Difference between revisions of "Timeline of infection prevention and control"

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| 2012 || || || A published study claims that "new mathematical modelling, diagnostic, communications, and informatics technologies can identify and report hitherto unknown  microbes in other species, and thus new risk assessment approaches are needed to identify microbes most likely to cause human disease". The study investigates challenges in moving the global pandemic strategy from response to pre-emption.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Morse |first1=Stephen S |last2=Mazet |first2=Jonna AK |last3=Woolhouse |first3=Mark |last4=Parrish |first4=Colin R |last5=Carroll |first5=Dennis |last6=Karesh |first6=William B |last7=Zambrana-Torrelio |first7=Carlos |last8=Lipkin |first8=W Ian |last9=Daszak |first9=Peter |title=Prediction and prevention of the next pandemic zoonosis |journal=The Lancet |date=1 December 2012 |volume=380 |issue=9857 |pages=1956–1965 |doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61684-5 |pmid=23200504 |url=https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673612616845 |accessdate=25 March 2020 |language=en |issn=0140-6736|pmc=3712877 }}</ref> ||
| 2012 || || || A published study claims that "new mathematical modelling, diagnostic, communications, and informatics technologies can identify and report hitherto unknown  microbes in other species, and thus new risk assessment approaches are needed to identify microbes most likely to cause human disease". The study investigates challenges in moving the global pandemic strategy from response to pre-emption.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Morse |first1=Stephen S |last2=Mazet |first2=Jonna AK |last3=Woolhouse |first3=Mark |last4=Parrish |first4=Colin R |last5=Carroll |first5=Dennis |last6=Karesh |first6=William B |last7=Zambrana-Torrelio |first7=Carlos |last8=Lipkin |first8=W Ian |last9=Daszak |first9=Peter |title=Prediction and prevention of the next pandemic zoonosis |journal=The Lancet |date=1 December 2012 |volume=380 |issue=9857 |pages=1956–1965 |doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61684-5 |pmid=23200504 |url=https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673612616845 |accessdate=25 March 2020 |language=en |issn=0140-6736|pmc=3712877 }}</ref> ||
| 2014 || || Organization || The {{w|Global Health Security Agenda}} (GHSA) is launched as global partnership devoted to the purpose of strengthening the world’s ability to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious disease threats. As of 2020 it has 67 member countries.<ref>{{cite web |title=FACT SHEET: Global Health Security Agenda: Getting Ahead of the Curve on Epidemic Threats |url=https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2014/09/26/fact-sheet-global-health-security-agenda-getting-ahead-curve-epidemic-th |website=obamawhitehouse.archives.gov |accessdate=1 July 2020}}</ref>
| 2014 || {{w|Hand washing}} || || A study shows that {{w|Saudi Arabia}} has the highest rate of hand washing with soap, with 97 percent; the United States near the middle with 77 percent; and China with the lowest rate of 23 percent.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.bva-group.com/sondages/les-francais-et-le-savonnage-des-mains-apres-etre-alle-aux-toilettes/|title=Les Français et le savonnage des mains après être allé aux toilettes|last=BreakingWeb|website=BVA Group|language=fr-FR|access-date=3 April 2020}}</ref> ||
| 2014 || {{w|Hand washing}} || || A study shows that {{w|Saudi Arabia}} has the highest rate of hand washing with soap, with 97 percent; the United States near the middle with 77 percent; and China with the lowest rate of 23 percent.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.bva-group.com/sondages/les-francais-et-le-savonnage-des-mains-apres-etre-alle-aux-toilettes/|title=Les Français et le savonnage des mains après être allé aux toilettes|last=BreakingWeb|website=BVA Group|language=fr-FR|access-date=3 April 2020}}</ref> ||

Revision as of 20:35, 30 June 2020

This is a timeline of infection control.

Big picture

Time period Development summary More details
1990s Cubicle curtain design undergoes a period of rapid growth in the decade.[1]

Visual data

Google Trends

The image shows Google Trends data for "infection" and "quarantine" search terms.[2] The latter peaks in March 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the month when the United States becomes the country with the highest number of confirmed COVID-19 infections.

Infection Google Trends.png

Wikipedia views

The image shows Wikipedia views desktop data for the articles Infection, Quarantine, and Infection control. Three local maximums in 2008, 2015, and 2020 closely match the 2009 swine flu pandemic, the Western African Ebola virus epidemic, and the COVID-19 pandemic.[3]

Infection Control Wikipedia Views.png

The image shows desktop, mobile-web, desktop-spider, mobile-web-spider, and mobile-app Wikipedia views data for the article Infection control.[4]

