Difference between revisions of "Timeline of influenza"

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This is a '''timeline of [[wikipedia:influenza|influenza]]''', briefly describing major events such as [[wikipedia:outbreaks|outbreaks]], [[wikipedia:epidemics|epidemics]], [[wikipedia:pandemics|pandemics]], discoveries and developments of [[wikipedia:vaccines|vaccines]]. In addition to specific year/period-related events, there's the [[wikipedia:flu season|seasonal flu]] that kills between 250,000 and 500,000 people every year, and has claimed between 340 million and 1 billion human lives throughout history.<ref name="WHO Europe Influenza">{{cite web|url=http://www.euro.who.int/influenza |title=WHO Europe – Influenza |date = June 2009|publisher=[[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]] (WHO) |accessdate=12 June 2009| archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20090617212626/http://www.euro.who.int/influenza| archivedate= 17 June 2009 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref><ref name="WHO Influenza">{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/2003/fs211/en/ |title=Influenza: Fact sheet |date = March 2003|publisher=[[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]] (WHO) |accessdate=7 May 2009| archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20090505070146/http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/2003/fs211/en/| archivedate= 5 May 2009 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
 
This is a '''timeline of [[wikipedia:influenza|influenza]]''', briefly describing major events such as [[wikipedia:outbreaks|outbreaks]], [[wikipedia:epidemics|epidemics]], [[wikipedia:pandemics|pandemics]], discoveries and developments of [[wikipedia:vaccines|vaccines]]. In addition to specific year/period-related events, there's the [[wikipedia:flu season|seasonal flu]] that kills between 250,000 and 500,000 people every year, and has claimed between 340 million and 1 billion human lives throughout history.<ref name="WHO Europe Influenza">{{cite web|url=http://www.euro.who.int/influenza |title=WHO Europe – Influenza |date = June 2009|publisher=[[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]] (WHO) |accessdate=12 June 2009| archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20090617212626/http://www.euro.who.int/influenza| archivedate= 17 June 2009 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref><ref name="WHO Influenza">{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/2003/fs211/en/ |title=Influenza: Fact sheet |date = March 2003|publisher=[[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]] (WHO) |accessdate=7 May 2009| archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20090505070146/http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/2003/fs211/en/| archivedate= 5 May 2009 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref>
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== Sample questions ==
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The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:
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* What are some notable outbreaks of influenza recorded throughout history?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "{{w|Epidemic}}".
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** You will see oubreaks notable by their magnitude, like big epidemics and pandemics, or by the novelty of the {{w|influenza virus}} strain.
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* What are some notable outbreaks affecting non-human animals?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "{{w|Epizootic}}".
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* What are some events describing notable infections on individuals (both human and non-human) that do not develop into {{w|epidemic}}s or {{w|epizootic}}s?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Infection".
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** You will mainly see the emergence of a specific strain detected in individuals.
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* What are some significant events describing research on influenza in the different fields of science?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Research".
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** For research in {{w|virology}}, look for the group of rows with value "Research (virology)". The same can be applied for research in {{w|epidemiology}} and other fields, clarified between parentheses.
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* What are some significant events describing the medical development progress on treating and preventing influenza?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Medical development".
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** For specific development of vaccines, look for the group of rows with value "Medical development (vaccine)".
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* What are the several influenza vaccine recommendations issued by important organizations?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Vaccine recommendation".
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** You will see a number of recommendations, like those by {{w|WHO}} for both [[w:Northern hemisphere|Northern]] and [[w:Southern hemisphere|Southern]] hemispheres starting from 1998.
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* What are some notable publications authored by experts and/or organizations concerning influenza?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Publication".
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** You will see publications about influenza in different fields, including virology and epidemiology, as well as numerous guidelines produced by the {{w|World Health Organization}}.
  
 
==Big Picture==
 
==Big Picture==
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{| class="sortable wikitable"
 
{| class="sortable wikitable"
! Year/period !! Key developments
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! Year/period !! Key developments !! Details
|-
 
| Prior to the 18th century || The outbreak of influenza reported in 1173 is not considered to be a pandemic, and other reports to 1500 generally lack reliability. The outbreak of 1510 is probably a pandemic reported with spreading from Africa to engulf Europe. The outbreak of 1557 is possibly a pandemic. The first influenza pandemic agreed by all authors occurs in 1580.<ref name="A history of influenza" />
 
|-
 
| 18th century || Data from this century is more informative of pandemics that those of previous years. The first agreed influenza pandemic of the 18th century begins in 1729.<ref name="A history of influenza" />
 
 
|-
 
|-
| 19th century || Two influenza pandemics are recorded in the century.<ref name="A history of influenza" /> [[wikipedia:Avian influenza|Avian influenza]] is recorded for the first time.<ref name="avian-influenza" />
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| 400 [[wikipedia:Before Common Era|BCE]] onward || Post first description era || This period marks the existence of influenza as a disease since its first description by Greek physician [[wikipedia:Hippocrates|Hippocrates]].
 
|-
 
|-
| 20th Century || Influenza pandemics are recorded four times, starting with the deadly [[wikipedia:Spanish flu|Spanish flu]]. This is also the period of virus isolation and development of vaccines.<ref name="The Flu Pandemic and You: A Canadian Guide" /> Prior to 20th century, much information about influenza is generally not considered certain. Although the virus seems to have caused epidemics throughout human history, historical data on influenza are difficult to interpret, because the symptoms can be similar to those of other respiratory diseases.<ref>{{Cite journal| pmid = 1724803| volume = 13| issue = 2| pages = 223–234| last = Beveridge| first = W I| title = The chronicle of influenza epidemics| journal = History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences| year = 1991}}</ref><ref name=Potter/>
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| 1510 onward || Post first pandemic description era || This period begins with the first recognition of pandemic influenza, giving birth to a five centuries period of documented influenza pandemics.  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1945-21th century ||International health organizations merge, and large scale vaccination campaigns begin.<ref name="Springer">{{cite book|title=Vaccine Analysis: Strategies, Principles, and Control|date=2014|publisher=Springer|isbn=9783662450246|page=61|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=vJKeBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA61}}</ref>
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| 1930s onward || Modern medical development era || Period marking an accelerating time of scientific and medical development including the discovery of the influenza virus in both non-humans (1931) and humans (1933), as well as the first influenza vaccine (1936). After the end of {{w|World War II}}, international health organizations merge, and large scale vaccination campaigns begin.<ref name="Springer">{{cite book|title=Vaccine Analysis: Strategies, Principles, and Control|date=2014|publisher=Springer|isbn=9783662450246|page=61|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=vJKeBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA61}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 21th century || Worldwide accessible databases multiply in order to control outbreaks and prevent pandemics. New influenza strain outbreaks still occur. Efficacy of currently available vaccines is still insufficient to diminish the current annual health burden induced by the virus.<ref name="Springer"/>
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| 21th century || Present time || Today, worldwide accessible databases multiply in order to control outbreaks and prevent pandemics. New influenza strain outbreaks still occur. Efficacy of currently available vaccines is still insufficient to diminish the current annual health burden induced by the virus.<ref name="Springer"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
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[[File:Reported cases of influenza in American countries for the period 1949-1958.png|thumb|center|400px|Reported cases of influenza in American countries for the period 1949-1958, illustrating the severity of [[wikipedia:influenza A virus subtype H2N2|influenza A virus subtype H2N2]] [[wikipedia:pandemic|pandemic]] in 1957. Chile (not shown in the graph) was severely hit and reported 1,408,430 cases in 1957.<ref name="REPORTED  CASES  OF  NOTIFIABLE  DISEASES IN  THE  AMERICAS 1949  - 1958">{{cite web|title=REPORTED  CASES  OF  NOTIFIABLE  DISEASES IN  THE  AMERICAS 1949  - 1958|url=http://iris.paho.org/xmlui/bitstream/handle/123456789/1330/41680.pdf?sequence=2|website=paho.org|accessdate=22 February 2017}}</ref>]]
 
[[File:Reported cases of influenza in American countries for the period 1949-1958.png|thumb|center|400px|Reported cases of influenza in American countries for the period 1949-1958, illustrating the severity of [[wikipedia:influenza A virus subtype H2N2|influenza A virus subtype H2N2]] [[wikipedia:pandemic|pandemic]] in 1957. Chile (not shown in the graph) was severely hit and reported 1,408,430 cases in 1957.<ref name="REPORTED  CASES  OF  NOTIFIABLE  DISEASES IN  THE  AMERICAS 1949  - 1958">{{cite web|title=REPORTED  CASES  OF  NOTIFIABLE  DISEASES IN  THE  AMERICAS 1949  - 1958|url=http://iris.paho.org/xmlui/bitstream/handle/123456789/1330/41680.pdf?sequence=2|website=paho.org|accessdate=22 February 2017}}</ref>]]
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=== Google Trends ===
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The image below shows {{w|Google Trends}} data from 2004 (the start of data availability) to June 2020 (when the screenshot was taken). See local maximums indicating interest peaking in April 2009 ({{w|Swine flu pandemic}}), and March 2020 ({{w|COVID-19 pandemic}}).<ref>{{cite web |title=Influenza |url=https://trends.google.com/trends/explore?date=all&q=Influenza |website=trends.google.com |accessdate=24 June 2020}}</ref>
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[[File:Influenza Google Trends.png|thumb|center|800px]]
  
 
==Full timeline==
 
==Full timeline==
  
 
{| class="sortable wikitable"
 
{| class="sortable wikitable"
! Year/period !! Species !! Type of event !! Event !! Geographical location  
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! Year/period !! [[w:Strain (biology)|Strain]] !! Species !! Type of event !! Event !! Geographical location  
 
|-
 
|-
| 400 [[wikipedia:Before Common Era|BCE]] || || Medical development ||The symptoms of human influenza are described by [[wikipedia:Hippocrates|Hippocrates]].<ref>{{cite journal |last=Martin |first=P |author2=Martin-Granel E |title=2,500-year evolution of the term epidemic |url=http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol12no06/05-1263.htm#cit |journal=Emerg Infect Dis |date=June 2006 |volume=12 |issue=6 |pmid=16707055 |pages=976–80 |doi=10.3201/eid1206.051263 |pmc=3373038}}</ref><ref name="The Flu Pandemic and You: A Canadian Guide">{{cite book|last1=Lam|first1=Vincent|last2=Lee|first2=Colin|title=The Flu Pandemic and You: A Canadian Guide|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=yVqHyFptZvQC&pg=PA44&lpg=PA44&dq=%22400%22+%22influenza%22+%22hippocrates%22&source=bl&ots=DnWiSdSlL9&sig=7FRcTiN52qKNlw4DOh8-4g2Zr6I&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiHmI_Ly-XRAhUGf5AKHfVoB2MQ6AEIJjAC#v=onepage&q=%22400%22%20%22influenza%22%20%22hippocrates%22&f=false|accessdate=28 January 2017}}</ref> ||
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| 400 [[wikipedia:Before Common Era|BCE]] || || || Medical development ||The symptoms of human influenza are described by [[wikipedia:Hippocrates|Hippocrates]].<ref>{{cite journal |last=Martin |first=P |author2=Martin-Granel E |title=2,500-year evolution of the term epidemic |url=http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol12no06/05-1263.htm#cit |journal=Emerg Infect Dis |date=June 2006 |volume=12 |issue=6 |pmid=16707055 |pages=976–80 |doi=10.3201/eid1206.051263 |pmc=3373038}}</ref><ref name="The Flu Pandemic and You: A Canadian Guide">{{cite book|last1=Lam|first1=Vincent|last2=Lee|first2=Colin|title=The Flu Pandemic and You: A Canadian Guide|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=yVqHyFptZvQC&pg=PA44&lpg=PA44&dq=%22400%22+%22influenza%22+%22hippocrates%22&source=bl&ots=DnWiSdSlL9&sig=7FRcTiN52qKNlw4DOh8-4g2Zr6I&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiHmI_Ly-XRAhUGf5AKHfVoB2MQ6AEIJjAC#v=onepage&q=%22400%22%20%22influenza%22%20%22hippocrates%22&f=false|accessdate=28 January 2017}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1173 || || Epidemic || First epidemic, where symptoms are probably influenza, is reported.<ref name="A history of influenza">{{cite journal|last1=Potter|first1=C. W.|title=A history of influenza|doi=10.1046/j.1365-2672.2001.01492.x|url=http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2001.01492.x/full|accessdate=1 February 2017}}</ref> ||
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| 1173 || || || Epidemic || The first epidemic where symptoms are probably influenza, is reported.<ref name="A history of influenza">{{cite journal|last1=Potter|first1=C. W.|title=A history of influenza|doi=10.1046/j.1365-2672.2001.01492.x|url=http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2001.01492.x/full|accessdate=1 February 2017}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1357 || || || The term ''influenza'' is first used to describe a disease prevailing in 1357. It would be applied again to the epidemic in 1386−1387.<ref name="Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1" /> || [[wikipedia:Italy|Italy]]
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| 1357 || || Human || Medical development || The term ''influenza'' is first used to describe a disease prevailing in 1357. It would be applied again to the epidemic in 1386−1387.<ref name="Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1" /> || [[wikipedia:Italy|Italy]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1386–1387 || || Epidemic || Influenza-like illness epidemic develops in Europe, preferentially killing elderly and debilitating persons. This is probably the first documentation of a key epidemiological feature of both pandemic and seasonal influenza.<ref name="Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1" /> || [[wikipedia:Europe|Europe]]
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| 1386–1387 || || Human || Epidemic || Influenza-like illness epidemic develops in Europe, preferentially killing elderly and debilitating persons. This is probably the first documentation of a key epidemiological feature of both pandemic and seasonal influenza.<ref name="Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1" /> || [[wikipedia:Europe|Europe]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1411 || || Epidemic || Epidemic of coughing disease associated with spontaneous abortions is noted in Paris.<ref name="Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1" /> || [[wikipedia:France|France]]
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| 1411 || || Human || Epidemic || Epidemic of coughing disease associated with spontaneous abortions is noted in Paris.<ref name="Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1" /> || [[wikipedia:France|France]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1510 || || Epidemic || Influenza pandemic invades Europe from Africa in the summer of 1510 and proceedes northward to involve all of Europe and then the Baltic States. Attack rates are extremely high, but fatality is low and said to be restricted to young children.<ref name="Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1">{{cite journal|last1=Taubenberger|first1=J.K.|last2=Morens|first2=D.M.|title=Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1|pmc=2720801}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Africa|Africa]], [[wikipedia:Europe|Europe]]
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| 1510 || || Human || Epidemic || Influenza pandemic invades Europe from Africa in the summer of 1510 and proceedes northward to involve all of Europe and then the Baltic States. Attack rates are extremely high, but fatality is low and said to be restricted to young children.<ref name="Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1">{{cite journal|last1=Taubenberger|first1=J.K.|last2=Morens|first2=D.M.|title=Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1|pmc=2720801}}</ref> This is the first recognition of pandemic influenza.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Morens |first1=David M. |last2=Taubenberger |first2=Jeffery K. |last3=Folkers |first3=Gregory K. |last4=Fauci |first4=Anthony S. |title=Pandemic Influenza's 500th Anniversary |journal=Clinical Infectious Diseases |doi=10.1086/657429 |url=https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/51/12/1442/317322}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Africa|Africa]], [[wikipedia:Europe|Europe]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1557–1558 || || Epidemic || The first influenza pandemic in which global involvement and westward spread from Asia to Europe is documented. Unlike the previous pandemic from 1510, this one is highly fatal, with deaths recorded as being due to "pleurisy and fatal peripneumony". High mortality in pregnant women is also recorded.<ref name="Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1" /> || [[wikipedia:Eurasia|Eurasia]]
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| 1557–1558 || || Human || Epidemic || The first influenza pandemic in which global involvement and westward spread from Asia to Europe is documented. Unlike the previous pandemic from 1510, this one is highly fatal, with deaths recorded as being due to "pleurisy and fatal peripneumony". High mortality in pregnant women is also recorded.<ref name="Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1" /> || [[wikipedia:Eurasia|Eurasia]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1580 || || Epidemic || Influenza pandemic originates in Asia during the summer, spreading to Africa, and then to Europe along two corridors from Asia Minor and North-West Africa. Illness rates are high. 8000 deaths are reported in [[wikipedia:Rome|Rome]], and some Spanish cities are decimated.<ref name="A history of influenza" /><ref name="Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1" /> || [[wikipedia:Eurasia|Eurasia]], [[wikipedia:Africa|Africa]]
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| 1580 || || Human || Epidemic || Influenza pandemic originates in Asia during the summer, spreading to Africa, and then to Europe along two corridors from Asia Minor and North-West Africa. Illness rates are high. 8000 deaths are reported in [[wikipedia:Rome|Rome]], and some Spanish cities are decimated.<ref name="A history of influenza" /><ref name="Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1" /> || [[wikipedia:Eurasia|Eurasia]], [[wikipedia:Africa|Africa]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1729 || || Epidemic || Influenza pandemic originates in [[wikipedia:Russia|Russia]], spreading westwards in expanding waves to embrace all Europe within six months. High death rates are reported.<ref name=Potter>{{cite journal |author=Potter CW
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| 1729 || || Human || Epidemic || Influenza pandemic originates in [[wikipedia:Russia|Russia]], spreading westwards in expanding waves to embrace all Europe within six months. High death rates are reported.<ref name=Potter>{{cite journal |author=Potter CW
 
|title=A History of Influenza |journal=Journal of Applied Microbiology |date=October 2001 |volume=91 |issue=4 |pages=572–579 |pmid=11576290 | doi=10.1046/j.1365-2672.2001.01492.x}}</ref><ref name="A history of influenza" /><ref name="Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1" /> || [[wikipedia:Eurasia|Eurasia]]
 
