Difference between revisions of "Timeline of infection prevention and control"

From Timelines
Jump to: navigation, search
Line 168: Line 168:
| 1881 || || || There is evidence of the use of {{w|ozone}} as a disinfectant, mentioned by Kellogg in his book on {{w|diphtheria}}.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
| 1881 || || || There is evidence of the use of {{w|ozone}} as a disinfectant, mentioned by Kellogg in his book on {{w|diphtheria}}.<ref name="Rogers"/> ||
| 1882 || ''{{w|Cordon sanitaire}}'' || {{w|Yellow fever}} || "in 1882, in response to a virulent outbreak of yellow fever in Brownsville, Texas, and in northern Mexico, a cordon sanitaire was established 180 miles north of the city, terminating at the Rio Grande to the west and the Gulf of Mexico to the east." ||
| 1882 || ''{{w|Cordon sanitaire}}'' || {{w|Yellow fever}} || In response to a virulent outbreak of {{w|yellow fever}} in {{w|Brownsville, Texas}}, and in northern Mexico, a {{w|cordon sanitaire}} is established 180 miles north of the city, terminating at the Rio Grande to the west and the Gulf of Mexico to the east.<ref>{{cite web |title=Part II: Yellow Fever Comes to the Valley |url=https://www.valleymorningstar.com/2016/08/07/part-ii-yellow-fever-comes-to-the-valley/ |website=valleymorningstar.com |accessdate=27 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plagues |url=https://www.academia.dk/MedHist/Sygdomme/PDF/Encyclopedia_of_Pestilence_Pandemics_and_Plagues.pdf |website=academia.dk |accessdate=27 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
| 1883 || || || Sterile gowns and caps are invented by German surgeon {{w|Gustav Adolf Neuber}} using a form of autoclave.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|Germany}}
| 1883 || || || Sterile gowns and caps are invented by German surgeon {{w|Gustav Adolf Neuber}} using a form of autoclave.<ref name="Rogers"/> || {{w|Germany}}

Revision as of 17:15, 26 May 2020

This is a timeline of infection control.

