide [that has been] reduced to a fine powder by grinding and diluted in about twelve times its weight of distilled water.)  
 
*  {{cite book |last1=Graham |first1=Thomas |title=Elements of Chemistry |volume=vol. 4 |date=1840 |publisher=H. Baillière |location=London, England |page=367 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=UF5QAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA367#v=onepage&q&f=false}}</ref> ||
 
*  {{cite book |last1=Graham |first1=Thomas |title=Elements of Chemistry |volume=vol. 4 |date=1840 |publisher=H. Baillière |location=London, England |page=367 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=UF5QAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA367#v=onepage&q&f=false}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1839 || || || Davies uses {{w|iodine}} for treating infected wounds. This is the first reference to using tincture of iodine in wounds.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1839 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || Davies uses {{w|iodine}} for treating infected wounds. This is the first reference to using tincture of iodine in wounds.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-  
 
|-  
| 1844 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || Bayard in {{w|France}} prepares an antiseptic powder from coal tar, plaster, ferrous sulphate and clay.<ref name="Lambert">{{cite book |last1=Fraise |first1=Adam P. |last2=Lambert |first2=Peter A. |last3=Maillard |first3=Jean-Yves |title=Russell, Hugo & Ayliffe's Principles and Practice of Disinfection, Preservation and Sterilization |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=vazrHz-4gcgC&pg=PA11&lpg=PA11&dq=Bayard+prepared+an+antiseptic+powder&source=bl&ots=53gEHFpRRB&sig=ACfU3U01FpR0HC9b8bzgVZSPElTh0jzz-w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj4wKuc8MfpAhV1K7kGHb54AuAQ6AEwAHoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=Bayard%20prepared%20an%20antiseptic%20powder&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|France}}   
+
| 1844 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || Bayard in {{w|France}} prepares an antiseptic powder from coal tar, plaster, ferrous sulphate and clay.<ref name="Lambert">{{cite book |last1=Fraise |first1=Adam P. |last2=Lambert |first2=Peter A. |last3=Maillard |first3=Jean-Yves |title=Russell, Hugo & Ayliffe's Principles and Practice of Disinfection, Preservation and Sterilization |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=vazrHz-4gcgC&pg=PA11&lpg=PA11&dq=Bayard+prepared+an+antiseptic+powder&source=bl&ots=53gEHFpRRB&sig=ACfU3U01FpR0HC9b8bzgVZSPElTh0jzz-w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj4wKuc8MfpAhV1K7kGHb54AuAQ6AEwAHoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=Bayard%20prepared%20an%20antiseptic%20powder&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|France}}   
 
|-
 
|-
| 1847 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || A bleach derivative is introduced as the hand disinfectant agent at the Vienna Medical Center to help reduce the risk of postpartum women who developed “Childbed Fever”, which had an 80% mortality rate. After introduction, the mortality rate plummets to 90% the first month.<ref name="History and Evolution of Surface Disinfectants"/> ||
+
| 1847 || Medical development || Childbed fever || Hungarian physician {{w|Ignaz Semmelweis}} presents evidence that childbed fever is spread from person to person on the unclean hands of health-care workers.<ref>{{cite web |title=Control of Health-Care--Associated Infections, 1961--2011 |url=https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/su6004a10.htm |website=cdc.gov |accessdate=9 July 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Austria}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1850 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || French pharmacist Ferdinand Le Beuf makes a useful disinfectant based on the bark of quillaia, a South American tree.<ref name="Lambert"/> || {{w|France}}
+
| 1847 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || Childbed fever || Motivated by {{w|Ignaz Semmelweis}} discovery, a bleach derivative is introduced as the hand disinfectant agent at the Vienna Medical Center to help reduce the risk of postpartum women who developed “Childbed Fever”, which had an 80% mortality rate. After introduction, the mortality rate plummets to 90% the first month.<ref name="History and Evolution of Surface Disinfectants"/> || {{w|Austria}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1850 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || French pharmacist Ferdinand Le Beuf makes a useful disinfectant based on the bark of [[w:Quillaia (Quillajaceae)|quillaia]], a South American tree.<ref name="Lambert"/> || {{w|France}}
 
|-  
 
|-  
| 1850 || || || French physician {{w|Casimir Davaine}} finds the bacillus of anthrax in the blood of dying sheep. Davaine works on animal infections. Later, he works on a {{w|porcelain}} filter, to remove bacteria.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|France}}
+
| 1850 || Disinfection method introduction || || French physician {{w|Casimir Davaine}} finds the bacillus of anthrax in the blood of dying sheep. Davaine works on animal infections. Later, he works on a {{w|porcelain}} filter, to remove bacteria.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|France}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1852 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || Microbial pathogens || {{w|Eucalyptus oil}} is introduced in Australia.<ref>{{cite web |title=Eucalyptus Essential Oil |url=https://www.bosistos.com.au/result/bosistos-product-category/eucalyptus-oil |website=bosistos.com.au |accessdate=22 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Australia}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1852 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || Microbial pathogens || {{w|Eucalyptus oil}} is introduced in Australia.<ref>{{cite web |title=Eucalyptus Essential Oil |url=https://www.bosistos.com.au/result/bosistos-product-category/eucalyptus-oil |website=bosistos.com.au |accessdate=22 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Australia}}
+
| 1852 || Disinfection method introduction || || Victor Burq discovers that those working with {{w|copper}} have far fewer deaths to cholera than anyone else, and concludes that putting copper on the skin is effective at preventing someone from getting {{w|cholera}}.<ref name="saaa">{{Cite web|url=https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/xgqkyw/copper-destroys-viruses-and-bacteria-why-isnt-it-everywhere|title=Copper Destroys Viruses and Bacteria. Why Isn’t It Everywhere?|last=Love|first=Shayla|date=2020-03-18|website=Vice|language=en|access-date=26 June 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1854 || || || German scientist {{w|Heinrich G. F. Schröder}} and German physician {{w|Theodor von Dusch}} show that {{w|bacteria}} can be removed from air by filtering it through cotton-wool by boiling infusion.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|Germany}}
+
| 1852 || Infrastructure || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}}, communicable infection || Great Ormond Street Hospital is founded in {{w|London}}. In this hospital, cross-infection is avoided in the children's wards by admission of such cases as perhaps {{w|smallpox}}, {{w|scarlet fever}}, and {{w|diphtheria}} to fever hospitals.<ref name="Wright"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1854 || || || Chlorinated lime is applied in the tratment of sewage in {{w|London}}.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 1854 || Disinfection method introduction || || German scientist {{w|Heinrich G. F. Schröder}} and German physician {{w|Theodor von Dusch}} show that {{w|bacteria}} can be removed from air by filtering it through cotton-wool by boiling infusion.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|Germany}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1856 || ''{{w|Cordon sanitaire}}'' || {{w|Yellow fever}} || A cordon sanitaire is implemented in several cities during the yellow fever epidemic. ||
+
| 1854 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || {{w|Chlorinated lime}} is applied in the tratment of sewage in {{w|London}}.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1858 || || || British statistician {{w|Florence Nightingale}} promotes the case for hospital reform.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Forder |first1=A A |title=A Brief History of Infection Control - Past and Present |pmid=18250929 |url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18250929/}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 1856 || Protection (‘‘{{w|cordon sanitaire}}’’) || {{w|Yellow fever}} || A cordon sanitaire is implemented in several cities during the yellow fever epidemic. ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1858 || || || British physician {{w|Benjamin Ward Richardson}} takes note of the capacity of hydrogen peroxide to remove foul odours and subsequently proposes its use as disinfectant.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 1858 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || British physician {{w|Benjamin Ward Richardson}} takes note of the capacity of {{w|hydrogen peroxide}} to remove foul odours and subsequently proposes its use as disinfectant.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1858 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || Bacteria || Fuchsine is first prepared by {{w|August Wilhelm von Hofmann}} from {{w|aniline}} and {{w|carbon tetrachloride}}.<ref>{{cite journal | doi = 10.1002/prac.18590770130 | first = August Wilhelm | last = von Hofmann  | title = Einwirkung des Chlorkohlenstoffs auf Anilin. Cyantriphenyldiamin | year = 1859 | journal = Journal für Praktische Chemie | volume = 77 | pages = 190 }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal | title = Action of Bichloride of Carbon on Aniline | journal = Philosophical Magazine | year = 1858 | pages = 131–142 | first = August Wilhelm | last = von Hofmann | url = http://zs.thulb.uni-jena.de/receive/jportal_jpvolume_00057523?XSL.view.objectmetadata=false&jumpback=true&maximized=true&page=PMS_1859_Bd17_%200089.tif }}</ref> ||
+
| 1858 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || Bacteria || Fuchsine is first prepared by {{w|August Wilhelm von Hofmann}} from {{w|aniline}} and {{w|carbon tetrachloride}}.<ref>{{cite journal | doi = 10.1002/prac.18590770130 | first = August Wilhelm | last = von Hofmann  | title = Einwirkung des Chlorkohlenstoffs auf Anilin. Cyantriphenyldiamin | year = 1859 | journal = Journal für Praktische Chemie | volume = 77 | pages = 190 }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal | title = Action of Bichloride of Carbon on Aniline | journal = Philosophical Magazine | year = 1858 | pages = 131–142 | first = August Wilhelm | last = von Hofmann | url = http://zs.thulb.uni-jena.de/receive/jportal_jpvolume_00057523?XSL.view.objectmetadata=false&jumpback=true&maximized=true&page=PMS_1859_Bd17_%200089.tif }}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1859 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || {{w|Formaldehyde}} is discovered.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
+
| 1859 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || Russian chemist Alexander Butlerov discovers {{w|formaldehyde}}.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Rodgman |first1=Alan |last2=Perfetti |first2=Thomas A. |title=The Chemical Components of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=D2HvBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA364&dq=1859+Formaldehyde&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiKhoKHx7vqAhVxGbkGHTOOC40Q6AEwAHoECAQQAg#v=onepage&q=1859%20Formaldehyde&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Analytical Methods for a Textile Laboratory |publisher=American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=aUW98Hhv9GoC&pg=PA230&dq=1859+Formaldehyde&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiKhoKHx7vqAhVxGbkGHTOOC40Q6AEwAXoECAAQAg#v=onepage&q=1859%20Formaldehyde&f=false}}</ref><ref name="Hugo"/> || {{w|Russia}}
 
|-  
 
|-  
| 1859 || || || {{w|Heinrich G. F. Schröder}} shows that boiling infusion at temperatures above 100°C (e.g., egg yolks, milk and meat) for prolonged time destroys growth but boiling for a short period at 100 °C does not stop growth.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|Germany}}
+
| 1859 || Disinfection method introduction || || {{w|Heinrich G. F. Schröder}} shows that boiling infusion at temperatures above 100°C (e.g., egg yolks, milk and meat) for prolonged time destroys growth but boiling for a short period at 100 °C does not stop growth.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|Germany}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1860 || Publication || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || English social reformer {{w|Florence Nightingale}} publishes ''Notes on Nursing'', a series of guidelines with recommendations on sanitation and hospital environment. These publications prompt new policies of control of cross-infection in most hospitals.<ref name="Wright"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1863 || || || {{w|Casimir Devaine}} demonstrates that porcelain filters retained {{w|anthrax}} bacteria.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|France}}
+
| 1863 || Disinfection method introduction || || {{w|Casimir Devaine}} demonstrates that porcelain filters retained {{w|anthrax}} bacteria.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|France}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1865 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || Microbial pathogens || Dr. {{w|Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister}} applies a piece of lint dipped in carbolic acid solution to the wound of an eleven-year-old boy at {{w|Glasgow Royal Infirmary}}, who had sustained a compound fracture after a cart wheel had passed over his leg. After four days, he renewes the pad and discovers that no infection has developed. After a total of six weeks he discovers that the boy's bones have fused back together, without the danger of suppuration.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Lister|first1=Joseph|title=On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery|journal=The Lancet|date=21 September 1867|volume=90|issue=2299|pages=353–356|doi=10.1016/s0140-6736(02)51827-4}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last1=Lister|first1=Joseph|title=On the Effects of the Antiseptic System of Treatment Upon the Salubrity of a Surgical Hospital|journal=The Lancet|date=1 January 1870|volume=95|issue=2418|pages=2–4|doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(02)31273-X}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 1865 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || Microbial pathogens || {{w|Joseph Lister}} applies a piece of lint dipped in carbolic acid solution to the wound of an eleven-year-old boy at {{w|Glasgow Royal Infirmary}}, who had sustained a compound fracture after a cart wheel had passed over his leg. After four days, he renewes the pad and discovers that no infection has developed. After a total of six weeks he discovers that the boy's bones have fused back together, without the danger of suppuration.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Lister|first1=Joseph|title=On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery|journal=The Lancet|date=21 September 1867|volume=90|issue=2299|pages=353–356|doi=10.1016/s0140-6736(02)51827-4}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last1=Lister|first1=Joseph|title=On the Effects of the Antiseptic System of Treatment Upon the Salubrity of a Surgical Hospital|journal=The Lancet|date=1 January 1870|volume=95|issue=2418|pages=2–4|doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(02)31273-X}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1866 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || {{w|Methyl violet}} is manufactured in France by the [[w:Saint-Denis, Seine-Saint-Denis|Saint-Denis]]-based firm of Poirrier et Chappat and marketed under the name "Violet de Paris". It was a mixture of the tetra-, penta- and hexamethylated {{w|pararosaniline}}s.<ref>{{citation | editor-last=Gardner | editor-first=W. M. | year=1915 | title= The British coal-tar industry : its origin, development, and decline | publisher= Lippincott | place=Philadelphia | page=173 | url=https://archive.org/stream/britishcoaltarin00gardrich#page/172/mode/2up}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
+
| 1866 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || {{w|Methyl violet}} is manufactured in France by the [[w:Saint-Denis, Seine-Saint-Denis|Saint-Denis]]-based firm of Poirrier et Chappat and marketed under the name "Violet de Paris". It was a mixture of the tetra-, penta- and hexamethylated {{w|pararosaniline}}s.<ref>{{citation | editor-last=Gardner | editor-first=W. M. | year=1915 | title= The British coal-tar industry : its origin, development, and decline | publisher= Lippincott | place=Philadelphia | page=173 | url=https://archive.org/stream/britishcoaltarin00gardrich#page/172/mode/2up}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1867 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || The first reasoned attempt to sterilize air is made by British surgeon {{w|Joseph Lister}} in his pursuit of antiseptic surgery.<ref name="Hugo"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 1867 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || The first reasoned attempt to sterilize air is made by {{w|Joseph Lister}} in his pursuit of antiseptic surgery.<ref name="Hugo"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1869 || ''{{w|Cordon sanitaire}}'' || {{w|Cholera}} || French epidemiologist {{w|Achille Adrien Proust}} (father of novelist {{w|Marcel Proust}}) proposes the use of an international {{w|cordon sanitaire}} to control the spread of {{w|cholera}}, which emerged from {{w|India}} and, and threatening Europe and Africa at the time. Proust proposes that all ships bound for Europe from India and Southeast Asia be quarantined at {{w|Suez}}, however his ideas would not be generally embraced.<ref>{{cite web |title=Böses Komma |url=https://www.sueddeutsche.de/kultur/literatur-und-seuchengeschichte-boeses-komma-1.4914831 |website=sueddeutsche.de |accessdate=26 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=MARCEL PROUST and the medicine of the Belle Epoque |url=https://www.rsm.ac.uk/media/2060/marcel-proust-exhibition-booklet.pdf |website=rsm.ac.uk |accessdate=26 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Chantre |first1=Luc |title=Entre pandémie et panislamisme |doi=10.4000/assr.25258 |url=https://journals.openedition.org/assr/25258?lang=it}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
+
| 1869 || Protection (‘‘{{w|cordon sanitaire}}’’) || {{w|Cholera}} || French epidemiologist {{w|Achille Adrien Proust}} (father of novelist {{w|Marcel Proust}}) proposes the use of an international {{w|cordon sanitaire}} to control the spread of {{w|cholera}}, which emerged from {{w|India}} and, and threatening Europe and Africa at the time. Proust proposes that all ships bound for Europe from India and Southeast Asia be quarantined at {{w|Suez}}, however his ideas would not be generally embraced.<ref>{{cite web |title=Böses Komma |url=https://www.sueddeutsche.de/kultur/literatur-und-seuchengeschichte-boeses-komma-1.4914831 |website=sueddeutsche.de |accessdate=26 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=MARCEL PROUST and the medicine of the Belle Epoque |url=https://www.rsm.ac.uk/media/2060/marcel-proust-exhibition-booklet.pdf |website=rsm.ac.uk |accessdate=26 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Chantre |first1=Luc |title=Entre pandémie et panislamisme |doi=10.4000/assr.25258 |url=https://journals.openedition.org/assr/25258?lang=it}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1871 || || || Soap is used with {{w|coal tar}} to make an antiseptic preparation. This formulation is patented.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
+
| 1871 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || Soap is used with {{w|coal tar}} to make an antiseptic preparation. This formulation is patented.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1871 || || || German botanist {{w|Ernst Tiegel}} filters anthrax fluids through porous cell of unburnt clay with the aid of a Bunsen air pump.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|Germany}}
+
| 1871 || Disinfection method introduction || || German botanist {{w|Ernst Tiegel}} filters anthrax fluids through porous cell of unburnt clay with the aid of a Bunsen air pump.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|Germany}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1872 || || || "Some early work due to Ritthausen (1872) showed that phenol was a solvent for proteins."<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
+
| 1872 || Disinfectant research || || Early work by Ritthausen shows that {{w|phenol}} is a solvent for {{w|protein}}s.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1873–1875 || || || {{w|Casimir Davaine}} reports bactericidal efficiency of {{w|iodine}} solutions against the {{w|anthrax}} bacillus.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|France}}
+
| 1873–1875 || Disinfectant research || {{w|Anthrax}} || {{w|Casimir Davaine}} reports bactericidal efficiency of {{w|iodine}} solutions against the {{w|anthrax}} bacillus.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|France}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1874 || || || The word 'sterilization' is first used as in: sterilization by heat of organic liquids.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1874 || Concept development || || The word 'sterilization' is first used as in: sterilization by heat of organic liquids.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-  
 