|title=A History of Influenza |journal=Journal of Applied Microbiology |date=October 2001 |volume=91 |issue=4 |pages=572–579 |pmid=11576290 | doi=10.1046/j.1365-2672.2001.01492.x}}</ref><ref name="A history of influenza" /><ref name="Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1" /> || [[wikipedia:Eurasia|Eurasia]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1761–1762 || || Epidemic || Influenza pandemic originates. Remarkably it is estimated to have begun in the Americas in the spring of 1761 and to have spread from there to Europe and around the globe in 1762. It is the first pandemic to be studied by multiple observers who communicate with each other in learned societies and through [[wikipedia:Academic journal|medical journals]] and books. Influenza is characterized clinically to a greater degree than it has been previously, as physicians carefully record observations on series of patients and attempt to understand what would later be called the [[wikipedia:pathophysiology|pathophysiology]] of the disease.<ref name="Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1" /> || [[wikipedia:Americas|Americas]], [[wikipedia:Europe|Europe]]
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| 1761–1762 || || Human || Epidemic || Influenza pandemic originates. Remarkably it is estimated to have begun in the Americas in the spring of 1761 and to have spread from there to Europe and around the globe in 1762. It is the first pandemic to be studied by multiple observers who communicate with each other in learned societies and through [[wikipedia:Academic journal|medical journals]] and books. Influenza is characterized clinically to a greater degree than it has been previously, as physicians carefully record observations on series of patients and attempt to understand what would later be called the [[wikipedia:pathophysiology|pathophysiology]] of the disease.<ref name="Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1" /> || [[wikipedia:Americas|Americas]], [[wikipedia:Europe|Europe]]
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|-
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| 1780–1782 || || Human || Epidemic || Influenza pandemic originates in [[wikipedia:Southeast Asia|Southeast Asia]] and spreads to [[wikipedia:Russia|Russia]] and eastward into [[wikipedia:Europe|Europe]]. It is remarkable for extremely high attack rates but negligible mortality. It appears that in this pandemic the concept of [[wikipedia:influenza|influenza]] as a distinct entity with characteristic epidemiological features is first appreciated.<ref name="Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1" /> || [[wikipedia:Eurasia|Eurasia]]
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|-
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| 1830–1833 || || Human || Epidemic || Influenza pandemic breaks out in the winter of 1830 in China, further spreading southwards by sea to reach the [[wikipedia:Philippines|Philippines]], [[wikipedia:India|India]] and [[wikipedia:Indonesia|Indonesia]], and across [[wikipedia:Russia|Russia]] into [[wikipedia:Europe|Europe]]. By 1831, the epidemic reaches the [[wikipedia:Americas|Americas]]. Overall the attack rate is estimated at 20–25% of the population, but the mortality rate is not exceptionally high.<ref name="A history of influenza" /> || [[wikipedia:Eurasia|Eurasia]], [[wikipedia:Americas|Americas]]
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|-
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| 1878 || || Non-human (Avian) || Research || [[wikipedia:Avian influenza|Avian influenza]] is recorded for the first time. Originally known as ''Fowl Plague''.<ref name=avian-influenza>{{cite web|url=http://articles.extension.org/pages/24401/history-of-avian-influenza|title=History of Avian Influenza|website=extension.org|accessdate=20 January 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Italy|Italy]]
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|-
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| 1889–1892 || [[w:Influenza A virus subtype H3N8|H3N8]]?<ref name="Valleron_2010">{{cite journal |title=Transmissibility and geographic spread of the 1889 influenza pandemic |journal={{w|PNAS}} |author-first1=Alain-Jacques |author-last1=Valleron |author-first2=Anne |author-last2=Cori |author-first3=Sophie |author-last3=Valtat |author-first4=Sofia |author-last4=Meurisse |author-first5=Fabrice |author-last5=Carrat |author-first6=Pierre-Yves |author-last6=Boëlle |date=11 May 2010 |doi=10.1073/pnas.1000886107 |volume=107 |issue=19 |pages=8778–8781 |pmid=20421481 |pmc=2889325}}</ref> {{w|H2N2}}?<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Hilleman|first=Maurice R.|date=2002|title=Realities and enigmas of human viral influenza: pathogenesis, epidemiology and control|journal=Vaccine|volume=20|issue=25–26|pages=3068–3087|citeseerx=10.1.1.523.7697|doi=10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00254-2|pmid=12163258}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|title=The Influenza H5N1 Report|last=|first=|date=April 2, 1998|website=Pliva.com|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20041024115910/http://www.pilva.com/en/edoctor/article8.asp|archive-date=24 October 2004}}</ref>|| Human || Epidemic || [[wikipedia:1889–90 flu pandemic|1889–90 flu pandemic]]. Dubbed the "Russian pandemic". Attack rates are reported in 408 geographic entities from 14 European countries and in the United States. Rapidly spreading, the pandemic would take only 4 months to circumnavigate the planet, reaching the United States 70 days after the original outbreak in [[wikipedia:Saint Petersburg|Saint Petersburg]].<ref name="Transmissibility and geographic spread of the 1889 influenza pandemic">{{cite web|title=Transmissibility and geographic spread of the 1889 influenza pandemic|url=http://www.pnas.org/content/107/19/8778.full|website=pnas.org|accessdate=1 February 2017}}</ref>  Following this pandemic, interest is renewed in examining the recurrence patterns of influenza.<ref name="Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1" /> || [[wikipedia:Eurasia|Eurasia]], [[wikipedia:Americas|Americas]]
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|-
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| 1901 || || Non-human (Avian) || Research || The causative organism of [[wikipedia:avian influenza|avian influenza]] is discovered to be a virus.<ref name="FLU-LAB-NET - About Avian Influenza">{{cite web|title=FLU-LAB-NET - About Avian Influenza|url=https://science.vla.gov.uk/flu-lab-net/about_AI.html|website=science.vla.gov.uk|accessdate=28 January 2017}}</ref> ||
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|-
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| 1918-1920 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Epidemic || The [[wikipedia:Spanish flu|Spanish flu]] ([[wikipedia:influenza A virus subtype H1N1|H1N1]]) [[wikipedia:pandemic|pandemic]] is considered one of the deadliest natural disasters ever, infecting an estimated 500 million people across the globe and claiming between 50 and 100 million lives. This pandemic would be described as "the greatest medical holocaust in history" and is estimated to have killed in a single year more people than the [[wikipedia:Black Death|Black Death]] [[wikipedia:bubonic plague|bubonic plague]] killed in four years from 1347 to 1351.<ref>{{cite web|title=The Influenza Pandemic of 1918|url=https://virus.stanford.edu/uda/|website=stanford.edu|accessdate=28 January 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |author=Potter CW|title=A History of Influenza |journal=Journal of Applied Microbiology |date=October 2001 |volume=91 |issue=4 |pages=572–579 |pmid=11576290 | doi=10.1046/j.1365-2672.2001.01492.x}}</ref> ||Worldwide; originated in [[wikipedia:France|France]] (disputed)
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|-
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| 1931 || || Non-human (porcine) || Research || The real cause of the flu, the {{w|Influenza Virus}}, is discovered by American virologist [[wikipedia:Richard Shope|Richard Shope]]<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Kopecka |first1=Tereza |title=Scurvy and Flu in 1900: The Truth Lost in Evidence |doi=10.5281/zenodo.3267778}}</ref>, who finds the [[wikipedia:Etiology|etiological]] cause of influenza in pigs.<ref>{{cite journal |last=Shimizu |first=K |title=History of influenza epidemics and discovery of influenza virus |journal=Nippon Rinsho |date=October 1997 |volume=55 |issue=10|pages=2505–201 |pmid=9360364}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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|-
 +
| 1933 || || Human || Research || British researchers Wilson Smith, Christopher Andrews, and [[wikipedia:Patrick Laidlaw|Patrick Laidlaw]] are the first to identify the human flu virus by experimenting with {{w|ferret}}s.<ref>{{cite journal |last=Smith |first=W |author2=Andrewes CH |author3=Laidlaw PP  |title=A virus obtained from influenza patients |journal=Lancet |year=1933 |volume=2 |pages=66–68 |doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(00)78541-2 |issue=5732}}</ref><ref>Dobson, Mary. 2007. Disease: The Extraordinary Stories behind History’s Deadliest Killers. London, UK: Quercus.</ref><ref name="The Evolving History of Influenza Viruses and Influenza Vaccines 1" />|| [[wikipedia:United Kingdom|United Kingdom]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1936 || || Human || Medical development (vaccine) || Soviet scientist A. Smorodintseff conducts the first attempt of a vaccination with a live influenza vaccine that has been passed about 30-times in eggs. Smorodintseff would later report that the modified virus causes only a barely perceptible, slight fever and that subjects are protected against reinfection.<ref name="The Evolving History of Influenza Viruses and Influenza Vaccines 2">{{cite web|title=The Evolving History of Influenza Viruses and Influenza Vaccines 2|url=http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/812621_2|website=medscape.com|accessdate=31 January 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Kuszewski’ |first1=K. |last2=Brydak |first2=L. |title=The epidemiology and history of influenza |url=http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.564.9823&rep=rep1&type=pdf}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Russia|Russia]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1942 || {{w|Influenzavirus B}} || Human || Medical development (vaccine) || Bivalent vaccine is produced after the discovery of [[w:Influenzavirus B|influenza B]].<ref name="The Evolving History of Influenza Viruses and Influenza Vaccines 1">{{cite web|title=The Evolving History of Influenza Viruses and Influenza Vaccines  1|url=http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/812621|website=medscape.com|accessdate=31 January 2017}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1945 || || Human || Medical development (vaccine) || The first license to produce an influenza vaccine for civilian use is granted in the United States.<ref>{{cite journal |author1=P. CROVARI |author2=M. ALBERTI |author3=C. ALICINO |date= |title=History and evolution of influenza vaccines |url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/51729477_History_and_evolution_of_influenza_vaccines|journal= |publisher=Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Italy |volume= |issue= |pages= |doi= |pmc=|pmid= }}</ref> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]]
 +
|-
 +
| 1946 || || || Organization || The [[wikipedia:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]] (CDC) is established by the U.S. [[wikipedia:Department of Health and Human Services|Department of Health and Human Services]] in order to protect public health and safety through the control and prevention of diseases. The CDC would launch campaigns targeting the transmission of influenza.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Turnock|first1=Bernard J.|title=Public Health|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=jiZACgAAQBAJ&pg=PA335&dq=%221946%22+%22Centers+for+Disease+Control+and+Prevention%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjW0f-60eXRAhVHUZAKHWQWC0gQ6AEIPDAC#v=onepage&q=%221946%22%20%22Centers%20for%20Disease%20Control%20and%20Prevention%22&f=false|accessdate=28 January 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=Ogunseitan|first1=Oladele|title=Green Health: An A-to-Z Guide|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=eCt1AwAAQBAJ&pg=PA93&lpg=PA93&dq=%221946%22+%22CDC%22+%22Department+of+Health+and+Human+Services%22+%22influenza%22&source=bl&ots=R7KuI1NlCe&sig=6DxO0eqy4IILoBBzjvUzrmESvJE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwitnbrw1OXRAhWKhJAKHSqFChQQ6AEIRzAG#v=onepage&q=%221946%22%20%22CDC%22%20%22Department%20of%20Health%20and%20Human%20Services%22%20%22influenza%22&f=false|accessdate=28 January 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]] ([[wikipedia:Atlanta|Atlanta]])
 +
|-
 +
| 1947 || || || Organization || The [[wikipedia:World Medical Association|World Medical Association]] (WMA) is formed as an international confederation of free professional medical associations. Like [[wikipedia:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|CDC]], the WMA would launch Influenza Immunization Campaigns.<ref>{{cite web|title=Influenza Immunization Campaign|url=http://www.wma.net/en/20activities/60campaigns/10immunization/|website=wma.net|accessdate=28 January 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:France|France]] (serves worldwide)
 +
|-
 +
| 1948 || || || Organization || The [[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]] (WHO) is established.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.globalhealthhub.org/timeline |title=Global Health Timeline |accessdate=28 January 2017}}</ref>||
 +
|-
 +
| 1952 || || || Organization (Research institute) || The [[wikipedia:Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS)|Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS)]] is established by the [[wikipedia:WHO|WHO]] with the purpose of conducting global influenza virological surveillance. GISRS monitors the evolution of influenza viruses and provides recommendations in areas including laboratory diagnostics, vaccines, antiviral susceptibility and risk assessment. It also serves as a global alert mechanism for the emergence of influenza viruses with pandemic potential.<ref>{{cite web|title=Global influenza virological surveillance|url=http://www.who.int/gho/epidemic_diseases/influenza/virological_surveillance/en/|publisher=[[wikipedia:WHO|WHO]]|accessdate=28 January 2017}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1956 || || Non-human (equine) || Research || Viruses that cause {{w|equine influenza}} are first isolated.<ref name="dssda">{{cite journal |last1=Singh |first1=Raj K. |last2=Khurana |first2=Sandip K. |last3=Chakraborty |first3=Sandip |last4=Malik |first4=Yashpal S. |last5=Virmani |first5=Nitin |last6=Singh |first6=Rajendra |last7=Tripathi |first7=Bhupendra N. |last8=Munir |first8=Muhammad |last9=van der Kolk |first9=Johannes H. |last10=Dhama |first10=Kuldeep |last11=Munjal |first11=Ashok |last12=Khandia |first12=Rekha |last13=Karthik |first13=Kumaragurubaran |title=A Comprehensive Review on Equine Influenza Virus: Etiology, Epidemiology, Pathobiology, Advances in Developing Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Control Strategies |doi=10.3389/fmicb.2018.01941 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6135912/}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1957 || {{w|H2N2}} || Human || Epidemic || New, virulent [[wikipedia:influenza A virus subtype H2N2|influenza A virus subtype H2N2]] breaks out in [[wikipedia:Guizhou|Guizhou]] (China). It would turn into pandemic ([[wikipedia:Pandemic severity index|category 2]]) and kill 1 to 4 million people.<ref name=Influenza-Pandemics>{{cite web|url=http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/articles/influenza-pandemics|title=Influenza Pandemics|accessdate=28 January 2017|website=historyofvaccines.org}}</ref> It is considered the second major influenza pandemic to occur in the 20th century, after the [[wikipedia:Spanish flu|Spanish flu]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Asian flu of 1957|url=https://www.britannica.com/event/Asian-flu-of-1957|website=britannica.com|accessdate=28 January 2017}}</ref><ref name="Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1" /> || [[wikipedia:China|China]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1780–1782 || || Epidemic || Influenza pandemic originates in [[wikipedia:Southeast Asia|Southeast Asia]] and spreads to [[wikipedia:Russia|Russia]] and eastward into [[wikipedia:Europe|Europe]]. It is remarkable for extremely high attack rates but negligible mortality. It appears that in this pandemic the concept of [[wikipedia:influenza|influenza]] as a distinct entity with characteristic epidemiological features is first appreciated.<ref name="Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1" /> || [[wikipedia:Eurasia|Eurasia]]
+
| 1959 || {{w|H5N1}} || Non–human (avian) || {{w|Epizootic}} || [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H5N1|Influenza A virus subtype H5N1]] breaks out in [[wikipedia:Scotland|Scotland]] and affects domestic chicken.<ref name="Avian influenza A(H5N1)- update 31: Situation (poultry) in Asia: need for a long-term response, comparison with previous outbreaks">{{cite web|title=Avian influenza A(H5N1)- update 31: Situation (poultry) in Asia: need for a long-term response, comparison with previous outbreaks|url=http://www.who.int/csr/don/2004_03_02/en/|publisher=[[wikipedia:WHO|WHO]]|accessdate=29 January 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:United Kingdom|United Kingdom]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1830–1833 || || Epidemic || Influenza pandemic breaks out in the winter of 1830 in China, further spreading southwards by sea to reach the [[wikipedia:Philippines|Philippines]], [[wikipedia:India|India]] and [[wikipedia:Indonesia|Indonesia]], and across [[wikipedia:Russia|Russia]] into [[wikipedia:Europe|Europe]]. By 1831, the epidemic reaches the [[wikipedia:Americas|Americas]]. Overall the attack rate is estimated at 20–25% of the population, but the mortality rate is not exceptionally high.<ref name="A history of influenza" /> || [[wikipedia:Eurasia|Eurasia]], [[wikipedia:Americas|Americas]]
+
| 1961 || {{w|H5N1}} || Non–human (avian) || {{w|Epizootic}} || Avian  [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H5N1|Influenza A virus subtype H5N1]] strain is found in birds in South Africa.<ref>{{cite web|title=Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)|url=http://dhhs.ne.gov/publichealth/Pages/puh_epi_avianflu.aspx|publisher=Nebraska Department of Health & Human Services|accessdate=1 February 2017}}</ref><ref name="Avian flu: a history" /> || [[wikipedia:South Africa|South Africa]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1878 || || Scientific development || [[wikipedia:Avian influenza|Avian influenza]] is recorded for the first time. Originally known as ''Fowl Plague''.<ref name=avian-influenza>{{cite web|url=http://articles.extension.org/pages/24401/history-of-avian-influenza|title=History of Avian Influenza|website=extension.org|accessdate=20 January 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Italy|Italy]]
+
| 1963 || {{w|H7N3}} || Non–human (avian) || {{w|Epizootic}} || [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H7N3|Influenza A virus subtype H7N3]] breaks out in [[wikipedia:England|England]] and affects domestic turkeys.<ref name="Avian influenza A(H5N1)- update 31: Situation (poultry) in Asia: need for a long-term response, comparison with previous outbreaks" /> || [[wikipedia:United Kingdom|United Kingdom]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1889–1892 || || Epidemic || [[wikipedia:1889–90 flu pandemic|1889–90 flu pandemic]]. Dubbed the "Russian pandemic". Attack rates are reported in 408 geographic entities from 14 European countries and in the United States. Rapidly spreading, the pandemic would take only 4 months to circumnavigate the planet, reaching the United States 70 days after the original outbreak in [[wikipedia:Saint Petersburg|Saint Petersburg]].<ref name="Transmissibility and geographic spread of the 1889 influenza pandemic">{{cite web|title=Transmissibility and geographic spread of the 1889 influenza pandemic|url=http://www.pnas.org/content/107/19/8778.full|website=pnas.org|accessdate=1 February 2017}}</ref>  Following this pandemic, interest is renewed in examining the recurrence patterns of influenza.<ref name="Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1" /> || [[wikipedia:Eurasia|Eurasia]], [[wikipedia:Americas|Americas]]
+
| 1966 || {{w|H5N9}} || Non–human (avian) || {{w|Epizootic}} || [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H5N9|Influenza A virus subtype H5N9]] breaks out in [[wikipedia:Ontario|Ontario]] and affects domestic turkeys.<ref name="Avian influenza A(H5N1)- update 31: Situation (poultry) in Asia: need for a long-term response, comparison with previous outbreaks" /> || [[wikipedia:Canada|Canada]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1901 || || Scientific development || The causative organism of [[wikipedia:avian influenza|avian influenza]] is discovered to be a virus.<ref name="FLU-LAB-NET - About Avian Influenza">{{cite web|title=FLU-LAB-NET - About Avian Influenza|url=https://science.vla.gov.uk/flu-lab-net/about_AI.html|website=science.vla.gov.uk|accessdate=28 January 2017}}</ref> ||  
+
| 1966 || || || Medical development || The activity of {{w|N-acetylcysteine}} (NAC) against influenza is first suggested.<ref>{{cite journal | pmid = 5985279 | volume=6 | title=In vivo antiviral chemotherapy. II. Anti-influenza action of compounds affecting mucous secretions | year=1966 | journal=Antimicrob Agents Chemother | pages=503–8 |vauthors=Streightoff F, Redman CE, DeLong DC }}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1918-1920 || || Epidemic || The [[wikipedia:Spanish flu|Spanish flu]] ([[wikipedia:influenza A virus subtype H1N1|H1N1]]) [[wikipedia:pandemic|pandemic]] is considered one of the deadliest natural disasters ever, infecting an estimated 500 million people across the globe and claiming between 50 and 100 million lives. This pandemic would be described as "the greatest medical holocaust in history" and is estimated to have killed in a single year more people than the [[wikipedia:Black Death|Black Death]] [[wikipedia:bubonic plague|bubonic plague]] killed in four years from 1347 to 1351.<ref>{{cite web|title=The Influenza Pandemic of 1918|url=https://virus.stanford.edu/uda/|website=stanford.edu|accessdate=28 January 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |author=Potter CW|title=A History of Influenza |journal=Journal of Applied Microbiology |date=October 2001 |volume=91 |issue=4 |pages=572–579 |pmid=11576290 | doi=10.1046/j.1365-2672.2001.01492.x}}</ref> ||Worldwide; originated in [[wikipedia:France|France]] (disputed)
+
| 1968 || || Human || Research || Study of 1,900 male cadets after the 1968 Hong Kong A2 influenza epidemic at a South Carolina military academy, compares three groups: nonsmokers, heavy smokers, and light smokers. Compared with nonsmokers, heavy smokers (more than 20 cigarettes per day) had 21% more illnesses and 20% more bed rest, light smokers (20 cigarettes or fewer per day) had 10% more illnesses and 7% more bed rest.<ref name="Finklea_1969">{{cite journal | vauthors = Finklea JF, Sandifer SH, Smith DD | title = Cigarette smoking and epidemic influenza | journal = American Journal of Epidemiology | volume = 90 | issue = 5 | pages = 390–9 | date = November 1969 | pmid = 5356947 | doi = 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a121084 }}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1931 || || Scientific development || American virologist [[wikipedia:Richard Shope|Richard Shope]] discovers the [[wikipedia:Etiology|etiological]] cause of influenza in pigs.<ref>{{cite journal |last=Shimizu |first=K |title=History of influenza epidemics and discovery of influenza virus |journal=Nippon Rinsho |date=October 1997 |volume=55 |issue=10|pages=2505–201 |pmid=9360364}}</ref>||
+
| 1968-1969 || [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H3N2|H3N2]] || Human || Epidemic ||[[wikipedia:1968 flu pandemic|Hong Kong flu]] ([[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H3N2|H3N2]]) pandemic breaks out, caused by a virus that has been “updated” from the previously circulating virus by reassortment of avian genes.<ref name="Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1" /><ref>{{cite journal|last1=Viboud|first1=Cécile|last2=Grais Bernard|first2=Rebecca F.|last3=Lafont|first3=A. P.|last4=Miller|first4=Mark A.|last5=Simonsen|first5=Lone|title=Multinational Impact of the 1968 Hong Kong Influenza Pandemic: Evidence for a Smoldering Pandemic|doi=10.1086/431150|url=https://academic.oup.com/jid/article/192/2/233/856805/Multinational-Impact-of-the-1968-Hong-Kong|accessdate=1 February 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Eurasia|Eurasia]], [[wikipedia:North America|North America]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1933 || || Scientific development || British researchers Wilson Smith, Christopher Andrews, and [[wikipedia:Patrick Laidlaw|Patrick Laidlaw]] are the first to identify the human flu virus by experimenting with ferrets.<ref>{{cite journal |last=Smith |first=W |author2=Andrewes CH |author3=Laidlaw PP  |title=A virus obtained from influenza patients |journal=Lancet |year=1933 |volume=2 |pages=66–68 |doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(00)78541-2 |issue=5732}}</ref><ref>Dobson, Mary. 2007. Disease: The Extraordinary Stories behind History’s Deadliest Killers. London, UK: Quercus.</ref><ref name="The Evolving History of Influenza Viruses and Influenza Vaccines 1" />|| [[wikipedia:United Kingdom|United Kingdom]]
+
| 1973 || || Human || Program launch || The [[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]] starts issuing annual recommendations for the composition of the influenza vaccine based on results from surveillance systems that would identify currently circulating strains.<ref name="The Evolving History of Influenza Viruses and Influenza Vaccines 1" /> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1936 || || Medical development || Soviet scientist A. Smorodintseff first attempts vaccination with a live influenza vaccine that has been passed about 30-times in eggs. Smorodintseff would later report that the modified virus causes only a barely perceptible, slight fever and that subjects are protected against reinfection.<ref name="The Evolving History of Influenza Viruses and Influenza Vaccines 2">{{cite web|title=The Evolving History of Influenza Viruses and Influenza Vaccines 2|url=http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/812621_2|website=medscape.com|accessdate=31 January 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Russia|Russia]]  
+
| 1976 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Epidemic || [[wikipedia:1976 swine flu outbreak|Swine flu outbreak]] is identified at U.S. army base in [[wikipedia:Fort Dix|Fort Dix]], New Jersey. Four soldiers infected resulting in one death. To prevent a major pandemic, the United States launches a vaccination campaign.<ref name=Timeline-of-Human-Flu-Pandemics>{{cite web|url=http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/flu/research/pandemic/pages/timelinehumanpandemics.aspx|title=Timeline of Human Flu Pandemics|publisher=[[wikipedia:National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases|National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases]] |accessdate=28 January 2017}}</ref><ref name=Pandemic-Flu-History/> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]] ([[wikipedia:New Jersey|New Jersey]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1942 || || Medical development || Bivalent vaccine is produced after the discovery of influenza B.<ref name="The Evolving History of Influenza Viruses and Influenza Vaccines 1">{{cite web|title=The Evolving History of Influenza Viruses and Influenza Vaccines  1|url=http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/812621|website=medscape.com|accessdate=31 January 2017}}</ref> ||  
+
| 1976 || {{w|H7N7}} || Non–human (avian) || {{w|Epizootic}} || [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H7N7|Influenza A virus subtype H7N7]] breaks out in Victoria (Australia) and affects domestic chicken.<ref name="Avian influenza A(H5N1)- update 31: Situation (poultry) in Asia: need for a long-term response, comparison with previous outbreaks" /> || [[wikipedia:Australia|Australia]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1945 || || Medical development || The first license to produce an influenza vaccine for civilian use is granted in the United States.<ref>{{cite journal |author1=P. CROVARI |author2=M. ALBERTI |author3=C. ALICINO |date= |title=History and evolution of influenza vaccines |url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/51729477_History_and_evolution_of_influenza_vaccines|journal= |publisher=Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Italy |volume= |issue= |pages= |doi= |pmc=|pmid= }}</ref> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]]
+
| 1976 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} || Human || Medical development || {{w|Symmetrel}} ({{w|amantadine}}) is approved by the United States {{w|Food and Drug Administration}} for preventing and treating infection caused by {{w|influenzavirus A}}.<ref name="Rees">{{cite book |last1=Rees |first1=Alan M. |title=Consumer Health USA, Volume 2 |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=CQ9DCcytJFwC&pg=PA256&lpg=PA256&dq=Symmetrel+%22approved%221976&source=bl&ots=ZnZhHosIEl&sig=ACfU3U2FsHHjhloX70Iol7WKQqTLl_HUtQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwimsPCpnsHpAhXXILkGHYBRBqIQ6AEwCnoECAQQAQ#v=onepage&q=Symmetrel%20%22approved%221976&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1946 || || Organization || The [[wikipedia:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]] (CDC) is established by the U.S. [[wikipedia:Department of Health and Human Services|Department of Health and Human Services]] in order to protect public health and safety through the control and prevention of diseases. The CDC would launch campaigns targeting the transmission of influenza.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Turnock|first1=Bernard J.|title=Public Health|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=jiZACgAAQBAJ&pg=PA335&dq=%221946%22+%22Centers+for+Disease+Control+and+Prevention%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjW0f-60eXRAhVHUZAKHWQWC0gQ6AEIPDAC#v=onepage&q=%221946%22%20%22Centers%20for%20Disease%20Control%20and%20Prevention%22&f=false|accessdate=28 January 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=Ogunseitan|first1=Oladele|title=Green Health: An A-to-Z Guide|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=eCt1AwAAQBAJ&pg=PA93&lpg=PA93&dq=%221946%22+%22CDC%22+%22Department+of+Health+and+Human+Services%22+%22influenza%22&source=bl&ots=R7KuI1NlCe&sig=6DxO0eqy4IILoBBzjvUzrmESvJE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwitnbrw1OXRAhWKhJAKHSqFChQQ6AEIRzAG#v=onepage&q=%221946%22%20%22CDC%22%20%22Department%20of%20Health%20and%20Human%20Services%22%20%22influenza%22&f=false|accessdate=28 January 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]] ([[wikipedia:Atlanta|Atlanta]])
+
| 1977 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Epidemic || [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H1N1#Russian flu|Russian flu]] ([[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H1N1|H1N1]]) epidemic. New influenza strain in humans. Isolated in northern China. A similar strain prevalent in 1947–57 causes most adults to have substantial immunity. This outbreak is not considered a pandemic because most patients are children.<ref name=Pandemic-Flu-History>{{cite web|url=http://www.flu.gov/pandemic/history/|title=Pandemic Flu History|publisher=[[wikipedia:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|accessdate=28 January 2017]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Gregg |first1=M B |last2=Hinman |first2=A R |last3=Craven |first3=R B |title=The Russian Flu. Its History and Implications for This Year's Influenza Season |doi=10.1001/jama.240.21.2260 |pmid=702749 |url=https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/702749/#:~:text=Abstract,worldwide%20during%20the%20early%201950s.}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=1977 Russian Flu Pandemic |url=https://www.globalsecurity.org/security/ops/hsc-scen-3_pandemic-1977.htm |website=globalsecurity.org |accessdate=6 June 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Rozo |first1=Michelle |last2=Gronvall |first2=Gigi Kwik |title=The Reemergent 1977 H1N1 Strain and the Gain-of-Function Debate |doi=10.1128/mBio.01013-15 |url=https://mbio.asm.org/content/6/4/e01013-15}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Russia|Russia]], [[wikipedia:China|China]], worldwide
 