Big picture

Time period Development summary More details

Full timeline

Year Event type Infection type Details Country/region
c.3000 BC Ancient Egyptians use palm wine and vinegar to rinse the abdominal cavities of human and animal cadavers prior to embalming.[1] Egypt
800 BC The oldest reference to disinfection of premises with a chemical product seems to be that described by Homer in book xii of the Odyssey, where the hero, having killed his rivals, demands that sulphur be burnt in the house which they had occupied.[1]
1363 Disinfectant Microbial pathogens Alcohol as an antiseptic is recommended for wound treatment by French physician Guy de Chauliac.[2] France
1523 Cordon sanitaire Plague During a plague outbreak in Birgu, Malta, the town is cordoned off by guards to prevent the disease from spreading to the rest of the island.[3] Malta
1523 English scholar Anthony Fitzherbert recommends removal of animals which have died from 'murrain' (anthrax), except the skin (which is sent to a tannery) and the head (which 'was to be placed on a pole to notify to others "that sickness existed in the township" ')[1] United Kingdom
1598 Disinfectant The word disinfectant is first recorded in writing, with the meaning "to cure, to heale".[4]
1605 The word septic is first recorded, which means "putrefying".[4]
1658 Disinfectant The word disinfectant is used in a more modern sense, to remove infection.[4]
1659 Disinfectant Potassium permanganate is first obtained by German-Dutch chemist Johann Rudolf Glauber.[5][6] Netherlands
1666 Cordon sanitaire Plague The English village of Eyam famously imposes a cordon sanitaire on itself after an outbreak of the bubonic plague in the community.[7][8] United Kingdom
1675 Microbial pathogens Antonie Van Leuwenhoek discovers microorganisms.[9]
1676 Microbial pathogens Dutch scientist Antonie Van Leuwenhoek first sees bacteria.[4] In the same year, he discovers that vinegar kills some microorganisms.[9] "It was not until 1676 that Van Leeuwenhoek offered the first scientific proof of the action of acids on 'animalcules', which he had discovered using the microscope of his own invention."[1] Netherlands
1708–1712 Cordon sanitaire Plague "During the Great Northern War plague outbreak of 1708–1712, cordons sanitaires were established around affected towns like Stralsund and Königsberg; one was also established around the whole Duchy of Prussia and another one between Scania and the Danish isles along the Sound, with Saltholm as the central quarantine station"
1715 Italian physician Giovanni Maria Lancisi recommends using vinegar (or vinegar water) for disinfecting objects (and even animals or persons) which have been in contact with cases of cattle plague.[10][11][1] Italy
1716 "An edict of Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, in 1716, decreed that the clothing of persons who had attended animals affected by cattle plague should be aired and 'exposed to flame'. There were heavy penalties for contravention: branding, forced labour for perpetuity and even flagellation followed by hanging"[1]
1718 French naturalist Louis Joblot sterilizes a hay infusion by boiling it for 15 minutes and then sealing the container.[12][13][1] France
1730 Disinfectant Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor decrees that stables which have housed glanderous horses should be plastered with quicklime. Such arrangements figure in numerous texts published in Europe around the time.[1] Europe
1745 A decree in Oldenburg prescribes the cleaning with caustic soda of troughs from which cattle with plague have fed, and the cleaning of the woodwork and walls of their houses with lime-wash.[1] Germany
1770 Cordon sanitaire Plague Habsburg Empress Maria Theresa sets up a cordon sanitaire between Austria and the Ottoman Empire to prevent people and goods infected with plague from crossing the border. Cotton and wool are held in storehouses for weeks, with peasants paid to sleep on the bales and monitored to see if they show signs of disease.[14] Austrian Empire region
1771 "Thus, a decree issued by the Council of the King of France (June 1771) stipulated that 'animals killed or dead from epizootic disease may not be abandoned in forests, thrown into rivers or placed on rubbish dumps, nor may they be buried in stables, courtyards, gardens or elsewhere within the precincts of towns and villages"[1]
1774 Disinfectant Microbial pathogens Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovers chlorine.[15]
1776 Italian biologist Lazzaro Spallanzani demonstrates that it was impossible for 'spontaneous generation' of microorganisms to occur once the fluid they lived in had been boiled for an hour.[1][12] Italy
1784 Disinfectant A decree issued by the Council of the King of France obliges the owners of animals affected by contagious diseases to burn or scald all harnesses, wagons and any other objects which has been in contact with these animals.[1] France
1789 Disinfectant "Potassium hypochlorite was first produced in 1789 by Claude Louis Berthollet in his laboratory located in Javel in Paris" France
1789 Tennant prepares a bleaching powder, as distinct from a liquid, by passing chlorine gas into a slurry of slaked lime.[15]
1793 Cordon sanitaire Yellow fever During a yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia, roads and bridges leading to the city are blocked off by soldiers from the local militia to prevent the illness from spreading. United States
1794 English physician Erasmus Darwin recommends that if cattle plague are introduced into England, all cattle within a five mile radius of any confirmed outbreak should be 'immediately slaughtered, and consumed within the circumscribed district; and their hides put into quicklime before proper inspectors'.[1] United Kingdom
1801 General The first hospital for infectious diseases is established in London.[16] United Kingdom
1803 The word 'germ', in relation to a smallpox infection, is printed.[4]
1811 Disinfectant Microbial pathogens Chlorine dioxide is discovered.[17][18][19]
1813–1814 "During the 1813–14 Malta plague epidemic, the main urban settlements of Malta (Valletta, Floriana and the Three Cities) and rural settlements with a high mortality rate (Birkirkara, Qormi, Żebbuġ and later Xagħra) were cordoned off by the military to prevent people from entering or leaving"
1821 Cordon sanitaire Concept development The term cordon sanitaire dates to this year.[20][21][22] France
1823 Disinfectant French chemist Antoine Germain Labarraque uses hypochlorite as a deodorant and disinfectant in a cat-gut factory.[15] France
1827 English surgeon Thomas Alcock shows the possibility to use hypochlorite for disinfection.[12] United Kingdom
1829 Disinfectant Lugol's iodine is first made by French physician Jean Guillaume Auguste Lugol.[23][24] France
1831 Disinfectant English chemist William Henry investigates the disinfection of infected clothing using heat rendered them harmless. Henry devises a jacketed dry heat (hot air) steriliser.[12] United Kingdom