|-  
| 1875 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || Bucholtz publishes his determinations of the concentrations of, amongst other substances, {{w|phenol}}, {{w|creosote}} and [[w:Salicylic acid|salicylic]] and {{w|benzoic acid}} required to inhibit the growth of and to kill mixed cultures of unnamed micro-organisms.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
+
| 1875 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || Bucholtz publishes his determinations of the concentrations of, amongst other substances, {{w|phenol}}, {{w|creosote}} and [[w:Salicylic acid|salicylic]] and {{w|benzoic acid}} required to inhibit the growth of and to kill mixed cultures of unnamed micro-organisms.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1876 || Scientific development || {{w|Anthrax}} || {{w|Robert Koch}} publishes his work on anthrax, for the first time conclusively proving that a bacterium could be a specific infectious agent.<ref name="Hewlett"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1877 || Scientific development || || English physicist {{w|John Tyndale}} discovers the heat resistant phase of bacteria, the spore. Tyndale creates {{w|tyndallization}}, a method of fractional, intermitent processing to inactivate spores, by turning them into less resistant vegetative microbes, upon incubation in a growth medium.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1876 || || || {{w|Robert Koch}} publishes his work on anthrax, for the first time conclusively proving that a bacterium could be a specific infectious agent.<ref name="Hewlett"/> ||
+
| 1877 || Concept development || || The word 'sterile' is first used.<ref name="Seymour"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1877 || || || English physicist {{w|John Tyndale}} discovers the heat resistant phase of bacteria, the spore. Tyndale creates {{w|tyndallization}}, a method of fractional, intermitent processing to inactivate spores, by turning them into less resistant vegetative microbes, upon incubation in a growth medium.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 1877 || Disinfection research || Bacterial infection || Downes and Blunt demonstrate sterilization of a bacterial culture after nine hours of exposure to sunlight. This is the precursor of ultraviolet light (UV).<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1877 || || || The word 'sterile' is first used.<ref name="Seymour"/> ||
+
| 1877 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || British chemical manufacturer {{w|John Jeyes}} patents his {{w|Jeyes fluid}}.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Stark |first1=James F |title=The Making of Modern Anthrax, 1875–1920: Uniting Local, National and Global Histories of Disease |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=qnlECgAAQBAJ&pg=PA192&dq=1877+++John+Jeyes+patents+his+Jeyes+fluid.&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiXx9yQjsjpAhU0IrkGHQPqBh8Q6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=1877%20%20%20John%20Jeyes%20patents%20his%20Jeyes%20fluid.&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1877 || || || Downes and Blunt demonstrate sterilization of a bacterial culture after nine hours of exposure to sunlight. This is the precursor of ultraviolet light (UV).<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1877 || Concept development || || The word ''sterile'' first appears.<ref name="Seymour"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1877 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || British chemical manufacturer {{w|John Jeyes}} patents his {{w|Jeyes fluid}}.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Stark |first1=James F |title=The Making of Modern Anthrax, 1875–1920: Uniting Local, National and Global Histories of Disease |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=qnlECgAAQBAJ&pg=PA192&dq=1877+++John+Jeyes+patents+his+Jeyes+fluid.&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiXx9yQjsjpAhU0IrkGHQPqBh8Q6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=1877%20%20%20John%20Jeyes%20patents%20his%20Jeyes%20fluid.&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 1878 || Disinfection method introduction || || {{w|Joseph Lister}} recommends heating of glassware at 150°C for 2 hours to produce sterilization.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1877 || || || The word sterile first appears.<ref name="Seymour"/> ||
+
| 1878 || Disinfection research || Pathogenic bacteria || American physician {{w|George Miller Sternberg}} shows that pathogenic bacteria (vegetative or non-spores) are killed in 10 minutes at a relatively benigntemperature of 62°C to 72°C.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1878 || || || Lister recommends heating of glassware at 150°C for 2 hours to produce sterilization.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1878 || Concept development || Bacterial infection || Irish physicist {{w|John Tyndall}} uses the adjective ''bactericidal''.<ref name="Seymour"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1878 || || || American physician {{w|George Miller Sternberg}} shows that pathogenic bacteria (vegetative or non-spores) are killed in 10 minutes at a relatively benigntemperature of 62°C to 72°C.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1881 || Disinfectant research || {{w|Anthrax}} || {{w|Robert Koch}} concludes that {{w|ethanol}} is innefective as an antiseptic based on his work with {{w|anthrax}} spores.<ref name="Block"/> || {{w|Germany}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1878 || || || Tyndall uses the adjective ''bactericidal''.<ref name="Seymour"/> ||
+
| 1881 || Disinfection research || Bacterial infection || Koch and coworkers determine the exact value of dry heat and the limitations of steam at 100°C. They additionally create the silk thread technique for testing bactericidal agents, impregnated with anthrax spores.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1881 || || || {{w|Robert Koch}} concludes that {{w|ethanol}} is innefective as an antiseptic based on his work with {{w|anthrax}} spores.<ref name="Block"/> || {{w|Germany}}
+
| 1881 || Disinfectant research || {{w|Diphtheria}} || There is evidence of the use of {{w|ozone}} as a disinfectant, mentioned by Kellogg in his book on {{w|diphtheria}}.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1881 || || || Koch and coworkers determine the exact value of dry heat and the limitations of steam at 100°C. They additionally create the silk thread technique for testing bactericidal agents, impregnated with anthrax spores.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1882 || Protection (‘‘{{w|cordon sanitaire}}’’) || {{w|Yellow fever}} || In response to a virulent outbreak of {{w|yellow fever}} in {{w|Brownsville, Texas}}, and in northern Mexico, a {{w|cordon sanitaire}} is established 180 miles north of the city, terminating at the Rio Grande to the west and the Gulf of Mexico to the east.<ref>{{cite web |title=Part II: Yellow Fever Comes to the Valley |url=https://www.valleymorningstar.com/2016/08/07/part-ii-yellow-fever-comes-to-the-valley/ |website=valleymorningstar.com |accessdate=27 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plagues |url=https://www.academia.dk/MedHist/Sygdomme/PDF/Encyclopedia_of_Pestilence_Pandemics_and_Plagues.pdf |website=academia.dk |accessdate=27 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1881 || || || There is evidence of the use of {{w|ozone}} as a disinfectant, mentioned by Kellogg in his book on {{w|diphtheria}}.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1882 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || {{w|Hydrogen peroxide}} is first used for bleaching.<ref>{{cite book|url=https://www.scribd.com/doc/90597292/9/History-of-bleaching-with-hydrogen-peroxide|title=Catalytic Bleaching of Cotton: Molecular and Macroscopic Aspects p 16|author=Tatjana Topalović|publisher=Thesis, University of Twente, the Netherlands |accessdate=8 May 2012|year=2007}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1882 || ''{{w|Cordon sanitaire}}'' || {{w|Yellow fever}} || In response to a virulent outbreak of {{w|yellow fever}} in {{w|Brownsville, Texas}}, and in northern Mexico, a {{w|cordon sanitaire}} is established 180 miles north of the city, terminating at the Rio Grande to the west and the Gulf of Mexico to the east.<ref>{{cite web |title=Part II: Yellow Fever Comes to the Valley |url=https://www.valleymorningstar.com/2016/08/07/part-ii-yellow-fever-comes-to-the-valley/ |website=valleymorningstar.com |accessdate=27 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plagues |url=https://www.academia.dk/MedHist/Sygdomme/PDF/Encyclopedia_of_Pestilence_Pandemics_and_Plagues.pdf |website=academia.dk |accessdate=27 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1883 || Protection || || Sterile gowns and caps are invented by German surgeon {{w|Gustav Adolf Neuber}} using a form of autoclave.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|Germany}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1883 || || || Sterile gowns and caps are invented by German surgeon {{w|Gustav Adolf Neuber}} using a form of autoclave.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|Germany}}
+
| 1884 || Disinfection method introduction || || French microbiologist {{w|Charles Chamberland}} invents the first {{w|autoclave}}.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1884 || || || French microbiologist {{w|Charles Chamberland}} invents the first autoclave.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1884 || Disinfection method introduction || Bacterial infection || {{w|Louis Pasteur}} and {{w|Charles Chamberland}} design the first candle-shaped porcelain depth filter for the removal of {{w|bacteria}}.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|France}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1884 || || || Pasteur and Chamberland design the first candle-shaped porcelain depth filter for the removal of {{w|bacteria}}.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1885 || Disinfection method introduction || Germ infection || German surgeon {{w|Curt Schimmelbusch}} develops and evaluates details of aseptic technique. He is the first to sterilize surgical dressing by steam. Schimmelbusch also advocates adding {{w|sodium carbonate}} to boiling water to enhance its germicidal value and prevent corrosion of instruments.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|Germany}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1885 || || || German surgeon {{w|Curt Schimmelbusch}} develops and evaluates details of aseptic technique. He is the first to sterilize surgical dressing by steam. Schimmelbusch also advocates adding {{w|sodium carbonate}} to boiling water to enhance its germicidal value and prevent corrosion of instruments.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|Germany}}
+
| 1885 || Disinfection method introduction || || {{w|Gaston Poupinel}} in France introduces the first device of dry heat sterilization, which begins to be used in many hospitals.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|France}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1885 || || || {{w|Gaston Poupinel}} in France introduces the first device of dry heat sterilization, which begins to be used in many hospitals.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|France}}
+
| 1886 || || {{w|Rabies}} || {{w|Louis Pasteur}} successfully immunizes a boy who was bitten by a rabid dog with spinal cord suspensions of inactivated rabies virus.<ref name="Hewlett"/> || {{w|France}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1886 || || {{w|Rabies}} || {{w|Louis Pasteur}} successfully immunizes a boy who was bitten by a rabid dog with spinal cord suspensions of inactivated rabies virus.<ref name="Hewlett"/> ||
+
| 1886 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || {{w|Formaldehyde}} is examined as a {{w|bactericide}} by Loew & Fisher.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1886 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || {{w|Formaldehyde}} is examined as a {{w|bactericide}} by Loew & Fisher.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
+
| 1887 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || Rosahegyi notes that dyes are inhibitory to {{w|bacteria}}.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1887 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || Rosahegyi notes that dyes are inhibitory to {{w|bacteria}}.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
+
| 1987 || || || A document entitled ''{{w|Body substance isolation}}'' emphasizes avoiding contact with all moist and potentially infectious body substances except sweat even if blood not present. The document shares some features with universal precautions.<ref>Lynch P, Jackson MM, Cummings MJ, Stamm WE. Rethinking the role of isolation practices in the prevention of nosocomial infections. Ann Intern Med 1987;107(2):243-6.</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1888 || ''{{w|Cordon sanitaire}}'' || || During a yellow fever epidemic, the city of {{w|Jacksonville}}, {{w|Florida}}, is surrounded by an armed cordon sanitaire by order of Governor Edward A. Perry.<ref>{{cite web |title=1888 Epidemic in Jacksonville |url=http://exhibits.lib.usf.edu/exhibits/show/discovering-florida/disease/1888-epidemic-in-jacksonville |website=exhibits.lib.usf.edu |accessdate=22 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Annual report of the Surgeon General |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=YCr5AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA40&dq=1888+Cordon+sanitaire++yellow+fever+Jacksonville&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi4_c7hlMjpAhXJF7kGHUWzAeYQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=1888%20Cordon%20sanitaire%20%20yellow%20fever%20Jacksonville&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1888 || Protection (‘‘{{w|cordon sanitaire}}’’) || || During a yellow fever epidemic, the city of {{w|Jacksonville}}, {{w|Florida}}, is surrounded by an armed cordon sanitaire by order of Governor Edward A. Perry.<ref>{{cite web |title=1888 Epidemic in Jacksonville |url=http://exhibits.lib.usf.edu/exhibits/show/discovering-florida/disease/1888-epidemic-in-jacksonville |website=exhibits.lib.usf.edu |accessdate=22 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Annual report of the Surgeon General |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=YCr5AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA40&dq=1888+Cordon+sanitaire++yellow+fever+Jacksonville&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi4_c7hlMjpAhXJF7kGHUWzAeYQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=1888%20Cordon%20sanitaire%20%20yellow%20fever%20Jacksonville&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1888 || || || Fred Kilmer publishes Modern Methods of Antiseptic Wound Treatment, which helps spread the adoption of antiseptic surgery.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1888 || Publication || || Fred Kilmer publishes Modern Methods of Antiseptic Wound Treatment, which helps spread the adoption of antiseptic surgery.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1888 || || || German surgeon {{w|Ervis Von Esmarch}} investigates the sterilizing efficiency of unsaturated and superheated steam and recommends the use of bacteriological tests as a proof of sterilization.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|Germany}}
+
| 1888 || Disinfection method introduction || || German surgeon {{w|Ervis Von Esmarch}} investigates the sterilizing efficiency of unsaturated and superheated steam and recommends the use of bacteriological tests as a proof of sterilization.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|Germany}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1888 || || || American bacteriologist {{w|Joseph J. Kinyoun}} makes important contributions to the design of the steam sterilization chamber and recommends a vacuum process to augment steam penetration of objects.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1888 || Disinfection method introduction || || American bacteriologist {{w|Joseph J. Kinyoun}} makes important contributions to the design of the steam sterilization chamber and recommends a vacuum process to augment steam penetration of objects.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-  
 
|-  
| 1889 || || || The word 'fungicide' appears for the first time.<ref name="Seymour">{{cite book |last1=Block |first1=Seymour Stanton |title=Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=3f-kPJ17_TYC&pg=PA28&lpg=PA28&dq=1877+The+word+%27sterile%27+is+first+used&source=bl&ots=KnIjHw6ON_&sig=ACfU3U1Pv7YUh0V7l0me7n0ZRHFRvEThpg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwipzqPJjtDpAhWSA9QKHTfhBQcQ6AEwCXoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=1877%20The%20word%20'sterile'%20is%20first%20used&f=false}}</ref> ||
+
| 1889 || Concept development || [[w:parasitism#Parasitic fungi|parasitic fungi]] || The word ''{{w|fungicide}}'' appears for the first time.<ref name="Seymour">{{cite book |last1=Block |first1=Seymour Stanton |title=Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=3f-kPJ17_TYC&pg=PA28&lpg=PA28&dq=1877+The+word+%27sterile%27+is+first+used&source=bl&ots=KnIjHw6ON_&sig=ACfU3U1Pv7YUh0V7l0me7n0ZRHFRvEThpg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwipzqPJjtDpAhWSA9QKHTfhBQcQ6AEwCXoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=1877%20The%20word%20'sterile'%20is%20first%20used&f=false}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1880s || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || Joseph Lister uses a phenol agent in his groundbreaking work on surgical antisepsis.<ref name="History and Evolution of Surface Disinfectants"/> ||
+
| 1880s || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || Joseph Lister uses a phenol agent in his groundbreaking work on surgical antisepsis.<ref name="History and Evolution of Surface Disinfectants"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1891 || || || Information about the steam sterilizer appears in print.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1891 || Disinfection method introduction || || Information about the steam sterilizer appears in print.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1891 || || || Heat sterilization of instruments is introduced by German surgeon {{w|Ernst Von Bergmann}}.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1891 || Disinfection method introduction || || Heat sterilization of instruments is introduced by German surgeon {{w|Ernst Von Bergmann}}.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1892 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || The name ''{{w|ethanol}}'' is coined as a result of a resolution adopted at the International Conference on Chemical Nomenclature held in {{w|Geneva}}, Switzerland.<ref>For a report on the 1892 International Conference on Chemical Nomenclature, see:* {{cite journal| last = Armstrong | first = Henry | name-list-format = vanc |year=1892|url={{google books |plainurl=y |id=LHkCAAAAIAAJ|page=56}} |title=The International Conference on Chemical Nomenclature|journal=Nature|volume=46|pages=56–59|doi=10.1038/046056c0|issue=1177}}
+
| 1892 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || The name ''{{w|ethanol}}'' is coined as a result of a resolution adopted at the International Conference on Chemical Nomenclature held in {{w|Geneva}}, Switzerland.<ref>For a report on the 1892 International Conference on Chemical Nomenclature, see:* {{cite journal| last = Armstrong | first = Henry | name-list-format = vanc |year=1892|url={{google books |plainurl=y |id=LHkCAAAAIAAJ|page=56}} |title=The International Conference on Chemical Nomenclature|journal=Nature|volume=46|pages=56–59|doi=10.1038/046056c0|issue=1177}}
 
* Armstrong's report is reprinted with the resolutions in English in: {{cite journal| last = Armstrong | first = Henry | name-list-format = vanc |year=1892|url={{google books |plainurl=y |id=RogMAQAAIAAJ|page=398}}|title=The International Conference on Chemical Nomenclature|journal=The Journal of Analytical and Applied Chemistry|volume=6|issue=1177|pages= 390–400 (398)|quote= The alcohols and the phenols will be called after the name of the hydrocarbon from which they are derived, terminated with the suffix ''ol'' (ex. pentanol, pentynol, etc.)| doi = 10.1038/046056c0 }}</ref> || {{w|Switzerland}}
 
* Armstrong's report is reprinted with the resolutions in English in: {{cite journal| last = Armstrong | first = Henry | name-list-format = vanc |year=1892|url={{google books |plainurl=y |id=RogMAQAAIAAJ|page=398}}|title=The International Conference on Chemical Nomenclature|journal=The Journal of Analytical and Applied Chemistry|volume=6|issue=1177|pages= 390–400 (398)|quote= The alcohols and the phenols will be called after the name of the hydrocarbon from which they are derived, terminated with the suffix ''ol'' (ex. pentanol, pentynol, etc.)| doi = 10.1038/046056c0 }}</ref> || {{w|Switzerland}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1893 || || || British botanist {{w|Harry Marshall Ward}} experiments on the bactericidal effects of different coloured lights.<ref>{{cite book |title=Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation |publisher=Seymour Stanton Block |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=3f-kPJ17_TYC&pg=PA16&lpg=PA16&dq=1893+Ward+experiments+on+the+bactericidal+effects+of+different+coloured+lights&source=bl&ots=KnIjGx0NI-&sig=ACfU3U1k4NP-7Aqal_F1gi5veBhfs_h1Zw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwi8l8qxqM3pAhUlHLkGHcKpDLsQ6AEwAnoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=1893%20Ward%20experiments%20on%20the%20bactericidal%20effects%20of%20different%20coloured%20lights&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Clark |first1=Janet H. |title=THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF LIGHT |doi=10.1152/physrev.1922.2.2.277 |url=https://journals.physiology.org/doi/abs/10.1152/physrev.1922.2.2.277?journalCode=physrev}}</ref> Ward demonstrates that it is primarily the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum that has the bactericidal action.<ref>{{cite web |title=Ultraviolet (UV) Light |url=http://www.spectralinnovations.com/reference/ultraviolet_light.htm |website=spectralinnovations.com |accessdate=24 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 1893 || Disinfection method introduction || || British botanist {{w|Harry Marshall Ward}} experiments on the bactericidal effects of different coloured lights.<ref>{{cite book |title=Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation |publisher=Seymour Stanton Block |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=3f-kPJ17_TYC&pg=PA16&lpg=PA16&dq=1893+Ward+experiments+on+the+bactericidal+effects+of+different+coloured+lights&source=bl&ots=KnIjGx0NI-&sig=ACfU3U1k4NP-7Aqal_F1gi5veBhfs_h1Zw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwi8l8qxqM3pAhUlHLkGHcKpDLsQ6AEwAnoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=1893%20Ward%20experiments%20on%20the%20bactericidal%20effects%20of%20different%20coloured%20lights&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Clark |first1=Janet H. |title=THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF LIGHT |doi=10.1152/physrev.1922.2.2.277 |url=https://journals.physiology.org/doi/abs/10.1152/physrev.1922.2.2.277?journalCode=physrev}}</ref> Ward demonstrates that it is primarily the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum that has the bactericidal action.<ref>{{cite web |title=Ultraviolet (UV) Light |url=http://www.spectralinnovations.com/reference/ultraviolet_light.htm |website=spectralinnovations.com |accessdate=24 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1896 || || || German physicist {{w|Wilhelm Röntgen}} discovers X-rays, which soon become known for their ability to destroy microbes.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||  
+
| 1894 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || English industrialist {{w|William Lever, 1st Viscount Leverhulme}} introduces the first mass-produced {{w|carbolic soap}} to the market, [[w:Lifebuoy (soap)|Lifebuoy]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Country Selector|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141006155150/http://www.lifebuoy.com/about-us/history-of-health/}} A History of Health, lifebuoy.com</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1897 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || Defries develops an ingenious test which seeks to eliminate the continuing action of a disinfectant and to establish a time for a true endpoint to the disinfection process.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
+
| 1896 || Disinfection method introduction || || German physicist {{w|Wilhelm Röntgen}} discovers X-rays, which soon become known for their ability to destroy microbes.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1897 || || || Kronig and Paul in Germany publish paper examining the kinetics or dynamics of the course of the disinfection process.<ref name="Hugo"/><ref>{{cite journal |last1=FALK |first1=S. |last2=WINSLOW |first2=E. A. |title=A CONTRIBUTION TO THE DYNAMICS OF TOXICITY AND THE THEORY OF DISINFECTION |url=https://jb.asm.org/content/jb/11/1/1.full.pdf}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |title=Handbook of water and wastewater microbiology |url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230887820_Handbook_of_water_and_wastewater_microbiology}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
+
| 1897 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || Defries develops an ingenious test which seeks to eliminate the continuing action of a disinfectant and to establish a time for a true endpoint to the disinfection process.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1897 || || || Kilmer publishes a classical paper entitled ''Modern Surgical Dressings''.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1897 || Disinfection method introduction || || Kronig and Paul in Germany publish paper examining the kinetics or dynamics of the course of the disinfection process.<ref name="Hugo"/><ref>{{cite journal |last1=FALK |first1=S. |last2=WINSLOW |first2=E. A. |title=A CONTRIBUTION TO THE DYNAMICS OF TOXICITY AND THE THEORY OF DISINFECTION |url=https://jb.asm.org/content/jb/11/1/1.full.pdf}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |title=Handbook of water and wastewater microbiology |url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230887820_Handbook_of_water_and_wastewater_microbiology}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1897 || || || The adjective microbiocidal appears.<ref name="Seymour"/> ||
+
| 1897 || Protection || || Kilmer publishes a classical paper entitled ''Modern Surgical Dressings''.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1898 || || || A. Schmidt reports on disinfection using {{w|formaldehyde}} as a wet vapour to fumigate sick rooms.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1897 || Concept development || {{w|Microbes}} || The adjective ''microbiocidal'' appears.<ref name="Seymour"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1898 || || || Reider describes the bactericidal activity of X-rays.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1898 || Disinfection method introduction || || A. Schmidt reports on disinfection using {{w|formaldehyde}} as a wet vapour to fumigate sick rooms.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1899 || ''{{w|Cordon sanitaire}}'' || || An outbreak of {{w|plague}} in {{w|Honolulu}} is managed by a cordon sanitaire around the Chinatown district. In an attempt to control the infection, a barbed wire perimeter is created and people's belongings and homes are burned.<ref>{{cite web |title=Plague in San Francisco: 1900, the Year of the Rat |url=https://www.niaid.nih.gov/about/joseph-kinyoun-indispensable-man-plague-san-francisco |website=niaid.nih.gov |accessdate=26 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=When epidemics change the world: Can we learn anything from the third plague pandemic? |url=https://sciencenordic.com/denmark-epidemic-history/when-epidemics-change-the-world-can-we-learn-anything-from-the-third-plague-pandemic/1685595 |website=sciencenordic.com |accessdate=26 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1898 || Disinfection method introduction || Bacterial infection || H. Rieder describes the bactericidal activity of {{w|X-rays}}, achieving almost complete sterilization of agar and gelatin plates of {{w|cholera}}, {{w|diphtheria}}, {{w|typhoid}}, and colon organisms, with exposure for about 1 hour.<ref name="Rogers"/><ref>{{cite web |title=BACTERICIDAL FLUORESCENCE EXCITED BY X-RAYS. |url=https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/7827129.pdf |website=core.ac.uk |accessdate=9 July 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1900 || || || By this time, there are 4,000 hospitals in the United States.<ref name="Hewlett"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1899 || Protection (‘‘{{w|cordon sanitaire}}’’) || {{w|Plague}} || An outbreak of {{w|plague}} in {{w|Honolulu}} is managed by a cordon sanitaire around the Chinatown district. In an attempt to control the infection, a barbed wire perimeter is created and people's belongings and homes are burned.<ref>{{cite web |title=Plague in San Francisco: 1900, the Year of the Rat |url=https://www.niaid.nih.gov/about/joseph-kinyoun-indispensable-man-plague-san-francisco |website=niaid.nih.gov |accessdate=26 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=When epidemics change the world: Can we learn anything from the third plague pandemic? |url=https://sciencenordic.com/denmark-epidemic-history/when-epidemics-change-the-world-can-we-learn-anything-from-the-third-plague-pandemic/1685595 |website=sciencenordic.com |accessdate=26 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1900 || || || Strebel demonstrates the inhibitory action of radioactive substances (radium).<ref name="Rogers"/><ref>{{cite book |last1=Block |first1=Seymour Stanton |title=Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=3f-kPJ17_TYC&pg=PA16&lpg=PA16&dq=1900+Strebel+demonstrates+the+inhibitory+action+of+radioactive+substances+(radium)&source=bl&ots=KnIjGx2QJ4&sig=ACfU3U3f3OdZ0aeBW7LRTX8K7FSjqoTKXA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj7xtiBsc3pAhU2ILkGHfIfCmYQ6AEwCXoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=1900%20Strebel%20demonstrates%20the%20inhibitory%20action%20of%20radioactive%20substances%20(radium)&f=false}}</ref> ||
+
| 1900 || Disinfection research || || Strebel demonstrates the inhibitory action of radioactive substances (radium).<ref name="Rogers"/><ref>{{cite book |last1=Block |first1=Seymour Stanton |title=Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=3f-kPJ17_TYC&pg=PA16&lpg=PA16&dq=1900+Strebel+demonstrates+the+inhibitory+action+of+radioactive+substances+(radium)&source=bl&ots=KnIjGx2QJ4&sig=ACfU3U3f3OdZ0aeBW7LRTX8K7FSjqoTKXA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj7xtiBsc3pAhU2ILkGHfIfCmYQ6AEwCXoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=1900%20Strebel%20demonstrates%20the%20inhibitory%20action%20of%20radioactive%20substances%20(radium)&f=false}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1900–1904 || ''{{w|Cordon sanitaire}}'' || || "During the San Francisco plague of 1900–1904 San Francisco's Chinatown was subjected to a cordon sanitaire" ||
+
| 1900–1904 || Protection (‘‘{{w|cordon sanitaire}}’’) || {{w|Plague}} || "During the San Francisco plague of 1900–1904 San Francisco's Chinatown was subjected to a cordon sanitaire" ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1901 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || "The first systematic experiment on the nature of the antibacterial action of phenols, however, was due to Meyer (1901) who showed that the antibacterial action of phenols was paralleled by their distribution between protein and water, suggesting that protein was the prime target."<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
+
| 1901 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || Meyer conducts the first systematic experiment on the nature of the antibacterial action of {{w|phenol}}s. Meyer shows that the antibacterial action of phenols is paralleled by their distribution between protein and water, suggesting that protein is the prime target.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1902 || ''{{w|Cordon sanitaire}}'' || || "In 1902, Louisiana imposed a cordon sanitaire to prevent Italian immigrants from disembarking at the port of New Orleans. " ||
+
| 1903 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || "The Rideal-Walker test was introduced to evaluate the performance of phenolic disinfectants against Salmonella typhi. It was published in 1903"<ref name="Hugo"/> Rideal Walker proposes the phenol coefficient test.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1903 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || "The Rideal-Walker test was introduced to evaluate the performance of phenolic disinfectants against Salmonella typhi. It was published in 1903"<ref name="Hugo"/> Rideal Walker proposes the phenol coefficient test.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1903–1914 || Protection (‘‘{{w|cordon sanitaire}}’’) || {{w|Trypanosomiasis}} || The Belgian colonial government imposes a cordon sanitaire on Uele Province in the {{w|Belgian Congo}} to control outbreaks of {{w|trypanosomiasis}} (sleeping sickness).<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Lyons |first1=Maryinez |title=From ‘Death Camps’ to Cordon Sanitaire: The Development of Sleeping Sickness Policy in the Uele District of the Belgian Congo, 1903–19141 |doi=10.1017/S0021853700023094 |url=https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-african-history/article/from-death-camps-to-cordon-sanitaire-the-development-of-sleeping-sickness-policy-in-the-uele-district-of-the-belgian-congo-190319141/5219FA5E652897DD974E3B86E546C8A5}}</ref> || {{w|Congo D.R}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1903–1914 || ''{{w|Cordon sanitaire}}'' || {{w|Trypanosomiasis}} || The Belgian colonial government imposes a cordon sanitaire on Uele Province in the {{w|Belgian Congo}} to control outbreaks of {{w|trypanosomiasis}} (sleeping sickness).<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Lyons |first1=Maryinez |title=From ‘Death Camps’ to Cordon Sanitaire: The Development of Sleeping Sickness Policy in the Uele District of the Belgian Congo, 1903–19141 |doi=10.1017/S0021853700023094 |url=https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-african-history/article/from-death-camps-to-cordon-sanitaire-the-development-of-sleeping-sickness-policy-in-the-uele-district-of-the-belgian-congo-190319141/5219FA5E652897DD974E3B86E546C8A5}}</ref> || {{w|Congo D.R}}
+
| 1909 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || Airborne bacteria || "A modification of this method was adopted by the American Public Health Association in 1909 as a standard for determining airborne bacteria."<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1909 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || "A modification of this method was adopted by the American Public Health Association in 1909 as a standard for determining airborne bacteria."<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
+
| 1910 || Disinfection method introduction || || Chick and Martin consider microbes are killed by heat by protein coagulation in two stages, first by denaturation of the protein and second by agglutination when protein separates out.<ref name="Rogers"/><ref>{{cite journal |last1=LEPESCHKIN. |first1=W. W. |doi= |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1259127/pdf/biochemj01170-0139.pdf |publisher=From the Botanical Laboratory, the University of Kasan |pmc=1259127|title= THE HEAT-COAGULATION OF PROTEINS}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1910 || || || Chick and Martin consider microbes are killed by heat by protein coagulation in two stages, first by denaturation of the protein and second by agglutination when protein separates out.<ref name="Rogers"/><ref>{{cite journal |last1=LEPESCHKIN. |first1=W. W. |doi= |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1259127/pdf/biochemj01170-0139.pdf |publisher=From the Botanical Laboratory, the University of Kasan |pmc=1259127|title= THE HEAT-COAGULATION OF PROTEINS}}</ref> ||
+
| 1910 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || Using UV light for disinfection of drinking water dates back to this year in {{w|Marseille, France}}.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://phc.amedd.army.mil/PHC%20Resource%20Library/Ultraviolet%20Light%20Disinfection%20in%20the%20Use%20of%20Individual%20Water%20Purification%20Devices.pdf |title=Ultraviolet light disinfection in the use of individual water purification devices |publisher=U.S. Army Public Health Command |accessdate=2014-01-08}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1912 || || || Cooper, working with bacteria and {{w|phenol}}s, concludes that phenols destroy intracellular protein by coagulation.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
+
| 1912 || Disinfectant research || || E.A. Cooper, working with bacteria and {{w|phenol}}s, concludes that phenols destroy intracellular protein by coagulation.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1913 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || Cooper states that adsorption of phenol onto bacterial cells is the first reaction of the disinfection process.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
+
| 1913 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || {{w|Bacteria}} || Cooper states that adsorption of phenol onto bacterial cells is the first reaction of the disinfection process.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1916 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || Bacterial disease || A new agent known as quaternary ammonium salts are first reported by the {{w|Rockefeller Institute}} as having bactericidal properties.<ref name="History and Evolution of Surface Disinfectants"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1916 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || {{w|Bacteria}} || A new agent known as quaternary ammonium salts are first reported by the {{w|Rockefeller Institute}} as having bactericidal properties.<ref name="History and Evolution of Surface Disinfectants"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1916 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || An antimicrobial molecule is introduced. These are organic derivatives of the positively charged ammonium ion where at least one hydrogen atom is substituted by a long chain alkyl radical and the three remaining atoms substituted usually by methyl groups.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||   
+
| 1916 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || An antimicrobial molecule is introduced. These are organic derivatives of the positively charged ammonium ion where at least one hydrogen atom is substituted by a long chain alkyl radical and the three remaining atoms substituted usually by methyl groups.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||   
 