|-
 
|-
| 1947 || || Organization || The [[wikipedia:World Medical Association|World Medical Association]] (WMA) is formed as an international confederation of free professional medical associations. Like [[wikipedia:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|CDC]], the WMA would launch Influenza Immunization Campaigns.<ref>{{cite web|title=Influenza Immunization Campaign|url=http://www.wma.net/en/20activities/60campaigns/10immunization/|website=wma.net|accessdate=28 January 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:France|France]] (serves worldwide)
+
| 1978 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}}, {{w|influenzavirus B}} || Human || Medical development (vaccine) || The first trivalent influenza vaccine is introduced. It includes two influenza A strains and one influenza B strain.<ref name="The Evolving History of Influenza Viruses and Influenza Vaccines 1" /> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1948 || || Organization || The [[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]] (WHO) is established.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.globalhealthhub.org/timeline |title=Global Health Timeline |accessdate=28 January 2017}}</ref>||
+
| 1979 || || Human || Research || Surveillance of an influenza outbreak at a military base for women in {{w|Israel}} reveals that influenza symptoms developed in 60.0% of the current smokers vs. 41.6% of the nonsmokers.<ref name="pmid7212144">{{cite journal | vauthors = Kark JD, Lebiush M | title = Smoking and epidemic influenza-like illness in female military recruits: a brief survey | journal = American Journal of Public Health | volume = 71 | issue = 5 | pages = 530–2 | date = May 1981 | pmid = 7212144 | pmc = 1619723 | doi = 10.2105/AJPH.71.5.530 }}</ref> || {{w|Israel}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1952 || || Organization (Research institute) || The [[wikipedia:Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS)|Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS)]] is established by the [[wikipedia:WHO|WHO]] with the purpose of conducting global influenza virological surveillance. GISRS monitors the evolution of influenza viruses and provides recommendations in areas including laboratory diagnostics, vaccines, antiviral susceptibility and risk assessment. It also serves as a global alert mechanism for the emergence of influenza viruses with pandemic potential.<ref>{{cite web|title=Global influenza virological surveillance|url=http://www.who.int/gho/epidemic_diseases/influenza/virological_surveillance/en/|publisher=[[wikipedia:WHO|WHO]]|accessdate=28 January 2017}}</ref> ||  
+
| 1980 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}}, {{w|Influenzavirus B}} || Human || Medical development (vaccine) || United States [[wikipedia:FDA|FDA]] approves influenza vaccine ''Fluzone'' ([[wikipedia:Sanofi Pasteur|Sanofi Pasteur]]), developed for A subtype viruses and type B virus contained in the vaccine.<ref>{{cite web|title=Fluzone|url=https://www.vaccineshoppe.com/image.cfm?pi=flu&image_type=product_pdf|website=vaccineshoppe.com|accessdate=30 January 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1957 || || Epidemic || New, virulent [[wikipedia:influenza A virus subtype H2N2|influenza A virus subtype H2N2]] breaks out in [[wikipedia:Guizhou|Guizhou]] (China). It would turn into pandemic ([[wikipedia:Pandemic severity index|category 2]]) and kill 1 to 4 million people.<ref name=Influenza-Pandemics>{{cite web|url=http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/articles/influenza-pandemics|title=Influenza Pandemics|accessdate=28 January 2017|website=historyofvaccines.org}}</ref> It is considered the second major influenza pandemic to occur in the 20th century, after the [[wikipedia:Spanish flu|Spanish flu]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Asian flu of 1957|url=https://www.britannica.com/event/Asian-flu-of-1957|website=britannica.com|accessdate=28 January 2017}}</ref><ref name="Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1" /> || [[wikipedia:China|China]]
+
| 1982 || || Human || Research || Study concludes that smoking may substantially contribute to the growth of influenza epidemics affecting the entire population.<ref name="Kark_1982">{{cite journal | vauthors = Kark JD, Lebiush M, Rannon L | title = Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for epidemic a(h1n1) influenza in young men | journal = The New England Journal of Medicine | volume = 307 | issue = 17 | pages = 1042–6 | date = October 1982 | pmid = 7121513 | doi = 10.1056/NEJM198210213071702 }}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1959 || || Non–human infection || [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H5N1|Influenza A virus subtype H5N1]] breaks out in [[wikipedia:Scotland|Scotland]] and affects domestic chicken.<ref name="Avian influenza A(H5N1)- update 31: Situation (poultry) in Asia: need for a long-term response, comparison with previous outbreaks">{{cite web|title=Avian influenza A(H5N1)- update 31: Situation (poultry) in Asia: need for a long-term response, comparison with previous outbreaks|url=http://www.who.int/csr/don/2004_03_02/en/|publisher=[[wikipedia:WHO|WHO]]|accessdate=29 January 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:United Kingdom|United Kingdom]]
+
| 1983 || {{w|H5N8}} || Non–human (avian) || {{w|Epizootic}} || Avian [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H5N8|Influenza A virus subtype H5N8]] breaks out. 8,000 turkeys, 28,020 chickens, and 270,000 ducks are slaughtered.<ref>{{cite web|title=Influenza Strain Details for A/turkey/Ireland/?/1983(H5N8)|url=https://www.fludb.org/brc/fluStrainDetails.spg?strainName=A/turkey/Ireland/?/1983(H5N8)&decorator=influenza|publisher=Influenza Research Database|accessdate=1 February 2017}}</ref><ref name="Avian flu: a history" /> || [[wikipedia:Ireland|Ireland]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1961 || || Non–human infection || Avian  [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H5N1|Influenza A virus subtype H5N1]] strain is found in birds.<ref>{{cite web|title=Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)|url=http://dhhs.ne.gov/publichealth/Pages/puh_epi_avianflu.aspx|publisher=Nebraska Department of Health & Human Services|accessdate=1 February 2017}}</ref><ref name="Avian flu: a history" /> || [[wikipedia:South Africa|South Africa]]
+
| 1986 || || || Publication || Medical geographer {{w|Gerald F. Pyle}} publishes ''The Diffusion of Influenza''.<ref>{{cite web |title=The Diffusion of Influenza |url=https://www.amazon.com/Diffusion-Influenza-Gerald-F-Pyle/dp/0847674290/ref=sr_1_1?_encoding=UTF8&dchild=1&qid=1585849665&refinements=p_27%3AGerald+F.+Pyle&s=books&search-type=ss&sr=1-1 |website=amazon.com |accessdate=2 April 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1963 || || Non–human infection || [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H7N3|Influenza A virus subtype H7N3]] breaks out in [[wikipedia:England|England]] and affects domestic turkeys.<ref name="Avian influenza A(H5N1)- update 31: Situation (poultry) in Asia: need for a long-term response, comparison with previous outbreaks" /> || [[wikipedia:United Kingdom|United Kingdom]]
+
| 1988 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N2}}) || Human || Infection || [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H1N2|Influenza A virus subtype H1N2]] is isolated from humans in six cities in China, but the virus does not spread further.<ref>{{Cite journal | pmid = 1538194 | year = 1992 | last1 = Guo | first1 = YJ | last2 = Xu | first2 = XY | last3 = Cox | first3 = NJ | title = Human influenza A (H1N2) viruses isolated from China | volume = 73 | pages = 383–7 | journal = The Journal of general virology | postscript = <!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}} | issue=2 | doi=10.1099/0022-1317-73-2-383}}</ref>|| [[wikipedia:China|China]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1966 || || Non–human infection || [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H5N9|Influenza A virus subtype H5N9]] breaks out in [[wikipedia:Ontario|Ontario]] and affects domestic turkeys.<ref name="Avian influenza A(H5N1)- update 31: Situation (poultry) in Asia: need for a long-term response, comparison with previous outbreaks" /> || [[wikipedia:Canada|Canada]]
+
| 1990 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}}, {{w|influenzavirus B}} || Human || Medical development || {{w|Relenza}} ({{w|zanamivir}}) is first licensed to {{w|GlaxoSmithKline}}.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Lamberth |first1=Clemens |last2=Dinges |first2=Jürgen |title=Bioactive Carboxylic Compound Classes: Pharmaceuticals and Agrochemicals |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=phd8DAAAQBAJ&pg=PA133&lpg=PA133&dq=zanamivir+GlaxoSmithKline+1990&source=bl&ots=co1W6tBzRn&sig=ACfU3U1ZlmL-3Y2iIT6ReEd5m0rVYtLiDA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj-6ZHrjMPpAhXVHbkGHflMC10Q6AEwAXoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=zanamivir%20GlaxoSmithKline%201990&f=false}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1968-1969 || || Epidemic ||[[wikipedia:1968 flu pandemic|Hong Kong flu]] ([[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H3N2|H3N2]]) pandemic breaks out, caused by a virus that has been “updated” from the previously circulating virus by reassortment of avian genes.<ref name="Pandemic influenza – including a risk assessment of H5N1" /><ref>{{cite journal|last1=Viboud|first1=Cécile|last2=Grais Bernard|first2=Rebecca F.|last3=Lafont|first3=A. P.|last4=Miller|first4=Mark A.|last5=Simonsen|first5=Lone|title=Multinational Impact of the 1968 Hong Kong Influenza Pandemic: Evidence for a Smoldering Pandemic|doi=10.1086/431150|url=https://academic.oup.com/jid/article/192/2/233/856805/Multinational-Impact-of-the-1968-Hong-Kong|accessdate=1 February 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Eurasia|Eurasia]], [[wikipedia:North America|North America]]
+
| 1990-1996 || || Human || Medical development || [[wikipedia:Oseltamivir|Oseltamivir]] (often referenced by its trademark name Tamiflu) is developed by [[wikipedia:Gilead Sciences|Gilead Sciences]], using [[wikipedia:shikimic acid|shikimic acid]] for [[wikipedia:Biosynthesis|synthesis]]. It would be widely used in further antiviral campaigns targeting influenza [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus|A]] and [[wikipedia:Influenzavirus B|B]]. Included on the [[wikipedia:World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines|World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines]].<ref name=WHO2015E>{{cite web |url=http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/essentialmedicines/EML2015_8-May-15.pdf |title=19th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (April 2015) |date=April 2015 |accessdate=29 January 2017 |publisher=[[wikipedia:WHO|WHO]]}}</ref>|| [[wikipedia:United States|United States]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1973 || || Program launch || The [[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]] starts issuing annual recommendations for the composition of the influenza vaccine based on results from surveillance systems that would identify currently circulating strains.<ref name="The Evolving History of Influenza Viruses and Influenza Vaccines 1" /> ||  
+
| 1993 || || Human || Research || In a prospective study of community-dwelling people 60–90 years of age, it is found that 23% of smokers have clinical influenza as compared with 6% of non-smokers.<ref name="pmid10487646">{{cite journal | vauthors = Nicholson KG, Kent J, Hammersley V | title = Influenza A among community-dwelling elderly persons in Leicestershire during winter 1993-4; cigarette smoking as a risk factor and the efficacy of influenza vaccination | journal = Epidemiology and Infection | volume = 123 | issue = 1 | pages = 103–8 | date = August 1999 | pmid = 10487646 | pmc = 2810733 | doi = 10.1017/S095026889900271X }}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1976 || || Epidemic || [[wikipedia:1976 swine flu outbreak|Swine flu outbreak]] is identified at U.S. army base in [[wikipedia:Fort Dix|Fort Dix]], New Jersey. Four soldiers infected resulting in one death. To prevent a major pandemic, the United States launches a vaccination campaign.<ref name=Timeline-of-Human-Flu-Pandemics>{{cite web|url=http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/flu/research/pandemic/pages/timelinehumanpandemics.aspx|title=Timeline of Human Flu Pandemics|publisher=[[wikipedia:National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases|National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases]] |accessdate=28 January 2017}}</ref><ref name=Pandemic-Flu-History/> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]] ([[wikipedia:New Jersey|New Jersey]]) 
+
| 1993 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} || Human || Medical development || {{w|Flumadine}} ({{w|rimantadine}}) is approved by the United States {{w|Food and Drug Administration}} for preventing and treating infection caused by {{w|influenzavirus A}}.<ref name="Rees"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1976 || || Non–human infection || [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H7N7|Influenza A virus subtype H7N7]] breaks out in Victoria (Australia) and affects domestic chicken.<ref name="Avian influenza A(H5N1)- update 31: Situation (poultry) in Asia: need for a long-term response, comparison with previous outbreaks" /> || [[wikipedia:Australia|Australia]]
+
| 1997 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H5N1}}) || Human || Infection || Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H5N1|H5N1]] (also known as bird flu) is discovered in humans. The first time an influenza virus is found to be transmitted directly from birds to people. Eighteen people hospitalized, six of whom die. Hong Kong kills its entire poultry population of about 1.5 million birds. No pandemic develops.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://articles.extension.org/pages/24401/history-of-avian-influenza|title=History of Avian Influenza|website=extension.org|accessdate=29 January 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:China|China]] ([[wikipedia:Hong Kong|Hong Kong]]) 
 
|-
 
|-
| 1977 || || Epidemic || [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H1N1#Russian flu|Russian flu]] ([[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H1N1|H1N1]]) epidemic. New influenza strain in humans. Isolated in northern China. A similar strain prevalent in 1947–57 causes most adults to have substantial immunity. This outbreak is not considered a pandemic because most patients are children.<ref name=Pandemic-Flu-History>{{cite web|url=http://www.flu.gov/pandemic/history/|title=Pandemic Flu History|publisher=[[wikipedia:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|accessdate=28 January 2017]]}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Russia|Russia]], [[wikipedia:China|China]], worldwide
+
| 1997 || {{w|H7N4}} || Avian || {{w|Epizootic}} || Highly [[wikipedia:pathogenic|pathogenic]] [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H7N4|Influenza A virus subtype H7N4]] strain causes a minor flu outbreak in [[wikipedia:chicken|chicken]] in Australia.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Selleck |first1=PW |last2=Arzey |first2=G |last3=Kirkland |first3=PD |last4=Reece |first4=RL |last5=Gould |first5=AR |last6=Daniels |first6=PW |last7=Westbury |first7=HA |title=An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Australia in 1997 caused by an H7N4 virus. |doi=10.1637/0005-2086-47.s3.806 |pmid=14575068 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14575068}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Australia|Australia]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1978 || || Medical development || The first trivalent influenza vaccine is introduced. It includes two influenza A strains and one influenza B strain.<ref name="The Evolving History of Influenza Viruses and Influenza Vaccines 1" /> ||  
+
| 1997 || || Human || System launch || {{w|FluNet}} is launched as a global web-based tool for influenza virological surveillance.<ref>{{cite web |title=FluNet |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/gisrs_laboratory/flunet/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1980 || || Medical development || United States [[wikipedia:FDA|FDA]] approves influenza vaccine ''Fluzone'' ([[wikipedia:Sanofi Pasteur|Sanofi Pasteur]]), developed for A subtype viruses and type B virus contained in the vaccine.<ref>{{cite web|title=Fluzone|url=https://www.vaccineshoppe.com/image.cfm?pi=flu&image_type=product_pdf|website=vaccineshoppe.com|accessdate=30 January 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]]
+
| 1997 || || Human || Medical development || A randomized clinical trial finds that volunteers taking 1.2 grams of N-acetylcysteine daily for six months are as likely as those taking {{w|placebo}} to be infected by influenza, but only 25% of them experience clinical symptoms, as contrasted with 67% of the {{w|control group}}. The authors conclude that resistance to flu symptoms is associated with a shift in {{w|cell mediated immunity}} from {{w|anergy}} toward {{w|normoergy}}, as measured by the degree of {{w|skin reactivity}} to seven common {{w|antigen}}s such as {{w|tetanus}} and {{w|Candida albicans}}.<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://erj.ersjournals.com/cgi/reprint/10/7/1535.pdf|title=Attenuation of influenza-like symptomatology and improvement of cell-mediated immunity with long-term N-acetylcysteine treatment|author1=S. De Flora |author2=C. Grassi |author3=L. Carati |journal=Eur Respir J|year=1997|pages=1535–1541|doi=10.1183/09031936.97.10071535|volume=10|pmid=9230243|issue=7}} ''(Open access article)''</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1983 || || Non–human infection || Avian [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H5N8|Influenza A virus subtype H5N8]] breaks out. 8,000 turkeys, 28,020 chickens, and 270,000 ducks are slaughtered.<ref>{{cite web|title=Influenza Strain Details for A/turkey/Ireland/?/1983(H5N8)|url=https://www.fludb.org/brc/fluStrainDetails.spg?strainName=A/turkey/Ireland/?/1983(H5N8)&decorator=influenza|publisher=Influenza Research Database|accessdate=1 February 2017}}</ref><ref name="Avian flu: a history" /> || [[wikipedia:Ireland|Ireland]]
+
| 1998–1999 (November 1998–April 1999) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 1998-1999 season containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/Sydney/5/97(H3N2)-like virus;
 +
* an A/Beijing/262/95(H1N1)-like virus;
 +
* a B/Beijing/184/93-like virus.<ref name="">{{cite web |title=Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/vaccinerecommendations1/en/index23.html |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Northern hemisphere}} 
 