1832 Disinfectant "Apart from the burning of aromatic herbs and the use of chlorine gas in the Paisley cholera epidemic of 1832, the first reasoned attempt to sterilize air"[15]
1834 Disinfectant Microbial pathogens German chemist Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge discovers a phenol, now known as carbolic acid, which he derives in an impure form from coal tar.
1834 Disinfectant Hypochlorous acid is discovered by French chemist Antoine Jérôme Balard by adding, to a flask of chlorine gas, a dilute suspension of mercury(II) oxide in water.[25]
1839 Davies uses iodine for treating infected wounds. This is the first reference to using tincture of iodine in wounds.[12]
1844 Disinfectant Bayard in France prepares an antiseptic powder from coal tar, plaster, ferrous sulphate and clay.[26] France
1847 Disinfectant A bleach derivative is introduced as the hand disinfectant agent at the Vienna Medical Center to help reduce the risk of postpartum women who developed “Childbed Fever”, which had an 80% mortality rate. After introduction, the mortality rate plummets to 90% the first month.[9]
1850 Disinfectant French pharmacist Ferdinand Le Beuf makes a useful disinfectant based on the bark of quillaia, a South American tree.[26] France
1850 French physician Casimir Davaine finds the bacillus of anthrax in the blood of dying sheep. Davaine works on animal infections. Later, he works on a porcelain filter, to remove bacteria.[12] France
1852 Disinfectant Microbial pathogens Eucalyptus oil is introduced in Australia.[27] Australia
1854 German scientist Heinrich G. F. Schröder and German physician Theodor von Dusch show that bacteria can be removed from air by filtering it through cotton-wool by boiling infusion.[12] Germany
1854 Chlorinated lime is applied in the tratment of sewage in London.[12] United Kingdom
1856 Cordon sanitaire Yellow fever A cordon sanitaire is implemented in several cities during the yellow fever epidemic.
1858 British statistician Florence Nightingale promotes the case for hospital reform.[28] United Kingdom
1858 British physician Benjamin Ward Richardson takes note of the capacity of hydrogen peroxide to remove foul odours and subsequently proposes its use as disinfectant.[12] United Kingdom
1858 Disinfectant Bacteria Fuchsine is first prepared by August Wilhelm von Hofmann from aniline and carbon tetrachloride.[29][30]
1859 Disinfectant Formaldehyde is discovered.[15]
1859 Heinrich G. F. Schröder shows that boiling infusion at temperatures above 100°C (e.g., egg yolks, milk and meat) for prolonged time destroys growth but boiling for a short period at 100 °C does not stop growth.[12] Germany
1863 Casimir Devaine demonstrates that porcelain filters retained anthrax bacteria.[12] France
1865 Disinfectant Microbial pathogens Dr. Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister applies a piece of lint dipped in carbolic acid solution to the wound of an eleven-year-old boy at Glasgow Royal Infirmary, who had sustained a compound fracture after a cart wheel had passed over his leg. After four days, he renewes the pad and discovers that no infection has developed. After a total of six weeks he discovers that the boy's bones have fused back together, without the danger of suppuration.[31][32] United Kingdom
1866 Disinfectant Methyl violet is manufactured in France by the Saint-Denis-based firm of Poirrier et Chappat and marketed under the name "Violet de Paris". It was a mixture of the tetra-, penta- and hexamethylated pararosanilines.[33] France
1867 Disinfectant The first reasoned attempt to sterilize air is made by British surgeon Joseph Lister in his pursuit of antiseptic surgery.[15] United Kingdom
1869 Cordon sanitaire Cholera French epidemiologist Achille Adrien Proust (father of novelist Marcel Proust) proposes the use of an international cordon sanitaire to control the spread of cholera, which emerged from India and, and threatening Europe and Africa at the time. Proust proposes that all ships bound for Europe from India and Southeast Asia be quarantined at Suez, however his ideas would not be generally embraced.[34][35][36] France
1871 Soap is used with coal tar to make an antiseptic preparation. This formulation is patented.[15]
1871 German botanist Ernst Tiegel filters anthrax fluids through porous cell of unburnt clay with the aid of a Bunsen air pump.[12] Germany
1872 "Some early work due to Ritthausen (1872) showed that phenol was a solvent for proteins."[15]
1873–1875 Casimir Davaine reports bactericidal efficiency of iodine solutions against the anthrax bacillus.[12] France
1874 The word 'sterilization' is first used as in: sterilization by heat of organic liquids.[12]
1875 Disinfectant "One hundred and thirty years were to pass before another paper on evaluation appeared and by this time much more was known and published about bacteria. This paper was by Bucholtz (1875), who published his determinations of the concentrations of, amongst other substances, phenol, creosote and salicylic and benzoic acid required to inhibit the growth of and to kill mixed cultures of unnamed micro-organisms."[15]
1876 Robert Koch publishes his work on anthrax, for the first time conclusively proving that a bacterium could be a specific infectious agent.[16]
1877 English physicist John Tyndale discovers the heat resistant phase of bacteria, the spore. Tyndale creates tyndallization, a method of fractional, intermitent processing to inactivate spores, by turning them into less resistant vegetative microbes, upon incubation in a growth medium.[12] United Kingdom
1877 The word 'sterile' is first used.[4]
1877 Downes and Blunt demonstrate sterilization of a bacterial culture after nine hours of exposure to sunlight. This is the precursor of ultraviolet light (UV).[12]
1877 Disinfectant British chemical manufacturer John Jeyes patents his Jeyes fluid.[37] United Kingdom
1877 The word sterile first appears.[4]
1878 Lister recommends heating of glassware at 150°C for 2 hours to produce sterilization.[12]
1878 American physician George Miller Sternberg shows that pathogenic bacteria (vegetative or non-spores) are killed in 10 minutes at a relatively benigntemperature of 62°C to 72°C.[12] United States
1878 Tyndall uses the adjective bactericidal.[4]
1881 Robert Koch concludes that ethanol is innefective as an antiseptic based on his work with anthrax spores.[2] Germany
1881 Koch and coworkers determine the exact value of dry heat and the limitations of steam at 100°C. They additionally create the silk thread technique for testing bactericidal agents, impregnated with anthrax spores.[12]
1881 There is evidence of the use of ozone as a disinfectant, mentioned by Kellogg in his book on diphtheria.[12]
1882 Cordon sanitaire Yellow fever In response to a virulent outbreak of yellow fever in Brownsville, Texas, and in northern Mexico, a cordon sanitaire is established 180 miles north of the city, terminating at the Rio Grande to the west and the Gulf of Mexico to the east.[38][39] United States
1883 Sterile gowns and caps are invented by German surgeon Gustav Adolf Neuber using a form of autoclave.[12] Germany