|-
 
|-
| 1916 || || || The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) publishes its first chapteron sterilization in USP Volume 9.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1916 || Publication || || The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) publishes its first chapteron sterilization in USP Volume 9.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1918 || ''{{w|Cordon sanitaire}}'' || Influenza || "The 1918 flu pandemic spread so rapidly that, in general, there was no time to implement cordons sanitaires. However, to prevent an introduction of the infection, residents of Gunnison, Colorado isolated themselves from the surrounding area for two months at the end of 1918. All highways were barricaded near the county lines" ||
+
| 1918 || Protection (‘‘{{w|cordon sanitaire}}’’) || Influenza || "The 1918 flu pandemic spread so rapidly that, in general, there was no time to implement cordons sanitaires. However, to prevent an introduction of the infection, residents of Gunnison, Colorado isolated themselves from the surrounding area for two months at the end of 1918. All highways were barricaded near the county lines" ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1918 || ''{{w|Cordon sanitaire}}'' || Influenza || In the [[w:South Pacific Ocean|South Pacific]], the [[w:List of governors of American Samoa|Governor of]] {{w|American Samoa}}, {{w|John Martin Poyer}}, imposed a reverse ''{{w|cordon sanitaire}}'' of the islands from all incoming ships, successfully achieving zero deaths within the territory during the influenza epidemic.<ref>[https://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5386&context=etd Peter Oliver Okin, ''The Yellow Flag of Quarantine: An Analysis of the Historical and Prospective Impacts of Socio-Legal Controls Over Contagion'', doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, January 2012; p. 232]</ref> In contrast, the neighboring [[w:Occupation of German Samoa|New Zealand-controlled]] [[w:Western Samoa Trust Territory|Western Samoa]] is among the hardest hit, with a 90% infection rate and over 20% of its adults dying from the disease.<ref>[http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/jmpoyer.htm John Poyer, Commander, US Navy, Navy Cross citation]</ref> || {{w|American Samoa}}, [[w:Western Samoa Trust Territory|Western Samoa]]
+
| 1918 || Protection (‘‘{{w|cordon sanitaire}}’’) || Influenza || In the [[w:South Pacific Ocean|South Pacific]], the [[w:List of governors of American Samoa|Governor of]] {{w|American Samoa}}, {{w|John Martin Poyer}}, imposed a reverse ''{{w|cordon sanitaire}}'' of the islands from all incoming ships, successfully achieving zero deaths within the territory during the influenza epidemic.<ref>[https://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5386&context=etd Peter Oliver Okin, ''The Yellow Flag of Quarantine: An Analysis of the Historical and Prospective Impacts of Socio-Legal Controls Over Contagion'', doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, January 2012; p. 232]</ref> In contrast, the neighboring [[w:Occupation of German Samoa|New Zealand-controlled]] [[w:Western Samoa Trust Territory|Western Samoa]] is among the hardest hit, with a 90% infection rate and over 20% of its adults dying from the disease.<ref>[http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/jmpoyer.htm John Poyer, Commander, US Navy, Navy Cross citation]</ref> || {{w|American Samoa}}, [[w:Western Samoa Trust Territory|Western Samoa]]
 