Infection Wikipedia Views.png

Full timeline

Year Event type Infection type Details Country/region
c.3000 BC Product introduction disinfectant Ancient Egyptians use palm wine and vinegar to rinse the abdominal cavities of human and animal cadavers prior to embalming.[5] Egypt
800 BC The oldest reference to disinfection of premises with a chemical product seems to be that described by Homer in book xii of the Odyssey, where the hero, having killed his rivals, demands that sulphur be burnt in the house which they had occupied.[5]
1363 Product introduction disinfectant Microbial pathogens Alcohol as an antiseptic is recommended for wound treatment by French physician Guy de Chauliac.[6] France
1523 Cordon sanitaire Plague During a plague outbreak in Birgu, Malta, the town is cordoned off by guards to prevent the disease from spreading to the rest of the island.[7] Malta
1523 English scholar Anthony Fitzherbert recommends removal of animals which have died from 'murrain' (anthrax), except the skin (which is sent to a tannery) and the head (which 'was to be placed on a pole to notify to others "that sickness existed in the township" ')[5] United Kingdom
1598 Concept development The word disinfectant is first recorded in writing, with the meaning "to cure, to heale".[8]
1605 Concept development The word septic is first recorded, which means "putrefying".[8]
1658 Concept development The word disinfectant is used in a more modern sense, to remove infection.[8]
1659 Product introduction disinfectant Potassium permanganate is first obtained by German-Dutch chemist Johann Rudolf Glauber.[9][10] Netherlands
1666 Cordon sanitaire Plague The English village of Eyam famously imposes a cordon sanitaire on itself after an outbreak of the bubonic plague in the community.[11][12] United Kingdom
1675 Scientific development Microbial pathogens Antonie Van Leuwenhoek discovers microorganisms.[13]
1676 Microbial pathogens Dutch scientist Antonie Van Leuwenhoek first sees bacteria.[8] In the same year, he discovers that vinegar kills some microorganisms.[13] "It was not until 1676 that Van Leeuwenhoek offered the first scientific proof of the action of acids on 'animalcules', which he had discovered using the microscope of his own invention."[5] Netherlands
1708–1712 Cordon sanitaire Plague "During the Great Northern War plague outbreak of 1708–1712, cordons sanitaires were established around affected towns like Stralsund and Königsberg; one was also established around the whole Duchy of Prussia and another one between Scania and the Danish isles along the Sound, with Saltholm as the central quarantine station"
1715 Italian physician Giovanni Maria Lancisi recommends using vinegar (or vinegar water) for disinfecting objects (and even animals or persons) which have been in contact with cases of cattle plague.[14][15][5] Italy
1716 "An edict of Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, in 1716, decreed that the clothing of persons who had attended animals affected by cattle plague should be aired and 'exposed to flame'. There were heavy penalties for contravention: branding, forced labour for perpetuity and even flagellation followed by hanging"[5]
1718 French naturalist Louis Joblot sterilizes a hay infusion by boiling it for 15 minutes and then sealing the container.[16][17][5] France
1719 Product introduction disinfectant Thymol is first isolated by the German chemist Caspar Neumann.[18]
1730 Product introduction disinfectant Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor decrees that stables which have housed glanderous horses should be plastered with quicklime. Such arrangements figure in numerous texts published in Europe around the time.[5] Europe
1745 Policy Plague A decree in Oldenburg prescribes the cleaning with caustic soda of troughs from which cattle with plague have fed, and the cleaning of the woodwork and walls of their houses with lime-wash.[5] Germany
1770 Cordon sanitaire Plague Habsburg Empress Maria Theresa sets up a cordon sanitaire between Austria and the Ottoman Empire to prevent people and goods infected with plague from crossing the border. Cotton and wool are held in storehouses for weeks, with peasants paid to sleep on the bales and monitored to see if they show signs of disease.[19] Austrian Empire region
1771 Policy is introduced in France stipulating that animals killed or dead from epizootic disease may not be abandoned in forests, thrown into rivers or placed on rubbish dumps, nor may they be buried in stables, courtyards, gardens or elsewhere within the precincts of towns and villages.[5] France
1774 Product introduction disinfectant Microbial pathogens Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovers chlorine.[20]
1776 Scientific development Italian biologist Lazzaro Spallanzani demonstrates that it was impossible for 'spontaneous generation' of microorganisms to occur once the fluid they lived in had been boiled for an hour.[5][16] Italy
1784 Policy Non-human animal contagious diseases A decree issued by the Council of the King of France obliges the owners of animals affected by contagious diseases to burn or scald all harnesses, wagons and any other objects which has been in contact with these animals.[5] France
1789 Product introduction disinfectant "Potassium hypochlorite was first produced in 1789 by Claude Louis Berthollet in his laboratory located in Javel in Paris" France
1789 Tennant prepares a bleaching powder, as distinct from a liquid, by passing chlorine gas into a slurry of slaked lime.[20]
1793 Cordon sanitaire Yellow fever During a yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia, roads and bridges leading to the city are blocked off by soldiers from the local militia to prevent the illness from spreading. United States