1884 French microbiologist Charles Chamberland invents the first autoclave.[12]
1884 Pasteur and Chamberland design the first candle-shaped porcelain depth filter for the removal of bacteria.[12]
1885 German surgeon Curt Schimmelbusch develops and evaluates details of aseptic technique. He is the first to sterilize surgical dressing by steam. Schimmelbusch also advocates adding sodium carbonate to boiling water to enhance its germicidal value and prevent corrosion of instruments.[12] Germany
1885 Gaston Poupinel in France introduces the first device of dry heat sterilization, which begins to be used in many hospitals.[12] France
1886 Rabies Louis Pasteur successfully immunizes a boy who was bitten by a rabid dog with spinal cord suspensions of inactivated rabies virus.[16]
1886 Disinfectant Formaldehyde is examined as a bactericide by Loew & Fisher.[15]
1887 Disinfectant Rosahegyi notes that dyes are inhibitory to bacteria.[15]
1888 Cordon sanitaire During a yellow fever epidemic, the city of Jacksonville, Florida, is surrounded by an armed cordon sanitaire by order of Governor Edward A. Perry.[40][41] United States
1888 Fred Kilmer publishes Modern Methods of Antiseptic Wound Treatment, which helps spread the adoption of antiseptic surgery.[12]
1888 German surgeon Ervis Von Esmarch investigates the sterilizing efficiency of unsaturated and superheated steam and recommends the use of bacteriological tests as a proof of sterilization.[12] Germany
1888 American bacteriologist Joseph J. Kinyoun makes important contributions to the design of the steam sterilization chamber and recommends a vacuum process to augment steam penetration of objects.[12] United States
1889 The word 'fungicide' appears for the first time.[4]
1880s Disinfectant Joseph Lister uses a phenol agent in his groundbreaking work on surgical antisepsis.[9]
1891 Information about the steam sterilizer appears in print.[12]
1891 Heat sterilization of instruments is introduced by German surgeon Ernst Von Bergmann.[12]
1892 Disinfectant The name ethanol is coined as a result of a resolution adopted at the International Conference on Chemical Nomenclature held in Geneva, Switzerland.[42] Switzerland
1893 British botanist Harry Marshall Ward experiments on the bactericidal effects of different coloured lights.[43][44] Ward demonstrates that it is primarily the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum that has the bactericidal action.[45] United Kingdom
1896 German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen discovers X-rays, which soon become known for their ability to destroy microbes.[12]
1897 Disinfectant "Another ingenious test which sought to eliminate the continuing action of a disinfectant and to establish a time for a true endpoint to the disinfection process was that of Defries (1897)."[15]
1897 Kronig and Paul in Germany publish paper examining the kinetics or dynamics of the course of the disinfection process.[15][46][47] Germany
1897 Kilmer publishes a classical paper entitled Modern Surgical Dressings.[12]
1897 The adjective microbiocidal appears.[4]
1898 A. Schmidt reports on disinfection using formaldehyde as a wet vapour to fumigate sick rooms.[12]
1898 Reider describes the bactericidal activity of X-rays.[12]
1899 Cordon sanitaire An outbreak of plague in Honolulu is managed by a cordon sanitaire around the Chinatown district. In an attempt to control the infection, a barbed wire perimeter is created and people's belongings and homes are burned.[48][49] United States
1900 By this time, there are 4,000 hospitals in the United States.[16] United States
1900 Strebel demonstrates the inhibitory action of radioactive substances (radium).[12][50]
1900–1904 Cordon sanitaire "During the San Francisco plague of 1900–1904 San Francisco's Chinatown was subjected to a cordon sanitaire"
1901 Disinfectant "The first systematic experiment on the nature of the antibacterial action of phenols, however, was due to Meyer (1901) who showed that the antibacterial action of phenols was paralleled by their distribution between protein and water, suggesting that protein was the prime target."[15]
1902 Cordon sanitaire "In 1902, Louisiana imposed a cordon sanitaire to prevent Italian immigrants from disembarking at the port of New Orleans. "
1903 Disinfectant "The Rideal-Walker test was introduced to evaluate the performance of phenolic disinfectants against Salmonella typhi. It was published in 1903"[15] Rideal Walker proposes the phenol coefficient test.[12]
1903–1914 Cordon sanitaire Trypanosomiasis The Belgian colonial government imposes a cordon sanitaire on Uele Province in the Belgian Congo to control outbreaks of trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness).[51] Congo D.R
1909 Disinfectant "A modification of this method was adopted by the American Public Health Association in 1909 as a standard for determining airborne bacteria."[15]
1910 Chick and Martin consider microbes are killed by heat by protein coagulation in two stages, first by denaturation of the protein and second by agglutination when protein separates out.[12][52]
1912 Cooper, working with bacteria and phenols, concludes that phenols destroy intracellular protein by coagulation.[15]
1913 Disinfectant Cooper states that adsorption of phenol onto bacterial cells is the first reaction of the disinfection process.[15]
1916 Disinfectant Bacterial disease A new agent known as quaternary ammonium salts are first reported by the Rockefeller Institute as having bactericidal properties.[9] United States
1916 Disinfectant An antimicrobial molecule is introduced. These are organic derivatives of the positively charged ammonium ion where at least one hydrogen atom is substituted by a long chain alkyl radical and the three remaining atoms substituted usually by methyl groups.[15]
1916 The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) publishes its first chapteron sterilization in USP Volume 9.[12] United States
1918 Cordon sanitaire Influenza "The 1918 flu pandemic spread so rapidly that, in general, there was no time to implement cordons sanitaires. However, to prevent an introduction of the infection, residents of Gunnison, Colorado isolated themselves from the surrounding area for two months at the end of 1918. All highways were barricaded near the county lines"
1918 Cordon sanitaire Influenza In the South Pacific, the Governor of American Samoa, John Martin Poyer, imposed a reverse cordon sanitaire of the islands from all incoming ships, successfully achieving zero deaths within the territory during the influenza epidemic.[53] In contrast, the neighboring New Zealand-controlled Western Samoa is among the hardest hit, with a 90% infection rate and over 20% of its adults dying from the disease.[54] American Samoa, Western Samoa
1918 In late year, Spain attempts unsuccessfully to prevent the spread of the Spanish flu by imposing border controls, roadblocks, restricting rail travel, and a maritime cordon sanitaire prohibiting ships with sick passengers from landing, but by then the epidemic is already in progress in the country.[55] Spain