|-
 
|-
| 1986 || || Literature || Medical geographer {{w|Gerald F. Pyle}} publishes ''The Diffusion of Influenza''.<ref>{{cite web |title=The Diffusion of Influenza |url=https://www.amazon.com/Diffusion-Influenza-Gerald-F-Pyle/dp/0847674290/ref=sr_1_1?_encoding=UTF8&dchild=1&qid=1585849665&refinements=p_27%3AGerald+F.+Pyle&s=books&search-type=ss&sr=1-1 |website=amazon.com |accessdate=2 April 2020}}</ref>
+
| 1999 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 1999 season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/Sydney/5/97 (H3N2)-like virus;
 +
* an A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1)-like virus;
 +
* a B/Beijing/184/93-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/vaccinerecommendations1/en/index22.html |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>  
 +
|| {{w|Southern hemisphere}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1988 || || Infection || [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H1N2|Influenza A virus subtype H1N2]] is isolated from humans in six cities in China, but the virus does not spread further.<ref>{{Cite journal | pmid = 1538194 | year = 1992 | last1 = Guo | first1 = YJ | last2 = Xu | first2 = XY | last3 = Cox | first3 = NJ | title = Human influenza A (H1N2) viruses isolated from China | volume = 73 | pages = 383–7 | journal = The Journal of general virology | postscript = <!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}} | issue=2 | doi=10.1099/0022-1317-73-2-383}}</ref>|| [[wikipedia:China|China]]
+
| 1999 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H9N2}}) || Human || Infection || New [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H9N2|Influenza A virus subtype H9N2]] strain is detected in humans. It causes illness in two children in Hong Kong, with poultry being the probable source. No pandemic develops.<ref name=Pandemic-Flu-History/><ref name="Avian flu: a history" /> || [[wikipedia:China|China]] ([[wikipedia:Hong Kong|Hong Kong]]) 
 
|-
 
|-
| 1990-1996 || || Medical development || [[wikipedia:Oseltamivir|Oseltamivir]] (often referenced by its trademark name Tamiflu) is developed by [[wikipedia:Gilead Sciences|Gilead Sciences]], using [[wikipedia:shikimic acid|shikimic acid]] for [[wikipedia:Biosynthesis|synthesis]]. It would be widely used in further antiviral campaigns targeting influenza [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus|A]] and [[wikipedia:Influenzavirus B|B]]. Included on the [[wikipedia:World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines|World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines]].<ref name=WHO2015E>{{cite web |url=http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/essentialmedicines/EML2015_8-May-15.pdf |title=19th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (April 2015) |date=April 2015 |accessdate=29 January 2017 |publisher=[[wikipedia:WHO|WHO]]}}</ref>|| [[wikipedia:United States|United States]]
+
| 1999 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}}, {{w|influenzavirus B}} || Human || Medical development || {{w|Tamiflu}} ({{w|Oseltamivir}}) is approved for medical use in the United States.<ref name=AHFS2017>{{cite web| title=Oseltamivir Phosphate Monograph for Professionals | url=https://www.drugs.com/monograph/oseltamivir-phosphate.html| publisher=The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists| access-date=20 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1997 || || Infection || Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H5N1|H5N1]] (also known as bird flu) is discovered in humans. The first time an influenza virus is found to be transmitted directly from birds to people. Eighteen people hospitalized, six of whom die. Hong Kong kills its entire poultry population of about 1.5 million birds. No pandemic develops.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://articles.extension.org/pages/24401/history-of-avian-influenza|title=History of Avian Influenza|website=extension.org|accessdate=29 January 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:China|China]] ([[wikipedia:Hong Kong|Hong Kong]])  
+
| 1999–2000 (November 1999 to April 2000) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 1999-2000 season contain the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/Sydney/5/97 (H3N2)-like virus;
 +
* an A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Beijing/184/93-like virus or a B/Shangdong/7/97-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/vaccinerecommendations1/en/index21.html |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
||   
 