|-  
 
|-  
| 1918 || || || In late year, {{w|Spain}} attempts unsuccessfully to prevent the spread of the {{w|Spanish flu}} by imposing border controls, roadblocks, restricting rail travel, and a maritime ''cordon sanitaire'' prohibiting ships with sick passengers from landing, but by then the epidemic is already in progress in the country.<ref>[https://books.google.com/books?id=taEhAQAAQBAJ&pg R. Davis, ''The Spanish Flu: Narrative and Cultural Identity in Spain, 1918'', Springer, 2013.] {{ISBN|1137339217}}</ref> || {{w|Spain}}
+
| 1918 || Crisis || {{w|Influenza}} || In late year, {{w|Spain}} attempts unsuccessfully to prevent the spread of the {{w|Spanish flu}} by imposing border controls, roadblocks, restricting rail travel, and a maritime ''cordon sanitaire'' prohibiting ships with sick passengers from landing, but by then the epidemic is already in progress in the country.<ref>[https://books.google.com/books?id=taEhAQAAQBAJ&pg R. Davis, ''The Spanish Flu: Narrative and Cultural Identity in Spain, 1918'', Springer, 2013.]</ref> || {{w|Spain}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1918 || || || {{w|Hydrogen peroxide}} is used in {{w|World War I}} as a {{w|germicide}}.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1918 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || Germ infection || {{w|Hydrogen peroxide}} is used in {{w|World War I}} as a {{w|germicide}}.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1920 || || || {{w|Standard Oil}} first produces {{w|isopropyl alcohol}} by hydrating {{w|propene}}.<ref>{{cite book |title=Biofuels Production and Processing Technology |edition=M.R. Riazi, David Chiaramonti |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=IHQ5DwAAQBAJ&pg=PT481&lpg=PT481&dq=1920+Standard+Oil+first+produces+isopropyl+alcohol+by+hydrating+propene&source=bl&ots=PFSd-uYt3w&sig=ACfU3U3xrxRSB6ZyZxRvauLgTSM-oTfnIg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiVyLjas83pAhVpH7kGHcDoCJoQ6AEwC3oECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=1920%20Standard%20Oil%20first%20produces%20isopropyl%20alcohol%20by%20hydrating%20propene&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Isopropyl alcohol |url=https://www.britannica.com/science/isopropyl-alcohol |website=britannica.com |accessdate=24 May 2020}}</ref> ||
+
| 1920 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || {{w|Standard Oil}} first produces {{w|isopropyl alcohol}} by hydrating {{w|propene}}.<ref>{{cite book |title=Biofuels Production and Processing Technology |edition=M.R. Riazi, David Chiaramonti |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=IHQ5DwAAQBAJ&pg=PT481&lpg=PT481&dq=1920+Standard+Oil+first+produces+isopropyl+alcohol+by+hydrating+propene&source=bl&ots=PFSd-uYt3w&sig=ACfU3U3xrxRSB6ZyZxRvauLgTSM-oTfnIg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiVyLjas83pAhVpH7kGHcDoCJoQ6AEwC3oECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=1920%20Standard%20Oil%20first%20produces%20isopropyl%20alcohol%20by%20hydrating%20propene&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Isopropyl alcohol |url=https://www.britannica.com/science/isopropyl-alcohol |website=britannica.com |accessdate=24 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1921 || || || Bigelow describes the logarithmic nature of thermal death time (TDT) curves.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1921 || Scientific development || || Bigelow describes the logarithmic nature of thermal death time (TDT) curves.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1921 || || || Samuel Rideal and Eric Rideal publish ''Chemical Disinfection and Sterilization''.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1921 || Publication || || Samuel Rideal and Eric Rideal publish ''Chemical Disinfection and Sterilization''.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1922 || || || Bigelow and Esty, utilizing spores, determine the thermal death time (TDT), as a means of evaluating sterilization of thermophilic microbes.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Esty |first1=J. R. |last2=Williams |first2=C. C. |title=Heat resistance studies: I. A new method for the determination of heat resistance of bacterial spores |journal=The Journal of Infectious Diseases |doi=10.1093/infdis/34.5.516 |url=https://academic.oup.com/jid/article-abstract/34/5/516/804078?redirectedFrom=PDF |accessdate=24 May 2020}}</ref> ||
+
| 1922 || Scientific development || || Bigelow and Esty, utilizing spores, determine the thermal death time (TDT), as a means of evaluating sterilization of thermophilic microbes.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Esty |first1=J. R. |last2=Williams |first2=C. C. |title=Heat resistance studies: I. A new method for the determination of heat resistance of bacterial spores |journal=The Journal of Infectious Diseases |doi=10.1093/infdis/34.5.516 |url=https://academic.oup.com/jid/article-abstract/34/5/516/804078?redirectedFrom=PDF |accessdate=24 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1922 || || || Zsigmondy and Buchmann introduce a membrane filter composed of cellulose esters for the removal of bacteria from solution.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1922 || Disinfection method introduction || || Zsigmondy and Buchmann introduce a membrane filter composed of cellulose esters for the removal of bacteria from solution.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1925 || || || The adjective ''virucidal'' is first noted.<ref name="Seymour"/> ||
+
| 1925 || Concept development || {{w|Virus}}es || The adjective ''virucidal'' is first noted.<ref name="Seymour"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1928 || || || Gates discovers the germicidal wavelength of UV light.<ref name="Rogers"/><ref>{{cite book |last1=Giese |first1=Arthur C. |title=Photophysiology: Current Topics |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=YhvgBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA207&lpg=PA207&dq=1928+Gates+discovers+the+germicidal+wavelength+of+UV+light&source=bl&ots=9nGnMPn32f&sig=ACfU3U1vCdUpgeM7b__LbYVe22-IBmGy7w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj-g8OExM3pAhUBErkGHUfmDi4Q6AEwDXoECA0QAQ#v=onepage&q=1928%20Gates%20discovers%20the%20germicidal%20wavelength%20of%20UV%20light&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Stanton Block |first1=Seymour |title=Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=3f-kPJ17_TYC&pg=PA16&lpg=PA16&dq=1928+Gates+discovers+the+germicidal+wavelength+of+UV+light&source=bl&ots=KnIjGx7RK0&sig=ACfU3U1hkgndEKHhx3UcD2h9lCXvSmb3rg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj-g8OExM3pAhUBErkGHUfmDi4Q6AEwDHoECAsQAQ#v=onepage&q=1928%20Gates%20discovers%20the%20germicidal%20wavelength%20of%20UV%20light&f=false}}</ref> ||
+
| 1928 || Disinfection method introduction || Germ infection || Gates discovers the germicidal wavelength of {{w|ultraviolet}} light.<ref name="Rogers"/><ref>{{cite book |last1=Giese |first1=Arthur C. |title=Photophysiology: Current Topics |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=YhvgBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA207&lpg=PA207&dq=1928+Gates+discovers+the+germicidal+wavelength+of+UV+light&source=bl&ots=9nGnMPn32f&sig=ACfU3U1vCdUpgeM7b__LbYVe22-IBmGy7w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj-g8OExM3pAhUBErkGHUfmDi4Q6AEwDXoECA0QAQ#v=onepage&q=1928%20Gates%20discovers%20the%20germicidal%20wavelength%20of%20UV%20light&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Stanton Block |first1=Seymour |title=Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=3f-kPJ17_TYC&pg=PA16&lpg=PA16&dq=1928+Gates+discovers+the+germicidal+wavelength+of+UV+light&source=bl&ots=KnIjGx7RK0&sig=ACfU3U1hkgndEKHhx3UcD2h9lCXvSmb3rg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj-g8OExM3pAhUBErkGHUfmDi4Q6AEwDHoECAsQAQ#v=onepage&q=1928%20Gates%20discovers%20the%20germicidal%20wavelength%20of%20UV%20light&f=false}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1929 || || || Schrader and Bossert find that {{w|ethylene oxide}} (EO) has bactericidal properties.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1929 || Disinfectant research || Bacterial infection || Schrader and Bossert find that {{w|ethylene oxide}} (EO) has bactericidal properties.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1929 || || || Otto Rahn discovers that the size of bacteria is the cause of the logarithmic order of death.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1929 || Scientific development || Bacterial infection || Otto Rahn discovers that the size of bacteria is the cause of the logarithmic order of death.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| Late 1920s || || || Hall exploits bactericidal activity of ethylene oxide to lower the microbiological content of spices.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| Late 1920s || Disinfectant research || Bacterial infection || American chemist {{w|Lloyd Hall}} exploits bactericidal activity of {{w|ethylene oxide}} to lower the microbiological content of spices.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1933 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || {{w|Dettol}} <ref>{{cite web |title=Our History |url=https://www.dettol.co.in/en/about-us/our-history/ |website=dettol.co.in |accessdate=24 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Keeping you and your loved ones healthy |url=https://www.rb.com/brands/dettol/ |website=rb.com |accessdate=24 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Coronavirus drives demand for Dettol - RB's flagship product spikes sales online |url=https://www.business-live.co.uk/manufacturing/dettol-producer-tells-coronavirus-driving-17826516 |website=business-live.co.uk |accessdate=24 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|India}}
+
| 1933 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || {{w|Dettol}} <ref>{{cite web |title=Our History |url=https://www.dettol.co.in/en/about-us/our-history/ |website=dettol.co.in |accessdate=24 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Keeping you and your loved ones healthy |url=https://www.rb.com/brands/dettol/ |website=rb.com |accessdate=24 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Coronavirus drives demand for Dettol - RB's flagship product spikes sales online |url=https://www.business-live.co.uk/manufacturing/dettol-producer-tells-coronavirus-driving-17826516 |website=business-live.co.uk |accessdate=24 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|India}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1933 || || || Gross and Dixon patent use of EO as a sterilizing agent.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1933 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || Gross and Dixon patent use of {{w|ethylene oxide}} as a sterilizing agent.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1933 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || Soap-solubilized formulation containing chloroxylenol and terpineol is introduced by Colebrook and Maxted.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
+
| 1933 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || Soap-solubilized formulation containing {{w|chloroxylenol}} and {{w|terpineol}} is introduced by Colebrook and Maxted.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1933 || || || American Engineer Weeden Underwood makes notable advances in design of, and application of pressure steam sterilizers. This is considered the beginning of the era of scientific sterilization.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1933 || Disinfection method introduction || || American Engineer Weeden Underwood makes notable advances in design of, and application of pressure steam sterilizers. This is considered the beginning of the era of scientific sterilization.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1933 || || || Schauffler documents the antimicrobial properties of chlorine dioxide solutions.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||  
+
| 1933 || Disinfectant research || || Schauffler documents the antimicrobial properties of chlorine dioxide solutions.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1934 || || || Weeden Underwood writes an early textbook on sterilization called Textbook on Sterilization.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1934 || Publication || || Weeden Underwood writes an early textbook on sterilization called Textbook on Sterilization.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1935 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || The use of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) as a germicide/disinfectant is formally recognized.<ref name="History and Evolution of Surface Disinfectants"/> ||
+
| 1935 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || Germ infection || The use of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) as a germicide/disinfectant is formally recognized.<ref name="History and Evolution of Surface Disinfectants"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1936 || || || Ernest Carr McCulloch publishes ''Disinfection and Sterilization''.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1936 || Publication || || Ernest Carr McCulloch publishes ''Disinfection and Sterilization''.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1938 || || || Carl Walter describes the first rapid, safe mechanical process for routine cleaning and terminal sterilization, called the washer-sterilizer.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1938 || Disinfection method introduction || || Carl Walter describes the first rapid, safe mechanical process for routine cleaning and terminal sterilization, called the washer-sterilizer.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1938 || || || Corona discharge is found to be a sterilizing agent.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1938 || Disinfection research || || {{w|Corona discharge}} is found to be a sterilizing agent.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1939 || || || Nordgren reports on early work in regard to {{w|formaldehyde}} efficacy, poarticularly under deep vacuum.<ref name="Rogers"/><ref>{{cite journal |author1=COMMITTEE ON FORMALDEHYDE DISINFECTION |title=DISINFECTION OF FABRICS WITH GASEOUS FORMALDEHYDE |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2218087/pdf/jhyg00142-0065.pdf}}</ref> ||
+
| 1939 || Disinfectant research || || Nordgren reports on early work in regard to {{w|formaldehyde}} efficacy, poarticularly under deep vacuum.<ref name="Rogers"/><ref>{{cite journal |author1=COMMITTEE ON FORMALDEHYDE DISINFECTION |title=DISINFECTION OF FABRICS WITH GASEOUS FORMALDEHYDE |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2218087/pdf/jhyg00142-0065.pdf}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1941 || || || UK Control of Infection Officer<ref>{{cite book |last1=Weston |first1=Debbie |title=Infection Prevention and Control: Theory and Clinical Practice for Healthcare Professionals |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=wHOkV16Xk8QC&pg=PA3&dq=1941+UK+Control+of+Infection+Officer&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjn653aw8bpAhXxILkGHRSLDvAQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=1941%20UK%20Control%20of%20Infection%20Officer&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
| 1941 || || || UK Control of Infection Officer<ref>{{cite book |last1=Weston |first1=Debbie |title=Infection Prevention and Control: Theory and Clinical Practice for Healthcare Professionals |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=wHOkV16Xk8QC&pg=PA3&dq=1941+UK+Control+of+Infection+Officer&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjn653aw8bpAhXxILkGHRSLDvAQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=1941%20UK%20Control%20of%20Infection%20Officer&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1941 || || || Robertson, Bigg, Miller and Baker report on the {{w|aerosol}} disinfection of {{w|glycol}}s.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1941 || Disinfectant research || || Robertson, Bigg, Miller and Baker report on the {{w|aerosol}} disinfection of {{w|glycol}}s.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1942 || || || {{w|Amidine}}s are studied as antitrypanocidal drugs are shown to be antibacterial by Fuller.<ref name="Hugo"/><ref>{{cite journal |last1=DAWES |first1=G. S. |author1=Department of Pharmacology, Oxford |title=AMIDINES, GUANIDINES AND ADRENALINE INACTIVATION IN THE LIVER |url=https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1476-5381.1946.tb00024.x}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Antibacterial Action of Some Aromatic Amines, Amidines, Amidoximes, Guanidines and Diguanides |url=https://watermark.silverchair.com/bj0410403.pdf?token=AQECAHi208BE49Ooan9kkhW_Ercy7Dm3ZL_9Cf3qfKAc485ysgAAA3QwggNwBgkqhkiG9w0BBwagggNhMIIDXQIBADCCA1YGCSqGSIb3DQEHATAeBglghkgBZQMEAS4wEQQM4oPUaMtlnrs5J5GbAgEQgIIDJ5LZfG93ZAjy_m9tqiZXM3u_pUpIMoEQY0qTZYWLoOeQb2BOqaNTRE8PG_M_uWktdL-_Eor0Ghahs3ccffmC-LHss0zGOYuJNx-suepvjNNGySjg9dF_qPufa6vxjFc0BZ6hnm2RPDacOZh3-XLcS45yM__HENxwXZTEf6I9_W219DrktG1M9-DGjBYVx9qURZ2Wf49JEajvIhUYd3FGZOXWypAUktp65y0sjkF7e9AiB88nUTMjVq2qT4sEuEIfkiVnVmA3lq6Q9fw2hcO2hmqiXOot37TLoBrg4AMhjKZbyjibmrdwC-1sUfgEQBOf-25Sc2IAMGdZn96P1eUoOky-LuxAPiVCketI2j2klvQGBBFI70JpeST58DtkSwbR6CzvNvaSf-HCB75SjSoyn0pvjYw-bOWV7CvfdZA878G0z-kSxXNukzqqhf2Q4N3oQUy2GFkf_JPLFBOZNhV4tfUlBztCdhifpEQDmdoC0evUTrva0zfuJPH4_CqU4oZsYFQpHauPf5ymyO_vFuuk9bXlIBgM0nq6PIzuiSSzwXJbElIQpUm-Ty0kcarMgEhL1CF0barAURFZLzsaLo8yyzMegASCAoe2cNUrUCyGtCKY0UeLlracD1T4vqEsZV9Tk1trjcEDSSv11QD52tf3FzS6nHMQRyhKfRhCubL7iCXAWkvCK68osHFoF-abmYUz5NKj2GdHiqWegtDoqLHmrYpIQ2bRXEBG6991YpcgtFrZTt7lOxK_R5E5w9BeXv0yf7n9cAuQ9bF9ABGebOZqKSZYrhCrLNul6KksyRUl5970_8dh8sKrlpw4Zt68eteTpn8QygYsczMcm2-5rvjw4MeK_9oF0QyKPwnyMvDecYOMbLFoX9_6oL8oSAsz58wsPjfroTXF38k_7WGJVeEdTLxqMoDGeEWeO92avE4MHQ9EJfsuCRZGdSfyB_GwTZ1be32Am3m3IPJGOIn38mV28Pkgj6GEXaNJRizIwwkgmhSpkicHgfFTOR3t2AxMmqdRA_qLMeQ8eIUpJTAfh7Jbep3-Mq8OKI7XFOYNZHNN_bDVoayqBrue3g |website=watermark.silverchair.com |accessdate=26 May 2020}}</ref> ||
+
| 1942 || Disinfectant research || Bacterial infection || {{w|Amidine}}s are studied as antitrypanocidal drugs are shown to be antibacterial by Fuller.<ref name="Hugo"/><ref>{{cite journal |last1=DAWES |first1=G. S.|title=AMIDINES, GUANIDINES AND ADRENALINE INACTIVATION IN THE LIVER |url=https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1476-5381.1946.tb00024.x}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Antibacterial Action of Some Aromatic Amines, Amidines, Amidoximes, Guanidines and Diguanides |url=https://watermark.silverchair.com/bj0410403.pdf?token=AQECAHi208BE49Ooan9kkhW_Ercy7Dm3ZL_9Cf3qfKAc485ysgAAA3QwggNwBgkqhkiG9w0BBwagggNhMIIDXQIBADCCA1YGCSqGSIb3DQEHATAeBglghkgBZQMEAS4wEQQM4oPUaMtlnrs5J5GbAgEQgIIDJ5LZfG93ZAjy_m9tqiZXM3u_pUpIMoEQY0qTZYWLoOeQb2BOqaNTRE8PG_M_uWktdL-_Eor0Ghahs3ccffmC-LHss0zGOYuJNx-suepvjNNGySjg9dF_qPufa6vxjFc0BZ6hnm2RPDacOZh3-XLcS45yM__HENxwXZTEf6I9_W219DrktG1M9-DGjBYVx9qURZ2Wf49JEajvIhUYd3FGZOXWypAUktp65y0sjkF7e9AiB88nUTMjVq2qT4sEuEIfkiVnVmA3lq6Q9fw2hcO2hmqiXOot37TLoBrg4AMhjKZbyjibmrdwC-1sUfgEQBOf-25Sc2IAMGdZn96P1eUoOky-LuxAPiVCketI2j2klvQGBBFI70JpeST58DtkSwbR6CzvNvaSf-HCB75SjSoyn0pvjYw-bOWV7CvfdZA878G0z-kSxXNukzqqhf2Q4N3oQUy2GFkf_JPLFBOZNhV4tfUlBztCdhifpEQDmdoC0evUTrva0zfuJPH4_CqU4oZsYFQpHauPf5ymyO_vFuuk9bXlIBgM0nq6PIzuiSSzwXJbElIQpUm-Ty0kcarMgEhL1CF0barAURFZLzsaLo8yyzMegASCAoe2cNUrUCyGtCKY0UeLlracD1T4vqEsZV9Tk1trjcEDSSv11QD52tf3FzS6nHMQRyhKfRhCubL7iCXAWkvCK68osHFoF-abmYUz5NKj2GdHiqWegtDoqLHmrYpIQ2bRXEBG6991YpcgtFrZTt7lOxK_R5E5w9BeXv0yf7n9cAuQ9bF9ABGebOZqKSZYrhCrLNul6KksyRUl5970_8dh8sKrlpw4Zt68eteTpn8QygYsczMcm2-5rvjw4MeK_9oF0QyKPwnyMvDecYOMbLFoX9_6oL8oSAsz58wsPjfroTXF38k_7WGJVeEdTLxqMoDGeEWeO92avE4MHQ9EJfsuCRZGdSfyB_GwTZ1be32Am3m3IPJGOIn38mV28Pkgj6GEXaNJRizIwwkgmhSpkicHgfFTOR3t2AxMmqdRA_qLMeQ8eIUpJTAfh7Jbep3-Mq8OKI7XFOYNZHNN_bDVoayqBrue3g |website=watermark.silverchair.com |accessdate=26 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1942 || || || Underwood defines the first "flash sterilization" at 30 min at 121°C.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1942 || Disinfection method introduction || || Underwood defines the first "flash sterilization" at 30 min at 121°C.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1943 || || || First isolation ward in USA<ref>{{cite book |title=Navy Medicine, Volume 95, Issue 1 |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=WtC6VUZ8XGgC&pg=PA32&lpg=PA32&dq=1943+First+isolation+ward+in+USA&source=bl&ots=jOy4TdbghP&sig=ACfU3U05uJpuL3bjg3fImCTZPdQE3g54yg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwit-PiyxMbpAhXoIbkGHT-uCEUQ6AEwAHoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=1943%20First%20isolation%20ward%20in%20USA&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 1943 || || || First isolation ward in USA<ref>{{cite book |title=Navy Medicine, Volume 95, Issue 1 |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=WtC6VUZ8XGgC&pg=PA32&lpg=PA32&dq=1943+First+isolation+ward+in+USA&source=bl&ots=jOy4TdbghP&sig=ACfU3U05uJpuL3bjg3fImCTZPdQE3g54yg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwit-PiyxMbpAhXoIbkGHT-uCEUQ6AEwAHoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=1943%20First%20isolation%20ward%20in%20USA&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1943 || || || Theodore Puck, Robertson and Henry Lemon report on the bactericidal activity of propylene glycol (hydrolysis by-product of propylene oxide) vapour.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1943 || Disinfectant research || Bacterial infection || Theodore Puck, Robertson and Henry Lemon report on the bactericidal activity of {{w|propylene glycol}} (hydrolysis by-product of propylene oxide) vapour.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1944 || || || USA Infection Control Officer.<ref>{{cite journal |title=The organization of infection control in hospitals |doi=10.1016/0195-6701(80)90055-9 |url=https://www.journalofhospitalinfection.com/article/0195-6701(80)90055-9/pdf}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 1944 || || || USA Infection Control Officer.<ref>{{cite journal |title=The organization of infection control in hospitals |doi=10.1016/0195-6701(80)90055-9 |url=https://www.journalofhospitalinfection.com/article/0195-6701(80)90055-9/pdf}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1943–1945 || || || Otto Rahn describes the logarithmic kinetics and temperature coefficient values of sterilants and antimicrobial agents.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1943–1945 || Disinfection research || Microbial infection || Otto Rahn describes the logarithmic kinetics and temperature coefficient values of sterilants and antimicrobial agents.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1946 || || || The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is founded.<ref name="Hewlett"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1946 || Organization || General || The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is founded.<ref name="Hewlett"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1946 || || || Ewell demonstrates that microbes are more readily killed by ozone in high humidity than at low humidity.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1946 || Disinfection research || Microbial infection || Ewell demonstrates that microbes are more readily killed by ozone in high humidity than at low humidity.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1947 || || || Douglas Lea reports on the actions of radiation on living cells. In the main, ionizing radiation destroys microbes by direct hits of the radiations on or near the organism.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||       
+
| 1947 || Disinfection research || Microbial infection || English {{w|experimental physicist}} {{w|Douglas Lea}} reports on the actions of radiation on living cells. In the main, ionizing radiation destroys microbes by direct hits of the radiations on or near the organism.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}      
 
|-
 
|-
| 1947 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || Fungus, {{w|HIV-1}} ({{w|AIDS}}), {{w|Hepatitis B}}, and {{w|Hepatitis C}} || The {{w|barbicide}} is invented by Maurice King and marketed heavily around the United States by his brother James.<ref name=SmithsonianArticle>{{cite web |url=https://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D07E5DF113EF931A15755C0A961958260&pagewanted=all |title=The Smithsonian Celebrates Barbicide, A Barbershop Germ Killer Born in Brooklyn |accessdate=2 April 2020 |last=Martin |first=Douglas |date=1997-06-22 |format= |work={{w|The New York Times}} |publisher=The New York Times Company |pages=2}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1947 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || Fungus, {{w|HIV-1}} ({{w|AIDS}}), {{w|Hepatitis B}}, and {{w|Hepatitis C}} infection || The {{w|barbicide}} is invented by Maurice King and marketed heavily around the United States by his brother James.<ref name=SmithsonianArticle>{{cite web |url=https://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D07E5DF113EF931A15755C0A961958260&pagewanted=all |title=The Smithsonian Celebrates Barbicide, A Barbershop Germ Killer Born in Brooklyn |accessdate=2 April 2020 |last=Martin |first=Douglas |date=1997-06-22 |format= |work={{w|The New York Times}} |publisher=The New York Times Company |pages=2}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1947 || || || A widespread outbreak of {{w|gastroenteritis}} in the {{w|United Kingdom}}, causing the death of 4,500 children under the age of one, gave rise to a national objective of sterilising all baby's milk bottles. Milton sterilizing fluid becomes the {{w|antiseptic}} advocated by hospitals and government agencies. This cold water method is generally available and simple for all to use, and virtually all mothers adopted this method.<ref name=":0">{{Cite web|url=https://www.milton-tm.com/en/consumer/our-history|title=Our History|website=www.milton-tm.com|access-date=9 March 2019}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 1947 || Program launch || {{w|Gastroenteritis}} || A widespread outbreak of {{w|gastroenteritis}} in the {{w|United Kingdom}}, causing the death of 4,500 children under the age of one, motivates a national objective of sterilising all baby's milk bottles. {{w|Milton sterilizing fluid}} becomes the {{w|antiseptic}} advocated by hospitals and government agencies. This cold water method is generally available and simple for all to use, and virtually all mothers adopted this method.<ref name=":0">{{Cite web|url=https://www.milton-tm.com/en/consumer/our-history|title=Our History|website=www.milton-tm.com|access-date=9 March 2019}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1947 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || Jordan et al. write 12 papers on the dynamics of the disinfection of ''{{w|Escherichia coli}}'' by phenol and heat.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
+
| 1947 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || {{w|Escherichia coli}} infection || Jordan et al. write 12 papers on the dynamics of the disinfection of ''{{w|Escherichia coli}}'' by phenol and heat.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1949 || || || Kolb and Schneiter show {{w|methyl bromide}} to be bactericidal for {{w|anthrax}} spores and its use is recommended for sterilization of improved wool.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1949 || Disinfectant research || {{w|Anthrax}} || Kolb and Schneiter show {{w|methyl bromide}} to be bactericidal for {{w|anthrax}} spores and its use is recommended for sterilization of improved wool.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1949 || || || Hutchins and Xezones report {{w|peracetic acid}} to be highly germicide against spores of Bacillus thermoacidurans.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1949 || Disinfectant research || {{w|Bacillus thermoacidurans}} || Hutchins and Xezones report {{w|peracetic acid}} to be highly germicide against spores of ''bacillus thermoacidurans''.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1950 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || "11 papers by Berry & Michaels (1950) on the bactericidal activity of ethylene glycol and its mono alkyl ethers on the same organism. These papers recorded in meticulous detail the time course of the disinfection process, the effect of temperature and other factors upon it and how loss of activity with dilution-the concentration exponent-is a variant property of antibacterial substances."<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
+
| 1950 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || Bacterial infection || "11 papers by Berry & Michaels (1950) on the bactericidal activity of ethylene glycol and its mono alkyl ethers on the same organism. These papers recorded in meticulous detail the time course of the disinfection process, the effect of temperature and other factors upon it and how loss of activity with dilution-the concentration exponent-is a variant property of antibacterial substances."<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1950 || || || The term ''sanitizer'' appears first in the Journal of Milk and Food Technology.<ref name="Seymour"/> ||
+
| 1950 || Concept development || || The term ''sanitizer'' appears first in the Journal of Milk and Food Technology.<ref name="Seymour"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1954 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || Davies et al. describe the new antimicrobial compound {{w|chlorhexidine}}.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
+
| 1954 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || Microbial infection || Davies et al. describe the new antimicrobial compound {{w|chlorhexidine}}.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1955 || || || {{w|Peracetic acid}} is introduced.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
+
| 1955 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || {{w|Peracetic acid}} is introduced.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1955 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || Povidone-iodine comes into commercial use.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Sneader|first1=Walter|title=Drug Discovery: A History|date=2005|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|isbn=9780470015520|page=68|language=en|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170113010552/https://books.google.ca/books?id=jglFsz5EJR8C&pg=PA68}}</ref> ||
+
| 1955 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || Povidone-iodine comes into commercial use.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Sneader|first1=Walter|title=Drug Discovery: A History|date=2005|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|isbn=9780470015520|page=68|language=en|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170113010552/https://books.google.ca/books?id=jglFsz5EJR8C&pg=PA68}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| Mid-1950s || || || Baby wipes emerge around this time as more people travel and need a way to clean up on the go.<ref>{{cite web |title=What type of baby wipe is best and how we choose? |url=https://medium.com/@hillyvonnem/what-type-of-baby-wipe-is-best-and-how-we-choose-53f1ec275e24 |website=medium.com |accessdate=26 May 2020}}</ref> ||     
+
| Mid-1950s || Disinfection method || || Baby wipes emerge around this time as more people travel and need a way to clean up on the go.<ref>{{cite web |title=What type of baby wipe is best and how we choose? |url=https://medium.com/@hillyvonnem/what-type-of-baby-wipe-is-best-and-how-we-choose-53f1ec275e24 |website=medium.com |accessdate=26 May 2020}}</ref> ||     
 
|-
 
|-
| 1956 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || {{w|Chlorine dioxide}} is introduced as a drinking water disinfectant on a large scale, when {{w|Brussels}}, Belgium, changes from chlorine to chlorine dioxide.<ref name="block2001">{{cite book | title = Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation | first= Seymour Stanton |last=Block | edition = 5th | publisher = Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins | year = 2001 | isbn = 0-683-30740-1 | page = 215}}</ref> || {{w|Belgium}}     
+
| 1956 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || {{w|Chlorine dioxide}} is introduced as a drinking water disinfectant on a large scale, when {{w|Brussels}}, Belgium, changes from chlorine to chlorine dioxide.<ref name="block2001">{{cite book | title = Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation | first= Seymour Stanton |last=Block | edition = 5th | publisher = Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins | year = 2001 | isbn = 0-683-30740-1 | page = 215}}</ref> || {{w|Belgium}}     
 