1794 Plague English physician Erasmus Darwin recommends that if cattle plague are introduced into England, all cattle within a five mile radius of any confirmed outbreak should be 'immediately slaughtered, and consumed within the circumscribed district; and their hides put into quicklime before proper inspectors'.[5] United Kingdom
1801 General The first hospital for infectious diseases is established in London.[21] United Kingdom
1803 Smallpox The word 'germ', in relation to a smallpox infection, is printed.[8]
1811 Product introduction disinfectant Microbial pathogens Chlorine dioxide is discovered.[22][23][24]
1813–1814 Plague "During the 1813–14 Malta plague epidemic, the main urban settlements of Malta (Valletta, Floriana and the Three Cities) and rural settlements with a high mortality rate (Birkirkara, Qormi, Żebbuġ and later Xagħra) were cordoned off by the military to prevent people from entering or leaving"
1818 Louis Jacques Thénard first produces hydrogen peroxide by reacting barium peroxide with nitric acid.[25] Hydrogen peroxide was first used for bleaching in 1882, but did not become commercially important until after 1930.[26]
1821 Cordon sanitaire Concept development The term cordon sanitaire dates to this year.[27][28][29] France
1823 Product introduction disinfectant French chemist Antoine Germain Labarraque uses hypochlorite as a deodorant and disinfectant in a cat-gut factory.[20] France
1827 English surgeon Thomas Alcock shows the possibility to use hypochlorite for disinfection.[16] United Kingdom
1829 Product introduction disinfectant Lugol's iodine is first made by French physician Jean Guillaume Auguste Lugol.[30][31] France
1831 Product introduction disinfectant English chemist William Henry investigates the disinfection of infected clothing using heat rendered them harmless. Henry devises a jacketed dry heat (hot air) steriliser.[16] United Kingdom
1832 Product introduction disinfectant "Apart from the burning of aromatic herbs and the use of chlorine gas in the Paisley cholera epidemic of 1832, the first reasoned attempt to sterilize air"[20]
1834 Product introduction disinfectant Microbial pathogens German chemist Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge discovers a phenol, now known as carbolic acid, which he derives in an impure form from coal tar.
1834 Product introduction disinfectant Hypochlorous acid is discovered by French chemist Antoine Jérôme Balard by adding, to a flask of chlorine gas, a dilute suspension of mercury(II) oxide in water.[32]
1839 Davies uses iodine for treating infected wounds. This is the first reference to using tincture of iodine in wounds.[16]
1844 Product introduction disinfectant Bayard in France prepares an antiseptic powder from coal tar, plaster, ferrous sulphate and clay.[33] France
1847 Product introduction disinfectant A bleach derivative is introduced as the hand disinfectant agent at the Vienna Medical Center to help reduce the risk of postpartum women who developed “Childbed Fever”, which had an 80% mortality rate. After introduction, the mortality rate plummets to 90% the first month.[13]
1850 Product introduction disinfectant French pharmacist Ferdinand Le Beuf makes a useful disinfectant based on the bark of quillaia, a South American tree.[33] France
1850 French physician Casimir Davaine finds the bacillus of anthrax in the blood of dying sheep. Davaine works on animal infections. Later, he works on a porcelain filter, to remove bacteria.[16] France
1852 Product introduction disinfectant Microbial pathogens Eucalyptus oil is introduced in Australia.[34] Australia
1852 Victor Burq discovers that those working with copper have far fewer deaths to cholera than anyone else, and concludes that putting copper on the skin is effective at preventing someone from getting cholera.[35]
1854 German scientist Heinrich G. F. Schröder and German physician Theodor von Dusch show that bacteria can be removed from air by filtering it through cotton-wool by boiling infusion.[16] Germany
1854 Chlorinated lime is applied in the tratment of sewage in London.[16] United Kingdom
1856 Cordon sanitaire Yellow fever A cordon sanitaire is implemented in several cities during the yellow fever epidemic.
1858 British statistician Florence Nightingale promotes the case for hospital reform.[36] United Kingdom
1858 British physician Benjamin Ward Richardson takes note of the capacity of hydrogen peroxide to remove foul odours and subsequently proposes its use as disinfectant.[16] United Kingdom
1858 Product introduction disinfectant Bacteria Fuchsine is first prepared by August Wilhelm von Hofmann from aniline and carbon tetrachloride.[37][38]
1859 Product introduction disinfectant Formaldehyde is discovered.[20]
1859 Heinrich G. F. Schröder shows that boiling infusion at temperatures above 100°C (e.g., egg yolks, milk and meat) for prolonged time destroys growth but boiling for a short period at 100 °C does not stop growth.[16] Germany
1863 Casimir Devaine demonstrates that porcelain filters retained anthrax bacteria.[16] France
1865 Product introduction disinfectant Microbial pathogens Dr. Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister applies a piece of lint dipped in carbolic acid solution to the wound of an eleven-year-old boy at Glasgow Royal Infirmary, who had sustained a compound fracture after a cart wheel had passed over his leg. After four days, he renewes the pad and discovers that no infection has developed. After a total of six weeks he discovers that the boy's bones have fused back together, without the danger of suppuration.[39][40] United Kingdom