|-
 
|-
| 1997 || || Infection || Highly [[wikipedia:pathogenic|pathogenic]] [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H7N4|Influenza A virus subtype H7N4]] strain causes a minor flu outbreak in [[wikipedia:chicken|chicken]].|| [[wikipedia:Australia|Australia]]
+
| 2000 || || Human || Alternative medicine || Homeopathic preparation {{w|Oscillococcinum}} becomes one of the top ten selling drugs in {{w|France}}, is publicised widely in the media, and becomes widely prescribed for both influenza and the {{w|common cold}}.<ref name = "Abgrall1">{{cite book | title = Healing Or Stealing?: Medical Charlatans in the New Age | last=Abgrall|first=Jean-Marie|publisher= Algora | year = 2000 | isbn = 978-1-892941-51-0 | pages = 40–41 | url = https://books.google.com/books?id=HFs33ev0leUC&pg=PA40&dq=oscillococcinum }}</ref> || {{w|France}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1999 || || Infection || New [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H9N2|Influenza A virus subtype H9N2]] strain is detected in humans. It causes illness in two children in Hong Kong, with poultry being the probable source. No pandemic develops.<ref name=Pandemic-Flu-History/><ref name="Avian flu: a history" /> || [[wikipedia:China|China]] ([[wikipedia:Hong Kong|Hong Kong]]) 
+
| 2000 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2000 season (southern hemisphere winter) contain the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/Moscow/10/99 (H3N2)-like virus;
 +
* an A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1)-like virus;
 +
* a B/Beijing/184/93-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition |url=http://www10.who.int/influenza/vaccines/vaccinerecommendations1/en/index19.html |website=who.int |accessdate=18 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Southern hemisphere}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2002 || || Infection || New avian [[wikipedia:influenza A virus subtype H7N2|influenza A virus subtype H7N2]] strain affects 197 farms in [[wikipedia:Virginia|Virginia]] and results in the killing of over 4.7 million birds. One person is infected, fully recovered.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Akey|first1=BL|title=Low-pathogenicity H7N2 avian influenza outbreak in Virgnia during 2002.|doi=10.1637/0005-2086-47.s3.1099|pmid=14575120}}</ref><ref name="Avian flu: a history" /> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]]
+
| 2000–2001 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2000-2001 season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/Moscow/10/99 (H3N2)-like virus;
 +
* an A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1)-like virus;
 +
* a B/Beijing/184/93-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/vaccinerecommendations1/en/index19.html |website=who.int |accessdate=18 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Northern hemisphere}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003–2007 || || Infection || Avian ([[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H5N1|Influenza A virus subtype H5N1]]) strain is reported in humans. In February 2003, two people are infected in [[wikipedia:Hong Kong|Hong Kong]], one dies. In December 2003, H5N1 breaks out among chicken in [[wikipedia:South Korea|South Korea]]. By January 2004, [[wikipedia:Japan|Japan]] has its first outbreak of avian flu since 1925 and Vietnam reports human cases. In [[wikipedia:Thailand|Thailand]], nine million chickens are slaughtered to stop the spread of the disease.<ref name="Avian flu: a history">{{cite web|title=Avian flu: a history|url=http://eedition.winklertimes.com/doc/Winkler-Times/winkler_times-1211/2014120901/24.html#24|publisher=Winkler Times|accessdate=1 February 2017}}</ref> By December 2006, over 240 million poultry would die or be culled due to H5N1.<ref>{{cite book|title=The Global Strategy for Prevention and Control of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza|publisher=Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=sWDQWPhnVo8C&pg=PA19&lpg=PA19&dq=%22H5N1%22+%22281%22+%22169%22&source=bl&ots=XW1qV4VQau&sig=4uhyYcEPfBTvl44IpgTuGTYenYs&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwix6My66e_RAhUKlZAKHav-Dl8Q6AEIKDAC#v=onepage&q=%22H5N1%22%20%22281%22%20%22169%22&f=false|accessdate=1 February 2017}}</ref> {{See also|Global spread of H5N1}} ||[[wikipedia:East Asia|East Asia]], [[wikipedia:Southeast Asia|Southeast Asia]]
+
| 2001 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2001 season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/Moscow/10/99 (H3N2)-like virus;
 +
* an A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1)-like virus;
 +
* a B/Sichuan/379/99-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/vaccinerecommendations1/en/index18.html |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Southern hemisphere}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || || Infection || First reported case of avian [[wikipedia:influenza A virus subtype H7N7|influenza A virus subtype H7N7]] strain in humans. 88 people are infected, one dies. 30 million birds are slaughtered.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Stegeman|first1=A|last2=Bouma|first2=A|last3=Elbers|first3=AR|last4=De Jong|first4=MC|last5=Nodelijk|first5=G|last6=De Klerk|first6=F|last7=Koch|first7=G|last8=Van Boven|first8=M.|title=Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) epidemic in The Netherlands in 2003: course of the epidemic and effectiveness of control measures.|doi=10.1086/425583|pmid=15551206}}</ref><ref name="Avian flu: a history" /> || [[wikipedia:Netherlands|Netherlands]]
+
| 2001–2002 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2001-2002 season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus;
 +
* an A/Moscow/10/99(H3N2)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Sichuan/379/99-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/vaccinerecommendations1/en/index17.html |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2004 || || Organization || The [[wikipedia:Influenza Genome Sequencing Project|Influenza Genome Sequencing Project]] is launched to investigate influenza evolution by providing a public data set of complete influenza genome sequences from collections of isolates representing diverse species distributions. Funded by the [[wikipedia:National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases|NIAID]].<ref>{{cite journal |author=Fauci AS |title=Pandemic influenza threat and preparedness |journal=Emerging Infect. Dis. |volume=12 |issue=1 |pages=73–7 |date=January 2006 |pmid=16494721 |url=http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol12no01/05-0983.htm |doi=10.3201/eid1201.050983 |pmc=3291399}}</ref>||
+
| 2002 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2002 season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus;
 +
* an A/Moscow/10/99(H3N2)-like virus;
 +
* a B/Sichuan/379/99-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/vaccinerecommendations1/en/index16.html |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>  
 +
|| {{w|Southern hemisphere}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2004 || || Infection || New avian [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H7N3|Influenza A virus subtype H7N3]] strain is detected in humans. Two poultry workers become infected, eventually fully recovered.<ref>{{cite web|title=Influenza Strain Details for A/Canada/rv504/2004(H7N3)|url=https://www.fludb.org/brc/fluStrainDetails.spg?strainName=A/Canada/rv504/2004(H7N3)&decorator=influenza|publisher=Influenza Research Database|accessdate=1 February 2017}}</ref><ref name="Avian flu: a history" /> || [[wikipedia:Canada|Canada]]
+
| 2002 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}}, {{w|Influenzavirus B}} || Human || Medical development || High dietary intake of {{w|green tea}} is correlated with reduced risk of contracting influenza, as well as having an antiviral effect upon types A and B.<ref>{{cite journal | last1 = Imanishi | first1 = N | last2 = Tuji | first2 = Y | last3 = Katada | first3 = Y | last4 = Maruhashi | first4 = M | last5 = Konosu | first5 = S | last6 = Mantani | first6 = N | last7 = Terasawa | first7 = K | last8 = Ochiai | first8 = H | year = 2002 | title = Additional inhibitory effect of tea extract on the growth of influenza A and B viruses in MDCK cells. | url = | journal = Microbiol. Immunol.| volume =  46| issue = 7| pages = 491–4| pmid = 12222936 | doi=10.1111/j.1348-0421.2002.tb02724.x}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2004 || || Infection || New avian [[wikipedia:influenza A virus subtype H10N7|influenza A virus subtype H10N7]] strain is detected in humans. Two children become infected.<ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.paho.org/English/AD/DPC/CD/eid-eer-07-may-2004.htm | title = EID Weekly Updates - Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Region of the Americas | accessdate =1 February 2017 | publisher = Pan American Health Organization }}</ref><ref name="Avian flu: a history" />||[[wikipedia:Egypt|Egypt]]
+
| 2002 || {{w|H7N2}} || Non-human (avian) || {{w|Epizootic}} || New avian [[wikipedia:influenza A virus subtype H7N2|influenza A virus subtype H7N2]] strain affects 197 farms in [[wikipedia:Virginia|Virginia]] and results in the killing of over 4.7 million birds. One person is infected, fully recovered.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Akey|first1=BL|title=Low-pathogenicity H7N2 avian influenza outbreak in Virgnia during 2002.|doi=10.1637/0005-2086-47.s3.1099|pmid=14575120}}</ref><ref name="Avian flu: a history" /> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 2004 || || Non–human infection || Avian [[wikipedia:influenza A virus subtype H5N2|influenza A virus subtype H5N2]] infects birds in [[wikipedia:Texas|Texas]]. 6,600 infected broiler chickens are slaughtered.<ref>{{cite web|title=Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza|url=https://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/emergingissues/impactworksheets/iw_2004_files/domestic/hpaitexas032004.htm|website=usda.gov|accessdate=1 February 2017}}</ref><ref name="Avian flu: a history" /> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]]
+
| 2002–2003 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2002-2003 season (Northern Hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus;
 +
* an A/Moscow/10/99(H3N2)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Hong Kong/330/2001-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/vaccinerecommendations1/en/index15.html |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Northern hemisphere}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2005 || || Organization || [[wikipedia:President of the United States|United States President]] [[wikipedia:George W. Bush|George W. Bush]] unveils the National Strategy to Safeguard Against the Danger of Pandemic Influenza. US$1&nbsp;billion for the production and stockpile of [[wikipedia:oseltamivir|oseltamivir]] are requested after Congress approves $1.8&nbsp;billion for military use of the drug.<ref>Shannon Brownlee and Jeanne Lenzer (November 2009) [https://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200911/brownlee-h1n1 "Does the Vaccine Matter?"], ''[[wikipedia:The Atlantic|The Atlantic]]''</ref><ref>[http://www.whitehouse.gov/homeland/pandemic-influenza.html National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza] Whitehouse.gov Retrieved 26 October 2006.</ref>|| [[wikipedia:United States|United States]]
+
| 2003 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2003 season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus;
 +
* an A/Moscow/10/99(H3N2)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Hong Kong/330/2001-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/vaccinerecommendations1/en/index14.html |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Southern hemisphere}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2005 || || Organization || American president [[wikipedia:George W. Bush|George W. Bush]] announces the [[wikipedia:International Partnership on Avian and Pandemic Influenza|International Partnership on Avian and Pandemic Influenza]]. The purpose of the partnership is protecting human and animal health as well as mitigating the global socioeconomic and security consequences of an influenza pandemic.<ref>{{cite web|title=The International Partnership on Avian and  Pandemic Influenza|url=http://mddb.apec.org/documents/2008/HWG/WKSP1/08_hwg_wksp1_007.pdf|website=apec.org|accessdate=31 January 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=International Partnership on Avian and Pandemic Influenza|url=https://2001-2009.state.gov/g/oes/rls/rm/54428.htm|publisher=U.S. State Department|accessdate=31 January 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]] ([[wikipedia:New York City|New York City]])
+
| 2003 || || Human || System launch || {{w|Influenzanet}} launches in the Netherlands and Belgium as a participatory surveillance system monitoring the incidence of influenza-like illness in {{w|Europe}}. It is based on data provided by volunteers who self-report their symptoms via the Internet throughout the influenza season.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Geneviève |first1=LD |last2=Wangmo |first2=T |last3=Dietrich |first3=D |last4=Woolley-Meza |first4=O |last5=Flahault |first5=A |last6=Elger |first6=BS |title=Research Ethics in the European Influenzanet Consortium: Scoping Review|url=https://europepmc.org/article/med/30305258}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Koppeschaar |first1=CE |last2=Colizza |first2=V |last3=Guerrisi |first3=C |last4=Turbelin |first4=C |last5=Duggan |first5=J |last6=Edmunds |first6=WJ |last7=Kjelsø |first7=C |last8=Mexia |first8=R |last9=Moreno |first9=Y |last10=Meloni |first10=S |last11=Paolotti |first11=D |last12=Perrotta |first12=D |last13=van Straten |first13=E |last14=Franco |first14=AO |title=Influenzanet: Citizens Among 10 Countries Collaborating to Monitor Influenza in Europe. |doi=10.2196/publichealth.7429 |pmid=28928112 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28928112 |pmc=5627046}}</ref> || {{w|Netherlands}}, {{w|Belgium}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2005 || || Infection || Avian [[wikipedia:influenza A virus subtype H1N1|influenza A virus subtype H1N1]] strain kills one person in [[wikipedia:Cambodia|Cambodia]]. In [[wikipedia:Romania|Romania]], a village is quarantined after three dead ducks test positive for H1N1.<ref>{{cite web|title=Influenza Strain Details for A/Cambodia/V0803338/2011(H1N1)|url=https://www.fludb.org/brc/fluStrainDetails.spg?strainName=A/Cambodia/V0803338/2011(H1N1)&decorator=influenza|publisher=Influenza Research Database|accessdate=1 February 2017}}</ref><ref name="Avian flu: a history" /> || [[wikipedia:Cambodia|Cambodia]], [[wikipedia:Romania|Romania]]
+
| 2003 || || Human || Medical development || The mixture of ''{{w|Eleutherococcus senticosus}}'' ("Siberian ginseng") and ''{{w|Andrographis paniculata}}'', sold under the trade name Kan Jang, is reported in the Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy to outperform {{w|amantadine}} in reducing influenza-related sick time and complications in a {{w|Volgograd}} pilot study of 71 patients.<!--- bear in mind that the flu was likely resistant to amantadine, so this may be a matter of statistical chance... ---><ref>{{cite journal | pmid = 15277072 | volume=3 | issue=1 | title=A randomized, controlled study of Kan Jang versus amantadine in the treatment of influenza in Volgograd | year=2003 | journal=J Herb Pharmacother | pages=77–93 |vauthors=Kulichenko LL, Kireyeva LV, Malyshkina EN, Wikman G | doi=10.1080/j157v03n01_04}}</ref> || {{w|Russia}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2006 || || Organization || The International Pledging Conference on Avian and Human Pandemic Influenza is held Beijing. Co-hosted by the [[wikipedia:Government of China|Chinese Government]], the [[wikipedia:European Commission|European Commission]] and the [[wikipedia:World Bank|World Bank]]. The purpose is to raise funds for international cooperation in the prevention and control of avian and human influenza.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.chinamission.be/eng/zxxx/t232280.htm|title= The International Pledging Conference on Avian and Human Pandemic Influenza Is Successfully Held in Beijing}}</ref>|| [[wikipedia:China|China]] ([[wikipedia:Beijing|Beijing]]) 
+
| 2003 || || || Vaccine approval || The United States {{w|FDA}} first licenses FluMist –an intranasally administered influenza vaccine, for healthy, nonpregnant persons aged 5–49 years.<ref>{{cite web|title=Notice to Readers: Expansion of Use of Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (FluMist®) to Children Aged 2--4 Years and Other FluMist Changes for the 2007--08 Influenza Season|url=https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5646a4.htm|website=cdc.gov|accessdate=26 April 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2007 || || Non-human infection || [[wikipedia:2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak|Equine influenza outbreak]] is diagnosed in Australia's horse population following the failure to contain infection in quarantine after the importation of one or more infected horses. The outbreak would also have a major impact on individual horse owners, the horse industry and associated sectors in both infected and uninfected states.<ref>{{cite journal|title=Overview of the 2007 Australian outbreak of equine influenza|journal=Australian Veterinary Journal|doi=10.1111/j.1751-0813.2011.00721.x|url=http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1751-0813.2011.00721.x/abstract?systemMessage=WOL+Usage+report+download+page+will+be+unavailable+on+Friday+27th+January+2017+at+23%3A00+GMT%2F+18%3A00+EST%2F+07%3A00+SGT+%28Saturday+28th+Jan+for+SGT%29++for+up+to+2+hours+due+to+essential+server+maintenance.+Apologies+for+the+inconvenience.|accessdate=29 January 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Australia|Australia]]
+
| 2003 || {{w|H7N7}} || Human, avian || {{w|Epidemic}}, {{w|epizootic}} || First reported case of avian [[wikipedia:influenza A virus subtype H7N7|influenza A virus subtype H7N7]] strain in humans. 88 people are infected, one dies. 30 million birds are slaughtered.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Stegeman|first1=A|last2=Bouma|first2=A|last3=Elbers|first3=AR|last4=De Jong|first4=MC|last5=Nodelijk|first5=G|last6=De Klerk|first6=F|last7=Koch|first7=G|last8=Van Boven|first8=M.|title=Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) epidemic in The Netherlands in 2003: course of the epidemic and effectiveness of control measures.|doi=10.1086/425583|pmid=15551206}}</ref><ref name="Avian flu: a history" /> || [[wikipedia:Netherlands|Netherlands]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 2008 || || Scientific development ||[[wikipedia:OpenFluDB|OpenFluDB]] is launched as a [[wikipedia:database|database]] for human and animal influenza virus. It's used to collect, manage, store and distribute worldwide data on influenza.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Robin Liechti1, Anne Gleizes, Dmitry Kuznetsov, Lydie Bougueleret, Philippe Le Mercier, Amos Bairoch and Ioannis Xenarios |date= |title=OpenFluDB, a database for human and animal influenza virus |url=http://database.oxfordjournals.org/content/2010/baq004.full |journal= |publisher= |volume= |issue= |pages= |doi= 10.1093/database/baq004 |pmc= |pmid= }}</ref>|| Worldwide
+
| 2003–2004 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2003-2004 season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus;
 +
* an A/Moscow/10/99(H3N2)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Hong Kong/330/2001-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/vaccinerecommendations1/en/index13.html |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2008 || || Service launch || [[wikipedia:Google|Google]] launches [[wikipedia:Google Flu Trends|Google Flu Trends]], a web service with aims at providing estimates of influenza activity by aggregating [[wikipedia:Google Search|Google Search]] queries. The system would provide data to 29 countries worldwide, extending service to include surveillance for [[wikipedia:dengue|dengue]].<ref>{{cite web|last1=Butler|first1=Declan|title=When Google got flu wrong|url=http://www.nature.com/news/when-google-got-flu-wrong-1.12413|website=nature.com|accessdate=2 February 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]]
+
| 2003–2007 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H5N1}}) || Human, avian || {{w|Epidemic}}, {{w|epizootic}} || Avian ([[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H5N1|Influenza A virus subtype H5N1]]) strain is reported in humans. In February 2003, two people are infected in [[wikipedia:Hong Kong|Hong Kong]], one dies. In December 2003, H5N1 breaks out among chicken in [[wikipedia:South Korea|South Korea]]. By January 2004, [[wikipedia:Japan|Japan]] has its first outbreak of avian flu since 1925 and Vietnam reports human cases. In [[wikipedia:Thailand|Thailand]], nine million chickens are slaughtered to stop the spread of the disease.<ref name="Avian flu: a history">{{cite web|title=Avian flu: a history|url=http://eedition.winklertimes.com/doc/Winkler-Times/winkler_times-1211/2014120901/24.html#24|publisher=Winkler Times|accessdate=1 February 2017}}</ref> By December 2006, over 240 million poultry would die or be culled due to H5N1.<ref>{{cite book|title=The Global Strategy for Prevention and Control of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza|publisher=Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=sWDQWPhnVo8C&pg=PA19&lpg=PA19&dq=%22H5N1%22+%22281%22+%22169%22&source=bl&ots=XW1qV4VQau&sig=4uhyYcEPfBTvl44IpgTuGTYenYs&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwix6My66e_RAhUKlZAKHav-Dl8Q6AEIKDAC#v=onepage&q=%22H5N1%22%20%22281%22%20%22169%22&f=false|accessdate=1 February 2017}}</ref> ||[[wikipedia:East Asia|East Asia]], [[wikipedia:Southeast Asia|Southeast Asia]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || || Epidemic || New flu virus ([[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H1N1|H1N1]]) [[wikipedia:2009 flu pandemic|pandemic]] (colloquially called the swine flu pandemic), first recognized in the state of [[wikipedia:Veracruz|Veracruz]], Mexico, spreads quickly across the United States and the world, prompting a strong global public reaction. Overseas flights are discouraged from government health bodies.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/apr/27/swine-flu-mexico|title=Europeans urged to avoid Mexico and US as swine flu death toll rises}}</ref>  Worldwide, nearly 1 billion doses of H1N1 vaccine are ordered.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/health-and-fitness/health/conditions/how-vaccines-became-big-business/article572731/?page=all|title= How vaccines became big business}}</ref> A total of 74 countries are affected. 18,500 deaths.<ref name=Pandemic-Flu-History/>|| Worldwide
+
| 2004 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H5N1}}) || Human || Publication || The {{w|World Health Organizatin}} publishes its ''Guidelines for the use of seasonal influenza vaccine in humans at risk of H5N1 infection''.<ref name="Avian influenza: guidelines. recommendations, descriptions"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2004 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2004 season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1) -like virus;
 +
* an A/Fujian/411/2002(H3N2) - like virus; and
 +
* a B/Hong Kong/330/2001-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/vaccinerecommendations1/en/index12.html |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>  
 +
||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2011 || || Non–human infection || [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H3N8|Influenza A virus subtype H3N8]] causes death of more than 160 baby [[wikipedia:Pinniped|seals]] in [[wikipedia:New England|New England]].<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Karlsson|first1=Erik A.|last2=Hon|first2=S.|last3=Hall|first3=Jeffrey S.|last4=Yoon|first4=Sun Woo|last5=Johnson|first5=Jordan|last6=Beck|first6=Melinda A.|last7=Webby|first7=Richard J.|last8=Schultz-Cherry|first8=Stacey|title=Respiratory transmission of an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from a harbour seal|doi=10.1038/ncomms5791|url=http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms5791|accessdate=1 February 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]]
+
| 2004 || || Human || Organization || The [[wikipedia:Influenza Genome Sequencing Project|Influenza Genome Sequencing Project]] is launched to investigate influenza evolution by providing a public data set of complete influenza genome sequences from collections of isolates representing diverse species distributions. Funded by the [[wikipedia:National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases|NIAID]].<ref>{{cite journal |author=Fauci AS |title=Pandemic influenza threat and preparedness |journal=Emerging Infect. Dis. |volume=12 |issue=1 |pages=73–7 |date=January 2006 |pmid=16494721 |url=http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol12no01/05-0983.htm |doi=10.3201/eid1201.050983 |pmc=3291399}}</ref>||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2012 || || Scientific development || A 2012 [[wikipedia:meta-analysis|meta-analysis]] finds that flu shots are efficacious 67&nbsp;percent of the time.<ref name="Osterholm">{{cite journal|last1=Osterholm|first1=MT|last2=Kelley|first2=NS|last3=Sommer|first3=A|last4=Belongia|first4=EA|title=Efficacy and effectiveness of influenza vaccines: a systematic review and meta-analysis.|journal=The Lancet. Infectious diseases|date=January 2012|volume=12|issue=1|pages=36–44|pmid=22032844|doi=10.1016/s1473-3099(11)70295-x}}</ref>||  
+
| 2004 || || Human || Publication || The {{w|World Health Organizatin}} publishes its guideline ''Advice for people living in areas affected by bird flu or avian influenza''.<ref name="Avian influenza: guidelines. recommendations, descriptions"/> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2012 || || Scientific project/controversy ||American virologists [[wikipedia:Ron Fouchier|Ron Fouchier]] and [[wikipedia:Yoshihiro Kawaoka|Yoshihiro Kawaoka]] intentionally develop a strain based on [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H5N1|H5N1]] for which no vaccine exists, causing outrage in both the media and scientific community.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/jun/11/crazy-dangerous-creation-deadly-airborne-flu-virus|title= Scientists condemn 'crazy, dangerous' creation of deadly airborne flu virus}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/exclusive-controversial-us-scientist-creates-deadly-new-flu-strain-for-pandemic-research-9577088.html|title=Exclusive: Controversial US scientist creates deadly new flu strain for pandemic research}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://redice.tv/news/u-s-virologists-intentionally-engineer-super-deadly-pandemic-flu-virus|title=U.S. virologists intentionally engineer super-deadly pandemic flu virus}}</ref>|| [[wikipedia:Netherlands|Netherlands]] ([[wikipedia:Erasmus Medical Center|Erasmus Medical Center]]), [[wikipedia:United States|United States]] ([[wikipedia:University of Wisconsin-Madison|University of Wisconsin-Madison]])
+
| 2004 || [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H7N3|H7N3]] || Human || Infection || New avian [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H7N3|Influenza A virus subtype H7N3]] strain is detected in humans. Two poultry workers become infected, eventually fully recovered.<ref>{{cite web|title=Influenza Strain Details for A/Canada/rv504/2004(H7N3)|url=https://www.fludb.org/brc/fluStrainDetails.spg?strainName=A/Canada/rv504/2004(H7N3)&decorator=influenza|publisher=Influenza Research Database|accessdate=1 February 2017}}</ref><ref name="Avian flu: a history" /> || [[wikipedia:Canada|Canada]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 2012 || || Medical development || United States [[wikipedia:FDA|FDA]] approves first seasonal influenza vaccine manufactured using cell culture technology.<ref>{{cite web|title=FDA approves first seasonal influenza vaccine manufactured using cell culture technology|url=http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm328982.htm|website=fda.gov|accessdate=6 February 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]]
+
| 2004 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H10N7}}) || Human || Infection || New avian [[wikipedia:influenza A virus subtype H10N7|influenza A virus subtype H10N7]] strain is detected in humans. Two children become infected.<ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.paho.org/English/AD/DPC/CD/eid-eer-07-may-2004.htm | title = EID Weekly Updates - Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Region of the Americas | accessdate =1 February 2017 | publisher = Pan American Health Organization }}</ref><ref name="Avian flu: a history" />||[[wikipedia:Egypt|Egypt]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 2013 || || Epidemic || Avian [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H7N9|Influenza A virus subtype H7N9]] strain, a low pathogenic AI virus, breaks out in China. As of April 11, 2014, the outbreak's overall total would reach 419 people, including 7 in Hong Kong, with the unofficial death toll at 127.<ref>{{cite web|title=Avian and other zoonotic influenza|url=http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/avian_influenza/en/|publisher=[[wikipedia:WHO|WHO]]|accessdate=29 January 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2014/03/study-says-vietnam-h7n9-risk-two-new-cases-noted|title=Study says Vietnam at H7N9 risk as two new cases noted|website=umn.edu|accessdate=29 January 2017}}</ref>|| [[wikipedia:China|China]], [[wikipedia:Vietnam|Vietnam]]
+
| 2004 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} {{w|H5N2}} || Non–human (avian) || {{w|Epizootic}} || Avian [[wikipedia:influenza A virus subtype H5N2|influenza A virus subtype H5N2]] infects birds in [[wikipedia:Texas|Texas]]. 6,600 infected broiler chickens are slaughtered.<ref>{{cite web|title=Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza|url=https://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/emergingissues/impactworksheets/iw_2004_files/domestic/hpaitexas032004.htm|website=usda.gov|accessdate=1 February 2017}}</ref><ref name="Avian flu: a history" /> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 2013 || || Medical development || United States [[wikipedia:FDA|FDA]] approves influenza vaccine ''Flublok'' ([[wikipedia:Protein Sciences|Protein Sciences]]), developed through recombinant DNA technology.<ref>{{cite web|title=FDA Approves Flublok Quadrivalent Flu Vaccine|url=http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/870201|website=medscape.com|accessdate=30 January 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]]
+
| 2004 || {{w|H3N8}} || Non-human ({{w|Canidae}}) || Research || {{w|Canine influenza}} (dog flu) virus subtype H3N8, is discovered to cause disease in canines.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Payungporn |first1=Sunchai |last2=Crawford |first2=P. Cynda |last3=Kouo |first3=Theodore S. |last4=Chen |first4=Li-mei |last5=Pompey |first5=Justine |last6=Castleman |first6=William L. |last7=Dubovi |first7=Edward J. |last8=Katz |first8=Jacqueline M. |last9=Donis |first9=Ruben O. |title=Influenza A Virus (H3N8) in Dogs with Respiratory Disease, Florida |doi=10.3201/eid1406.071270 |pmid=18507900 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2600298/ |pmc=2600298}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2013 || || Infection || Avian [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H10N8|Influenza A virus subtype H10N8]] strain infects for the first time and kills one person.<ref>{{cite web|title=Avian influenza A (H10N8)|url=http://www.wpro.who.int/china/mediacentre/factsheets/h10n8/en/|publisher=[[wikipedia:WHO|WHO]]|accessdate=1 February 2017}}</ref><ref name="Avian flu: a history" /> || [[wikipedia:China|China]]
+
| 2004–2005 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2004-2005 northern hemisphere influenza season containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus;
 +
* an A/Fujian/411/2002(H3N2)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Shanghai/361/2002-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/vaccinerecommendations1/en/index11.html |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Northern hemisphere}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2015 || || Program || [[wikipedia:Google Flu Trends|Google Flu Trends]] shuts down in August 2015 after successive inaccuracies in the big data analysis.<ref>{{cite web|title=Real-time influenza tracking with 'big data'|url=https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-05/bch-rit050916.php|website=eurekalert.org|accessdate=6 February 2017}}</ref>  After performing well for two to three years since the service launch in 2008, GFT would start to fail significantly and require substantial revision.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Lazer|first1=David|last2=Kennedy|first2=Ryan|title=What We Can Learn From the Epic Failure of Google Flu Trends|url=https://www.wired.com/2015/10/can-learn-epic-failure-google-flu-trends/|website=wired.com|publisher=Science|accessdate=6 February 2017}}</ref> However, Google Flu Trends would also inspire several other similar projects that use social media data to predict disease trends.<ref>{{cite web|title=Google Flu Trends|url=http://datacollaboratives.org/cases/google-flu-trends.html|website=datacollaboratives.org|accessdate=2 February 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]]
+
| 2005 || || Human || Organization || [[wikipedia:President of the United States|United States President]] [[wikipedia:George W. Bush|George W. Bush]] unveils the National Strategy to Safeguard Against the Danger of Pandemic Influenza. US$1&nbsp;billion for the production and stockpile of [[wikipedia:oseltamivir|oseltamivir]] are requested after Congress approves $1.8&nbsp;billion for military use of the drug.<ref>Shannon Brownlee and Jeanne Lenzer (November 2009) [https://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200911/brownlee-h1n1 "Does the Vaccine Matter?"], ''[[wikipedia:The Atlantic|The Atlantic]]''</ref><ref>[http://www.whitehouse.gov/homeland/pandemic-influenza.html National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza] Whitehouse.gov Retrieved 26 October 2006.</ref>|| [[wikipedia:United States|United States]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 2017 || || Medical development || Researchers from the [[wikipedia:University of Texas at Arlington|University of Texas at Arlington]] build influenza detector that can diagnose at a breath, without the intervention of a doctor.<ref>{{cite web|title=Researchers build flu detector that can diagnose at a breath, no doctor required|url=http://www.digitaltrends.com/cool-tech/flu-breathalyzer/|website=digitaltrends.com|accessdate=6 February 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]]
+
| 2005 || || Human || Publication || The {{w|World Health Organization}} publishes its guideline ''Clarification on the use of masks by health-care workers in pandemic settings - in WHO global influenza preparedness plan''.<ref name="Avian influenza: guidelines. recommendations, descriptions"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2017 || || Scientific development || Researchers from the [[wikipedia:University of Helsinki|University of Helsinki]] demonstrate that three anti-influenza compounds effectively inhibit [[wikipedia:zika virus|zika virus]] infection in human cells.<ref>{{cite web|title=Certain anti-influenza compounds also inhibit Zika virus infection, researchers find|url=https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/01/170116091437.htm|website=sciencedaily.com|accessdate=6 February 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Finland|Finland]]
+
| 2005 || || General || Organization || American president [[wikipedia:George W. Bush|George W. Bush]] announces the [[wikipedia:International Partnership on Avian and Pandemic Influenza|International Partnership on Avian and Pandemic Influenza]]. The purpose of the partnership is protecting human and animal health as well as mitigating the global socioeconomic and security consequences of an influenza pandemic.<ref>{{cite web|title=The International Partnership on Avian and  Pandemic Influenza|url=http://mddb.apec.org/documents/2008/HWG/WKSP1/08_hwg_wksp1_007.pdf|website=apec.org|accessdate=31 January 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=International Partnership on Avian and Pandemic Influenza|url=https://2001-2009.state.gov/g/oes/rls/rm/54428.htm|publisher=U.S. State Department|accessdate=31 January 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]] ([[wikipedia:New York City|New York City]])
 +
|-
 +
| 2005 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2005 season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus;
 +
* an A/Wellington/1/2004(H3N2)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Shanghai/361/2002-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/vaccinerecommendations1/en/index10.html |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
||
 +
|-
 +
| 2005 || || General || Research (genomics) || New technology development led by {{w|Elodie Ghedin}} at {{w|The Institute for Genomic Research}} is first published at journal ''[[w:Nature (journal)|Nature]]'' describing over 100 influenza {{w|genome}}s.<ref name=Ghedin05>{{cite journal  |vauthors=Ghedin E, Sengamalay NA, Shumway M, Zaborsky J, Feldblyum T, Subbu V, Spiro DJ, Sitz J, Koo H, Bolotov P, Dernovoy D, Tatusova T, Bao Y, St George K, Taylor J, Lipman DJ, Fraser CM, Taubenberger JK, Salzberg SL |title=Large-scale sequencing of human influenza reveals the dynamic nature of viral genome evolution |journal=Nature |volume=437 |issue=7062 |pages=1162–6 |date=October 2005 |pmid=16208317 |doi=10.1038/nature04239|doi-access=free }} (as [http://cbcb.umd.edu/~salzberg/docs/NatureFluGenomeProjectReprint.pdf PDF]</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2005 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H5N1}}) || Human, avian || Publication || The {{w|World Health Organization}} publishes its ''WHO guidance on public health measures in countries experiencing their first outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza''.<ref>{{cite web |title=WHO guidance on public health measures in countries experiencing their first outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/resources/documents/guidance_publichealthmeasures_h5n1_10_2005/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=19 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2005 (August) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} {{w|H5N3}} || Non-human (avian) || Infection || {{w|Influenza A virus subtype H5N3}} is identified in {{w|Quebec}}.<ref>{{Cite web | url=http://www.recombinomics.com/News/11190504/H5_LPAI_Quebec_British_Columbia.html | title=H5N2 H5N3 and H5N9 Detected in Quebec and British Columbia}}</ref> || {{w|Canada}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2005 || {{w|H1N1}} || Human, avian || Infection || Avian [[wikipedia:influenza A virus subtype H1N1|influenza A virus subtype H1N1]] strain kills one person in [[wikipedia:Cambodia|Cambodia]]. In [[wikipedia:Romania|Romania]], a village is quarantined after three dead ducks test positive for H1N1.<ref>{{cite web|title=Influenza Strain Details for A/Cambodia/V0803338/2011(H1N1)|url=https://www.fludb.org/brc/fluStrainDetails.spg?strainName=A/Cambodia/V0803338/2011(H1N1)&decorator=influenza|publisher=Influenza Research Database|accessdate=1 February 2017}}</ref><ref name="Avian flu: a history" /> || [[wikipedia:Cambodia|Cambodia]], [[wikipedia:Romania|Romania]]
 +
|-
 +
| 2005 (Ocober) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} {{w|H5N3}} || Non-human (avian) || Infection || {{w|Influenza A virus subtype H5N3}} is identified in  {{w|Sweden}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Influenza A H5N3 |url=https://www.sinobiological.com/research/virus/influenza-a-h5n3 |website=sinobiological.com |accessdate=21 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Sweden}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2005 (November) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} {{w|H5N2}} || Non-human (falcon) || Infection || It is reported that a {{w|falcon}} was found to have {{w|H5N2}}.<ref>[http://depts.washington.edu/einet/?a=printArticle&print=1097] article ''Kuwait: Avian influenza H5N1 confirmed case in flamingo'' November 12, 2005</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2005–2006 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2005-2006 influenza season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
A trivalent vaccine containing:
 +
 