|-
 
|-
| 1956 || || || Glyoxal and related compounds are first used as potential blood sterilizing agents.<ref name="Rogers"/><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Underwood, |first1=Gerald E. |last2=Weed |first2=Sheldon D. |title=Glyoxal and Related Compounds as Potential Blood Sterilizing Agents |doi=10.3181/00379727-93-22776 |url=https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3181/00379727-93-22776}}</ref> ||
+
| 1956 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || {{w|Glyoxal}} and related compounds are first used as potential blood sterilizing agents.<ref name="Rogers"/><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Underwood, |first1=Gerald E. |last2=Weed |first2=Sheldon D. |title=Glyoxal and Related Compounds as Potential Blood Sterilizing Agents |doi=10.3181/00379727-93-22776 |url=https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3181/00379727-93-22776}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1957 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || {{w|Glutaraldehyde}} is introduced.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||  
+
| 1957 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || {{w|Glutaraldehyde}} is introduced.<ref name="Hugo"/> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1957 || || || John Perkins publishes the first edition of ''Principals and Methods of Sterilization''.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1957 || Publication || || John Perkins publishes the first edition of ''Principals and Methods of Sterilization''.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1958 || || || G. Sykes publishes ''Disinfection and Sterilization''.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1957 || Disinfection method || || American Arthur Julius invents the {{w|wet wipe}}s.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.eater.com/2016/6/17/11936294/wet-nap-inventor|title=A Brief History of the Wet-Nap, Barbecue Sauce's Worst Nightmare|first=Hillary|last=Dixler|date=17 June 2016|publisher=}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1950s || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || {{w|Chlorhexidine}} comes into medical use.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Schmalz|first1=Gottfried|last2=Bindslev|first2=Dorthe Arenholt|title=Biocompatibility of Dental Materials|date=2008|publisher=Springer Science & Business Media|isbn=9783540777823|page=351|language=en|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170113080904/https://books.google.ca/books?id=mrreTHuo54wC&pg=PA351}}</ref> ||
+
| 1958 || Publication || || G. Sykes publishes ''Disinfection and Sterilization''.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1959 || || || {{w|Exeter}} microbiologist Brendan Moore becomes the first appointed Infection Control Nurse.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Wilson |first1=Jennie |title=Infection Control in Clinical Practice Updated Edition E-Book |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=hol-DwAAQBAJ&pg=PA75&lpg=PA75&dq=1959+The+first+Infection+Control+Nurse&source=bl&ots=EIfEmcPzM_&sig=ACfU3U0OvfzYJWMJmZKsXGnmXlwEY3PZqA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwir3pPS2c3pAhWtLLkGHXDNAb4Q6AEwBXoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=1959%20The%20first%20Infection%20Control%20Nurse&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=The 'Rediscovery' of Infection, 1957-1970 |url=https://kingscollections.org/exhibitions/archives/from-microbes-to-matrons/chronology/the-rediscovery-of-infection |website=kingscollections.org |accessdate=24 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Infection Prevention and Control |url=https://www.worldcat.org/wcpa/servlet/DCARead?standardNo=9780470059074&standardNoType=1&excerpt=true |website=worldcat.org |accessdate=24 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 1950s || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || {{w|Chlorhexidine}} comes into medical use.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Schmalz|first1=Gottfried|last2=Bindslev|first2=Dorthe Arenholt|title=Biocompatibility of Dental Materials|date=2008|publisher=Springer Science & Business Media|isbn=9783540777823|page=351|language=en|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170113080904/https://books.google.ca/books?id=mrreTHuo54wC&pg=PA351}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1960 || || || It is found that conveyor ovens can provide continuous sterilization of syringes.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1959 || Medical development || || {{w|Exeter}} microbiologist Brendan Moore becomes the first appointed Infection Control Nurse.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Wilson |first1=Jennie |title=Infection Control in Clinical Practice Updated Edition E-Book |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=hol-DwAAQBAJ&pg=PA75&lpg=PA75&dq=1959+The+first+Infection+Control+Nurse&source=bl&ots=EIfEmcPzM_&sig=ACfU3U0OvfzYJWMJmZKsXGnmXlwEY3PZqA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwir3pPS2c3pAhWtLLkGHXDNAb4Q6AEwBXoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=1959%20The%20first%20Infection%20Control%20Nurse&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=The 'Rediscovery' of Infection, 1957-1970 |url=https://kingscollections.org/exhibitions/archives/from-microbes-to-matrons/chronology/the-rediscovery-of-infection |website=kingscollections.org |accessdate=24 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Infection Prevention and Control |url=https://www.worldcat.org/wcpa/servlet/DCARead?standardNo=9780470059074&standardNoType=1&excerpt=true |website=worldcat.org |accessdate=24 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1960 || || || Alkalinized {{w|glutaraldehyde}} is found to be effective as a sterilant.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1960 || Disinfection method || || It is found that conveyor ovens can provide continuous sterilization of syringes.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1961 || || || High vacuum infrared ovens become available for batch sterilization.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1960 || Disinfectant research || || Alkalinized {{w|glutaraldehyde}} is found to be effective as a sterilant.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1961 || || || Propylene oxide is demonstrated to have microbicidal activity within powered or flaked food.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1961 || Disinfection method || || High vacuum infrared ovens become available for batch sterilization.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1961 || || || Robert Ernst shows that the use of {{w|iodophor}}es at elevated temperature (e.g., 50-60°C) in combination with ultrasonics could be an effective sterilizing agent for surgical and dental instruments.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1961 || Disinfectant research || Microbial infection || {{w|Propylene oxide}} is demonstrated to have microbicidal activity within powered or flaked food.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1962 || || || The rate of bacterial spore destruction improves with simultaneous applied ionizing and thermal processing.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1961 || Disinfection research || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || Robert Ernst shows that the use of {{w|iodophor}}es at elevated temperature (e.g., 50-60°C) in combination with ultrasonics could be an effective sterilizing agent for surgical and dental instruments.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1962 || || || Robert McDonald invents the prehumidification step for effective ethylene oxide sterilization.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1962 || Disinfection research || Bacterial infection || It is found that the rate of bacterial spore destruction improves with simultaneous applied ionizing and thermal processing.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1962 || || || The first antimicrobial indications of dialdehydes, e.g., {{w|glutaldehyde}}, are described by Pepper and Liebermann.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1962 || Disinfection method introduction || || Robert McDonald invents the prehumidification step for effective ethylene oxide sterilization.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1963 || || || The first gamma irradiator is used in the United States for sterilization of medical devices.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1962 || Disinfectant research || || The first antimicrobial indications of dialdehydes, e.g., {{w|glutaldehyde}}, are described by Pepper and Liebermann.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1963 || || || Gaseous {{w|propylene oxide}} is used to sterilize and de-infest food products.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1963 || Disinfection method introduction || || The first gamma irradiator is used in the United States for sterilization of medical devices.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1963 || || || Guerin shows that desiccated microbes are more resistant to ozone than hydrated cells.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1963 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || Gaseous {{w|propylene oxide}} is used to sterilize and de-infest food products.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1964 || || || {{w|Johnson and Johnson}} provides commercial gamma irradiation.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1963 || Scientific development || Microbial infection || Guerin shows that desiccated microbes are more resistant to ozone than hydrated cells.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1964 || || || Armstrong discovers a gaseous ozone sterilization process.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1964 || Disinfection method introduction || || {{w|Johnson and Johnson}} provides commercial {{w|gamma irradiation}}.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1965 || || || Sydney Rubbo and Joan Gardner show that glutaraldehyde is not only more effective than formaldehyde but also less irritating.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1964 || Disinfection method introduction || || Armstrong discovers a gaseous ozone sterilization process.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1966 || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || Hand sanitizers are first introduced.<ref>{{cite web |title=Lupe Hernandez and the Invention of Hand Sanitizer |url=https://invention.si.edu/lupe-hernandez-and-invention-hand-sanitizer |website=invention.si.edu |accessdate=25 May 2020}}</ref> ||
+
| 1965 || Disinfectant research || || Sydney Rubbo and Joan Gardner show that {{w|glutaraldehyde}} is not only more effective than {{w|formaldehyde}} but also less irritating.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1966 || || || Alder and co-workers develop a low temperature steam and formaldehyde system similar to high vacuum steam sterilization but operating at 65-80°C.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1966 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || Hand sanitizers are first introduced.<ref>{{cite web |title=Lupe Hernandez and the Invention of Hand Sanitizer |url=https://invention.si.edu/lupe-hernandez-and-invention-hand-sanitizer |website=invention.si.edu |accessdate=25 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1967 || || || Saul Kaye demonstrates that formic acid is microcidal synergistic with {{w|ethylene oxide}} and other epoxides.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1966 || Disinfection method introduction || || Alder and co-workers develop a low temperature steam and {{w|formaldehyde}} system similar to high vacuum steam sterilization but operating at 65-80°C.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1968 || || || Paul Borick describes and defines chemosterilizers.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Borick |first1=Paul M. |title=Chemical Sterilizers (Chemosterilizers). |doi=10.1016/S0065-2164(08)70195-3 |url=https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065216408701953 |accessdate=25 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Thomas |first1=Sonyja |last2=Russell |first2=A. Denver |title=Temperature-induced changes in the sporicidal activity and chemical properties of glutaraldehyde. |doi=10.1128/aem.28.3.331-335.1974 |url=https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Temperature-induced-changes-in-the-sporicidal-and-Thomas-Russell/88a8b63039102e2ad6fb7a4b24521213294fc74d}}</ref> ||
+
| 1967 || Disinfectant research || || Saul Kaye demonstrates that formic acid is microcidal synergistic with {{w|ethylene oxide}} and other epoxides.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1968 || || || Earle H. Spaulding devises a rational approach of disinfection and classification for patient care items and equipment – non-critical items, semi-critical items, and critical items.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1968 || Concept development || || Paul Borick describes and defines {{w|chemosterilizer}}s.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Borick |first1=Paul M. |title=Chemical Sterilizers (Chemosterilizers). |doi=10.1016/S0065-2164(08)70195-3 |url=https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065216408701953 |accessdate=25 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Thomas |first1=Sonyja |last2=Russell |first2=A. Denver |title=Temperature-induced changes in the sporicidal activity and chemical properties of glutaraldehyde. |doi=10.1128/aem.28.3.331-335.1974 |url=https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Temperature-induced-changes-in-the-sporicidal-and-Thomas-Russell/88a8b63039102e2ad6fb7a4b24521213294fc74d}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1969 || || || Marcel Reynolds discovers the feasibility of using thermo-irradiation as sterilization of spacecraft.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1968 || Disinfection method introduction || || Earle H. Spaulding devises a rational approach of disinfection and classification for patient care items and equipment – non-critical items, semi-critical items, and critical items.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1960s || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || {{w|Glutaraldehyde}} comes into medical use.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Booth|first1=Anne|title=Sterilization of Medical Devices|date=1998|publisher=CRC Press|isbn=9781574910872|page=8|language=en|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170923210311/https://books.google.com/books?id=a-HfyG5XuM8C&pg=PA8}}</ref> ||
+
| 1969 || Disinfection research || || Marcel Reynolds discovers the feasibility of using thermo-irradiation as sterilization of {{w|spacecraft}}.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1970 || || || {{w|Trimethylene oxide}} (oxetane) is patented for its disinfecting capabilities, and possible use in sterilization processes.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1960s || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || {{w|Glutaraldehyde}} comes into medical use.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Booth|first1=Anne|title=Sterilization of Medical Devices|date=1998|publisher=CRC Press|isbn=9781574910872|page=8|language=en|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170923210311/https://books.google.com/books?id=a-HfyG5XuM8C&pg=PA8}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1970 || || || Russian scientists pubish a method detailing using a gas mixture of methyl bromide and ethylene oxide for sterilization of a space lander in a plastic bag.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|Russia}}
+
| 1970 || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || {{w|Trimethylene oxide}} (oxetane) is patented for its disinfecting capabilities, and possible use in sterilization processes.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1970 || || || Continuous ethylene oxide sterilization process is developed.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1970 || Disinfection method introduction || || Russian scientists pubish a method detailing using a gas mixture of methyl bromide and ethylene oxide for sterilization of a space lander in a plastic bag.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|Russia}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1971 || || || D.A. Gunther patents a balance pressure process for use with {{w|ethylene oxide}} sterilization.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1970 || Disinfection method introduction || || Continuous ethylene oxide sterilization process is developed.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1972 || {{w|Cordon sanitaire}} || {{w|Smallpox}} || During the {{w|1972 Yugoslav smallpox outbreak}}, over 10,000 people are sequestered in cordons sanitaires of villages and neighborhoods using roadblocks, and a general prohibition of public meetings, a closure of all borders and a prohibition of all non-essential travel is implemented.<ref>{{cite web |title=Bioterrorism: Civil Liberties Under Quarantine |url=https://www.npr.org/programs/atc/features/2001/oct/quarantine/011023.quarantine.html |website=npr.org |accessdate=27 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Huremović |first1=Damir |title=Brief History of Pandemics (Pandemics Throughout History) |doi=10.1007/978-3-030-15346-5_2 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7123574/ |pmc=7123574}}</ref> || {{w|Serbia}}, {{w|Kosovo}}
+
| 1970 || || || A document entitled ''Isolation Technique for Use in Hospitals'' introduces seven isolation precaution categories with color-coded cards: Strict, Respiratory, Protective, Enteric, Wound and Skin, Discharge, and Blood.<ref>National Communicable Disease Center. Isolation Techniques for Use in Hospitals. 1st ed. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office;. PHS publication no 2054 1970</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1972 || || || Leland Ashman and Wilson Menashi use low temperature gas plasma for sterilization of contaminated surfaces.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1971 || Disinfection method introduction || || D.A. Gunther patents a balance pressure process for use with {{w|ethylene oxide}} sterilization.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1972 || {{w|Cordon sanitaire}} || {{w|Smallpox}} || During the {{w|1972 Yugoslav smallpox outbreak}}, over 10,000 people are sequestered in cordons sanitaires of villages and neighborhoods using roadblocks, and a general prohibition of public meetings, a closure of all borders and a prohibition of all non-essential travel is implemented.<ref>{{cite web |title=Bioterrorism: Civil Liberties Under Quarantine |url=https://www.npr.org/programs/atc/features/2001/oct/quarantine/011023.quarantine.html |website=npr.org |accessdate=27 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Huremović |first1=Damir |title=Brief History of Pandemics (Pandemics Throughout History) |doi=10.1007/978-3-030-15346-5_2 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7123574/}}</ref> || {{w|Serbia}}, {{w|Kosovo}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1972 || Disinfection method introduction || || Leland Ashman and Wilson Menashi use low temperature gas plasma for sterilization of contaminated surfaces.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1973 || Disinfection research || || Researchers at Battelle Columbus Laboratories conduct a comprehensive literature, technology, and patent search tracing the history of understanding the "bacteriostatic and sanitizing properties of copper and copper alloy surfaces", which demonstrates that copper, in very small quantities, has the power to control a wide range of [[w:Mold (fungus)|molds]], {{w|fungi}}, {{w|algae}}, and harmful {{w|microbes}}.<ref>Dick, R. J.; Wray, J. A.; Johnston, H. N. (1973), "A Literature and Technology Search on the Bacteriostatic and Sanitizing Properties of Copper and Copper Alloy Surfaces", Phase 1 Final Report, INCRA Project No. 212, June 29, 1973, contracted to Battelle Columbus Laboratories, Columbus, Ohio</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1976 || Disinfection method introduction || || A method of cold sterilization using frozen {{w|dimethyl dicarbonate}} is developed.<ref>{{cite web |title=Method of cold sterilization using frozen dimethyl dicarbonate |url=https://patents.google.com/patent/US3936269A/en |website=patents.google.com |accessdate=25 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1976 || || || A method of cold sterilization using frozen {{w|dimethyl dicarbonate}} is developed.<ref>{{cite web |title=Method of cold sterilization using frozen dimethyl dicarbonate |url=https://patents.google.com/patent/US3936269A/en |website=patents.google.com |accessdate=25 May 2020}}</ref> ||
+
| 1976 || Disinfection method introduction || || Lowell Tensmeyer devises a method of killing micro-organisms in the inside of a container utilizing a plasma initiated by a focused laser beam and sustained by an electromagnetic field.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1976 || || || Lowell Tensmeyer devises a method of killing micro-organisms in the inside of a container utilizing a plasma initiated by a focused laser beam and sustained by an electromagnetic field.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1979 || Disinfection method introduction || || Francis C. Moore and Leon R. Perkinson devise a hydrogen peroxide vapour sterilization method.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1979 || || || Francis C. Moore and Leon R. Perkinson devise a hydrogen peroxide vapour sterilization method.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1980 || Disinfection method introduction || || A seeded (dialdehyde) gas plasma sterilization method is patented by G. Boucher.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1980 || || || A seeded (dialdehyde) gas plasma sterilization method is patented by G. Boucher.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1984 || Statistics || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || A survey in Australia documents that 6.3% of 28,643 hospitalized patients in the country have a hospital-acquired infection, with the highest rates in larger hospitals.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Spelman |first1=Denis W |title=2: Hospital-acquired infections |doi=10.5694/j.1326-5377.2002.tb04412.x |url=https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2002/176/6/2-hospital-acquired-infections}}</ref> || {{w|Australia}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1984 || || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || A survey in Australia documents that 6.3% of 28,643 hospitalized patients in the country have a hospital-acquired infection, with the highest rates in larger hospitals.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Spelman |first1=Denis W |title=2: Hospital-acquired infections |doi=10.5694/j.1326-5377.2002.tb04412.x |url=https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2002/176/6/2-hospital-acquired-infections}}</ref> || {{w|Australia}}
+
| 1985 || Disinfectant research || || A.A. Rosenblatt, D.H. Rosenblatt and J.E. Knapp find {{w|chlorine}} to be a sterilant in a gaseous phase.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=JENG |first1=DAVID K. |last2=WOODWORTH |first2=ARCHIE G. |author1= |title=Chlorine Dioxide Gas Sterilization under Square-Wave Conditions |url=https://aem.asm.org/content/aem/56/2/514.full.pdf |publisher=American Society for Microbiology}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Isolator Decontamination Using Chlorine Dioxide Gas |url=http://files.alfresco.mjh.group/alfresco_images/pharma//2014/08/22/5072423c-8e4d-43c2-a2cd-9c8c0db926e3/article-156880.pdf |website=files.alfresco.mjh.group/ |accessdate=25 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1985 || || || A.A. Rosenblatt, D.H. Rosenblatt and J.E. Knapp find chlorine to be a sterilant in a gaseous phase.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=JENG |first1=DAVID K. |last2=WOODWORTH |first2=ARCHIE G. |author1= |title=Chlorine Dioxide Gas Sterilization under Square-Wave Conditions |url=https://aem.asm.org/content/aem/56/2/514.full.pdf |publisher=American Society for Microbiology}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Isolator Decontamination Using Chlorine Dioxide Gas |url=http://files.alfresco.mjh.group/alfresco_images/pharma//2014/08/22/5072423c-8e4d-43c2-a2cd-9c8c0db926e3/article-156880.pdf |website=files.alfresco.mjh.group/ |accessdate=25 May 2020}}</ref> ||
+
| 1985–1988 || || HIV infection || A document entitled ''Universal precautions'' is issued in response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. It dictates application of blood and body fluid precautions to all patients, regardless of infection status.<ref>CDC. Update: universal precautions for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and other bloodborne pathogens in health-care settings. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1988;37(24):377-82, 87-8.</ref><ref>CDC. Recommendations for preventing transmission of infection with human T- lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus in the workplace. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1985;34(450:681-6, 91-5.</ref> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1986 || || || Pulsed laser sterilization is described.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1986 || Disinfection method introduction || || Pulsed laser sterilization is described.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1988 || || || Joslyn introduces a post-steam sterilization process for removing EO residuals more effectively, than mere heated aeration.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1988 || Disinfection method introduction || || Joslyn introduces a post-steam sterilization process for removing {{w|ethylene oxide}} residuals more effectively, than mere heated aeration.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-  
 
|-  
| 1989 || || || The use of the vapor phase of hydrogen peroxide as a surface decontaminant and sterilant is discovered.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1989 || Disinfection method introduction || || The use of the vapor phase of {{w|hydrogen peroxide}} as a surface decontaminant and sterilant is discovered.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1980s || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || Alcohol-based hand sanitizer starts being commonly used in Europe.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Miller|first1=Chris H.|last2=Palenik|first2=Charles John|title=Infection Control and Management of Hazardous Materials for the Dental Team|date=2016|publisher=Elsevier Health Sciences|isbn=9780323476577|page=269|edition=5|language=en|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170918190157/https://books.google.com/books?id=oySKCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA269}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1980s || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || Alcohol-based hand sanitizer starts being commonly used in Europe.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Miller|first1=Chris H.|last2=Palenik|first2=Charles John|title=Infection Control and Management of Hazardous Materials for the Dental Team|date=2016|publisher=Elsevier Health Sciences|isbn=9780323476577|page=269|edition=5|language=en|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170918190157/https://books.google.com/books?id=oySKCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA269}}</ref> ||
+
| 1991 || Disinfection method introduction || || Karlson patents a gaseous ozone sterilization process.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1991 || || || Karlson patents a gaseous ozone sterilization process.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1995 || Protection (‘‘{{w|cordon sanitaire}}’’) || {{w|Ebola}} || A {{w|cordon sanitaire}} is used to control an outbreak of {{w|Ebola}} virus disease in {{w|Kikwit}}, Zaire.<ref>{{cite web |title=ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN THE USE OF CORDONS SANITAIRES |url=https://www.clinicalcorrelations.org/2015/02/19/ethical-considerations-in-the-use-of-cordons-sanitaires/ |website=clinicalcorrelations.org |accessdate=25 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Muyembe-Tamfum |first1=J J |last2=Kipasa |first2=M |last3=Kiyungu |first3=C |last4=Colebunders |first4=R |title=Ebola Outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo: Discovery and Control Measures |doi=10.1086/514302 |pmid=9988192 |url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9988192/ |accessdate=25 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Congo D.R.}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1995 || ''{{w|Cordon sanitaire}}'' || {{w|Ebola}} || A {{w|cordon sanitaire}} is used to control an outbreak of {{w|Ebola}} virus disease in {{w|Kikwit}}, Zaire.<ref>{{cite web |title=ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN THE USE OF CORDONS SANITAIRES |url=https://www.clinicalcorrelations.org/2015/02/19/ethical-considerations-in-the-use-of-cordons-sanitaires/ |website=clinicalcorrelations.org |accessdate=25 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Muyembe-Tamfum |first1=J J |last2=Kipasa |first2=M |last3=Kiyungu |first3=C |last4=Colebunders |first4=R |title=Ebola Outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo: Discovery and Control Measures |doi=10.1086/514302 |pmid=9988192 |url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9988192/ |accessdate=25 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Congo D.R.}}
+
| 1995 || Statistics || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || The {{w|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention}} estimates that approximately 1.9 million cases of {{w|hospital-acquired infection}} occurred in the United States.<ref>{{cite web |title=Frequently Asked Questions |url=https://www.ncsl.org/research/health/hospital-acquired-infections-faq.aspx |website=ncsl.org |accessdate=2 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1995 || || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || The {{w|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention}} estimates that approximately 1.9 million cases of {{w|hospital-acquired infection}} occurred in the United States.<ref>{{cite web |title=Frequently Asked Questions |url=https://www.ncsl.org/research/health/hospital-acquired-infections-faq.aspx |website=ncsl.org |accessdate=2 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1998 || Statistics || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || According to {{w|CDC}}, approximately one third of healthcare acquired infections are preventable.<ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Weinstein RA | title = Nosocomial infection update | journal = Emerging Infectious Diseases | volume = 4 | issue = 3 | pages = 416–20 | date = September 1998 | pmid = 9716961 | pmc = 2640303 | doi = 10.3201/eid0403.980320 | url = http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/4/3/98-0320 | publisher = CDC }}</ref> ||      
 