1866 Product introduction disinfectant Methyl violet is manufactured in France by the Saint-Denis-based firm of Poirrier et Chappat and marketed under the name "Violet de Paris". It was a mixture of the tetra-, penta- and hexamethylated pararosanilines.[41] France
1867 Product introduction disinfectant The first reasoned attempt to sterilize air is made by British surgeon Joseph Lister in his pursuit of antiseptic surgery.[20] United Kingdom
1869 Cordon sanitaire Cholera French epidemiologist Achille Adrien Proust (father of novelist Marcel Proust) proposes the use of an international cordon sanitaire to control the spread of cholera, which emerged from India and, and threatening Europe and Africa at the time. Proust proposes that all ships bound for Europe from India and Southeast Asia be quarantined at Suez, however his ideas would not be generally embraced.[42][43][44] France
1871 Soap is used with coal tar to make an antiseptic preparation. This formulation is patented.[20]
1871 German botanist Ernst Tiegel filters anthrax fluids through porous cell of unburnt clay with the aid of a Bunsen air pump.[16] Germany
1872 Early work by Ritthausen shows that phenol is a solvent for proteins.[20]
1873–1875 Casimir Davaine reports bactericidal efficiency of iodine solutions against the anthrax bacillus.[16] France
1874 Concept development The word 'sterilization' is first used as in: sterilization by heat of organic liquids.[16]
1875 Product introduction disinfectant Bucholtz publishes his determinations of the concentrations of, amongst other substances, phenol, creosote and salicylic and benzoic acid required to inhibit the growth of and to kill mixed cultures of unnamed micro-organisms.[20]
1876 Anthrax Robert Koch publishes his work on anthrax, for the first time conclusively proving that a bacterium could be a specific infectious agent.[21]
1877 English physicist John Tyndale discovers the heat resistant phase of bacteria, the spore. Tyndale creates tyndallization, a method of fractional, intermitent processing to inactivate spores, by turning them into less resistant vegetative microbes, upon incubation in a growth medium.[16] United Kingdom
1877 Concept development The word 'sterile' is first used.[8]
1877 Bacteria Downes and Blunt demonstrate sterilization of a bacterial culture after nine hours of exposure to sunlight. This is the precursor of ultraviolet light (UV).[16]
1877 Product introduction disinfectant British chemical manufacturer John Jeyes patents his Jeyes fluid.[45] United Kingdom
1877 Concept development The word sterile first appears.[8]
1878 Lister recommends heating of glassware at 150°C for 2 hours to produce sterilization.[16]
1878 Pathogenic bacteria American physician George Miller Sternberg shows that pathogenic bacteria (vegetative or non-spores) are killed in 10 minutes at a relatively benigntemperature of 62°C to 72°C.[16] United States
1878 Concept development Tyndall uses the adjective bactericidal.[8]
1881 Anthrax Robert Koch concludes that ethanol is innefective as an antiseptic based on his work with anthrax spores.[6] Germany
1881 Koch and coworkers determine the exact value of dry heat and the limitations of steam at 100°C. They additionally create the silk thread technique for testing bactericidal agents, impregnated with anthrax spores.[16]
1881 Diphtheria There is evidence of the use of ozone as a disinfectant, mentioned by Kellogg in his book on diphtheria.[16]
1882 Cordon sanitaire Yellow fever In response to a virulent outbreak of yellow fever in Brownsville, Texas, and in northern Mexico, a cordon sanitaire is established 180 miles north of the city, terminating at the Rio Grande to the west and the Gulf of Mexico to the east.[46][47] United States
1883 Sterile gowns and caps are invented by German surgeon Gustav Adolf Neuber using a form of autoclave.[16] Germany
1884 French microbiologist Charles Chamberland invents the first autoclave.[16]
1884 Pasteur and Chamberland design the first candle-shaped porcelain depth filter for the removal of bacteria.[16]
1885 German surgeon Curt Schimmelbusch develops and evaluates details of aseptic technique. He is the first to sterilize surgical dressing by steam. Schimmelbusch also advocates adding sodium carbonate to boiling water to enhance its germicidal value and prevent corrosion of instruments.[16] Germany
1885 Gaston Poupinel in France introduces the first device of dry heat sterilization, which begins to be used in many hospitals.[16] France
1886 Rabies Louis Pasteur successfully immunizes a boy who was bitten by a rabid dog with spinal cord suspensions of inactivated rabies virus.[21]
1886 Product introduction disinfectant Formaldehyde is examined as a bactericide by Loew & Fisher.[20]
1887 Product introduction disinfectant Rosahegyi notes that dyes are inhibitory to bacteria.[20]
1888 Cordon sanitaire During a yellow fever epidemic, the city of Jacksonville, Florida, is surrounded by an armed cordon sanitaire by order of Governor Edward A. Perry.[48][49] United States
1888 Publication Fred Kilmer publishes Modern Methods of Antiseptic Wound Treatment, which helps spread the adoption of antiseptic surgery.[16]
1888 German surgeon Ervis Von Esmarch investigates the sterilizing efficiency of unsaturated and superheated steam and recommends the use of bacteriological tests as a proof of sterilization.[16] Germany
1888 American bacteriologist Joseph J. Kinyoun makes important contributions to the design of the steam sterilization chamber and recommends a vacuum process to augment steam penetration of objects.[16] United States
1889 The word 'fungicide' appears for the first time.[8]