 +
* an A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus;
 +
* an A/California/7/2004(H3N2)-like virus;
 +
* a B/Shanghai/361/2002-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/vaccinerecommendations1/en/index9.html |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Northern hemisphere}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2006 || || Human || Publication || The {{w|World Health Organization}} publishes its guideline ''Avian influenza: food safety issues''.<ref>{{cite web |title=Avian influenza: food safety issues |url=https://www.who.int/foodsafety/areas_work/zoonose/avian/en/index1.html |website=who.int |accessdate=19 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Avian influenza: guidelines. recommendations, descriptions |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/resources/documents/guidelinestopics/en/index2.html |website=who.int |accessdate=19 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2006 (May) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H5N1}}) || Human || Publication || The {{w|World Health Organization}} publishes its ''WHO Rapid Advice Guidelines on pharmacological management of humans infected with avian influenza A (H5N1) virus''.<ref>{{cite web |title=WHO Rapid Advice Guidelines on pharmacological management of humans infected with avian influenza A (H5N1) virus |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/resources/documents/pharmacological_management_h5n1_05_2006/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=19 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2006 || || Human, avian || Organization || The International Pledging Conference on Avian and Human Pandemic Influenza is held Beijing. Co-hosted by the [[wikipedia:Government of China|Chinese Government]], the [[wikipedia:European Commission|European Commission]] and the [[wikipedia:World Bank|World Bank]]. The purpose is to raise funds for international cooperation in the prevention and control of avian and human influenza.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.chinamission.be/eng/zxxx/t232280.htm|title= The International Pledging Conference on Avian and Human Pandemic Influenza Is Successfully Held in Beijing}}</ref>|| [[wikipedia:China|China]] ([[wikipedia:Beijing|Beijing]]) 
 +
|-
 +
| 2006 || || Human || Website launch || {{w|FluTrackers}} ([https://flutrackers.com/forum/ <code>flutrackers.com</code>] launches as a website, [[w:internet forum|online forum]] and early warning system which tracks and gathers information relating to a wide range of infectious diseases, including [[w:influenza|flu]] and assists in how to use it to inform the general public.<ref>{{cite web |title=flutrackers |url=https://flutrackers.com/forum/ |website=flutrackers.com |accessdate=12 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2006 || || Human || Website launch || <code>flutracking.net</code> launches in Australia as a weekly web-based survey of influenza-like illness (ILI). It monitors the transmission and severity of ILI across Australia. The survey documents symptoms (cough, fever, and sore throat), time off work or normal duties, influenza vaccination status, laboratory testing for influenza, and health seeking behavior.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Dalton |first1=Craig |last2=Carlson |first2=Sandra |last3=Butler |first3=Michelle |last4=Cassano |first4=Daniel |last5=Clarke |first5=Stephen |last6=Fejsa |first6=John |last7=Durrheim |first7=David |title=Insights From Flutracking: Thirteen Tips to Growing a Web-Based Participatory Surveillance System |doi=10.2196/publichealth.7333 |pmid=28818817 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5579323/ |pmc=5579323}}</ref> || {{w|Australia}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2006 || || Human || Research (epidemiology) || A randomized trial published in the ''{{w|British Medical Journal}}'' shows that even being able to vaccinate half the nursing home staff can prevent half of all deaths during the influenza season.<ref>{{cite web |title=Protecting our elderly: beating flu outbreaks in nursing homes |url=https://theconversation.com/protecting-our-elderly-beating-flu-outbreaks-in-nursing-homes-2960 |website=theconversation.com |accessdate=20 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2006 || || Human || Publication || The {{w|World Health Organization}} publishes its ''WHO strategic action plan for pandemic influenza'', a document on global alert and response (GAR).<ref>{{cite web |title=WHO strategic action plan for pandemic influenza |url=https://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/influenza/WHO_CDS_EPR_GIP_2006_2/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=19 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Switzerland}} ({{w|Geneva}})
 +
|-
 +
| 2006 || || Human || Program launch || The {{w|Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines}} (GAP) launches as a strategy to reduce the global shortage of influenza vaccines for seasonal epidemics and pandemic influenza in all countries of the world through three major approaches:
 +
* Increase in seasonal vaccine use
 +
* Increase in vaccine production capacity
 +
* {{w|Research and development}}.
 +
The program would close in 2016.<ref>{{cite web |title=Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP) |url=https://www.who.int/influenza_vaccines_plan/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=3 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
||
 +
|-
 +
| 2006 || || Human || Organization || The {{w|Global action plan for influenza vaccines}} is launched as a 10-year initiative by the {{w|World Health Organization}}, with the purpose to reduce the global shortage and inequitable access to {{w|influenza vaccine}}s in the event of an influenza pandemic.<ref name="saawe">{{cite web |title=4th International Conference on Influenza and Zoonotic Diseases |url=https://influenza.infectiousconferences.com/abstract/2018/global-pandemic-influenza-vaccine-preparedness-progress-under-the-global-action-plan-for-influenza-vaccines-and-next-steps |website=influenza.infectiousconferences.com |accessdate=30 June 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=3rd WHO Consultation on Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines, November 2016 |url=https://www.who.int/influenza_vaccines_plan/news/gap3_Nov16/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=30 June 2020}}</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| 2006–2007 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2006-7 season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus;
 +
* an A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2)-like virus;
 +
* a B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/vaccinerecommendations1/en/index7.html |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Northern hemisphere}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2007 || || Non-human (equine) || {{w|Epizootic}} || [[wikipedia:2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak|Equine influenza outbreak]] is diagnosed in Australia's horse population following the failure to contain infection in quarantine after the importation of one or more infected horses. The outbreak would also have a major impact on individual horse owners, the horse industry and associated sectors in both infected and uninfected states.<ref>{{cite journal|title=Overview of the 2007 Australian outbreak of equine influenza|journal=Australian Veterinary Journal|doi=10.1111/j.1751-0813.2011.00721.x|url=http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1751-0813.2011.00721.x/abstract?systemMessage=WOL+Usage+report+download+page+will+be+unavailable+on+Friday+27th+January+2017+at+23%3A00+GMT%2F+18%3A00+EST%2F+07%3A00+SGT+%28Saturday+28th+Jan+for+SGT%29++for+up+to+2+hours+due+to+essential+server+maintenance.+Apologies+for+the+inconvenience.|accessdate=29 January 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Australia|Australia]]
 +
|-
 +
| 2007 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} || Human, avian || Publication || The {{w|World Health Organization}} publishes its guideline ''Avian influenza, including influenza A (H5N1), in humans: WHO interim infection control guideline for health care facilities''.<ref name="Avian influenza: guidelines. recommendations, descriptions"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2007 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}, {{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N2}}) || Non-human ([[w:Swine influenza|swine]]) || Research (virology) || A study reports that in {{w|swine}}, three influenza A virus subtypes ({{w|H1N1}}, {{w|H3N2}}, and {{w|H1N2}}) are circulating throughout the world.<ref>{{cite journal | last1 = René Gramer | first1 = Marie | last2 = Hoon Lee | first2 = Jee | last3 = Ki Choi | first3 = Young | last4 = Goyal | first4 = Sagar M. | last5 = Soo Joo | first5 = Han | year = 2007 | title = Serologic and genetic characterization of North American H3N2 swine influenza A viruses | url = | journal = Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research | volume = 71 | issue = 3| pages = 201–206 |pmc = 1899866 | pmid=17695595}}</ref> || Worldwide
 +
|-
 +
| 2007 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2007 season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus;
 +
* an A/Wisconsin/67/2005(H3N2)-like virus;
 +
* a B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/vaccinerecommendations1/en/index6.html |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Southern hemisphere}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2007–2008 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2007-8 season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 (H1N1)-like virus;
 +
* an A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/vaccinerecommendations1/en/index5.html |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Northern hemisphere}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2008 || || Human || Publication || The {{w|World Health Organization}} publishes its guideline ''Pandemic influenza preparedness and mitigation in refugee and displaced populations''.<ref>{{cite web |title=Pandemic influenza preparedness and mitigation in refugee and displaced populations |url=https://www.who.int/diseasecontrol_emergencies/HSE_EPR_DCE_2008_3rweb.pdf |website=who.int |accessdate=19 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2008 || || || Program launch || The {{w|GISAID}} initiative (Global initiative on sharing all influenza data) launches as a {{w|public–private partnership}} between the {{w|German government}} and the {{w|nonprofit organization}} Friends of GISAID that provides public access to a collection of {{w|genetic sequence}} data of {{w|influenza}} {{w|viruses}} and related clinical and epidemiological data through its database (named EpiFlu).<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Shu |first1=Yuelong |last2=McCauley |first2=John |title=GISAID: Global initiative on sharing all influenza data – from vision to reality |doi=10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.13.30494 |pmid=28382917 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5388101/ |pmc=5388101}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2008 || || Human, avian || Publication || The {{w|World Health Organization}} publishes its guideline ''Aide-Memoire -Infection control recommendations for avian influenza in health-care facilities''.<ref name="Avian influenza: guidelines. recommendations, descriptions">{{cite web |title=Avian influenza: guidelines. recommendations, descriptions |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/resources/documents/guidelinestopics/en/index3.html |website=who.int |accessdate=19 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2008 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H5N1}}) || Human || Publication || The {{w|World Health Organization}} publishes its guideline ''Protection of individuals with high poultry contact in areas affected by avian influenza H5N1: Consolidation of pre-existing guidance''.<ref>{{cite web |title=Protection of individuals with high poultry contact in areas affected by avian influenza H5N1: Consolidation of pre-existing guidance |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/resources/documents/guidance_protection_h5n1_02_2008/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=19 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2008 || || Human || Publication || Roni K. Devlin publishes ''Influenza (Biographies of Disease)''. The book covers influenza as a disease with potential of being at the center of a new pandemic.<ref>{{cite web |title=Influenza (Biographies of Disease) |url=https://www.amazon.com/Influenza-Biographies-Disease-Roni-Devlin/dp/0313342598 |website=amazon.com |accessdate=3 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2008 || || Human || Publication || ''Antivirals for Pandemic Influenza: Guidance on Developing a Distribution and Dispensing Program'' is published by the U.S. [[w:National Academy of Medicine|Institute of Medicine]].<ref>{{cite web |title=Antivirals for Pandemic Influenza |url=https://www.nap.edu/catalog/12170/antivirals-for-pandemic-influenza-guidance-on-developing-a-distribution-and |website=nap.edu |accessdate=3 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2008 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H5N1}}) and others || Human, avian || Publication || ''Avian Influenza'', by Hans-Dieter Klenk, Mikhail N. Matrosovich, and Jürgen Stech, is published. It provides information about the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza with particular emphasis on recent [[w:Global spread of H5N1|H5N1 outbreaks]] in {{w|China}}, {{w|Siberia}} and {{w|Europe}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Avian Influenza |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books/about/Avian_Influenza.html?id=BsFo_f90aLoC&source=kp_book_description&redir_esc=y |website=books.google.com |accessdate=3 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2008 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2008 season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 (H1N1)-like virus;
 +
* an A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2)-like virus;
 +
* a B/Florida/4/2006-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/vaccinerecommendations1/en/index4.html |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
||                                 
 +
|-
 +
| 2008 || || General || Research (virology) || Research by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) finds that the influenza virus has a butter-like coating, which melts when it enters the respiratory tract. In the winter, the coating becomes a hardened shell; therefore, it can survive in the cold weather similar to a spore. In the summer, the coating melts before the virus reaches the respiratory tract.<ref>{{cite journal |author-last1=Polozov |author-first1=I. V. |author-last2=Bezrukov |author-first2=L. |author-last3=Gawrisch |author-first3=K. |author-last4=Zimmerberg |author-first4=J. |title=Progressive ordering with decreasing temperature of the phospholipids of influenza virus |journal={{w|Nature Chemical Biology}} |volume=4 |issue=4 |pages=248–255 |date=2008 |pmid=18311130 |doi=10.1038/nchembio.77 |url=https://zenodo.org/record/1233359}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2008 || || General || Research (epidemiology) ||[[wikipedia:OpenFluDB|OpenFluDB]] is launched as a [[wikipedia:database|database]] for human and animal influenza virus. It's used to collect, manage, store and distribute worldwide data on influenza.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Robin Liechti1, Anne Gleizes, Dmitry Kuznetsov, Lydie Bougueleret, Philippe Le Mercier, Amos Bairoch and Ioannis Xenarios |date= |title=OpenFluDB, a database for human and animal influenza virus |url=http://database.oxfordjournals.org/content/2010/baq004.full |journal= |publisher= |volume= |issue= |pages= |doi= 10.1093/database/baq004 |pmc= |pmid= }}</ref>|| Worldwide
 +
|-
 +
| 2008 || || Human || Service launch || [[wikipedia:Google|Google]] launches [[wikipedia:Google Flu Trends|Google Flu Trends]], a web service with aims at providing estimates of influenza activity by aggregating [[wikipedia:Google Search|Google Search]] queries. The system would provide data to 29 countries worldwide, extending service to include surveillance for [[wikipedia:dengue|dengue]].<ref>{{cite web|last1=Butler|first1=Declan|title=When Google got flu wrong|url=http://www.nature.com/news/when-google-got-flu-wrong-1.12413|website=nature.com|accessdate=2 February 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]] 
 +
|-
 +
| 2008–2009 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2008-2009 influenza season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1)-like virus;
 +
* an A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Florida/4/2006-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/vaccinerecommendations1/en/index3.html |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Northern hemisphere}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 (January) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} {{w|H5N3}} || Non-human (avian) || Epizootic || {{w|Influenza A virus subtype H5N3}} is identified at a {{w|La Garnache}} farm in {{w|France}}. 90 birds are found dead between 29 January 2009 and 31 January 2009.  The remaining stock of 4,932 birds are culled on 1 February 2009.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Scoglio |first1=Caterina |last2=Schumm |first2=Walter |last3=Schumm |first3=Phillip |last4=Easton |first4=Todd |last5=Chowdhury |first5=Sohini Roy |last6=Sydney |first6=Ali |last7=Youssef |first7=Mina |title=Efficient Mitigation Strategies for Epidemics in Rural Regions |doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0011569 |url=https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0011569}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=SWINE FLU: DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT SAMEER PRAKASH BIOTECH BOOKS SWINE FLU DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT BY SAMEER PRAKASH BI... |url=https://epdf.pub/swine-flu-diagnosis-and-treatment.html |website=epdf.pub |accessdate=25 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Epidemic || New flu virus ([[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H1N1|H1N1]]) [[wikipedia:2009 flu pandemic|pandemic]] (colloquially called the swine flu pandemic), first recognized in the state of [[wikipedia:Veracruz|Veracruz]], Mexico, spreads quickly across the United States and the world, prompting a strong global public reaction. Overseas flights are discouraged from government health bodies.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/apr/27/swine-flu-mexico|title=Europeans urged to avoid Mexico and US as swine flu death toll rises}}</ref>  Worldwide, nearly 1 billion doses of H1N1 vaccine are ordered.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/health-and-fitness/health/conditions/how-vaccines-became-big-business/article572731/?page=all|title= How vaccines became big business}}</ref> A total of 74 countries are affected. 18,500 deaths.<ref name=Pandemic-Flu-History/>|| Worldwide
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 (April 27) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Policy || The United States {{w|Food and Drug Administration}} issues {{w|Emergency Use Authorization}}s to make available {{w|Relenza}} and {{w|Tamiflu}} {{w|antiviral drug}}s to treat the swine influenza virus in cases for which they were currently unapproved. The agency issues these EUAs to allow treatment of patients younger than the current approval allows and to allow the widespread distribution of the drugs, including by volunteers.<ref>{{cite web |title=Amended Authorizations of Emergency Use of Certain Antiviral Drugs Zanamivir and Oseltamivir Phosphate; Availability |url=https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2010/04/19/2010-8603/amended-authorizations-of-emergency-use-of-certain-antiviral-drugs-zanamivir-and-oseltamivir |website=federalregister.gov |accessdate=21 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 (Late April) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Epidemic || The {{w|World Health Organization}} declares its first ever "[[w:PHEIC|public health emergency of international concern]]" (PHEIC) in response to the [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H1N1|H1N1]] pandemic.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2009/h1n1_20090425/en/|title=WHO—Swine influenza|accessdate=21 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 (May) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Research (epidemiology) || A study at the [[w:United States|U.S.]] {{w|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention}} (CDC) reports that children have no preexisting [[w:immunity (medical)|immunity]] to the new {{w|pandemic H1N1/09 virus}} strain but that adults, particularly those over 60, have some degree of immunity. Children show no [[w:Cross-reactivity|cross-reactive]] {{w|antibody}} reaction to the then-new strain, while adults aged 18 to 64 had 6–9%, and older adults 34%.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/cidrap/content/influenza/swineflu/news/may2109serum-jw.html|title=Some immunity to novel H1N1 flu found in seniors}}</ref><ref name="CDC_MMWRDispatch_20090421">
 +
{{cite web
 +
|publisher={{w|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention}}
 +
|url=https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm58d0421a1.htm
 +
|title=Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Infection in Two Children—Southern California, March–April 2009
 +
|work={{w|Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report}}
 +
|date=21 April 2009
 +
}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 (May 22) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine funding || The {{w|United States Department of Health and Human Services}} directs US$1 billion toward development of vaccine for novel influenza A (H1N1).<ref>{{cite web |title=HHS Takes $1 Billion "Step" Toward Making Swine Flu Vaccine |url=https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2009/05/hhs-takes-1-billion-step-toward-making-swine-flu-vaccine |website=sciencemag.org |accessdate=3 June 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 (June) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Policy || The {{w|World Health Organization}} and the U.S. {{w|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention}} stop counting cases and declare the H1N1 outbreak a {{w|pandemic}}.<ref name="MargaretChanJune11">{{Cite news|title=World now at the start of 2009 influenza pandemic|last=Chan|first= Margaret|date=11 June 2009|publisher={{w|World Health Organization}} (WHO) url=https://web.archive.org/web/20091022123810/http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2009/h1n1_pandemic_phase6_20090611/en/index.html}}</ref> || Worldwide
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Research (epidemiology) || A link between {{w|obesity}} and 2009 H1N1 flu complications is found during the [[w:2009 swine flu pandemic|pandemic]].<ref>{{cite web |title=Study reveals obesity link to seasonal flu hospitalizations |url=https://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2011/08/study-reveals-obesity-link-seasonal-flu-hospitalizations |website=cidrap.umn.edu |accessdate=20 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Publication || The {{w|World Health Organization}} publishes its interim guidance ''Advice on the use of masks in the community setting in Influenza A(H1N1) outbreaks'', which deals with emergencies preparedness and response.<ref>{{cite web |title=Advice on the use of masks in the community setting in Influenza A(H1N1) outbreaks |url=https://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/swineflu/masks_community/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=19 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} {{w|H1N1}} || Human || Statistics || It is estimated that in the {{w|2009 flu pandemic}} 11–21% of the then global population (of about 6.8 billion), or around 700 million to 1.4 billion people, contracted the illness—more in absolute terms than the {{w|Spanish flu}} pandemic. Calculated fatalities range between 12,000 and 18,000.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2012/06/cdc-estimate-global-h1n1-pandemic-deaths-284000|title=CDC estimate of global H1N1 pandemic deaths: 284,000 |website=CDC |publisher=CDC |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=First Global Estimates of 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Mortality Released by CDC-Led Collaboration |url=https://www.cdc.gov/flu/spotlights/pandemic-global-estimates.htm |website=CDC |publisher=CDC |accessdate=20 May 2020}}</ref> || Worldwide
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2009 influenza season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1)-like virus;
 +
* an A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Florida/4/2006-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition |url=http://www10.who.int/influenza/vaccines/vaccinerecommendations1/en/index2.html|website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Southern hemisphere}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Medical development || A few news reports suggest the use of an {{w|elderberry}} ''({{w|Sambucus nigra}})'' extract as a potential preventative against the {{w|2009 flu pandemic}}.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.pnj.com/article/20090428/NEWS01/904280328|title=No swine flu cases in state; officials on alert|author=Louis Cooper|date=2009-04-28|publisher=Pensacola News-Journal}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.huffingtonpost.com/matthew-stein/when-a-super-bug-strikes_b_192543.html|title=When a Super-Bug Strikes Close to Home, How Will You Deal With it?|author=Matthew Stein|date=2009-04-28|publisher=Huffington Post}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 || || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H17N10}} || Non-human ({{w|bat}}s) || The first bat influenza virus (IAV H17N10) is found in {{w|little yellow-shouldered bat}}s (''Sturnira lilium'') in {{w|Guatemala}}.<ref name="swwa">{{cite web |title=Bat Influenza (Flu) |url=https://www.cdc.gov/flu/other/bat-flu.html |website=cdc.gov |accessdate=30 June 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Guatemala}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 || || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ([[w:Influenza A virus subtype H11N2|H11N2]]) || Non-human ({{w|mallard}}s) || IAV H11N2 is found in sentinel {{w|mallard}}s.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Wille |first1=Michelle |last2=Latorre-Margalef |first2=Neus |last3=Tolf |first3=Conny |last4=Halpin |first4=Rebecca |last5=Wentworth |first5=David |last6=Fouchier |first6=Ron A M |last7=Raghwani |first7=Jayna |last8=Pybus |first8=Oliver G |last9=Olsen |first9=Björn |last10=Waldenström |first10=Jonas |title=Where do all the subtypes go? Temporal dynamics of H8–H12 influenza A viruses in waterfowl |doi=10.1093/ve/vey025 |url=https://academic.oup.com/ve/article/4/2/vey025/5074428}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 (September 15) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}} || Human || Vaccine approval || The United States {{w|FDA}} approves four vaccines against the {{w|Influenza A virus subtype H1N1}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=FDA approves Cervarix, GlaxoSmithKline’s cervical cancer vaccine |url=https://www.gsk.com/en-gb/media/press-releases/fda-approves-cervarix-glaxosmithkline-s-cervical-cancer-vaccine/ |website=gsk.com |accessdate=3 June 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Update on Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccines |url=https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5839a3.htm |website=cdc.gov |accessdate=3 June 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 (October) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Medical development || It is reported that the experimental {{w|antiviral drug}} {{w|Peramivir}} has been effective in treating serious cases of [[w:2009 flu pandemic|swine flu]].<ref name="Peramivir">{{cite news|url=http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/10/19/eveningnews/main5398999.shtml?tag=stack|title=Life-Saving H1N1 Drug Unavailable to Most|date=2009-10-19|work=CBS Evening News|publisher=CBS Interactive|accessdate=2009-10-20|location=Atlanta, GA, USA}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 (October 25) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Epidemic || United States President {{w|Barack Obama}} officially declares {{w|H1N1}} a {{w|national emergency}}.<ref>{{cite web | title=Obama declares swine flu a national emergency | url=http://heraldextra.com/news/national/article_a4de47bf-1dd4-52ea-9f2d-db535ba581b4.html | publisher=The Daily Herald | year=2009 | accessdate=20 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 (November) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Research (virology) || A study is published in ''{{w|Virology Journal}}'' suggesting that the {{w|influenza A virus subtype H1N1}} virus may be the product of three strains from three continents that swapped genes in a lab or a vaccine-making plant, and subsequently "escaped". The study follows debate among researchers in May 2009, when the authors asked the {{w|World Health Organization}} to consider the hypothesis. After reviewing the initial paper, WHO and other organizations conclude the pandemic strain is a naturally-occurring virus and not laboratory-derived.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Gibbs |first1=Adrian J |last2=Armstrong |first2=John S |last3=Downie |first3=Jean C |title=From where did the 2009 'swine-origin' influenza A virus (H1N1) emerge? |journal=Virology Journal |url=https://virologyj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-422X-6-207 |accessdate=21 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 (December) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Non-human (canine) || Infection || The first case of a dog with H1N1 is reported.<ref>{{cite web |title=H1N1 & Animals: New York Dog Confirmed First US H1N1 Canine Case |url=https://www.oregonvma.org/news/h1n1 |website=oregonvma.org |accessdate=21 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 (December) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Medical development || A study finds that {{w|H1N1}} flu can cause {{w|pulmonary embolism}}, surmised as a leading cause of death in the [[w:2009 flu pandemic|pandemic]]. The study authors suggest physician evaluation via contrast enhanced CT scans for the presence of pulmonary emboli when caring for patients diagnosed with respiratory complications from a "severe" case of the H1N1 flu.<ref>{{cite journal  |vauthors=Mollura DJ, Asnis DS, Crupi RS, etal |title=Imaging Findings in a Fatal Case of Pandemic Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) |journal=AJR Am J Roentgenol |volume=193 |issue=6 |pages=1500–03 |date=December 2009 |pmid=19933640 |pmc=2788497 |doi=10.2214/AJR.09.3365 }}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 (December 23) || || Human || Vaccine approval || The U.S. {{w|Food and Drug Administration}} approves high-dose inactivated influenza vaccine ({{w|Fluzone}} High-Dose) for people ages 65 years and older.<ref>{{cite web |title=Licensure of a High-Dose Inactivated Influenza Vaccine for Persons Aged ≥65 Years (Fluzone High-Dose) and Guidance for Use --- United States, 2010 |url=https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5916a2.htm |website=cdc.gov |accessdate=3 June 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2009–2010 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2009-2010 influenza season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1)-like virus; and
 +
* an A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2)-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/vaccinerecommendations1/en/index1.html |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Northern hemisphere}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2010 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2010 influenza season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus;
 +
* an A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommendations for Influenza Vaccine Composition |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/vaccinerecommendations1/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Southern hemisphere}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2010 || || Human || Publication || ''Influenza and Public Health: Learning from Past Pandemics'' is published by Tamara Giles-Vernick, Susan Craddock, and Jennifer Lee Gunn. The book explores past influenza pandemics with the purpose to obtain critical insights into possible transmission patterns, experiences, mistakes, and interventions.<ref>{{cite web |title=Influenza and Public Health: Learning from Past Pandemics |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books/about/Influenza_and_Public_Health.html?id=KBoEUws2_y8C&source=kp_book_description&redir_esc=y |website=books.google.com.ar |accessdate=3 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2010 (August 11) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Epidemic || The {{w|World Health Organization}} declares end to 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic.<ref>{{cite web |title=WHO Declares End to 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic |url=https://www.fiercehealthcare.com/healthcare/who-declares-end-to-2009-h1n1-influenza-pandemic |website=fiercehealthcare.com |accessdate=3 June 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2010 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} || || Tool launch || The {{w|Influenza Risk Assessment Tool}} (IRAT) is launched as an evaluation tool developed by the U.S. {{w|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention}} and external influenza experts. IRAT has the purpose to asses the potential pandemic risk posed by influenza A viruses that currently circulate in animals but not in humans. It evaluates risk elements in three domains: virus (e.g. genomic variation), population (e.g. existing population immunity), and ecology (e.g. global geographic distribution).<ref>{{cite web |title=Influenza Risk Assessment Tool (IRAT) |url=https://www.cdc.gov/flu/pandemic-resources/national-strategy/risk-assessment.htm |website=cdc.gov |accessdate=26 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Influenza Risk Assessment Tool |url=http://216.230.117.100/hmd/~/media/Files/Activity%20Files/PublicHealth/MedPrep/KATZ_IRAT.pdf |accessdate=26 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2010–2011 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2010-2011 influenza season (northern hemisphere):
 +
 