|-
 
|-
| 1999 || || || A new plasma sterilizer is approved by the U.S. {{w|Food and Drug Administration}}.<ref>{{cite book |title=Emerging Infectious Diseases, Volume 7, Issue 2 |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=aIPj6BAc1a4C&pg=PA348&lpg=PA348&dq=1999+A+new+plasma+sterilizer+is+approved+by+the+FDA&source=bl&ots=fzLcmcLquX&sig=ACfU3U1TyFrskf-QU41ENhPCkm4IImIzZQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwin0snk8M3pAhVpGbkGHY8BDTsQ6AEwAHoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=1999%20A%20new%20plasma%20sterilizer%20is%20approved%20by%20the%20FDA&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1998 || || || {{w|Global Campaign for Microbicides}} ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1990s || {{w|Disinfectant}} || || [[w:NAV-CO2 system|Non-flammable Alcohol Vapor in Carbon Dioxide systems]] (NAV-CO2 System) are developed in Japan in the 1990s to sanitize hospitals and ambulances. || {{w|Japan}}
+
| 1999 || Disinfection method introduction || || A new plasma sterilizer is approved by the U.S. {{w|Food and Drug Administration}}.<ref>{{cite book |title=Emerging Infectious Diseases, Volume 7, Issue 2 |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=aIPj6BAc1a4C&pg=PA348&lpg=PA348&dq=1999+A+new+plasma+sterilizer+is+approved+by+the+FDA&source=bl&ots=fzLcmcLquX&sig=ACfU3U1TyFrskf-QU41ENhPCkm4IImIzZQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwin0snk8M3pAhVpGbkGHY8BDTsQ6AEwAHoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=1999%20A%20new%20plasma%20sterilizer%20is%20approved%20by%20the%20FDA&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2001 || || || Disinfection with performic acid is noted.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
+
| 1990s || {{w|Disinfectant}} introduction || || [[w:NAV-CO2 system|Non-flammable Alcohol Vapor in Carbon Dioxide systems]] (NAV-CO2 System) are developed in Japan in the 1990s to sanitize hospitals and ambulances. || {{w|Japan}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || ''{{w|Cordon sanitaire}}'' || {{w|Severe acute respiratory syndrome}} || During the [[w:Timeline of the SARS outbreak|2003 SARS outbreak]] in Canada, "community quarantine" is used to successfully reduce transmission of the disease.<ref>{{cite journal| pmid=20034405 | doi=10.1186/1471-2458-9-488 | pmc=2808319 | volume=9 | title=Quantifying the impact of community quarantine on SARS transmission in Ontario: estimation of secondary case count difference and number needed to quarantine | year=2009 | journal=BMC Public Health | page=488 | last1 = Bondy | first1 = SJ | last2 = Russell | first2 = ML | last3 = Laflèche | first3 = JM | last4 = Rea | first4 = E}}</ref> || {{w|Canada}}
+
| 2001 || Disinfectant research || General || Disinfection with performic acid is noted.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || ''{{w|Cordon sanitaire}}'' || {{w|Severe acute respiratory syndrome}} || During the 2003 SARS outbreak in mainland {{w|China}}, {{w|Hong Kong}}, {{w|Taiwan}}, and {{w|Singapore}}, large-scale quarantine is imposed on travelers arriving from other SARS areas, work and school contacts of suspected cases, and, in a few instances, entire apartment complexes where high attack rates of SARS were occurring.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Cetron |first1=Martin |last2=Maloney |first2=Susan |last3=Koppaka |first3=Ram |last4=Simone |first4=Patricia |title=ISOLATION AND QUARANTINE: CONTAINMENT STRATEGIES FOR SARS 2003 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK92450/}}</ref> || {{w|China}}, {{w|Hong Kong}}, {{w|Taiwan}}, {{w|Singapore}}
+
| 2001 || Protection ({{w|hand washing}}) || || The Global Handwashing Partnership (GHP) is established as a coalition of international stakeholders "working to promote handwashing with soap and recognize hygiene as a pillar of international development and public health."<ref>{{cite web |title=Global Handwashing Partnership |url=https://globalhandwashing.org/about-us/#:~:text=The%20Global%20Handwashing%20Partnership%20(GHP,knowledge%20to%20strengthen%20handwashing%20implementation. |website=globalhandwashing.org |accessdate=10 July 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2004 || || || Ferric Fang publishes a paper on antimicrobial reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Fang |first1=Ferric C. |title=Antimicrobial reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: concepts and controversies |journal=Nature Reviews Microbiology |url=https://www.nature.com/articles/nrmicro1004?proof=true}}</ref> ||
+
| 2002 || Publication || || The {{w|Royal Australian College of General Practitioners}} publishes a revised standard for office-based infection control which covers the sections of managing immunization, sterilization and disease surveillance.<ref name=racgp>{{cite web| last =The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners| title =RACGP Infection Control Standards for Office-based Practices (4th Edition)|url =https://web.archive.org/web/20081220163900/http://www.racgp.org.au/infectioncontrol}}</ref><ref name=sracgp>{{cite web| last =The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners| title =Slides - RACGP Infection Control Standards for Office-based Practices (4th Edition)| url =http://www.racgp.org.au/Content/NavigationMenu/PracticeSupport/StandardsforGeneralPractices/200708RACGP_Infection_Control_Standards.pdf|url =https://web.archive.org/web/20081217113407/http://www.racgp.org.au/Content/NavigationMenu/PracticeSupport/StandardsforGeneralPractices/200708RACGP_Infection_Control_Standards.pdf}}</ref> || {{w|Australia}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2004 || ''{{w|Cordon sanitaire}}'' || {{w|Ebola}} || A ''cordon sanitaire'' is established around some of the most affected areas of the {{w|2014 West Africa Ebola virus outbreak}}.<ref>[https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6407a4.htm "Community Quarantine to Interrupt Ebola Virus Transmission – Mawah Village, Bong County, Liberia, August–October, 2014," ''Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report,'' February 27, 2015 / 64(07); 179–182.]</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/13/science/using-a-tactic-unseen-in-a-century-countries-cordon-off-ebola-racked-areas.html?_r=0|author=Donald G. McNeil Jr.|newspaper={{w|The New York Times}}|date=August 13, 2014|title=Using a Tactic Unseen in a Century, Countries Cordon Off Ebola-Racked Areas}}</ref> On 19 August, the Liberian government quarantines the entirety of {{w|West Point, Monrovia}} and issued a curfew statewide.<ref name="nbcnews1">{{cite web |url=http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/ebola-virus-outbreak/liberian-soldiers-seal-slum-halt-ebola-n185046 |title=Liberian Soldiers Seal Slum to Halt Ebola |publisher=NBC News |date=2014-08-09 |accessdate=2014-08-23}}</ref> || {{w|Liberia}}
+
| 2002 || || || {{w|International Partnership for Microbicides}} ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2005 || || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || The {{w|American Thoracic Society}} and {{w|Infectious Diseases Society of America}} publish guidelines suggesting antibiotics specifically for {{w|hospital-acquired pneumonia}}.<ref name="guidelines">{{cite journal |author=American Thoracic Society |author2=Infectious Diseases Society of America |title=Guidelines for the management of adults with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia |journal=Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. |volume=171 |issue=4 |pages=388–416 |year=2005 |pmid=15699079 |doi=10.1164/rccm.200405-644ST|url=https://semanticscholar.org/paper/c1e3c150b88a50d40302f15a5533bdd6b0da5885 }}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2003 || Protection (‘‘{{w|cordon sanitaire}}’’) || {{w|Severe acute respiratory syndrome}} || During the [[w:Timeline of the SARS outbreak|2003 SARS outbreak]] in Canada, "community quarantine" is used to successfully reduce transmission of the disease.<ref>{{cite journal| pmid=20034405 | doi=10.1186/1471-2458-9-488 | pmc=2808319 | volume=9 | title=Quantifying the impact of community quarantine on SARS transmission in Ontario: estimation of secondary case count difference and number needed to quarantine | year=2009 | journal=BMC Public Health | page=488 | last1 = Bondy | first1 = SJ | last2 = Russell | first2 = ML | last3 = Laflèche | first3 = JM | last4 = Rea | first4 = E}}</ref> || {{w|Canada}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2008 (April) || || Publication || The {{w|World Health Organization}} publishes ''Early recognition, reporting and infection control management of acute respiratory diseases of potential international concern'', an {{w|aide-mémoire}} on emergencies preparedness and response.<ref>{{cite web |title=Early recognition, reporting and infection control management of acute respiratory diseases of potential international concern |url=https://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/AMinfectioncontrolearlyrecognition/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=19 May 2020}}</ref> ||
+
| 2003 || Protection (‘‘{{w|cordon sanitaire}}’’) || {{w|Severe acute respiratory syndrome}} || During the 2003 SARS outbreak in mainland {{w|China}}, {{w|Hong Kong}}, {{w|Taiwan}}, and {{w|Singapore}}, large-scale quarantine is imposed on travelers arriving from other SARS areas, work and school contacts of suspected cases, and, in a few instances, entire apartment complexes where high attack rates of SARS were occurring.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Cetron |first1=Martin |last2=Maloney |first2=Susan |last3=Koppaka |first3=Ram |last4=Simone |first4=Patricia |title=ISOLATION AND QUARANTINE: CONTAINMENT STRATEGIES FOR SARS 2003 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK92450/}}</ref> || {{w|China}}, {{w|Hong Kong}}, {{w|Taiwan}}, {{w|Singapore}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2008 (June) || || Publication || The {{w|World Health Organization}} publishes ''Core components for infection prevention and control programmes'', a report of the Second Meeting of the Informal Network on Infection Prevention and Control in Health Care.<ref>{{cite web |title=Core components for infection prevention and control programmes |url=https://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/WHO_HSE_EPR_2009_1/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=19 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Switzerland}} ({{w|Geneva}})
+
| 2004 || Publication || Microbial infection || Ferric Fang publishes a paper on antimicrobial reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Fang |first1=Ferric C. |title=Antimicrobial reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: concepts and controversies |journal=Nature Reviews Microbiology |url=https://www.nature.com/articles/nrmicro1004?proof=true}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2004 || Protection (‘‘{{w|cordon sanitaire}}’’) || {{w|Ebola}} || A ''cordon sanitaire'' is established around some of the most affected areas of the {{w|2014 West Africa Ebola virus outbreak}}.<ref>[https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6407a4.htm "Community Quarantine to Interrupt Ebola Virus Transmission – Mawah Village, Bong County, Liberia, August–October, 2014," ''Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report,'' February 27, 2015 / 64(07); 179–182.]</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/13/science/using-a-tactic-unseen-in-a-century-countries-cordon-off-ebola-racked-areas.html?_r=0|author=Donald G. McNeil Jr.|newspaper={{w|The New York Times}}|date=August 13, 2014|title=Using a Tactic Unseen in a Century, Countries Cordon Off Ebola-Racked Areas}}</ref> On 19 August, the Liberian government quarantines the entirety of {{w|West Point, Monrovia}} and issued a curfew statewide.<ref name="nbcnews1">{{cite web |url=http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/ebola-virus-outbreak/liberian-soldiers-seal-slum-halt-ebola-n185046 |title=Liberian Soldiers Seal Slum to Halt Ebola |publisher=NBC News |date=2014-08-09 |accessdate=2014-08-23}}</ref> || {{w|Liberia}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2005 || Publication || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || The {{w|American Thoracic Society}} and {{w|Infectious Diseases Society of America}} publish guidelines suggesting antibiotics specifically for {{w|hospital-acquired pneumonia}}.<ref name="guidelines">{{cite journal |author=American Thoracic Society |author2=Infectious Diseases Society of America |title=Guidelines for the management of adults with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia |journal=Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. |volume=171 |issue=4 |pages=388–416 |year=2005 |pmid=15699079 |doi=10.1164/rccm.200405-644ST|url=https://semanticscholar.org/paper/c1e3c150b88a50d40302f15a5533bdd6b0da5885 }}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2005 || || || {{w|International Rectal Microbicide Advocates}} ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2006 || || || {{w|Microbicide Trials Network}} ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2006 || || {{w|Microbicides Development Programme}} || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2008 (February) || Disinfection method introduction || || The {{w|United States Environmental Protection Agency}} (EPA) approves the registrations of five different groups of copper alloys as "{{w|antimicrobial}} materials" with public health benefits.<ref>{{cite web |title=Antimicrobial Copper Surfaces for the Reduction of Health Care–Associated Infections in Intensive Care Settings |url=https://www.cadth.ca/sites/default/files/pdf/EH0021_Copper_Surfaces_e.pdf |website=cadth.ca |accessdate=26 June 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2008 (April) || Publication || Respiratory infection || The {{w|World Health Organization}} publishes ''Early recognition, reporting and infection control management of acute respiratory diseases of potential international concern'', an {{w|aide-mémoire}} on emergencies preparedness and response.<ref>{{cite web |title=Early recognition, reporting and infection control management of acute respiratory diseases of potential international concern |url=https://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/AMinfectioncontrolearlyrecognition/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=19 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2008 (June) || Publication || || The {{w|World Health Organization}} publishes ''Core components for infection prevention and control programmes'', a report of the Second Meeting of the Informal Network on Infection Prevention and Control in Health Care.<ref>{{cite web |title=Core components for infection prevention and control programmes |url=https://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/WHO_HSE_EPR_2009_1/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=19 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Switzerland}} ({{w|Geneva}})
 
|-  
 
|-  
| 2009 || || || The {{w|World Health Organization}} publishes ''Natural ventilation for infection control in health-care settings''.<ref>{{cite web |title=Natural ventilation for infection control in health-care settings |url=https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/natural_ventilation/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=19 May 2020}}</ref> ||
+
| 2008 (November) || || Bacterial infection || A non-peer-reviewed<ref>According to p. 35 of the Redway/Fawdar presentation, "Note: this study has not been peer reviewed but it is intended that the test methods described in this document are provided in sufficient detail to allow replication by those who wish to confirm the results."</ref> study is presented to the European Tissue Symposium by the {{w|University of Westminster}}, London, comparing the bacteria levels present after the use of {{w|paper towel}}s, warm air hand dryers, and modern jet-air hand dryers.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.europeantissue.com/pdfs/090402-2008%20WUS%20Westminster%20University%20hygiene%20study,%20nov2008.pdf | work=Table 4| page=13 | title=A comparative study of three different hand drying methods: paper towel, warm air dryer, jet air dryer'| author=Keith Redway and Shameem Fawdar (School of Biosciences, University of Westminster London) |date=November 2008| publisher=European Tissue Symposium|access-date=25 June 2020}}</ref> Of those three methods, only paper towels reduced the total number of bacteria on hands, with "through-air dried" towels the most effective. ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || || Publication || The {{w|World Health Organization}} publishes ''Infection-control measures for health care of patients with acute respiratory diseases in community settings''.<ref>{{cite web |title=Infection-control measures for health care of patients with acute respiratory diseases in community settings |url=https://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/WHO_HSE_GAR_BDP_2009_1/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=19 May 2020}}</ref> ||
+
| 2009 || Publication || || The {{w|World Health Organization}} publishes ''Natural ventilation for infection control in health-care settings''.<ref>{{cite web |title=Natural ventilation for infection control in health-care settings |url=https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/natural_ventilation/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=19 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2011 (April) || || Publication || The {{w|World Health Organization}} publishes ''Core components for infection prevention and control programmes''.<ref>{{cite web |title=Core components for infection prevention and control programmes |url=https://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/HSE_GAR_BDP_2011_3/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=19 May 2020}}</ref>  
+
| 2009 || Publication ||  || The {{w|World Health Organization}} publishes ''Infection-control measures for health care of patients with acute respiratory diseases in community settings''.<ref>{{cite web |title=Infection-control measures for health care of patients with acute respiratory diseases in community settings |url=https://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/WHO_HSE_GAR_BDP_2009_1/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=19 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2011 (April) || Publication || || The {{w|World Health Organization}} publishes ''Core components for infection prevention and control programmes''.<ref>{{cite web |title=Core components for infection prevention and control programmes |url=https://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/HSE_GAR_BDP_2011_3/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=19 May 2020}}</ref>  
 
||   
 
||   
 
|-
 
|-
| 2011 || || || Researchers estimate that by this time, 648,000 hospitalized patients in then United States have to battle at least one hospital-acquired infection. The total number of infections is estimated at 721,800. To put that number in perspective, about 34 million people are admitted to 5,000 community hospitals in the country each year.<ref>{{cite web |title=One in 25 patients battling hospital-acquired infections: CDC |url=https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-hospital-infections/one-in-25-patients-battling-hospital-acquired-infections-cdc-idUSBREA2P1DG20140326 |website=reuters.com |accessdate=2 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2011 || Statistics || {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}} || Researchers estimate that by this time, 648,000 hospitalized patients in then United States have to battle at least one hospital-acquired infection. The total number of infections is estimated at 721,800. To put that number in perspective, about 34 million people are admitted to 5,000 community hospitals in the country each year.<ref>{{cite web |title=One in 25 patients battling hospital-acquired infections: CDC |url=https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-hospital-infections/one-in-25-patients-battling-hospital-acquired-infections-cdc-idUSBREA2P1DG20140326 |website=reuters.com |accessdate=2 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2014 || {{w|Hand washing}} || || A study shows that {{w|Saudi Arabia}} has the highest rate of hand washing with soap, with 97 percent; the United States near the middle with 77 percent; and China with the lowest rate of 23 percent.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.bva-group.com/sondages/les-francais-et-le-savonnage-des-mains-apres-etre-alle-aux-toilettes/|title=Les Français et le savonnage des mains après être allé aux toilettes|last=BreakingWeb|website=BVA Group|language=fr-FR|access-date=3 April 2020}}</ref> ||
+
| 2012 || Scientific development || General || A published study claims that "new mathematical modelling, diagnostic, communications, and informatics technologies can identify and report hitherto unknown microbes in other species, and thus new risk assessment approaches are needed to identify microbes most likely to cause human disease". The study investigates challenges in moving the global pandemic strategy from response to pre-emption.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Morse |first1=Stephen S |last2=Mazet |first2=Jonna AK |last3=Woolhouse |first3=Mark |last4=Parrish |first4=Colin R |last5=Carroll |first5=Dennis |last6=Karesh |first6=William B |last7=Zambrana-Torrelio |first7=Carlos |last8=Lipkin |first8=W Ian |last9=Daszak |first9=Peter |title=Prediction and prevention of the next pandemic zoonosis |journal=The Lancet |date=1 December 2012 |volume=380 |issue=9857 |pages=1956–1965 |doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61684-5 |pmid=23200504 |url=https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673612616845 |accessdate=25 March 2020 |language=en |issn=0140-6736|pmc=3712877 }}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2015 || {{w|Hand washing}} || || A study of hand washing in 54 countries finds that on average, 38.7% of households practice hand washing with soap. ||  
+
| 2014 || Organization || General || The {{w|Global Health Security Agenda}} (GHSA) is launched as global partnership devoted to the purpose of strengthening the world’s ability to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious disease threats. As of 2020 it has 67 member countries.<ref>{{cite web |title=FACT SHEET: Global Health Security Agenda: Getting Ahead of the Curve on Epidemic Threats |url=https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2014/09/26/fact-sheet-global-health-security-agenda-getting-ahead-curve-epidemic-th |website=obamawhitehouse.archives.gov |accessdate=1 July 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2020 || ''{{w|Cordon sanitaire}}'' || {{w|Coronavirus disease 2019}} || A multiple number of lockdowns are imposed worldwide in response to the {{w|2019–20 coronavirus pandemic}}. || Worldwide
+
| 2014 || Protection ({{w|hand washing}}) || || A study shows that {{w|Saudi Arabia}} has the highest rate of hand washing with soap, with 97 percent; the United States near the middle with 77 percent; and China with the lowest rate of 23 percent.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.bva-group.com/sondages/les-francais-et-le-savonnage-des-mains-apres-etre-alle-aux-toilettes/|title=Les Français et le savonnage des mains après être allé aux toilettes|last=BreakingWeb|website=BVA Group|language=fr-FR|access-date=3 April 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2020 (April 22) || || || The {{w|World Health Organization}} publishes ''How To Pun On And Take Off Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)'',         a series of posters on emergencies preparedness and response.<ref>{{cite web |title=HOW TO PUT ON AND TAKE OFF Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) |url=https://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/putontakeoffPPE/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=19 May 2020}}</ref> ||
+
| 2015 || Protection ({{w|hand washing}}) || || A study of hand washing in 54 countries finds that on average, 38.7% of households practice hand washing with soap. ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2019 || Disinfection research || || A number of studies find that {{w|copper}} surfaces may help prevent infection in the healthcare environment.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Arendsen |first1=LP |last2=Thakar |first2=R |last3=Sultan |first3=AH |title=The Use of Copper as an Antimicrobial Agent in Health Care, Including Obstetrics and Gynecology. |journal=Clinical Microbiology Reviews |date=18 September 2019 |volume=32 |issue=4 |doi=10.1128/CMR.00125-18}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2020 || Protection (‘‘{{w|cordon sanitaire}}’’) || {{w|Coronavirus disease 2019}} || A multiple number of lockdowns are imposed worldwide in response to the {{w|2019–20 coronavirus pandemic}}. || Worldwide
 +
|-
 +
| 2020 (April 22) || Publication || || The {{w|World Health Organization}} publishes ''How To Pun On And Take Off Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)'', a series of posters on emergencies preparedness and response.<ref>{{cite web |title=HOW TO PUT ON AND TAKE OFF Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) |url=https://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/putontakeoffPPE/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=19 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
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===What the timeline is still missing===
 
===What the timeline is still missing===
 
+
* {{w|Infection control}}
 
* {{w|Category:Disinfectants}}
 
* {{w|Antimicrobial}}
 
* {{w|Antimicrobial copper-alloy touch surfaces}}
 
* {{w|Antimicrobial properties of copper}}
 
* {{w|Medical uses of silver}}
 
* {{w|Cordon sanitaire}}
 
* {{w|Hospital-acquired infection}}
 
 
* {{w|Protective sequestration}}
 
* {{w|Protective sequestration}}
 
* {{w|Buffer zone}}
 
* {{w|Buffer zone}}
Line 509: Line 584:
 
* {{w|Leper colony}}
 
* {{w|Leper colony}}
 
* {{w|Barrier nursing}}
 
* {{w|Barrier nursing}}
* {{w|Cubicle curtain}}
 
 
* {{w|Category:Medical hygiene}}
 
* {{w|Category:Medical hygiene}}
 
* {{w|Category:Antimicrobials}}
 
* {{w|Category:Antimicrobials}}
Line 515: Line 589:
 
* {{w|Disinfectant}}
 
* {{w|Disinfectant}}
 
* {{w|Category:Medical hygiene}}
 
* {{w|Category:Medical hygiene}}
* [https://cha.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/AJIC-2012-Infection-Control-Through-the-Ages.pdf]
 
* [https://cha.com/brief-modern-era-history-of-infection-prevention/]
 
* [https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/su6004a10.htm]
 
* [https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(14)70726-1/fulltext]
 
* [https://www.xenex.com/resources/blog/history-of-infection-prevention-the-turn-of-the-20th-century-thanks-hand-hygiene/]
 
* [https://daily.jstor.org/the-man-who-invented-modern-infection-control/]
 
* [https://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/infectioncontrol/en/]
 
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
   

Latest revision as of 17:18, 10 July 2020

This is a timeline of infection control.