1880s Product introduction disinfectant Joseph Lister uses a phenol agent in his groundbreaking work on surgical antisepsis.[13]
1891 Information about the steam sterilizer appears in print.[16]
1891 Heat sterilization of instruments is introduced by German surgeon Ernst Von Bergmann.[16]
1892 Product introduction disinfectant The name ethanol is coined as a result of a resolution adopted at the International Conference on Chemical Nomenclature held in Geneva, Switzerland.[50] Switzerland
1893 British botanist Harry Marshall Ward experiments on the bactericidal effects of different coloured lights.[51][52] Ward demonstrates that it is primarily the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum that has the bactericidal action.[53] United Kingdom
1894 English industrialist William Lever, 1st Viscount Leverhulme introduces the first mass-produced carbolic soap to the market, Lifebuoy.[54] United Kingdom
1896 German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen discovers X-rays, which soon become known for their ability to destroy microbes.[16]
1897 Product introduction disinfectant Defries develops an ingenious test which seeks to eliminate the continuing action of a disinfectant and to establish a time for a true endpoint to the disinfection process.[20]
1897 Kronig and Paul in Germany publish paper examining the kinetics or dynamics of the course of the disinfection process.[20][55][56] Germany
1897 Publication Kilmer publishes a classical paper entitled Modern Surgical Dressings.[16]
1897 The adjective microbiocidal appears.[8]
1898 A. Schmidt reports on disinfection using formaldehyde as a wet vapour to fumigate sick rooms.[16]
1898 Reider describes the bactericidal activity of X-rays.[16]
1899 Cordon sanitaire Plague An outbreak of plague in Honolulu is managed by a cordon sanitaire around the Chinatown district. In an attempt to control the infection, a barbed wire perimeter is created and people's belongings and homes are burned.[57][58] United States
1900 By this time, there are 4,000 hospitals in the United States.[21] United States
1900 Strebel demonstrates the inhibitory action of radioactive substances (radium).[16][59]
1900–1904 Cordon sanitaire Plague "During the San Francisco plague of 1900–1904 San Francisco's Chinatown was subjected to a cordon sanitaire"
1901 Product introduction disinfectant Meyer conducts the first systematic experiment on the nature of the antibacterial action of phenols. Meyer shows that the antibacterial action of phenols is paralleled by their distribution between protein and water, suggesting that protein is the prime target.[20]
1902 Cordon sanitaire "In 1902, Louisiana imposed a cordon sanitaire to prevent Italian immigrants from disembarking at the port of New Orleans. "
1903 Product introduction disinfectant "The Rideal-Walker test was introduced to evaluate the performance of phenolic disinfectants against Salmonella typhi. It was published in 1903"[20] Rideal Walker proposes the phenol coefficient test.[16]
1903–1914 Cordon sanitaire Trypanosomiasis The Belgian colonial government imposes a cordon sanitaire on Uele Province in the Belgian Congo to control outbreaks of trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness).[60] Congo D.R
1909 Product introduction disinfectant Airborne bacteria "A modification of this method was adopted by the American Public Health Association in 1909 as a standard for determining airborne bacteria."[20]
1910 Chick and Martin consider microbes are killed by heat by protein coagulation in two stages, first by denaturation of the protein and second by agglutination when protein separates out.[16][61]
1910 Product introduction disinfectant Using UV light for disinfection of drinking water dates back to this year in Marseille, France.[62] France
1912 Cooper, working with bacteria and phenols, concludes that phenols destroy intracellular protein by coagulation.[20]
1913 Product introduction disinfectant Bacteria Cooper states that adsorption of phenol onto bacterial cells is the first reaction of the disinfection process.[20]
1916 Product introduction disinfectant Bacteria A new agent known as quaternary ammonium salts are first reported by the Rockefeller Institute as having bactericidal properties.[13] United States
1916 Product introduction disinfectant An antimicrobial molecule is introduced. These are organic derivatives of the positively charged ammonium ion where at least one hydrogen atom is substituted by a long chain alkyl radical and the three remaining atoms substituted usually by methyl groups.[20]
1916 Publication The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) publishes its first chapteron sterilization in USP Volume 9.[16] United States
1918 Cordon sanitaire Influenza "The 1918 flu pandemic spread so rapidly that, in general, there was no time to implement cordons sanitaires. However, to prevent an introduction of the infection, residents of Gunnison, Colorado isolated themselves from the surrounding area for two months at the end of 1918. All highways were barricaded near the county lines"
1918 Cordon sanitaire Influenza In the South Pacific, the Governor of American Samoa, John Martin Poyer, imposed a reverse cordon sanitaire of the islands from all incoming ships, successfully achieving zero deaths within the territory during the influenza epidemic.[63] In contrast, the neighboring New Zealand-controlled Western Samoa is among the hardest hit, with a 90% infection rate and over 20% of its adults dying from the disease.[64] American Samoa, Western Samoa
1918 Influenza In late year, Spain attempts unsuccessfully to prevent the spread of the Spanish flu by imposing border controls, roadblocks, restricting rail travel, and a maritime cordon sanitaire prohibiting ships with sick passengers from landing, but by then the epidemic is already in progress in the country.[65] Spain