 +
* an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus;
 +
* an A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommended viruses for influenza vaccines for use in the 2010-2011 northern hemisphere influenza season |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/virus/2010_11north/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Northern hemisphere}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2011 (March) || || General || Publication || The {{w|World Health Organization}} releases its global standards and tools for influenza surveillance. The report summarizes the discussions and recommendations concluded in a global consultation aimed at reviewing influenza surveillance standards and the current data-sharing and reporting tools.<ref>{{cite web |title=WHO global technical consultation: global standards and tools for influenza surveillance 8–10 March 2011 |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/resources/documents/technical_consultation/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=5 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2011 || {{w|H3N8}} || Non–human || Epizootic || [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H3N8|Influenza A virus subtype H3N8]] causes death of more than 160 baby [[wikipedia:Pinniped|seals]] in [[wikipedia:New England|New England]].<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Karlsson|first1=Erik A.|last2=Hon|first2=S.|last3=Hall|first3=Jeffrey S.|last4=Yoon|first4=Sun Woo|last5=Johnson|first5=Jordan|last6=Beck|first6=Melinda A.|last7=Webby|first7=Richard J.|last8=Schultz-Cherry|first8=Stacey|title=Respiratory transmission of an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from a harbour seal|doi=10.1038/ncomms5791|url=http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms5791|accessdate=1 February 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]]
 +
|-
 +
| 2011 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || General || Recommendation || The Advisers to the WHO Consultation on the Composition of Influenza Vaccines for the Southern Hemisphere 2012, advise [[w:World Health Organization|WHO]] to use the nomenclature: A(H1N1)pdm09 in order to minimize confusion, and to differentiate the virus from the old seasonal A(H1N1) viruses circulating in humans before the pandemic (H1N1) 2009. This standardization would help to minimize potential confusion among the scientific community as well as the general public.<ref>{{cite web |title=Standardization of terminology of the pandemic A(H1N1)2009 virus |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/gisrs_laboratory/terminology_ah1n1pdm09/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
||
 +
|-
 +
| 2011 (July 22) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Non-human ({{w|mink}}) || Infection || The Norwegian Veterinary Institute reports the first occurrence of 2009-H1N1 influenza virus in minks.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Åkerstedt |first1=J. |last2=Valheim |first2=M. |last3=Germundsson |first3=A. |last4=Moldal |first4=T. |last5=Lie |first5=K-I. |last6=Falk |first6=M. |last7=Hungne |first7=O. |title=Pneumonia caused by influenza A H1N1 2009 virus in farmed American mink (Neovison vison) |doi=10.1136/vr.100512 |url=https://veterinaryrecord.bmj.com/content/170/14/362.2 |accessdate=21 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Norway}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2011 (August) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Non-human ({{w|sea otter}}) || {{w|Epizootic}} || According to the {{w|United States Geological Survey}} and the {{w|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention}}, northern sea otters off the coast of {{w|Washington state}} were infected with the same version of the H1N1 flu virus that caused the [[w:2009 swine flu pandemic|2009 pandemic]] and "may be a newly identified animal host of influenza viruses".<ref>{{cite web |title=Sea Otters Can Get the Flu, Too |url=https://www.usgs.gov/news/sea-otters-can-get-flu-too |website=usgs.gov |accessdate=21 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2011 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2011 influenza season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus;
 +
* an A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2011 southern hemisphere influenza season |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/virus/2011south/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Southern hemisphere}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2011–2012 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2011-2012 influenza season (northern hemisphere) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus;
 +
* an A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2011-2012 northern hemisphere influenza season |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/virus/2011_12north/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Northern hemisphere}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2012 || || || Research || A 2012 [[wikipedia:meta-analysis|meta-analysis]] finds that flu shots are efficacious 67 percent of the time.<ref name="Osterholm">{{cite journal|last1=Osterholm|first1=MT|last2=Kelley|first2=NS|last3=Sommer|first3=A|last4=Belongia|first4=EA|title=Efficacy and effectiveness of influenza vaccines: a systematic review and meta-analysis.|journal=The Lancet. Infectious diseases|date=January 2012|volume=12|issue=1|pages=36–44|pmid=22032844|doi=10.1016/s1473-3099(11)70295-x}}</ref>||
 +
|-
 +
| 2012 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H5N1}}) || || Research (virology) || American virologists [[wikipedia:Ron Fouchier|Ron Fouchier]] and [[wikipedia:Yoshihiro Kawaoka|Yoshihiro Kawaoka]] intentionally develop a strain based on [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H5N1|H5N1]] for which no vaccine exists, causing outrage in both the media and scientific community.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/jun/11/crazy-dangerous-creation-deadly-airborne-flu-virus|title= Scientists condemn 'crazy, dangerous' creation of deadly airborne flu virus}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/exclusive-controversial-us-scientist-creates-deadly-new-flu-strain-for-pandemic-research-9577088.html|title=Exclusive: Controversial US scientist creates deadly new flu strain for pandemic research}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://redice.tv/news/u-s-virologists-intentionally-engineer-super-deadly-pandemic-flu-virus|title=U.S. virologists intentionally engineer super-deadly pandemic flu virus}}</ref>|| [[wikipedia:Netherlands|Netherlands]] ([[wikipedia:Erasmus Medical Center|Erasmus Medical Center]]), [[wikipedia:United States|United States]] ([[wikipedia:University of Wisconsin-Madison|University of Wisconsin-Madison]])
 +
|-
 +
| 2012 (July) || || Human || Publication || The {{w|World Health Organization}} publishes its ''WHO Global Epidemiological Surveillance Standards for Influenza''.<ref>{{cite web |title=WHO Global Epidemiological Surveillance Standards for Influenza |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/resources/documents/influenza_surveillance_manual/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=20 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2012 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2012 influenza season (southern hemisphere) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
 +
* an A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2012 southern hemisphere influenza season |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/virus/recommendations/2012south/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
||
 +
|-
 +
| 2012 || || General || Publication || Yoshihiro Kawaoka and Gabriele Neumann publish ''Influenza Virus: Methods and Protocols''. It summarizes techniques ranging from protocols for virus isolation, growth, and subtyping to procedures for the efficient generation of any influenza virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Influenza Virus: Methods and Protocols |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books/about/Influenza_Virus.html?id=lynlygAACAAJ&source=kp_book_description&redir_esc=y |website=books.google.com |accessdate=3 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2012 || || Human || Medical development (vaccine) || United States [[wikipedia:FDA|FDA]] approves first seasonal influenza vaccine manufactured using cell culture technology.<ref>{{cite web|title=FDA approves first seasonal influenza vaccine manufactured using cell culture technology|url=http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm328982.htm|website=fda.gov|accessdate=6 February 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]]
 +
|-
 +
| 2012 || || Human || Publication || Jonathan Van-Tam publishes ''Pandemic Influenza'', which covers the science and operational application of influenza epidemiology, {{w|virology}} and {{w|immunology}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Pandemic Influenza |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books/about/Pandemic_Influenza.html?id=e3cjd9FCfbIC&source=kp_book_description&redir_esc=y |website=books.google.com.ar |accessdate=12 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2012 (November 20) || || Human || Medical development (vaccine) || {{w|Novartis}} receives approval by the U.S. {{w|Food and Drug Administration}} for the first cell-culture influenza vaccine.<ref>{{cite press release|url=https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/novartis-receives-fda-approval-for-flucelvax-the-first-cell-culture-vaccine-in-us-to-help-protect-against-seasonal-influenza-180239401.html|title=Novartis receives FDA approval for Flucelvax, the first cell-culture vaccine in US to help protect against seasonal influenza |publisher=Novartis}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2012 (December 12) || || Human || Vaccine approval || The U.S. {{w|Food and Drug Administration}} approves quadrivalent formulation of Fluarix (inactivated influenza vaccine; GlaxoSmithKline).<ref>{{cite web |title=Quadrivalent flu vaccines coming; companies cite good demand |url=https://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2013/08/quadrivalent-flu-vaccines-coming-companies-cite-good-demand |website=cidrap.umn.edu |accessdate=3 June 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2012–2013 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2012-2013 influenza season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
 +
* an A/Victoria/361/2011 (H3N2)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Wisconsin/1/2010-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2012-2013 northern hemisphere influenza season |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/virus/recommendations/2012_13_north/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Northern hemisphere}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2013 || {{w|H7N9}} || Human, avian || Epidemic || Avian [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H7N9|Influenza A virus subtype H7N9]] strain, a low pathogenic AI virus, breaks out in China. As of April 11, 2014, the outbreak's overall reaches 419 people, including 7 in Hong Kong, with the unofficial death toll at 127.<ref>{{cite web|title=Avian and other zoonotic influenza|url=http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/avian_influenza/en/|publisher=[[wikipedia:WHO|WHO]]|accessdate=29 January 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2014/03/study-says-vietnam-h7n9-risk-two-new-cases-noted|title=Study says Vietnam at H7N9 risk as two new cases noted|website=umn.edu|accessdate=29 January 2017}}</ref>|| [[wikipedia:China|China]], [[wikipedia:Vietnam|Vietnam]]
 +
|-
 +
| 2013 (June 7) || || Human || Vaccine approval || The U.S. {{w|Food and Drug Administration}} approves {{w|Fluzone}} ({{w|Sanofi Pasteur}}) as the third quadrivalent influenza vaccine licensed for U.S. use.<ref>{{cite web |title=MEMORANDUM |url=https://www.fda.gov/media/97324/download |website=fda.gov |accessdate=3 June 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2013 (June 20) || || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices}} (ACIP) votes to recommend FluBlok influenza vaccine for people age 18 through 49 with egg allergy.<ref>{{cite web |first1= |title=CDC advisory committee recommends an influenza vaccine option for persons with egg allergy |url=https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2013/a0620-FluBlok.html |website=cdc.gov |accessdate=5 June 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2013 (August 16) || || Human || Vaccine approval || The U.S. {{w|Food and Drug Administration}} extends FluLaval IIV ({{w|GlaxoSmithKline}}) age range to include children and teens age 3–17 years; licenses quadrivalent FluLaval product.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Haber |first1=P |last2=Moro |first2=PL |last3=Lewis |first3=P |last4=Woo |first4=EJ |last5=Jankosky |first5=C |last6=Cano |first6=M |title=Post-licensure surveillance of quadrivalent inactivated influenza (IIV4) vaccine in the United States, Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), July 1, 2013-May 31, 2015. |url=http://europepmc.org/article/PMC/4916262 |doi=10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.03.048 |pmid=27015735 |accessdate=5 June 2020 |pmc=4916262}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2013 || || Non-human ({{w|domestic duck}}) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ([[Influenza A virus subtype H11N9|H11N9]] || H11N9 was isolated from a domestic duck in live-poultry markets in Eastern China.<ref name="Peng  vv">{{cite journal |last1=Wu |first1=H |last2=Peng |first2=X |last3=Peng |first3=X |last4=Wu |first4=N |s2cid=16942434 |title=Molecular characterization of a reassortant H11N9 subtype avian influenza virus isolated from a domestic duck in Eastern China. |journal=Archives of Virology |year=2015 |volume=160 |issue=10 |pages=2595–2601 |doi=10.1007/s00705-015-2528-6 |pmid=26212362 }}</ref> || {{w|China}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2013 || || Human || Vaccine approval || The U.S. {{w|Food and Drug Administration}} approves influenza vaccine ''Flublok'' ([[wikipedia:Protein Sciences|Protein Sciences]]), developed through recombinant DNA technology.<ref>{{cite web|title=FDA Approves Flublok Quadrivalent Flu Vaccine|url=http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/870201|website=medscape.com|accessdate=31 May 2018}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2013 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Publication || ''Radiology of Influenza A (H1N1)'' is published by Hongjun Li, presenting the theory of influenza and its imaging characteristics.<ref>{{cite web |title=Radiology of Influenza: A Practical Approach |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books/about/Radiology_of_Influenza.html?id=AhpADQAAQBAJ&source=kp_book_description&redir_esc=y |website=books.google.com.ar |accessdate=3 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2013 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2013 influenza season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
 +
* an A/Victoria/361/2011 (H3N2)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Wisconsin/1/2010-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2013 southern hemisphere influenza season |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/virus/recommendations/2013_south/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Southern hemisphere}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2013 || || Human || Medical development (vaccine) || United States [[wikipedia:FDA|FDA]] approves influenza vaccine ''Flublok'' ([[wikipedia:Protein Sciences|Protein Sciences]]), developed through recombinant DNA technology.<ref>{{cite web|title=FDA Approves Flublok Quadrivalent Flu Vaccine|url=http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/870201|website=medscape.com|accessdate=30 January 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]]
 +
|-
 +
| 2013 || [[w:Influenza A virus subtype H10N8|H10N8]] || Human, avian || Infection || Avian [[wikipedia:Influenza A virus subtype H10N8|Influenza A virus subtype H10N8]] strain in reported to infect humans for the first time and kills one person.<ref>{{cite web|title=Avian influenza A (H10N8)|url=http://www.wpro.who.int/china/mediacentre/factsheets/h10n8/en/|publisher=[[wikipedia:WHO|WHO]]|accessdate=1 February 2017}}</ref><ref name="Avian flu: a history" /> || [[wikipedia:China|China]]
 +
|-
 +
| 2013–2014 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2013-14 influenza season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
 +
* an A(H3N2) virus antigenically like the cell-propagated prototype virus A/Victoria/361/2011; and
 +
* a B/Massachusetts/2/2012-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2013-14 northern hemisphere influenza season |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/virus/recommendations/2013_14_north/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Northern hemisphere}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2014 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2014 influenza season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
 +
* an A/Texas/50/2012 (H3N2)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Massachusetts/2/2012-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2014 southern hemisphere influenza season |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/virus/recommendations/2014_south/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Southern hemisphere}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2014 || || Human || Vaccine cost || The wholesale price per dose of {{w|influenza vaccine}} in the {{w|developing world}} is about US$5.25 as of year.<ref>{{cite web|title=Vaccine, influenza|date=2014|publisher=International Drug Price Indicator Guide|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181225001353/http://mshpriceguide.org/en/single-drug-information/?DMFId=792&search|year=2014}}</ref> || {{w|Developing world}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2014 (December 11) || || Human || Vaccine approval || The U.S. {{w|Food and Drug Administration}} approves quadrivalent formulation of Fluzone Intradermal inactivated influenza vaccine.<ref>{{cite web |title=Prevention and Control of Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, United States, 2015–16 Influenza Season |url=https://www.aafp.org/dam/AAFP/documents/patient_care/influenza/influenza-policy.pdf |website=aafp.org |accessdate=2 June 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2014 (December 19) || || Human || Vaccine approval || The U.S. {{w|Food and Drug Administration}} approves Rapivab to treat influenza infection.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Kliegman |first1=Robert M. |last2=Stanton |first2=Bonita M.D. |last3=Geme |first3=Joseph St. |last4=Schor |first4=Nina F |title=Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics E-Book |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=P9piCAAAQBAJ&pg=PA1602&lpg=PA1602&dq=December+19,+2014+FDA+approved+Rapivab+to+treat+influenza+infection&source=bl&ots=2fmyn4yp5E&sig=ACfU3U2XcEdP40sVfsPf_LDVPci9JOXl_A&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwituZmeleTpAhUGIbkGHR4TB9AQ6AEwA3oECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=December%2019%2C%202014%20FDA%20approved%20Rapivab%20to%20treat%20influenza%20infection&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2014–2015 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2014-2015 influenza season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
 +
* an A/Texas/50/2012 (H3N2)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Massachusetts/2/2012-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2014-2015 northern hemisphere influenza season |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/virus/recommendations/2014_15_north/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Northern hemisphere}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2015 || || Human || Program || [[wikipedia:Google Flu Trends|Google Flu Trends]] shuts down in August 2015 after successive inaccuracies in the big data analysis.<ref>{{cite web|title=Real-time influenza tracking with 'big data'|url=https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-05/bch-rit050916.php|website=eurekalert.org|accessdate=6 February 2017}}</ref>  After performing well for two to three years since the service launch in 2008, GFT would start to fail significantly and require substantial revision.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Lazer|first1=David|last2=Kennedy|first2=Ryan|title=What We Can Learn From the Epic Failure of Google Flu Trends|url=https://www.wired.com/2015/10/can-learn-epic-failure-google-flu-trends/|website=wired.com|publisher=Science|accessdate=6 February 2017}}</ref> However, Google Flu Trends would also inspire several other similar projects that use social media data to predict disease trends.<ref>{{cite web|title=Google Flu Trends|url=http://datacollaboratives.org/cases/google-flu-trends.html|website=datacollaboratives.org|accessdate=2 February 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]]
 +
|-
 +
| 2015 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2015 influenza season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
 +
* an A/Switzerland/9715293/2013 (H3N2)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2015 southern hemisphere influenza season |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/virus/recommendations/2015_south/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Southern hemisphere}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2015 (July 12) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H5N6}}) || Human || Infection || As of date, four known cases of {{w|influenza A virus subtype H5N6}} infection, three fatal, have occurred in humans.<ref>[http://www.china.org.cn/china/Off_the_Wire/2014-12/23/content_34393283.htm Human H5N6 avian flu case reported in south China ]</ref><ref>{{Cite web | url=http://www.wpro.who.int/china/mediacentre/releases/2014/20140507/en/ | title=WPRO &#124; WHO China statement on H5N6}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web | url=http://www.shanghaidaily.com/article/article_xinhua.aspx?id=292147 | title=Chinese woman dies in new H5N6 case &#124; Shanghai Daily}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web | url=http://outbreaknewstoday.com/china-reports-fatal-human-h5n6-avian-influenza-case-in-yunnan-29608/ | title=China reports fatal human H5N6 avian influenza case in Yunnan| date=2015-07-12}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2015 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Epidemic || The {{w|2015 Indian swine flu outbreak}} causes nearly 30,000 laboratory confirmed cases with more than 1700 deaths by March 15. Most of these cases are reported from the states of {{w|Rajasthan}}, {{w|Gujarat}}, {{w|Delhi}}, {{w|Jammu}} and {{w|Kashmir}}, {{w|Maharashtra}}, {{w|Madhya Pradesh}}, {{w|Telangana}}, {{w|Karnataka}} and {{w|Tamil Nadu}}.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Murhekar |first1=Manoj |last2=Mehendale |first2=Sanjay |title=The 2015 influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 outbreak in India |doi=10.4103/0971-5916.192077 |pmid=27748308 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5094123/ |pmc=5094123}}</ref> || {{w|India}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2015 (November 24) || || Human || Vaccine approval || The U.S. {{w|Food and Drug Administration}} approves new injectable influenza vaccine, Fluad, for use in people age 65 years and older.<ref>{{cite web |title=FDA Approves First Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Containing an Adjuvant |url=https://community.aafa.org/blog/fda-approves-first-seasonal-influenza-vaccine-containing-an-adjuvant |website=community.aafa.org |accessdate=2 June 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2015–2016 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2015-2016 influenza season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
 +
* an A/Switzerland/9715293/2013 (H3N2)-like virus;
 +
* a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2015-2016 northern hemisphere influenza season |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/virus/recommendations/2015_16_north/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Northern hemisphere}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2016 (May) || || Human || Tool launch || The {{w|Tool for Influenza Pandemic Risk Assessment}} (TIPRA) is developed by the {{w|World Health Organization}} to provide a standardized and transparent approach to support the risk assessment of influenza viruses with pandemic potential. TIPRA supports hazard assessment by asking a risk question about the pandemic likelihood and impact of an influenza virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Tool for Influenza Pandemic Risk Assessment (TIPRA) |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/publications/TIPRA_manual_v1/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2016 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2016 influenza season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
 +
* an A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus;
 +
* a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2016 southern hemisphere influenza season |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/virus/recommendations/2016_south/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Southern hemisphere}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2016 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Non-human (porcine) || Research (virology) || A report by researchers at the [[w:Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai|Mount Sinai School of Medicine]] finds that the 2009 H1N1 virus likely originated from pigs in a very small region of central Mexico.<ref name="swine flu originated in Mexico">{{cite web|url=https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/06/160627160935.htm|title=2009 swine flu pandemic originated in Mexico, researchers discover|author=|publisher=Science Daily|date=27 June 2016|accessdate=21 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Mexico}}, {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2016 || || Human || Medical development (vaccine) || Vaxigrip Tetra is approved in Europe except for infants younger than three years old.<ref>{{cite web |title=Vaxigrip Tetra |url=https://www.news-medical.net/drugs/Vaxigrip-Tetra.aspx |website=news-medical.net |accessdate=22 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Europe}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2016 (November 18) || || Human || Vaccine approval || The U.S. {{w|Food and Drug Administration}} approves extending the age range for use of FluLaval Quadrivalent to include children 6 to 35 months of age.<ref>{{cite web |title=GSK receives FDA approval for expanded indication for FluLaval® Quadrivalent (Influenza Vaccine) for infants 6 months and older |url=https://www.gsk.com/en-gb/media/press-releases/gsk-receives-fda-approval-for-expanded-indication-for-flulaval-quadrivalent-influenza-vaccine-for-infants-6-months-and-older/ |website=gsk.com |accessdate=2 June 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2016 (November–December) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H5N6}}) || Human || Infection || Human cases of {{w|H5N6}} are reported in China.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.who.int/csr/don/07-december-2016-ah5n6-china/en/|title=Human infections with avian influenza A(H5N6) virus – China|website=World Health Organization|language=en-GB|access-date=21 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|China}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2016–2017 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2016-2017 influenza season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
 +
* an A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus;
 +
* a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2016-2017 northern hemisphere influenza season |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/virus/recommendations/2016_17_north/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Northern hemisphere}} 
 +
|-
 +
| 2017 || || Human || Medical development || Researchers from the [[wikipedia:University of Texas at Arlington|University of Texas at Arlington]] build influenza detector that can diagnose at a breath, without the intervention of a doctor.<ref>{{cite web|title=Researchers build flu detector that can diagnose at a breath, no doctor required|url=http://www.digitaltrends.com/cool-tech/flu-breathalyzer/|website=digitaltrends.com|accessdate=6 February 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]]
 +
|-
 +
| 2017 || [[w:Influenza A virus subtype H5N6|H5N6]] || Avian || {{w|Epizootic}} || {{w|2017 Central Luzon H5N6 outbreak}}<ref>{{cite web |title=Avian flu here; DA clears out 12,000 quails in Nueva Ecija farm |url=https://businessmirror.com.ph/2020/03/17/avian-flu-here-da-clears-out-12k-quail-farm/ |website=businessmirror.com.ph |accessdate=18 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Philippines}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2017 || || Human || Research || Researchers from the [[wikipedia:University of Helsinki|University of Helsinki]] demonstrate that three anti-influenza compounds effectively inhibit [[wikipedia:zika virus|zika virus]] infection in human cells.<ref>{{cite web|title=Certain anti-influenza compounds also inhibit Zika virus infection, researchers find|url=https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/01/170116091437.htm|website=sciencedaily.com|accessdate=6 February 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Finland|Finland]]
 +
|-
 +
| 2017 || || Human || Publication || Mieczyslaw Pokorski publishes ''Influenza and Respiratory Care''.<ref>{{cite web |title=Influenza and Respiratory Care |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books/about/Influenza_and_Respiratory_Care.html?id=YyYmDwAAQBAJ&source=kp_book_description&redir_esc=y |website=books.google.com |accessdate=3 May 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2017 (August 25) || {{w|Influenza}} || Human || Recommendation || The U.S. {{w|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention}} publishes [[w:Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices|ACIP]] 2017–18 influenza vaccination recommendations.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Grohskopf |first1=Lisa A. |last2=Sokolow |first2=Leslie Z. |last3=Broder |first3=Karen R. |last4=Walter |first4=Emmanuel B. |last5=Bresee |first5=Joseph S. |last6=Fry |first6=Alicia M. |last7=Jernigan |first7=Daniel B. |title=Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices — United States, 2017–18 Influenza Season |url=https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/66/rr/rr6602a1.htm |website=cdc.gov |accessdate=2 June 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2017 (August 31) || || Human || Vaccine approval || The U.S. {{w|Food and Drug Administration}} expands licensure of Afluria quadrivalent (Seqirus) to include people age 5 years and older.<ref>{{cite web |title=BLA Clinical Review Memorandum |url=https://www.fda.gov/media/107499/download |website=fda.gov |accessdate=2 June 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2017–2018 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Epidemic || {{w|Pakistan}} reports {{w|H1N1}} cases mostly arising from the city of {{w|Multan}}, with deaths resulting from the epidemic reaching 42.<ref>{{Cite news |url=https://nation.com.pk/24-Jan-2018/toll-rises-to-42-as-3-more-succumb-to-swine-flu |title=Toll rises to 42 as 3 more succumb to swine flu |date=24 January 2018 |work=[[w:The Nation (Pakistan)|The Nation]] |access-date=25 January 2018 |language=en-US}}</ref> || {{w|Pakistan}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2017–2018 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2017-2018 northern hemisphere influenza season containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
 +
* an A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus;
 +
* a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2017-2018 northern hemisphere influenza season |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/virus/recommendations/2017_18_north/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Northern hemisphere}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2018 (January 11) || || Human || Vaccine approval || The U.S. {{w|Food and Drug Administration}} approves expanded pediatric age indication for Fluarix Quadrivalent influenza vaccine."<ref>{{cite web |title=Summary Basis of Regulatory Action |url=https://www.fda.gov/media/110206/download |website=fda.gov |accessdate=2 June 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2018 (February) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}}, {{w|influenzavirus B}} || Human || Medical development || Antiviral medication {{w|Xofluza}} ({{w|baloxavir marboxil}}) is approved for sale in {{w|Japan}}.<ref>{{cite press release|url=http://www.publicnow.com/view/7E9FBF87835EEBAC31508CC4E1F96D3D77D54C0A|title=Xofluza (Baloxavir Marboxil) Tablets 10mg/20mg Approved For The Treatment Of Influenza Types A And B In Japan|date=23 February 2018|via=publicnow.com|publisher=[[w:Shionogi|Shionogi & Co., Ltd.]]}}</ref> || {{w|Japan}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2018 (June 8) || || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The U.S. {{w|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention}} publishes [[w:Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices|ACIP]]'s recommendations for the use of quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) in the 2018–19 influenza season."<ref>{{cite web |last1=Grohskopf |first1=Lisa A. |last2=Sokolow |first2=Leslie Z. |last3=Fry |first3=Alicia M. |last4=Walter |first4=Emmanuel B. |last5=Jernigan |first5=Daniel B. |title=Update: ACIP Recommendations for the Use of Quadrivalent Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (LAIV4) — United States, 2018–19 Influenza Season |url=https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6722a5.htm |website=cdc.gov |accessdate=1 June 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2018 (August 24) || || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The U.S. {{w|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention}} publishes [[w:Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices|ACIP]]'s 2018–19 influenza vaccination recommendations.<ref>{{cite web |title=ACIP Influenza Vaccine Recommendations |url=https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/acip-recs/vacc-specific/flu.html |website=cdc.gov |accessdate=1 June 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2018 (October) || || Human || Vaccine approval || The U.S. {{w|Food and Drug Administration}} approves expanded age indication for Seqirus’s Afluria influenza vaccine to include children age 6 months through 59 months.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Grohskopf |first1=Lisa A. |last2=Alyanak |first2=Elif |last3=Broder |first3=Karen R. |last4=Walter |first4=Emmanuel B. |last5=Fry |first5=Alicia M. |last6=Jernigan |first6=Daniel B. |title=Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices — United States, 2019–20 Influenza Season |url=https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/rr/rr6803a1.htm |website=cdc.gov |accessdate=1 June 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2018 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2018 southern hemisphere influenza season containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
 +
* an A/Singapore/INFIMH-16-0019/2016 (H3N2)-like virus;
 +
* a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2018 southern hemisphere influenza season |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/virus/recommendations/2018_south/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=18 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Southern hemisphere}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2019 (January) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Epidemic || An outbreak of H1N1 is recorded in Morocco, with nine confirmed fatalities.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://english.alarabiya.net/en/News/north-africa/2019/02/02/Swine-flu-outbreak-kills-9-in-Morocco.html |title=Swine flu outbreak kills 9 in Morocco |agency=[[w:Agence France-Presse|AFP]] |date=2 February 2019 |website={{w|Al Arabiya}} |access-date=21 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Morocco}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2019 (January 23) || || Human || Vaccine approval || The U.S. {{w|Food and Drug Administration}} approves use of the 0.5 mL dose of Sanofi's Fluzone Quadrivalent influenza vaccine to include children age 6 through 35 months.<ref>{{cite web |title=FDA approves use of 0.5 mL dose of Fluzone® Quadrivalent (influenza vaccine) in children as young as 6 months of age |url=http://www.news.sanofi.us/2019-01-23-FDA-approves-use-of-0-5-mL-dose-of-Fluzone-R-Quadrivalent-influenza-vaccine-in-children-as-young-as-6-months-of-age |website=news.sanofi.us |accessdate=1 June 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2019 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2019 southern hemisphere influenza season containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
 +
* an A/Switzerland/8060/2017 (H3N2)-like virus;
 +
* a B/Colorado/06/2017-like virus (B/Victoria/2/87 lineage); 
 +
* a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus (B/Yamagata/16/88 lineage).
 +
 