1918 Hydrogen peroxide is used in World War I as a germicide.[12]
1920 Standard Oil first produces isopropyl alcohol by hydrating propene.[56][57]
1921 Bigelow describes the logarithmic nature of thermal death time (TDT) curves.[12]
1921 Samuel Rideal and Eric Rideal publish Chemical Disinfection and Sterilization.[12]
1922 Bigelow and Esty, utilizing spores, determine the thermal death time (TDT), as a means of evaluating sterilization of thermophilic microbes.[58]
1922 Zsigmondy and Buchmann introduce a membrane filter composed of cellulose esters for the removal of bacteria from solution.[12]
1925 The adjective virucidal is first noted.[4]
1928 Gates discovers the germicidal wavelength of UV light.[12][59][60]
1929 Schrader and Bossert find that ethylene oxide (EO) has bactericidal properties.[12]
1929 Otto Rahn discovers that the size of bacteria is the cause of the logarithmic order of death.[12]
Late 1920s Hall exploits bactericidal activity of ethylene oxide to lower the microbiological content of spices.[12]
1933 Disinfectant Dettol [61][62][63] India
1933 Gross and Dixon patent use of EO as a sterilizing agent.[12]
1933 Disinfectant Soap-solubilized formulation containing chloroxylenol and terpineol is introduced by Colebrook and Maxted.[15]
1933 American Engineer Weeden Underwood makes notable advances in design of, and application of pressure steam sterilizers. This is considered the beginning of the era of scientific sterilization.[12] United States
1933 Schauffler documents the antimicrobial properties of chlorine dioxide solutions.[12]
1934 Weeden Underwood writes an early textbook on sterilization called Textbook on Sterilization.[12] United States
1935 Disinfectant The use of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) as a germicide/disinfectant is formally recognized.[9]
1936 Ernest Carr McCulloch publishes Disinfection and Sterilization.[12]
1938 Carl Walter describes the first rapid, safe mechanical process for routine cleaning and terminal sterilization, called the washer-sterilizer.[12]
1938 Corona discharge is found to be a sterilizing agent.[12]
1939 Nordgren reports on early work in regard to formaldehyde efficacy, poarticularly under deep vacuum.[12][64]
1941 UK Control of Infection Officer[65] United Kingdom
1941 Robertson, Bigg, Miller and Baker report on the aerosol disinfection of glycols.[12]
1942 Amidines are studied as antitrypanocidal drugs are shown to be antibacterial by Fuller.[15][66][67]
1942 Underwood defines the first "flash sterilization" at 30 min at 121°C.[12]
1943 First isolation ward in USA[68] United States
1943 Theodore Puck, Robertson and Henry Lemon report on the bactericidal activity of propylene glycol (hydrolysis by-product of propylene oxide) vapour.[12]
1944 USA Infection Control Officer.[69] United States
1943–1945 Otto Rahn describes the logarithmic kinetics and temperature coefficient values of sterilants and antimicrobial agents.[12]
1946 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is founded.[16] United States
1946 Ewell demonstrates that microbes are more readily killed by ozone in high humidity than at low humidity.[12]
1947 Douglas Lea reports on the actions of radiation on living cells. In the main, ionizing radiation destroys microbes by direct hits of the radiations on or near the organism.[12]
1947 Disinfectant Fungus, HIV-1 (AIDS), Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C The barbicide is invented by Maurice King and marketed heavily around the United States by his brother James.[70] United States
1947 A widespread outbreak of gastroenteritis in the United Kingdom, causing the death of 4,500 children under the age of one, gave rise to a national objective of sterilising all baby's milk bottles. Milton sterilizing fluid becomes the antiseptic advocated by hospitals and government agencies. This cold water method is generally available and simple for all to use, and virtually all mothers adopted this method.[71] United Kingdom
1947 Disinfectant Jordan et al. write 12 papers on the dynamics of the disinfection of Escherichia coli by phenol and heat.[15]
1949 Kolb and Schneiter show methyl bromide to be bactericidal for anthrax spores and its use is recommended for sterilization of improved wool.[12]
1949 Hutchins and Xezones report peracetic acid to be highly germicide against spores of Bacillus thermoacidurans.[12]
1950 Disinfectant "11 papers by Berry & Michaels (1950) on the bactericidal activity of ethylene glycol and its mono alkyl ethers on the same organism. These papers recorded in meticulous detail the time course of the disinfection process, the effect of temperature and other factors upon it and how loss of activity with dilution-the concentration exponent-is a variant property of antibacterial substances."[15]
1950 The term sanitizer appears first in the Journal of Milk and Food Technology.[4]
1954 Disinfectant Davies et al. describe the new antimicrobial compound chlorhexidine.[15]
1955 Peracetic acid is introduced.[15]
1955 Disinfectant Povidone-iodine comes into commercial use.[72]
Mid-1950s Baby wipes emerge around this time as more people travel and need a way to clean up on the go.[73]
1956 Disinfectant Chlorine dioxide is introduced as a drinking water disinfectant on a large scale, when Brussels, Belgium, changes from chlorine to chlorine dioxide.[74] Belgium
1956 Glyoxal and related compounds are first used as potential blood sterilizing agents.[12][75]
1957 Disinfectant Glutaraldehyde is introduced.[15]
1957 John Perkins publishes the first edition of Principals and Methods of Sterilization.[12]
1958 G. Sykes publishes Disinfection and Sterilization.[12]
1950s Disinfectant Chlorhexidine comes into medical use.[76]
1959 Exeter microbiologist Brendan Moore becomes the first appointed Infection Control Nurse.[77][78][79] United Kingdom
1960 It is found that conveyor ovens can provide continuous sterilization of syringes.[12]
1960 Alkalinized glutaraldehyde is found to be effective as a sterilant.[12]
1961 High vacuum infrared ovens become available for batch sterilization.[12]
1961 Propylene oxide is demonstrated to have microbicidal activity within powered or flaked food.[12]
1961 Robert Ernst shows that the use of iodophores at elevated temperature (e.g., 50-60°C) in combination with ultrasonics could be an effective sterilizing agent for surgical and dental instruments.[12]
1962 The rate of bacterial spore destruction improves with simultaneous applied ionizing and thermal processing.[12]
1962 Robert McDonald invents the prehumidification step for effective ethylene oxide sterilization.[12]
1962 The first antimicrobial indications of dialdehydes, e.g., glutaldehyde, are described by Pepper and Liebermann.[12]
1963 The first gamma irradiator is used in the United States for sterilization of medical devices.[12]
1963 Gaseous propylene oxide is used to sterilize and de-infest food products.[12]
1963 Guerin shows that desiccated microbes are more resistant to ozone than hydrated cells.[12]
1964 Johnson and Johnson provides commercial gamma irradiation.[12]