1918 Germs Hydrogen peroxide is used in World War I as a germicide.[16]
1920 Standard Oil first produces isopropyl alcohol by hydrating propene.[66][67]
1921 Bigelow describes the logarithmic nature of thermal death time (TDT) curves.[16]
1921 Samuel Rideal and Eric Rideal publish Chemical Disinfection and Sterilization.[16]
1922 Bigelow and Esty, utilizing spores, determine the thermal death time (TDT), as a means of evaluating sterilization of thermophilic microbes.[68]
1922 Zsigmondy and Buchmann introduce a membrane filter composed of cellulose esters for the removal of bacteria from solution.[16]
1925 Viruses The adjective virucidal is first noted.[8]
1928 Gates discovers the germicidal wavelength of UV light.[16][69][70]
1929 Schrader and Bossert find that ethylene oxide (EO) has bactericidal properties.[16]
1929 Otto Rahn discovers that the size of bacteria is the cause of the logarithmic order of death.[16]
Late 1920s Hall exploits bactericidal activity of ethylene oxide to lower the microbiological content of spices.[16]
1933 Product introduction disinfectant Dettol [71][72][73] India
1933 Gross and Dixon patent use of EO as a sterilizing agent.[16]
1933 Product introduction disinfectant Soap-solubilized formulation containing chloroxylenol and terpineol is introduced by Colebrook and Maxted.[20]
1933 American Engineer Weeden Underwood makes notable advances in design of, and application of pressure steam sterilizers. This is considered the beginning of the era of scientific sterilization.[16] United States
1933 Schauffler documents the antimicrobial properties of chlorine dioxide solutions.[16]
1934 Weeden Underwood writes an early textbook on sterilization called Textbook on Sterilization.[16] United States
1935 Product introduction disinfectant The use of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) as a germicide/disinfectant is formally recognized.[13]
1936 Publication Ernest Carr McCulloch publishes Disinfection and Sterilization.[16]
1938 Carl Walter describes the first rapid, safe mechanical process for routine cleaning and terminal sterilization, called the washer-sterilizer.[16]
1938 Corona discharge is found to be a sterilizing agent.[16]
1939 Nordgren reports on early work in regard to formaldehyde efficacy, poarticularly under deep vacuum.[16][74]
1941 UK Control of Infection Officer[75] United Kingdom
1941 Robertson, Bigg, Miller and Baker report on the aerosol disinfection of glycols.[16]
1942 Amidines are studied as antitrypanocidal drugs are shown to be antibacterial by Fuller.[20][76][77]
1942 Underwood defines the first "flash sterilization" at 30 min at 121°C.[16]
1943 First isolation ward in USA[78] United States
1943 Theodore Puck, Robertson and Henry Lemon report on the bactericidal activity of propylene glycol (hydrolysis by-product of propylene oxide) vapour.[16]
1944 USA Infection Control Officer.[79] United States
1943–1945 Otto Rahn describes the logarithmic kinetics and temperature coefficient values of sterilants and antimicrobial agents.[16]
1946 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is founded.[21] United States
1946 Ewell demonstrates that microbes are more readily killed by ozone in high humidity than at low humidity.[16]
1947 Douglas Lea reports on the actions of radiation on living cells. In the main, ionizing radiation destroys microbes by direct hits of the radiations on or near the organism.[16]
1947 Product introduction disinfectant Fungus, HIV-1 (AIDS), Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C The barbicide is invented by Maurice King and marketed heavily around the United States by his brother James.[80] United States
1947 A widespread outbreak of gastroenteritis in the United Kingdom, causing the death of 4,500 children under the age of one, gave rise to a national objective of sterilising all baby's milk bottles. Milton sterilizing fluid becomes the antiseptic advocated by hospitals and government agencies. This cold water method is generally available and simple for all to use, and virtually all mothers adopted this method.[81] United Kingdom
1947 Product introduction disinfectant Jordan et al. write 12 papers on the dynamics of the disinfection of Escherichia coli by phenol and heat.[20]
1949 Kolb and Schneiter show methyl bromide to be bactericidal for anthrax spores and its use is recommended for sterilization of improved wool.[16]
1949 Hutchins and Xezones report peracetic acid to be highly germicide against spores of Bacillus thermoacidurans.[16]
1950 Product introduction disinfectant "11 papers by Berry & Michaels (1950) on the bactericidal activity of ethylene glycol and its mono alkyl ethers on the same organism. These papers recorded in meticulous detail the time course of the disinfection process, the effect of temperature and other factors upon it and how loss of activity with dilution-the concentration exponent-is a variant property of antibacterial substances."[20]
1950 The term sanitizer appears first in the Journal of Milk and Food Technology.[8]
1954 Product introduction disinfectant Davies et al. describe the new antimicrobial compound chlorhexidine.[20]
1955 Peracetic acid is introduced.[20]
1955 Product introduction disinfectant Povidone-iodine comes into commercial use.[82]
Mid-1950s Baby wipes emerge around this time as more people travel and need a way to clean up on the go.[83]
1956 Product introduction disinfectant Chlorine dioxide is introduced as a drinking water disinfectant on a large scale, when Brussels, Belgium, changes from chlorine to chlorine dioxide.[84] Belgium