Sample questions

  • What events describe the introduction of chemical agents designed to inactivate or destroy microorganisms?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Disinfectant introduction".
  • What are events desctibing the discovery and/or introduction of disinfection methods other chemical agents?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Disinfection method".

Big picture

Time period Development summary More details
1990s Cubicle curtain design undergoes a period of rapid growth in the decade.[1]

Visual data

Google Trends

The image shows Google Trends data for "infection" and "quarantine" search terms from January 2004 to June 2020.[2] The latter peaks in March 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the month when the United States becomes the country with the highest number of confirmed COVID-19 infections.

Infection Google Trends.png

Wikipedia views

The image shows Wikipedia views desktop data for the articles Infection, Quarantine, and Infection control. Three local maximums in 2008, 2015, and 2020 closely match the 2009 swine flu pandemic, the Western African Ebola virus epidemic, and the COVID-19 pandemic.[3]

Infection Control Wikipedia Views.png

The image shows desktop, mobile-web, desktop-spider, mobile-web-spider, and mobile-app Wikipedia views data for the article Infection control.[4]

Infection Wikipedia Views.png

Full timeline

Year Event type Infection type Details Present time country/region
c.3000 BC Disinfectant introduction Ancient Egyptians use palm wine and vinegar to rinse the abdominal cavities of human and animal cadavers prior to embalming.[5] Egypt
800 BC Disinfectant introduction The oldest reference to disinfection of premises with a chemical product seems to be that described by Homer in book xii of the Odyssey, where the hero, having killed his rivals, demands that sulphur be burnt in the house which they had occupied.[5]
1363 Disinfectant introduction Microbial pathogens Alcohol as an antiseptic is recommended for wound treatment by French physician Guy de Chauliac.[6] France
1523 Protection (‘‘cordon sanitaire’’) Plague During a plague outbreak in Birgu, Malta, the town is cordoned off by guards to prevent the disease from spreading to the rest of the island.[7] Malta
1523 Protection method English scholar Anthony Fitzherbert recommends removal of animals which have died from 'murrain' (anthrax), except the skin (which is sent to a tannery) and the head (which 'was to be placed on a pole to notify to others "that sickness existed in the township" ')[5] United Kingdom
1598 Concept development The word disinfectant is first recorded in writing, with the meaning "to cure, to heale".[8]
1605 Concept development The word septic is first recorded, which means "putrefying".[8]
1658 Concept development The word disinfectant is used in a more modern sense, to remove infection.[8]
1659 Disinfectant introduction Potassium permanganate is first obtained by German-Dutch chemist Johann Rudolf Glauber.[9][10] Netherlands
1666 Protection (‘‘cordon sanitaire’’) Plague The English village of Eyam famously imposes a cordon sanitaire on itself after an outbreak of the bubonic plague in the community.[11][12] United Kingdom
1675 Scientific development Microbial pathogens Antonie Van Leuwenhoek discovers microorganisms.[13]
1676 Microbial pathogens Dutch scientist Antonie Van Leuwenhoek first sees bacteria.[8] In the same year, he discovers that vinegar kills some microorganisms.[13] Van Leuwenhoek provides the first scientific proof of the action of acids on 'animalcules', which he discovered using the microscope of his own invention.[5] Netherlands
1708–1712 Protection (‘‘cordon sanitaire’’) Plague A broad cordon sanitaire is extended around the border of the former Duchy of Prussia during a plague outbreak. Those crossing into the exclave are quarantined.[14] Russia
1715 Disinfection method Cattle plague Italian physician Giovanni Maria Lancisi recommends using vinegar (or vinegar water) for disinfecting objects (and even animals or persons) which have been in contact with cases of cattle plague.[15][16][5] Italy
1716 Policy Cattle plague Frederick the Great in Prussia introduces policy mandating that the clothing of persons who have attended animals affected by cattle plague should be aired and 'exposed to flame'.[5] Germany, ex-Prussian territories
1718 Disinfection method introduction French naturalist Louis Joblot sterilizes a hay infusion by boiling it for 15 minutes and then sealing the container.[17][18][5] France
1719 Disinfectant introduction Thymol is first isolated by the German chemist Caspar Neumann.[19] Germany
1730 Disinfectant introduction Glanders infection Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor decrees that stables which have housed glanderous horses should be plastered with quicklime. Such arrangements figure in numerous texts published in Europe around the time.[5] Europe
1745 Policy Plague A decree in Oldenburg prescribes the cleaning with caustic soda of troughs from which cattle with plague have fed, and the cleaning of the woodwork and walls of their houses with lime-wash.[5] Germany
1770 Protection (‘‘cordon sanitaire’’) Plague Habsburg Empress Maria Theresa sets up a cordon sanitaire between Austria and the Ottoman Empire to prevent people and goods infected with plague from crossing the border. Cotton and wool are held in storehouses for weeks, with peasants paid to sleep on the bales and monitored to see if they show signs of disease.[20] Austrian Empire region
1771 Policy Epizootic infection Policy is introduced in France stipulating that animals killed or dead from epizootic disease may not be abandoned in forests, thrown into rivers or placed on rubbish dumps, nor may they be buried in stables, courtyards, gardens or elsewhere within the precincts of towns and villages.[5] France
1774 Disinfectant introduction Microbial pathogens Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovers chlorine.[21]
1776 Scientific development Italian biologist Lazzaro Spallanzani demonstrates that it is impossible for 'spontaneous generation' of microorganisms to occur once the fluid they lived in has been boiled for an hour.[5][17] Italy
1784 Policy Non-human animal contagious diseases A decree issued by the Council of the King of France obliges the owners of animals affected by contagious diseases to burn or scald all harnesses, wagons and any other objects which has been in contact with these animals.[5] France
1789 Disinfectant introduction French chemist Claude Louis Berthollet produces potassium hypochlorite for the first time in his laboratory located in Javel in Paris.[22][23] France
1789 Disinfectant introduction Scottish chemist Charles Tennant prepares a bleaching powder, as distinct from a liquid, by passing chlorine gas into a slurry of slaked lime.[24][25][21] United Kingdom
1793 Protection (‘‘cordon sanitaire’’) Yellow fever During a yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia, roads and bridges leading to the city are blocked off by soldiers from the local militia to prevent the illness from spreading.[26] United States
1794 Protection Plague English physician Erasmus Darwin recommends that if cattle plague are introduced into England, all cattle within a five mile radius of any confirmed outbreak should be 'immediately slaughtered, and consumed within the circumscribed district; and their hides put into quicklime before proper inspectors'.[5] United Kingdom
1800 Infrastructure Hospital-acquired infection, communicable infection A Hospital for Sick Children is established in Paris, initially admitting infectious cases, with consequent high mortality from cross-infection.[27] France
1801 Infrastructure General The first hospital for infectious diseases is established in London.[28] United Kingdom
1803 Concept development Smallpox The word 'germ', in relation to a smallpox infection, is printed.[8]
1811 Disinfectant introduction Microbial pathogens Chlorine dioxide is discovered.[29][30][31]
1813–1814 Protection (‘‘cordon sanitaire’’) Plague During the 1813–1814 Malta plague epidemic, cordon sanitaires are implemented in the main urban settlements and rural settlements with a high mortality rate. People are prevented from entering or leaving.[32][33] Malta
1818 Disinfectant introduction Louis Jacques Thénard first produces hydrogen peroxide by reacting barium peroxide with nitric acid.[34] France
1821 Protection (‘‘cordon sanitaire’’) Concept development The term cordon sanitaire dates to this year.[35][36][37] France
1823 Disinfectant introduction French chemist Antoine Germain Labarraque uses hypochlorite as a deodorant and disinfectant in a cat-gut factory.[21] France
1827 Disinfectant introduction English surgeon Thomas Alcock shows the possibility to use hypochlorite for disinfection.[17] United Kingdom
1829 Disinfectant introduction Lugol's iodine is first made by French physician Jean Guillaume Auguste Lugol.[38][39] France
1831 Disinfection method introduction English chemist William Henry investigates the disinfection of infected clothing using heat rendered them harmless. Henry devises a jacketed dry heat (hot air) steriliser.[17] United Kingdom
1832 Disinfectant introduction Cholera English surgeon Joseph Lister introduces the first reasoned attempt to sterilize air during a cholera epidemic.[21][40] United Kingdom
1834 Disinfectant introduction Microbial pathogens German chemist Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge discovers a phenol, now known as carbolic acid, which he derives in an impure form from coal tar.
1834 Disinfectant introduction Hypochlorous acid is discovered by French chemist Antoine Jérôme Balard by adding, to a flask of chlorine gas, a dilute suspension of mercury(II) oxide in water.[41]
1839 Disinfectant introduction Davies uses iodine for treating infected wounds. This is the first reference to using tincture of iodine in wounds.[17]
1844 Disinfectant introduction Bayard in France prepares an antiseptic powder from coal tar, plaster, ferrous sulphate and clay.[42] France
1847 Medical development Childbed fever Hungarian physician Ignaz Semmelweis presents evidence that childbed fever is spread from person to person on the unclean hands of health-care workers.[43] Austria
1847 Disinfectant introduction Childbed fever Motivated by Ignaz Semmelweis discovery, a bleach derivative is introduced as the hand disinfectant agent at the Vienna Medical Center to help reduce the risk of postpartum women who developed “Childbed Fever”, which had an 80% mortality rate. After introduction, the mortality rate plummets to 90% the first month.[13] Austria
1850 Disinfectant introduction French pharmacist Ferdinand Le Beuf makes a useful disinfectant based on the bark of quillaia, a South American tree.[42] France
1850 Disinfection method introduction French physician Casimir Davaine finds the bacillus of anthrax in the blood of dying sheep. Davaine works on animal infections. Later, he works on a porcelain filter, to remove bacteria.[17] France
1852 Disinfectant introduction Microbial pathogens Eucalyptus oil is introduced in Australia.[44] Australia
1852 Disinfection method introduction Victor Burq discovers that those working with copper have far fewer deaths to cholera than anyone else, and concludes that putting copper on the skin is effective at preventing someone from getting cholera.[45]
1852 Infrastructure Hospital-acquired infection, communicable infection Great Ormond Street Hospital is founded in London. In this hospital, cross-infection is avoided in the children's wards by admission of such cases as perhaps smallpox, scarlet fever, and diphtheria to fever hospitals.[27] United Kingdom
1854 Disinfection method introduction German scientist Heinrich G. F. Schröder and German physician Theodor von Dusch show that bacteria can be removed from air by filtering it through cotton-wool by boiling infusion.[17] Germany
1854 Disinfectant introduction Chlorinated lime is applied in the tratment of sewage in London.[17] United Kingdom
1856 Protection (‘‘cordon sanitaire’’) Yellow fever A cordon sanitaire is implemented in several cities during the yellow fever epidemic.
1858 Disinfectant introduction British physician Benjamin Ward Richardson takes note of the capacity of hydrogen peroxide to remove foul odours and subsequently proposes its use as disinfectant.[17] United Kingdom
1858 Disinfectant introduction Bacteria Fuchsine is first prepared by August Wilhelm von Hofmann from aniline and carbon tetrachloride.[46][47]
1859 Disinfectant introduction Russian chemist Alexander Butlerov discovers formaldehyde.[48][49][21] Russia
1859 Disinfection method introduction Heinrich G. F. Schröder shows that boiling infusion at temperatures above 100°C (e.g., egg yolks, milk and meat) for prolonged time destroys growth but boiling for a short period at 100 °C does not stop growth.[17] Germany
1860 Publication Hospital-acquired infection English social reformer Florence Nightingale publishes Notes on Nursing, a series of guidelines with recommendations on sanitation and hospital environment. These publications prompt new policies of control of cross-infection in most hospitals.[27] United Kingdom
1863 Disinfection method introduction Casimir Devaine demonstrates that porcelain filters retained anthrax bacteria.[17] France
1865 Disinfectant introduction Microbial pathogens Joseph Lister applies a piece of lint dipped in carbolic acid solution to the wound of an eleven-year-old boy at Glasgow Royal Infirmary, who had sustained a compound fracture after a cart wheel had passed over his leg. After four days, he renewes the pad and discovers that no infection has developed. After a total of six weeks he discovers that the boy's bones have fused back together, without the danger of suppuration.[50][51] United Kingdom
1866 Disinfectant introduction Methyl violet is manufactured in France by the Saint-Denis-based firm of Poirrier et Chappat and marketed under the name "Violet de Paris". It was a mixture of the tetra-, penta- and hexamethylated pararosanilines.[52] France
1867 Disinfectant introduction The first reasoned attempt to sterilize air is made by Joseph Lister in his pursuit of antiseptic surgery.[21] United Kingdom
1869 Protection (‘‘cordon sanitaire’’) Cholera French epidemiologist Achille Adrien Proust (father of novelist Marcel Proust) proposes the use of an international cordon sanitaire to control the spread of cholera, which emerged from India and, and threatening Europe and Africa at the time. Proust proposes that all ships bound for Europe from India and Southeast Asia be quarantined at Suez, however his ideas would not be generally embraced.[53][54][55] France
1871 Disinfectant introduction Soap is used with coal tar to make an antiseptic preparation. This formulation is patented.[21]
1871 Disinfection method introduction German botanist Ernst Tiegel filters anthrax fluids through porous cell of unburnt clay with the aid of a Bunsen air pump.[17] Germany
1872 Disinfectant research Early work by Ritthausen shows that phenol is a solvent for proteins.[21]
1873–1875 Disinfectant research Anthrax Casimir Davaine reports bactericidal efficiency of iodine solutions against the anthrax bacillus.[17] France
1874 Concept development The word 'sterilization' is first used as in: sterilization by heat of organic liquids.[17]
1875 Disinfectant introduction Bucholtz publishes his determinations of the concentrations of, amongst other substances, phenol, creosote and salicylic and benzoic acid required to inhibit the growth of and to kill mixed cultures of unnamed micro-organisms.[21]
1876 Scientific development Anthrax Robert Koch publishes his work on anthrax, for the first time conclusively proving that a bacterium could be a specific infectious agent.[28]
1877 Scientific development English physicist John Tyndale discovers the heat resistant phase of bacteria, the spore. Tyndale creates tyndallization, a method of fractional, intermitent processing to inactivate spores, by turning them into less resistant vegetative microbes, upon incubation in a growth medium.[17] United Kingdom
1877 Concept development The word 'sterile' is first used.[8]
1877 Disinfection research Bacterial infection Downes and Blunt demonstrate sterilization of a bacterial culture after nine hours of exposure to sunlight. This is the precursor of ultraviolet light (UV).[17]
1877 Disinfectant introduction British chemical manufacturer John Jeyes patents his Jeyes fluid.[56] United Kingdom
1877 Concept development The word sterile first appears.[8]
1878 Disinfection method introduction Joseph Lister recommends heating of glassware at 150°C for 2 hours to produce sterilization.[17]
1878 Disinfection research Pathogenic bacteria American physician George Miller Sternberg shows that pathogenic bacteria (vegetative or non-spores) are killed in 10 minutes at a relatively benigntemperature of 62°C to 72°C.[17] United States
1878 Concept development Bacterial infection Irish physicist John Tyndall uses the adjective bactericidal.[8] United Kingdom
1881 Disinfectant research Anthrax Robert Koch concludes that ethanol is innefective as an antiseptic based on his work with anthrax spores.[6] Germany
1881 Disinfection research Bacterial infection Koch and coworkers determine the exact value of dry heat and the limitations of steam at 100°C. They additionally create the silk thread technique for testing bactericidal agents, impregnated with anthrax spores.[17]
1881 Disinfectant research Diphtheria There is evidence of the use of ozone as a disinfectant, mentioned by Kellogg in his book on diphtheria.[17]
1882 Protection (‘‘cordon sanitaire’’) Yellow fever In response to a virulent outbreak of yellow fever in Brownsville, Texas, and in northern Mexico, a cordon sanitaire is established 180 miles north of the city, terminating at the Rio Grande to the west and the Gulf of Mexico to the east.[57][58] United States
1882 Disinfectant introduction Hydrogen peroxide is first used for bleaching.[59]
1883 Protection Sterile gowns and caps are invented by German surgeon Gustav Adolf Neuber using a form of autoclave.[17] Germany
1884 Disinfection method introduction French microbiologist Charles Chamberland invents the first autoclave.[17]
1884 Disinfection method introduction Bacterial infection Louis Pasteur and Charles Chamberland design the first candle-shaped porcelain depth filter for the removal of bacteria.[17] France
1885 Disinfection method introduction Germ infection German surgeon Curt Schimmelbusch develops and evaluates details of aseptic technique. He is the first to sterilize surgical dressing by steam. Schimmelbusch also advocates adding sodium carbonate to boiling water to enhance its germicidal value and prevent corrosion of instruments.[17] Germany
1885 Disinfection method introduction Gaston Poupinel in France introduces the first device of dry heat sterilization, which begins to be used in many hospitals.[17] France
1886 Rabies Louis Pasteur successfully immunizes a boy who was bitten by a rabid dog with spinal cord suspensions of inactivated rabies virus.[28] France
1886 Disinfectant introduction Formaldehyde is examined as a bactericide by Loew & Fisher.[21]
1887 Disinfectant introduction Rosahegyi notes that dyes are inhibitory to bacteria.[21]
1987 A document entitled Body substance isolation emphasizes avoiding contact with all moist and potentially infectious body substances except sweat even if blood not present. The document shares some features with universal precautions.[60]
1888 Protection (‘‘cordon sanitaire’’) During a yellow fever epidemic, the city of Jacksonville, Florida, is surrounded by an armed cordon sanitaire by order of Governor Edward A. Perry.[61][62] United States
1888 Publication Fred Kilmer publishes Modern Methods of Antiseptic Wound Treatment, which helps spread the adoption of antiseptic surgery.[17]
1888 Disinfection method introduction German surgeon Ervis Von Esmarch investigates the sterilizing efficiency of unsaturated and superheated steam and recommends the use of bacteriological tests as a proof of sterilization.[17] Germany
1888 Disinfection method introduction American bacteriologist Joseph J. Kinyoun makes important contributions to the design of the steam sterilization chamber and recommends a vacuum process to augment steam penetration of objects.[17] United States
1889 Concept development parasitic fungi The word fungicide appears for the first time.[8]
1880s Disinfectant introduction Joseph Lister uses a phenol agent in his groundbreaking work on surgical antisepsis.[13]
1891 Disinfection method introduction Information about the steam sterilizer appears in print.[17]
1891 Disinfection method introduction Heat sterilization of instruments is introduced by German surgeon Ernst Von Bergmann.[17]
1892 Disinfectant introduction The name ethanol is coined as a result of a resolution adopted at the International Conference on Chemical Nomenclature held in Geneva, Switzerland.[63] Switzerland
1893 Disinfection method introduction British botanist Harry Marshall Ward experiments on the bactericidal effects of different coloured lights.[64][65] Ward demonstrates that it is primarily the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum that has the bactericidal action.[66] United Kingdom
1894 Disinfectant introduction English industrialist William Lever, 1st Viscount Leverhulme introduces the first mass-produced carbolic soap to the market, Lifebuoy.[67] United Kingdom
1896 Disinfection method introduction German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen discovers X-rays, which soon become known for their ability to destroy microbes.[17]
1897 Disinfectant introduction Defries develops an ingenious test which seeks to eliminate the continuing action of a disinfectant and to establish a time for a true endpoint to the disinfection process.[21]
1897 Disinfection method introduction Kronig and Paul in Germany publish paper examining the kinetics or dynamics of the course of the disinfection process.[21][68][69] Germany
1897 Protection Kilmer publishes a classical paper entitled Modern Surgical Dressings.[17]
1897 Concept development Microbes The adjective microbiocidal appears.[8]
1898 Disinfection method introduction A. Schmidt reports on disinfection using formaldehyde as a wet vapour to fumigate sick rooms.[17]
1898 Disinfection method introduction Bacterial infection H. Rieder describes the bactericidal activity of X-rays, achieving almost complete sterilization of agar and gelatin plates of cholera, diphtheria, typhoid, and colon organisms, with exposure for about 1 hour.[17][70]
1899 Protection (‘‘cordon sanitaire’’) Plague An outbreak of plague in Honolulu is managed by a cordon sanitaire around the Chinatown district. In an attempt to control the infection, a barbed wire perimeter is created and people's belongings and homes are burned.[71][72] United States
1900 Disinfection research Strebel demonstrates the inhibitory action of radioactive substances (radium).[17][73]
1900–1904 Protection (‘‘cordon sanitaire’’) Plague "During the San Francisco plague of 1900–1904 San Francisco's Chinatown was subjected to a cordon sanitaire"
1901 Disinfectant introduction Meyer conducts the first systematic experiment on the nature of the antibacterial action of phenols. Meyer shows that the antibacterial action of phenols is paralleled by their distribution between protein and water, suggesting that protein is the prime target.[21]