1964 Armstrong discovers a gaseous ozone sterilization process.[12]
1965 Sydney Rubbo and Joan Gardner show that glutaraldehyde is not only more effective than formaldehyde but also less irritating.[12]
1966 Disinfectant Hand sanitizers are first introduced.[80]
1966 Alder and co-workers develop a low temperature steam and formaldehyde system similar to high vacuum steam sterilization but operating at 65-80°C.[12]
1967 Saul Kaye demonstrates that formic acid is microcidal synergistic with ethylene oxide and other epoxides.[12]
1968 Paul Borick describes and defines chemosterilizers.[81][82]
1968 Earle H. Spaulding devises a rational approach of disinfection and classification for patient care items and equipment – non-critical items, semi-critical items, and critical items.[12]
1969 Marcel Reynolds discovers the feasibility of using thermo-irradiation as sterilization of spacecraft.[12]
1960s Disinfectant Glutaraldehyde comes into medical use.[83]
1970 Trimethylene oxide (oxetane) is patented for its disinfecting capabilities, and possible use in sterilization processes.[12]
1970 Russian scientists pubish a method detailing using a gas mixture of methyl bromide and ethylene oxide for sterilization of a space lander in a plastic bag.[12] Russia
1970 Continuous ethylene oxide sterilization process is developed.[12]
1971 D.A. Gunther patents a balance pressure process for use with ethylene oxide sterilization.[12]
1972 Cordon sanitaire Smallpox "During the 1972 Yugoslav smallpox outbreak, over 10,000 people were sequestered in cordons sanitaires of villages and neighborhoods using roadblocks, and there was a general prohibition of public meetings, a closure of all borders and a prohibition of all non-essential travel."
1972 Leland Ashman and Wilson Menashi use low temperature gas plasma for sterilization of contaminated surfaces.[12]
1976 A method of cold sterilization using frozen dimethyl dicarbonate is developed.[84]
1976 Lowell Tensmeyer devises a method of killing micro-organisms in the inside of a container utilizing a plasma initiated by a focused laser beam and sustained by an electromagnetic field.[12]
1979 Francis C. Moore and Leon R. Perkinson devise a hydrogen peroxide vapour sterilization method.[12]
1980 A seeded (dialdehyde) gas plasma sterilization method is patented by G. Boucher.[12]
1984 Hospital-acquired infection A survey in Australia documents that 6.3% of 28,643 hospitalized patients in the country have a hospital-acquired infection, with the highest rates in larger hospitals.[85] Australia
1985 A.A. Rosenblatt, D.H. Rosenblatt and J.E. Knapp find chlorine to be a sterilant in a gaseous phase.[86][87]
1986 Pulsed laser sterilization is described.[12]
1988 Joslyn introduces a post-steam sterilization process for removing EO residuals more effectively, than mere heated aeration.[12]
1989 The use of the vapor phase of hydrogen peroxide as a surface decontaminant and sterilant is discovered.[12]
1980s Disinfectant Alcohol-based hand sanitizer starts being commonly used in Europe.[88]
1991 Karlson patents a gaseous ozone sterilization process.[12]
1995 Cordon sanitaire Ebola A cordon sanitaire is used to control an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Kikwit, Zaire.[89][90] Congo D.R.
1995 Hospital-acquired infection The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that approximately 1.9 million cases of hospital-acquired infection occurred in the United States.[91] United States
1999 A new plasma sterilizer is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.[92] United States
1990s Disinfectant Non-flammable Alcohol Vapor in Carbon Dioxide systems (NAV-CO2 System) are developed in Japan in the 1990s to sanitize hospitals and ambulances. Japan
2001 Disinfection with performic acid is noted.[12]
2003 Cordon sanitaire Severe acute respiratory syndrome During the 2003 SARS outbreak in Canada, "community quarantine" is used to successfully reduce transmission of the disease.[93] Canada
2003 Cordon sanitaire Severe acute respiratory syndrome During the 2003 SARS outbreak in mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore, large-scale quarantine is imposed on travelers arriving from other SARS areas, work and school contacts of suspected cases, and, in a few instances, entire apartment complexes where high attack rates of SARS were occurring.[94] China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore
2004 Ferric Fang publishes a paper on antimicrobial reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.[95]
2004 Cordon sanitaire Ebola A cordon sanitaire is established around some of the most affected areas of the 2014 West Africa Ebola virus outbreak.[96][97] On 19 August, the Liberian government quarantines the entirety of West Point, Monrovia and issued a curfew statewide.[98] Liberia
2005 Hospital-acquired infection The American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America publish guidelines suggesting antibiotics specifically for hospital-acquired pneumonia.[99] United States
2008 (April) Publication The World Health Organization publishes Early recognition, reporting and infection control management of acute respiratory diseases of potential international concern, an aide-mémoire on emergencies preparedness and response.[100]
2008 (June) Publication The World Health Organization publishes Core components for infection prevention and control programmes, a report of the Second Meeting of the Informal Network on Infection Prevention and Control in Health Care.[101] Switzerland (Geneva)
2009 The World Health Organization publishes Natural ventilation for infection control in health-care settings.[102]
2009 Publication The World Health Organization publishes Infection-control measures for health care of patients with acute respiratory diseases in community settings.[103]
2011 (April) Publication The World Health Organization publishes Core components for infection prevention and control programmes.[104]
2011 Researchers estimate that by this time, 648,000 hospitalized patients in then United States have to battle at least one hospital-acquired infection. The total number of infections is estimated at 721,800. To put that number in perspective, about 34 million people are admitted to 5,000 community hospitals in the country each year.[105] United States
2014 Hand washing A study shows that Saudi Arabia has the highest rate of hand washing with soap, with 97 percent; the United States near the middle with 77 percent; and China with the lowest rate of 23 percent.[106]
2015 Hand washing A study of hand washing in 54 countries finds that on average, 38.7% of households practice hand washing with soap.
2020 Cordon sanitaire Coronavirus disease 2019 A multiple number of lockdowns are imposed worldwide in response to the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic. Worldwide
2020 (April 22) The World Health Organization publishes How To Pun On And Take Off Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), a series of posters on emergencies preparedness and response.[107]