1956 Glyoxal and related compounds are first used as potential blood sterilizing agents.[16][85]
1957 Product introduction disinfectant Glutaraldehyde is introduced.[20]
1957 Publication John Perkins publishes the first edition of Principals and Methods of Sterilization.[16]
1957 American Arthur Julius invents the wet wipes.[86] United States
1958 Publication G. Sykes publishes Disinfection and Sterilization.[16]
1950s Product introduction disinfectant Chlorhexidine comes into medical use.[87]
1959 Exeter microbiologist Brendan Moore becomes the first appointed Infection Control Nurse.[88][89][90] United Kingdom
1960 It is found that conveyor ovens can provide continuous sterilization of syringes.[16]
1960 Alkalinized glutaraldehyde is found to be effective as a sterilant.[16]
1961 High vacuum infrared ovens become available for batch sterilization.[16]
1961 Propylene oxide is demonstrated to have microbicidal activity within powered or flaked food.[16]
1961 Robert Ernst shows that the use of iodophores at elevated temperature (e.g., 50-60°C) in combination with ultrasonics could be an effective sterilizing agent for surgical and dental instruments.[16]
1962 The rate of bacterial spore destruction improves with simultaneous applied ionizing and thermal processing.[16]
1962 Robert McDonald invents the prehumidification step for effective ethylene oxide sterilization.[16]
1962 The first antimicrobial indications of dialdehydes, e.g., glutaldehyde, are described by Pepper and Liebermann.[16]
1963 The first gamma irradiator is used in the United States for sterilization of medical devices.[16]
1963 Gaseous propylene oxide is used to sterilize and de-infest food products.[16]
1963 Guerin shows that desiccated microbes are more resistant to ozone than hydrated cells.[16]
1964 Johnson and Johnson provides commercial gamma irradiation.[16]
1964 Armstrong discovers a gaseous ozone sterilization process.[16]
1965 Sydney Rubbo and Joan Gardner show that glutaraldehyde is not only more effective than formaldehyde but also less irritating.[16]
1966 Product introduction disinfectant Hand sanitizers are first introduced.[91]
1966 Alder and co-workers develop a low temperature steam and formaldehyde system similar to high vacuum steam sterilization but operating at 65-80°C.[16]
1967 Saul Kaye demonstrates that formic acid is microcidal synergistic with ethylene oxide and other epoxides.[16]
1968 Paul Borick describes and defines chemosterilizers.[92][93]
1968 Earle H. Spaulding devises a rational approach of disinfection and classification for patient care items and equipment – non-critical items, semi-critical items, and critical items.[16]
1969 Marcel Reynolds discovers the feasibility of using thermo-irradiation as sterilization of spacecraft.[16]
1960s Product introduction disinfectant Glutaraldehyde comes into medical use.[94]
1970 Trimethylene oxide (oxetane) is patented for its disinfecting capabilities, and possible use in sterilization processes.[16]
1970 Russian scientists pubish a method detailing using a gas mixture of methyl bromide and ethylene oxide for sterilization of a space lander in a plastic bag.[16] Russia
1970 Continuous ethylene oxide sterilization process is developed.[16]
1971 D.A. Gunther patents a balance pressure process for use with ethylene oxide sterilization.[16]
1972 Cordon sanitaire Smallpox During the 1972 Yugoslav smallpox outbreak, over 10,000 people are sequestered in cordons sanitaires of villages and neighborhoods using roadblocks, and a general prohibition of public meetings, a closure of all borders and a prohibition of all non-essential travel is implemented.[95][96] Serbia, Kosovo
1972 Leland Ashman and Wilson Menashi use low temperature gas plasma for sterilization of contaminated surfaces.[16]
1973 Researchers at Battelle Columbus Laboratories conduct a comprehensive literature, technology, and patent search tracing the history of understanding the "bacteriostatic and sanitizing properties of copper and copper alloy surfaces", which demonstrates that copper, in very small quantities, has the power to control a wide range of molds, fungi, algae, and harmful microbes.[97] United States
1976 A method of cold sterilization using frozen dimethyl dicarbonate is developed.[98]
1976 Lowell Tensmeyer devises a method of killing micro-organisms in the inside of a container utilizing a plasma initiated by a focused laser beam and sustained by an electromagnetic field.[16]
1979 Francis C. Moore and Leon R. Perkinson devise a hydrogen peroxide vapour sterilization method.[16]
1980 A seeded (dialdehyde) gas plasma sterilization method is patented by G. Boucher.[16]
1984 Hospital-acquired infection A survey in Australia documents that 6.3% of 28,643 hospitalized patients in the country have a hospital-acquired infection, with the highest rates in larger hospitals.[99] Australia
1985 A.A. Rosenblatt, D.H. Rosenblatt and J.E. Knapp find chlorine to be a sterilant in a gaseous phase.[100][101]
1986 Pulsed laser sterilization is described.[16]
1988 Joslyn introduces a post-steam sterilization process for removing EO residuals more effectively, than mere heated aeration.[16]
1989 The use of the vapor phase of hydrogen peroxide as a surface decontaminant and sterilant is discovered.[16]
1980s Product introduction disinfectant Alcohol-based hand sanitizer starts being commonly used in Europe.[102]
1991 Karlson patents a gaseous ozone sterilization process.[16]
1995 Cordon sanitaire Ebola A cordon sanitaire is used to control an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Kikwit, Zaire.[103][104] Congo D.R.