1903 Disinfectant introduction "The Rideal-Walker test was introduced to evaluate the performance of phenolic disinfectants against Salmonella typhi. It was published in 1903"[21] Rideal Walker proposes the phenol coefficient test.[17]
1903–1914 Protection (‘‘cordon sanitaire’’) Trypanosomiasis The Belgian colonial government imposes a cordon sanitaire on Uele Province in the Belgian Congo to control outbreaks of trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness).[74] Congo D.R
1909 Disinfectant introduction Airborne bacteria "A modification of this method was adopted by the American Public Health Association in 1909 as a standard for determining airborne bacteria."[21]
1910 Disinfection method introduction Chick and Martin consider microbes are killed by heat by protein coagulation in two stages, first by denaturation of the protein and second by agglutination when protein separates out.[17][75]
1910 Disinfectant introduction Using UV light for disinfection of drinking water dates back to this year in Marseille, France.[76] France
1912 Disinfectant research E.A. Cooper, working with bacteria and phenols, concludes that phenols destroy intracellular protein by coagulation.[21]
1913 Disinfectant introduction Bacteria Cooper states that adsorption of phenol onto bacterial cells is the first reaction of the disinfection process.[21]
1916 Disinfectant introduction Bacteria A new agent known as quaternary ammonium salts are first reported by the Rockefeller Institute as having bactericidal properties.[13] United States
1916 Disinfectant introduction An antimicrobial molecule is introduced. These are organic derivatives of the positively charged ammonium ion where at least one hydrogen atom is substituted by a long chain alkyl radical and the three remaining atoms substituted usually by methyl groups.[21]
1916 Publication The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) publishes its first chapteron sterilization in USP Volume 9.[17] United States
1918 Protection (‘‘cordon sanitaire’’) Influenza "The 1918 flu pandemic spread so rapidly that, in general, there was no time to implement cordons sanitaires. However, to prevent an introduction of the infection, residents of Gunnison, Colorado isolated themselves from the surrounding area for two months at the end of 1918. All highways were barricaded near the county lines"
1918 Protection (‘‘cordon sanitaire’’) Influenza In the South Pacific, the Governor of American Samoa, John Martin Poyer, imposed a reverse cordon sanitaire of the islands from all incoming ships, successfully achieving zero deaths within the territory during the influenza epidemic.[77] In contrast, the neighboring New Zealand-controlled Western Samoa is among the hardest hit, with a 90% infection rate and over 20% of its adults dying from the disease.[78] American Samoa, Western Samoa
1918 Crisis Influenza In late year, Spain attempts unsuccessfully to prevent the spread of the Spanish flu by imposing border controls, roadblocks, restricting rail travel, and a maritime cordon sanitaire prohibiting ships with sick passengers from landing, but by then the epidemic is already in progress in the country.[79] Spain
1918 Disinfectant introduction Germ infection Hydrogen peroxide is used in World War I as a germicide.[17]
1920 Disinfectant introduction Standard Oil first produces isopropyl alcohol by hydrating propene.[80][81]
1921 Scientific development Bigelow describes the logarithmic nature of thermal death time (TDT) curves.[17]
1921 Publication Samuel Rideal and Eric Rideal publish Chemical Disinfection and Sterilization.[17]
1922 Scientific development Bigelow and Esty, utilizing spores, determine the thermal death time (TDT), as a means of evaluating sterilization of thermophilic microbes.[82]
1922 Disinfection method introduction Zsigmondy and Buchmann introduce a membrane filter composed of cellulose esters for the removal of bacteria from solution.[17]
1925 Concept development Viruses The adjective virucidal is first noted.[8]
1928 Disinfection method introduction Germ infection Gates discovers the germicidal wavelength of ultraviolet light.[17][83][84]
1929 Disinfectant research Bacterial infection Schrader and Bossert find that ethylene oxide (EO) has bactericidal properties.[17]
1929 Scientific development Bacterial infection Otto Rahn discovers that the size of bacteria is the cause of the logarithmic order of death.[17]
Late 1920s Disinfectant research Bacterial infection American chemist Lloyd Hall exploits bactericidal activity of ethylene oxide to lower the microbiological content of spices.[17] United States
1933 Disinfectant introduction Dettol [85][86][87] India
1933 Disinfectant introduction Gross and Dixon patent use of ethylene oxide as a sterilizing agent.[17]
1933 Disinfectant introduction Soap-solubilized formulation containing chloroxylenol and terpineol is introduced by Colebrook and Maxted.[21]
1933 Disinfection method introduction American Engineer Weeden Underwood makes notable advances in design of, and application of pressure steam sterilizers. This is considered the beginning of the era of scientific sterilization.[17] United States
1933 Disinfectant research Schauffler documents the antimicrobial properties of chlorine dioxide solutions.[17]
1934 Publication Weeden Underwood writes an early textbook on sterilization called Textbook on Sterilization.[17] United States
1935 Disinfectant introduction Germ infection The use of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) as a germicide/disinfectant is formally recognized.[13]
1936 Publication Ernest Carr McCulloch publishes Disinfection and Sterilization.[17]
1938 Disinfection method introduction Carl Walter describes the first rapid, safe mechanical process for routine cleaning and terminal sterilization, called the washer-sterilizer.[17]
1938 Disinfection research Corona discharge is found to be a sterilizing agent.[17]
1939 Disinfectant research Nordgren reports on early work in regard to formaldehyde efficacy, poarticularly under deep vacuum.[17][88]
1941 UK Control of Infection Officer[89] United Kingdom
1941 Disinfectant research Robertson, Bigg, Miller and Baker report on the aerosol disinfection of glycols.[17]
1942 Disinfectant research Bacterial infection Amidines are studied as antitrypanocidal drugs are shown to be antibacterial by Fuller.[21][90][91]
1942 Disinfection method introduction Underwood defines the first "flash sterilization" at 30 min at 121°C.[17]
1943 First isolation ward in USA[92] United States
1943 Disinfectant research Bacterial infection Theodore Puck, Robertson and Henry Lemon report on the bactericidal activity of propylene glycol (hydrolysis by-product of propylene oxide) vapour.[17]
1944 USA Infection Control Officer.[93] United States
1943–1945 Disinfection research Microbial infection Otto Rahn describes the logarithmic kinetics and temperature coefficient values of sterilants and antimicrobial agents.[17]
1946 Organization General The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is founded.[28] United States
1946 Disinfection research Microbial infection Ewell demonstrates that microbes are more readily killed by ozone in high humidity than at low humidity.[17]
1947 Disinfection research Microbial infection English experimental physicist Douglas Lea reports on the actions of radiation on living cells. In the main, ionizing radiation destroys microbes by direct hits of the radiations on or near the organism.[17] United Kingdom
1947 Disinfectant introduction Fungus, HIV-1 (AIDS), Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C infection The barbicide is invented by Maurice King and marketed heavily around the United States by his brother James.[94] United States
1947 Program launch Gastroenteritis A widespread outbreak of gastroenteritis in the United Kingdom, causing the death of 4,500 children under the age of one, motivates a national objective of sterilising all baby's milk bottles. Milton sterilizing fluid becomes the antiseptic advocated by hospitals and government agencies. This cold water method is generally available and simple for all to use, and virtually all mothers adopted this method.[95] United Kingdom
1947 Disinfectant introduction Escherichia coli infection Jordan et al. write 12 papers on the dynamics of the disinfection of Escherichia coli by phenol and heat.[21]
1949 Disinfectant research Anthrax Kolb and Schneiter show methyl bromide to be bactericidal for anthrax spores and its use is recommended for sterilization of improved wool.[17]
1949 Disinfectant research Bacillus thermoacidurans Hutchins and Xezones report peracetic acid to be highly germicide against spores of bacillus thermoacidurans.[17]
1950 Disinfectant introduction Bacterial infection "11 papers by Berry & Michaels (1950) on the bactericidal activity of ethylene glycol and its mono alkyl ethers on the same organism. These papers recorded in meticulous detail the time course of the disinfection process, the effect of temperature and other factors upon it and how loss of activity with dilution-the concentration exponent-is a variant property of antibacterial substances."[21]
1950 Concept development The term sanitizer appears first in the Journal of Milk and Food Technology.[8]
1954 Disinfectant introduction Microbial infection Davies et al. describe the new antimicrobial compound chlorhexidine.[21]
1955 Disinfectant introduction Peracetic acid is introduced.[21]
1955 Disinfectant introduction Povidone-iodine comes into commercial use.[96]
Mid-1950s Disinfection method Baby wipes emerge around this time as more people travel and need a way to clean up on the go.[97]
1956 Disinfectant introduction Chlorine dioxide is introduced as a drinking water disinfectant on a large scale, when Brussels, Belgium, changes from chlorine to chlorine dioxide.[98] Belgium
1956 Disinfectant introduction Glyoxal and related compounds are first used as potential blood sterilizing agents.[17][99]
1957 Disinfectant introduction Glutaraldehyde is introduced.[21]
1957 Publication John Perkins publishes the first edition of Principals and Methods of Sterilization.[17]
1957 Disinfection method American Arthur Julius invents the wet wipes.[100] United States
1958 Publication G. Sykes publishes Disinfection and Sterilization.[17]
1950s Disinfectant introduction Chlorhexidine comes into medical use.[101]
1959 Medical development Exeter microbiologist Brendan Moore becomes the first appointed Infection Control Nurse.[102][103][104] United Kingdom
1960 Disinfection method It is found that conveyor ovens can provide continuous sterilization of syringes.[17]
1960 Disinfectant research Alkalinized glutaraldehyde is found to be effective as a sterilant.[17]
1961 Disinfection method High vacuum infrared ovens become available for batch sterilization.[17]
1961 Disinfectant research Microbial infection Propylene oxide is demonstrated to have microbicidal activity within powered or flaked food.[17]
1961 Disinfection research Hospital-acquired infection Robert Ernst shows that the use of iodophores at elevated temperature (e.g., 50-60°C) in combination with ultrasonics could be an effective sterilizing agent for surgical and dental instruments.[17]
1962 Disinfection research Bacterial infection It is found that the rate of bacterial spore destruction improves with simultaneous applied ionizing and thermal processing.[17]
1962 Disinfection method introduction Robert McDonald invents the prehumidification step for effective ethylene oxide sterilization.[17]
1962 Disinfectant research The first antimicrobial indications of dialdehydes, e.g., glutaldehyde, are described by Pepper and Liebermann.[17]
1963 Disinfection method introduction The first gamma irradiator is used in the United States for sterilization of medical devices.[17]
1963 Disinfectant introduction Gaseous propylene oxide is used to sterilize and de-infest food products.[17]
1963 Scientific development Microbial infection Guerin shows that desiccated microbes are more resistant to ozone than hydrated cells.[17]
1964 Disinfection method introduction Johnson and Johnson provides commercial gamma irradiation.[17]
1964 Disinfection method introduction Armstrong discovers a gaseous ozone sterilization process.[17]
1965 Disinfectant research Sydney Rubbo and Joan Gardner show that glutaraldehyde is not only more effective than formaldehyde but also less irritating.[17]
1966 Disinfectant introduction Hand sanitizers are first introduced.[105]
1966 Disinfection method introduction Alder and co-workers develop a low temperature steam and formaldehyde system similar to high vacuum steam sterilization but operating at 65-80°C.[17]
1967 Disinfectant research Saul Kaye demonstrates that formic acid is microcidal synergistic with ethylene oxide and other epoxides.[17]
1968 Concept development Paul Borick describes and defines chemosterilizers.[106][107]
1968 Disinfection method introduction Earle H. Spaulding devises a rational approach of disinfection and classification for patient care items and equipment – non-critical items, semi-critical items, and critical items.[17]
1969 Disinfection research Marcel Reynolds discovers the feasibility of using thermo-irradiation as sterilization of spacecraft.[17]
1960s Disinfectant introduction Glutaraldehyde comes into medical use.[108]
1970 Disinfectant introduction Trimethylene oxide (oxetane) is patented for its disinfecting capabilities, and possible use in sterilization processes.[17]
1970 Disinfection method introduction Russian scientists pubish a method detailing using a gas mixture of methyl bromide and ethylene oxide for sterilization of a space lander in a plastic bag.[17] Russia
1970 Disinfection method introduction Continuous ethylene oxide sterilization process is developed.[17]
1970 A document entitled Isolation Technique for Use in Hospitals introduces seven isolation precaution categories with color-coded cards: Strict, Respiratory, Protective, Enteric, Wound and Skin, Discharge, and Blood.[109] United States
1971 Disinfection method introduction D.A. Gunther patents a balance pressure process for use with ethylene oxide sterilization.[17]
1972 Cordon sanitaire Smallpox During the 1972 Yugoslav smallpox outbreak, over 10,000 people are sequestered in cordons sanitaires of villages and neighborhoods using roadblocks, and a general prohibition of public meetings, a closure of all borders and a prohibition of all non-essential travel is implemented.[110][111] Serbia, Kosovo
1972 Disinfection method introduction Leland Ashman and Wilson Menashi use low temperature gas plasma for sterilization of contaminated surfaces.[17]
1973 Disinfection research Researchers at Battelle Columbus Laboratories conduct a comprehensive literature, technology, and patent search tracing the history of understanding the "bacteriostatic and sanitizing properties of copper and copper alloy surfaces", which demonstrates that copper, in very small quantities, has the power to control a wide range of molds, fungi, algae, and harmful microbes.[112] United States
1976 Disinfection method introduction A method of cold sterilization using frozen dimethyl dicarbonate is developed.[113]
1976 Disinfection method introduction Lowell Tensmeyer devises a method of killing micro-organisms in the inside of a container utilizing a plasma initiated by a focused laser beam and sustained by an electromagnetic field.[17]
1979 Disinfection method introduction Francis C. Moore and Leon R. Perkinson devise a hydrogen peroxide vapour sterilization method.[17]
1980 Disinfection method introduction A seeded (dialdehyde) gas plasma sterilization method is patented by G. Boucher.[17]
1984 Statistics Hospital-acquired infection A survey in Australia documents that 6.3% of 28,643 hospitalized patients in the country have a hospital-acquired infection, with the highest rates in larger hospitals.[114] Australia
1985 Disinfectant research A.A. Rosenblatt, D.H. Rosenblatt and J.E. Knapp find chlorine to be a sterilant in a gaseous phase.[115][116]
1985–1988 HIV infection A document entitled Universal precautions is issued in response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. It dictates application of blood and body fluid precautions to all patients, regardless of infection status.[117][118]
1986 Disinfection method introduction Pulsed laser sterilization is described.[17]
1988 Disinfection method introduction Joslyn introduces a post-steam sterilization process for removing ethylene oxide residuals more effectively, than mere heated aeration.[17]
1989 Disinfection method introduction The use of the vapor phase of hydrogen peroxide as a surface decontaminant and sterilant is discovered.[17]
1980s Disinfectant introduction Alcohol-based hand sanitizer starts being commonly used in Europe.[119]
1991 Disinfection method introduction Karlson patents a gaseous ozone sterilization process.[17]
1995 Protection (‘‘cordon sanitaire’’) Ebola A cordon sanitaire is used to control an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Kikwit, Zaire.[120][121] Congo D.R.
1995 Statistics Hospital-acquired infection The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that approximately 1.9 million cases of hospital-acquired infection occurred in the United States.[122] United States
1998 Statistics Hospital-acquired infection According to CDC, approximately one third of healthcare acquired infections are preventable.[123]
1998 Global Campaign for Microbicides
1999 Disinfection method introduction A new plasma sterilizer is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.[124] United States
1990s Disinfectant introduction Non-flammable Alcohol Vapor in Carbon Dioxide systems (NAV-CO2 System) are developed in Japan in the 1990s to sanitize hospitals and ambulances. Japan
2001 Disinfectant research General Disinfection with performic acid is noted.[17]
2001 Protection (hand washing) The Global Handwashing Partnership (GHP) is established as a coalition of international stakeholders "working to promote handwashing with soap and recognize hygiene as a pillar of international development and public health."[125]
2002 Publication The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners publishes a revised standard for office-based infection control which covers the sections of managing immunization, sterilization and disease surveillance.[126][127] Australia
2002 International Partnership for Microbicides
2003 Protection (‘‘cordon sanitaire’’) Severe acute respiratory syndrome During the 2003 SARS outbreak in Canada, "community quarantine" is used to successfully reduce transmission of the disease.[128] Canada
2003 Protection (‘‘cordon sanitaire’’) Severe acute respiratory syndrome During the 2003 SARS outbreak in mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore, large-scale quarantine is imposed on travelers arriving from other SARS areas, work and school contacts of suspected cases, and, in a few instances, entire apartment complexes where high attack rates of SARS were occurring.[129] China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore
2004 Publication Microbial infection Ferric Fang publishes a paper on antimicrobial reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.[130]
2004 Protection (‘‘cordon sanitaire’’) Ebola A cordon sanitaire is established around some of the most affected areas of the 2014 West Africa Ebola virus outbreak.[131][132] On 19 August, the Liberian government quarantines the entirety of West Point, Monrovia and issued a curfew statewide.[133] Liberia
2005 Publication Hospital-acquired infection The American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America publish guidelines suggesting antibiotics specifically for hospital-acquired pneumonia.[134] United States
2005 International Rectal Microbicide Advocates
2006 Microbicide Trials Network
2006 Microbicides Development Programme United Kingdom
2008 (February) Disinfection method introduction The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approves the registrations of five different groups of copper alloys as "antimicrobial materials" with public health benefits.[135] United States
2008 (April) Publication Respiratory infection The World Health Organization publishes Early recognition, reporting and infection control management of acute respiratory diseases of potential international concern, an aide-mémoire on emergencies preparedness and response.[136]
2008 (June) Publication The World Health Organization publishes Core components for infection prevention and control programmes, a report of the Second Meeting of the Informal Network on Infection Prevention and Control in Health Care.[137] Switzerland (Geneva)
2008 (November) Bacterial infection A non-peer-reviewed[138] study is presented to the European Tissue Symposium by the University of Westminster, London, comparing the bacteria levels present after the use of paper towels, warm air hand dryers, and modern jet-air hand dryers.[139] Of those three methods, only paper towels reduced the total number of bacteria on hands, with "through-air dried" towels the most effective.
2009 Publication The World Health Organization publishes Natural ventilation for infection control in health-care settings.[140]
2009 Publication The World Health Organization publishes Infection-control measures for health care of patients with acute respiratory diseases in community settings.[141]
2011 (April) Publication The World Health Organization publishes Core components for infection prevention and control programmes.[142]
2011 Statistics Hospital-acquired infection Researchers estimate that by this time, 648,000 hospitalized patients in then United States have to battle at least one hospital-acquired infection. The total number of infections is estimated at 721,800. To put that number in perspective, about 34 million people are admitted to 5,000 community hospitals in the country each year.[143] United States
2012 Scientific development General A published study claims that "new mathematical modelling, diagnostic, communications, and informatics technologies can identify and report hitherto unknown microbes in other species, and thus new risk assessment approaches are needed to identify microbes most likely to cause human disease". The study investigates challenges in moving the global pandemic strategy from response to pre-emption.[144]
2014 Organization General The Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) is launched as global partnership devoted to the purpose of strengthening the world’s ability to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious disease threats. As of 2020 it has 67 member countries.[145]
2014 Protection (hand washing) A study shows that Saudi Arabia has the highest rate of hand washing with soap, with 97 percent; the United States near the middle with 77 percent; and China with the lowest rate of 23 percent.[146]
2015 Protection (hand washing) A study of hand washing in 54 countries finds that on average, 38.7% of households practice hand washing with soap.
2019 Disinfection research A number of studies find that copper surfaces may help prevent infection in the healthcare environment.[147]
2020 Protection (‘‘cordon sanitaire’’) Coronavirus disease 2019 A multiple number of lockdowns are imposed worldwide in response to the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic. Worldwide
2020 (April 22) Publication The World Health Organization publishes How To Pun On And Take Off Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), a series of posters on emergencies preparedness and response.[148]

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References

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