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

Feedback and comments

Feedback for the timeline can be provided at the following places:


What the timeline is still missing

Timeline update strategy

See also

External links


  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 BLANCOU, J. "History of disinfection from early times until the end of the 18th century" (PDF). oie.int. Retrieved 3 April 2020. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Block, Seymour Stanton. Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation. 
  3. Luttrell, Anthony. The Making of Christian Malta: From the Early Middle Ages to 1530. 
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 Block, Seymour Stanton. Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation. 
  5. Ahmed, Khalid Abdelazez Mohamed. "Exploitation of KMnO4 material as precursors for the fabrication of manganese oxide nanomaterials". doi:10.1016/j.jtusci.2015.06.005. 
  6. Report of the ... Annual Proceedings of the Louisiana State Pharmaceutical Association. Louisiana State Pharmaceutical Association. 
  7. Brauer, Fred; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Feng, Zhilan. Mathematical Models in Epidemiology. 
  8. Rhodes, Ebenezer. Peak Scenery; Or, The Derbyshire Tourist. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 "History and Evolution of Surface Disinfectants". pdihc.com. Retrieved 3 April 2020. 
  10. Spinage, Clive. Cattle Plague: A History. 
  11. Taylor, William P. Rinderpest and Peste des Petits Ruminants: Virus Plagues of Large and Small Ruminants. 
  12. 12.00 12.01 12.02 12.03 12.04 12.05 12.06 12.07 12.08 12.09 12.10 12.11 12.12 12.13 12.14 12.15 12.16 12.17 12.18 12.19 12.20 12.21 12.22 12.23 12.24 12.25 12.26 12.27 12.28 12.29 12.30 12.31 12.32 12.33 12.34 12.35 12.36 12.37 12.38 12.39 12.40 12.41 12.42 12.43 12.44 12.45 12.46 12.47 12.48 12.49 12.50 12.51 12.52 12.53 12.54 12.55 12.56 12.57 12.58 12.59 12.60 12.61 12.62 12.63 12.64 12.65 12.66 12.67 12.68 12.69 12.70 12.71 12.72 12.73 12.74 12.75 12.76 12.77 12.78 12.79 12.80 12.81 12.82 12.83 12.84 12.85 12.86 12.87 12.88 12.89 12.90 12.91 12.92 12.93 12.94 12.95 Rogers, Wayne J. Healthcare Sterilisation: Introduction & Standard Practices, Volume 1, Volume 1. 
  13. Stanton Block, Seymour. Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation. 
  14. "Top 10 Historic Ways To Beat Plagues". listverse.com. Retrieved 26 May 2020. 
  15. 15.00 15.01 15.02 15.03 15.04 15.05 15.06 15.07 15.08 15.09 15.10 15.11 15.12 15.13 15.14 15.15 15.16 15.17 15.18 15.19 15.20 15.21 15.22 15.23 15.24 15.25 Hugo, W.B. "A brief history of heat and chemical preservation and disinfect ion". Journal of Applied Bacteriology. Retrieved 3 April 2020. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 Smith, Philip W.; Watkins, Kristin; Hewlett, Angela. "Infection control through the ages" (PDF). American Journal of Infection Control. 
  17. "OVERVIEW OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE (CLO2)". afinitica.com. Retrieved 26 May 2020. 
  18. Wilson, Charles L.; Droby, Samir. Microbial Food Contamination. 
  19. Schmidt, Ronald H.; Rodrick, Gary E. Food Safety Handbook. 
  20. Smart, William. Economic Annals of the Nineteenth Century ...: 1821-1830. 
  21. Bourgon, Jean Ignace Joseph. Abrégé de l'histoire de France, Volume 2. 
  22. Salas-Vives, Pere; Pujadas-Mora, Joana-Maria. "Cordons Sanitaires and the Rationalisation Process in Southern Europe (Nineteenth-Century Majorca)". PMID 29886862. doi:10.1017/mdh.2018.25. 
  23. Preedy, Victor R.; Burrow, Gerard N.; Watson, Ronald Ross (2009). Comprehensive Handbook of Iodine: Nutritional, Biochemical, Pathological and Therapeutic Aspects. Academic Press. p. 135. ISBN 9780080920863. 
  24. Sneader, Walter (2005). Drug Discovery: A History. John Wiley & Sons. p. 67. ISBN 9780471899792. 
  25. See:
  26. 26.0 26.1 Fraise, Adam P.; Lambert, Peter A.; Maillard, Jean-Yves. Russell, Hugo & Ayliffe's Principles and Practice of Disinfection, Preservation and Sterilization. 
  27. "Eucalyptus Essential Oil". bosistos.com.au. Retrieved 22 May 2020. 
  28. Forder, A A. "A Brief History of Infection Control - Past and Present". PMID 18250929. 
  29. von Hofmann, August Wilhelm (1859). "Einwirkung des Chlorkohlenstoffs auf Anilin. Cyantriphenyldiamin". Journal für Praktische Chemie. 77: 190. doi:10.1002/prac.18590770130. 
  30. von Hofmann, August Wilhelm (1858). "Action of Bichloride of Carbon on Aniline". Philosophical Magazine: 131–142. 
  31. Lister, Joseph (21 September 1867). "On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery". The Lancet. 90 (2299): 353–356. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(02)51827-4. 
  32. Lister, Joseph (1 January 1870). "On the Effects of the Antiseptic System of Treatment Upon the Salubrity of a Surgical Hospital". The Lancet. 95 (2418): 2–4. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)31273-X. 
  33. Gardner, W. M., ed. (1915), The British coal-tar industry : its origin, development, and decline, Philadelphia: Lippincott, p. 173 
  34. "Böses Komma". sueddeutsche.de. Retrieved 26 May 2020. 
  35. "MARCEL PROUST and the medicine of the Belle Epoque" (PDF). rsm.ac.uk. Retrieved 26 May 2020. 
  36. Chantre, Luc. "Entre pandémie et panislamisme". doi:10.4000/assr.25258. 
  37. Stark, James F. The Making of Modern Anthrax, 1875–1920: Uniting Local, National and Global Histories of Disease. 
  38. "Part II: Yellow Fever Comes to the Valley". valleymorningstar.com. Retrieved 27 May 2020. 
  39. "Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plagues" (PDF). academia.dk. Retrieved 27 May 2020. 
  40. "1888 Epidemic in Jacksonville". exhibits.lib.usf.edu. Retrieved 22 May 2020. 
  41. Annual report of the Surgeon General. 
  42. For a report on the 1892 International Conference on Chemical Nomenclature, see:* Armstrong H (1892). "The International Conference on Chemical Nomenclature". Nature. 46 (1177): 56–59. doi:10.1038/046056c0. 
    • Armstrong's report is reprinted with the resolutions in English in: Armstrong H (1892). "The International Conference on Chemical Nomenclature". The Journal of Analytical and Applied Chemistry. 6 (1177): 390–400 (398). doi:10.1038/046056c0. The alcohols and the phenols will be called after the name of the hydrocarbon from which they are derived, terminated with the suffix ol (ex. pentanol, pentynol, etc.) 
  43. Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation. Seymour Stanton Block. 
  44. Clark, Janet H. "THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF LIGHT". doi:10.1152/physrev.1922.2.2.277. 
  45. "Ultraviolet (UV) Light". spectralinnovations.com. Retrieved 24 May 2020. 
  47. "Handbook of water and wastewater microbiology". 
  48. "Plague in San Francisco: 1900, the Year of the Rat". niaid.nih.gov. Retrieved 26 May 2020. 
  49. "When epidemics change the world: Can we learn anything from the third plague pandemic?". sciencenordic.com. Retrieved 26 May 2020. 
  50. Block, Seymour Stanton. Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation. 
  51. Lyons, Maryinez. "From 'Death Camps' to Cordon Sanitaire: The Development of Sleeping Sickness Policy in the Uele District of the Belgian Congo, 1903–19141". doi:10.1017/S0021853700023094. 