1995 Hospital-acquired infection The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that approximately 1.9 million cases of hospital-acquired infection occurred in the United States.[105] United States
1998 According to CDC, approximately one third of healthcare acquired infections are preventable.[106]
1999 A new plasma sterilizer is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.[107] United States
1990s Product introduction disinfectant Non-flammable Alcohol Vapor in Carbon Dioxide systems (NAV-CO2 System) are developed in Japan in the 1990s to sanitize hospitals and ambulances. Japan
2001 Disinfection with performic acid is noted.[16]
2002 Publication The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners publishes a revised standard for office-based infection control which covers the sections of managing immunization, sterilization and disease surveillance.[108][109] Australia
2003 Cordon sanitaire Severe acute respiratory syndrome During the 2003 SARS outbreak in Canada, "community quarantine" is used to successfully reduce transmission of the disease.[110] Canada
2003 Cordon sanitaire Severe acute respiratory syndrome During the 2003 SARS outbreak in mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore, large-scale quarantine is imposed on travelers arriving from other SARS areas, work and school contacts of suspected cases, and, in a few instances, entire apartment complexes where high attack rates of SARS were occurring.[111] China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore
2004 Publication Ferric Fang publishes a paper on antimicrobial reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.[112]
2004 Cordon sanitaire Ebola A cordon sanitaire is established around some of the most affected areas of the 2014 West Africa Ebola virus outbreak.[113][114] On 19 August, the Liberian government quarantines the entirety of West Point, Monrovia and issued a curfew statewide.[115] Liberia
2005 Hospital-acquired infection The American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America publish guidelines suggesting antibiotics specifically for hospital-acquired pneumonia.[116] United States
2008 (February) The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approves the registrations of five different groups of copper alloys as "antimicrobial materials" with public health benefits.[117] United States
2008 (April) Publication The World Health Organization publishes Early recognition, reporting and infection control management of acute respiratory diseases of potential international concern, an aide-mémoire on emergencies preparedness and response.[118]
2008 (June) Publication The World Health Organization publishes Core components for infection prevention and control programmes, a report of the Second Meeting of the Informal Network on Infection Prevention and Control in Health Care.[119] Switzerland (Geneva)
2008 (November) A non-peer-reviewed[120] study is presented to the European Tissue Symposium by the University of Westminster, London, comparing the bacteria levels present after the use of paper towels, warm air hand dryers, and modern jet-air hand dryers.[121] Of those three methods, only paper towels reduced the total number of bacteria on hands, with "through-air dried" towels the most effective.
2009 Publication The World Health Organization publishes Natural ventilation for infection control in health-care settings.[122]
2009 Publication The World Health Organization publishes Infection-control measures for health care of patients with acute respiratory diseases in community settings.[123]
2011 (April) Publication The World Health Organization publishes Core components for infection prevention and control programmes.[124]
2011 Researchers estimate that by this time, 648,000 hospitalized patients in then United States have to battle at least one hospital-acquired infection. The total number of infections is estimated at 721,800. To put that number in perspective, about 34 million people are admitted to 5,000 community hospitals in the country each year.[125] United States
2012 A published study claims that "new mathematical modelling, diagnostic, communications, and informatics technologies can identify and report hitherto unknown microbes in other species, and thus new risk assessment approaches are needed to identify microbes most likely to cause human disease". The study investigates challenges in moving the global pandemic strategy from response to pre-emption.[126]
2014 Organization The Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) is launched as global partnership devoted to the purpose of strengthening the world’s ability to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious disease threats. As of 2020 it has 67 member countries.[127]
2014 Hand washing A study shows that Saudi Arabia has the highest rate of hand washing with soap, with 97 percent; the United States near the middle with 77 percent; and China with the lowest rate of 23 percent.[128]
2015 Hand washing A study of hand washing in 54 countries finds that on average, 38.7% of households practice hand washing with soap.
2019 A number of studies find that copper surfaces may help prevent infection in the healthcare environment.[129]
2020 Cordon sanitaire Coronavirus disease 2019 A multiple number of lockdowns are imposed worldwide in response to the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic. Worldwide
2020 (April 22) Publication The World Health Organization publishes How To Pun On And Take Off Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), a series of posters on emergencies preparedness and response.[130]

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External links


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