  52. LEPESCHKIN., W. W. "THE HEAT-COAGULATION OF PROTEINS" (PDF). From the Botanical Laboratory, the University of Kasan. PMC 1259127Freely accessible. 
  53. Peter Oliver Okin, The Yellow Flag of Quarantine: An Analysis of the Historical and Prospective Impacts of Socio-Legal Controls Over Contagion, doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, January 2012; p. 232
  54. John Poyer, Commander, US Navy, Navy Cross citation
  55. R. Davis, The Spanish Flu: Narrative and Cultural Identity in Spain, 1918, Springer, 2013. Template:ISBN
  56. Biofuels Production and Processing Technology (M.R. Riazi, David Chiaramonti ed.). 
  57. "Isopropyl alcohol". britannica.com. Retrieved 24 May 2020. 
  58. Esty, J. R.; Williams, C. C. "Heat resistance studies: I. A new method for the determination of heat resistance of bacterial spores". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. doi:10.1093/infdis/34.5.516. Retrieved 24 May 2020. 
  59. Giese, Arthur C. Photophysiology: Current Topics. 
  60. Stanton Block, Seymour. Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation. 
  61. "Our History". dettol.co.in. Retrieved 24 May 2020. 
  62. "Keeping you and your loved ones healthy". rb.com. Retrieved 24 May 2020. 
  63. "Coronavirus drives demand for Dettol - RB's flagship product spikes sales online". business-live.co.uk. Retrieved 24 May 2020. 
  65. Weston, Debbie. Infection Prevention and Control: Theory and Clinical Practice for Healthcare Professionals. 
  66. DAWES, G. S. "AMIDINES, GUANIDINES AND ADRENALINE INACTIVATION IN THE LIVER".  More than one of |author1= and |last1= specified (help)
  67. "Antibacterial Action of Some Aromatic Amines, Amidines, Amidoximes, Guanidines and Diguanides" (PDF). watermark.silverchair.com. Retrieved 26 May 2020. 
  68. Navy Medicine, Volume 95, Issue 1. 
  69. "The organization of infection control in hospitals". doi:10.1016/0195-6701(80)90055-9. 
  70. Martin, Douglas (1997-06-22). "The Smithsonian Celebrates Barbicide, A Barbershop Germ Killer Born in Brooklyn". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. p. 2. Retrieved 2 April 2020. 
  71. "Our History". www.milton-tm.com. Retrieved 9 March 2019. 
  72. Sneader, Walter (2005). Drug Discovery: A History. John Wiley & Sons. p. 68. ISBN 9780470015520. 
  73. "What type of baby wipe is best and how we choose?". medium.com. Retrieved 26 May 2020. 
  74. Block, Seymour Stanton (2001). Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation (5th ed.). Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. p. 215. ISBN 0-683-30740-1. 
  75. Underwood,, Gerald E.; Weed, Sheldon D. "Glyoxal and Related Compounds as Potential Blood Sterilizing Agents". doi:10.3181/00379727-93-22776. 
  76. Schmalz, Gottfried; Bindslev, Dorthe Arenholt (2008). Biocompatibility of Dental Materials. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 351. ISBN 9783540777823. 
  77. Wilson, Jennie. Infection Control in Clinical Practice Updated Edition E-Book. 
  78. "The 'Rediscovery' of Infection, 1957-1970". kingscollections.org. Retrieved 24 May 2020. 
  79. "Infection Prevention and Control". worldcat.org. Retrieved 24 May 2020. 
  80. "Lupe Hernandez and the Invention of Hand Sanitizer". invention.si.edu. Retrieved 25 May 2020. 
  81. Borick, Paul M. "Chemical Sterilizers (Chemosterilizers).". doi:10.1016/S0065-2164(08)70195-3. Retrieved 25 May 2020. 
  82. Thomas, Sonyja; Russell, A. Denver. "Temperature-induced changes in the sporicidal activity and chemical properties of glutaraldehyde.". doi:10.1128/aem.28.3.331-335.1974. 
  83. Booth, Anne (1998). Sterilization of Medical Devices. CRC Press. p. 8. ISBN 9781574910872. 
  84. "Method of cold sterilization using frozen dimethyl dicarbonate". patents.google.com. Retrieved 25 May 2020. 
  85. Spelman, Denis W. "2: Hospital-acquired infections". doi:10.5694/j.1326-5377.2002.tb04412.x. 
  86. JENG, DAVID K.; WOODWORTH, ARCHIE G. "Chlorine Dioxide Gas Sterilization under Square-Wave Conditions" (PDF). American Society for Microbiology. 
  87. "Isolator Decontamination Using Chlorine Dioxide Gas" (PDF). files.alfresco.mjh.group/. Retrieved 25 May 2020. 
  88. Miller, Chris H.; Palenik, Charles John (2016). Infection Control and Management of Hazardous Materials for the Dental Team (5 ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 269. ISBN 9780323476577. 
  89. "ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN THE USE OF CORDONS SANITAIRES". clinicalcorrelations.org. Retrieved 25 May 2020. 
  90. Muyembe-Tamfum, J J; Kipasa, M; Kiyungu, C; Colebunders, R. "Ebola Outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo: Discovery and Control Measures". PMID 9988192. doi:10.1086/514302. Retrieved 25 May 2020. 
  91. "Frequently Asked Questions". ncsl.org. Retrieved 2 April 2020. 
  92. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Volume 7, Issue 2. 
  93. Bondy, SJ; Russell, ML; Laflèche, JM; Rea, E (2009). "Quantifying the impact of community quarantine on SARS transmission in Ontario: estimation of secondary case count difference and number needed to quarantine". BMC Public Health. 9: 488. PMC 2808319Freely accessible. PMID 20034405. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-488. 
  94. Cetron, Martin; Maloney, Susan; Koppaka, Ram; Simone, Patricia. "ISOLATION AND QUARANTINE: CONTAINMENT STRATEGIES FOR SARS 2003". 
  95. Fang, Ferric C. "Antimicrobial reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: concepts and controversies". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 
  96. "Community Quarantine to Interrupt Ebola Virus Transmission – Mawah Village, Bong County, Liberia, August–October, 2014," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, February 27, 2015 / 64(07); 179–182.
  97. Donald G. McNeil Jr. (August 13, 2014). "Using a Tactic Unseen in a Century, Countries Cordon Off Ebola-Racked Areas". The New York Times. 
  98. "Liberian Soldiers Seal Slum to Halt Ebola". NBC News. 2014-08-09. Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  99. American Thoracic Society; Infectious Diseases Society of America (2005). "Guidelines for the management of adults with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia". Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171 (4): 388–416. PMID 15699079. doi:10.1164/rccm.200405-644ST. 
  100. "Early recognition, reporting and infection control management of acute respiratory diseases of potential international concern". who.int. Retrieved 19 May 2020. 
  101. "Core components for infection prevention and control programmes". who.int. Retrieved 19 May 2020. 
  102. "Natural ventilation for infection control in health-care settings". who.int. Retrieved 19 May 2020. 
  103. "Infection-control measures for health care of patients with acute respiratory diseases in community settings". who.int. Retrieved 19 May 2020. 
  104. "Core components for infection prevention and control programmes". who.int. Retrieved 19 May 2020. 
  105. "One in 25 patients battling hospital-acquired infections: CDC". reuters.com. Retrieved 2 April 2020. 
  106. BreakingWeb. "Les Français et le savonnage des mains après être allé aux toilettes". BVA Group (in français). Retrieved 3 April 2020. 
  107. "HOW TO PUT ON AND TAKE OFF Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)". who.int. Retrieved 19 May 2020.