 +
The {{w|World Health Organization}} also recommends that egg based trivalent vaccines for use in the 2019 southern hemisphere influenza season contain the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
 +
* an A/Switzerland/8060/2017 (H3N2)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Colorado/06/2017-like virus (B/Victoria/2/87 lineage).
 +
 
 +
It is recommended that the A(H3N2) component of non-egg based vaccines for use in the 2019 southern hemisphere influenza season be:
 +
* A/Singapore/INFIMH-16-0019/2016-like virus together with the other vaccine components as indicated above.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2019 southern hemisphere influenza season |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/virus/recommendations/2019_south/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
||
 +
|-
 +
| 2019 (August 28) || || || Vaccine recommendation || The U.S. {{w|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention}} releases ACIP recommendations on the use of influenza vaccines for the 2019–20 influenza season.<ref>{{cite web |title=Influenza ACIP Vaccine Recommendations |url=https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/acip-recs/vacc-specific/flu.html |website=cdc.gov |accessdate=1 June 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2019 (November 4) || || || Vaccine approval || The U.S. {{w|Food and Drug Administration}} approves Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent ({{w|Sanofi Pasteur}}) for adults 65+ years of age—will be available for 2020–21 flu season.<ref>{{cite web |title=FDA approves Fluzone® High-Dose Quadrivalent (Influenza Vaccine) for adults 65 years of age and older |url=http://www.news.sanofi.us/2019-11-04-FDA-approves-Fluzone-R-High-Dose-Quadrivalent-Influenza-Vaccine-for-adults-65-years-of-age-and-older |website=news.sanofi.us |accessdate=1 June 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2019 (November) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Epidemic || An outbreak of H1N1 is recorded in {{w|Iran}}, with 56 fatalities and 4,000 people hospitalized.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.yjc.ir/fa/news/7155842/%D8%A2%D9%86%D9%81%D9%88%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%B2%D8%A7-%D9%88-%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%87%E2%80%8C%D9%87%D8%A7%DB%8C-%D8%AF%D8%B1%D9%85%D8%A7%D9%86-%D8%A2%D9%86-%D8%B1%D8%A7-%D8%A8%D8%B4%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%B3%DB%8C%D8%AF|title=آنفولانزا و راههای درمان آن را بشناسید|trans-title=Learn about the flu and how to treat it |language=fa |website=yjc.ir|access-date=21 May 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Iran}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2019–2020 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2019-2020 northern hemisphere influenza season containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/Brisbane/02/2018 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
 +
* an A/Kansas/14/2017 (H3N2)-like virus;
 +
* a B/Colorado/06/2017-like virus (B/Victoria/2/87 lineage); and
 +
* a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus (B/Yamagata/16/88 lineage).<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2019-2020 northern hemisphere influenza season |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/virus/recommendations/2019_20_north/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Northern hemisphere}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2020 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2020 southern hemisphere influenza season containing the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/Brisbane/02/2018 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
 +
* an A/South Australia/34/2019 (H3N2)-like virus;
 +
* a B/Washington/02/2019-like (B/Victoria lineage) virus;
 +
* a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like (B/Yamagata lineage) virus.
 +
 
 +
{{w|WHO}} also recommends that trivalent influenza vaccines for use in the 2020 southern hemisphere influenza season contain the following:
 +
 
 +
* an A/Brisbane/02/2018 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
 +
* an A/South Australia/34/2019 (H3N2)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Washington/02/2019-like (B/Victoria lineage) virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2020 southern hemisphere influenza season |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/virus/recommendations/2020_south/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Southern hemisphere}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2020 (January) || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H5N1}}) || Human || Medical development (vaccine) || The U.S. {{w|Food and Drug Administration}} approves {{w|Audenz}}, an adjuvanted influenza A (H5N1) monovalent vaccine.<ref name="FDA Audenz" /><ref>{{cite web | last=Keown | first=Alex | title=FDA Approves Seqirus' Audenz as Vaccine Against Potential Flu Pandemic | website=BioSpace | date=4 February 2020 | url=https://www.biospace.com/article/seqirus-wins-fda-approval-of-vaccine-for-potential-flu-pandemic/ | access-date=5 February 2020}}</ref> Audenz is a vaccine indicated for active immunization for the prevention of disease caused by the influenza A virus H5N1 subtype contained in the vaccine. Audenz is approved for use in persons six months of age and older at increased risk of exposure to the influenza A virus H5N1 subtype contained in the vaccine.<ref name="FDA Audenz">{{cite web | title=Audenz | website=U.S. {{w|Food and Drug Administration}} (FDA) | date=31 January 2020 | url=https://www.fda.gov/vaccines-blood-biologics/audenz | access-date=21 May 2020|id=STN: 125692}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2020 (February 21) || || Human || Vaccine approval || The U.S. {{w|Food and Drug Administration}} approves the first adjuvanted quadrivalent flu shot for seniors.<ref>{{cite web |title=FDA Approves 1st Adjuvanted Quadrivalent Flu Shot For Seniors |url=https://www.precisionvaccinations.com/fluad%C2%A0quadrivalent%C2%A0vaccine-helps-protect-adults-65-years-and-older-against-seasonal-influenza |website=precisionvaccinations.com |accessdate=1 June 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2020–2021 || {{w|Influenzavirus A}} ({{w|H3N2}}, {{w|H1N1}}) || Human || Vaccine recommendation || The {{w|World Health Organization}} recommends vaccines to be used in the 2020 - 2021 northern hemisphere influenza season containing the following:
 +
 
 +
Egg-based Vaccines:
 +
 
 +
* an A/Guangdong-Maonan/SWL1536/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
 +
* an A/Hong Kong/2671/2019 (H3N2)-like virus;
 +
* a B/Washington/02/2019 (B/Victoria lineage)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Phuket/3073/2013 (B/Yamagata lineage)-like virus.
 +
 
 +
Cell- or recombinant-based Vaccines:
 +
 
 +
* an A/Hawaii/70/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
 +
* an A/Hong Kong/45/2019 (H3N2)-like virus;
 +
* a B/Washington/02/2019 (B/Victoria lineage)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Phuket/3073/2013 (B/Yamagata lineage)-like virus.
 +
 
 +
It is recommended that trivalent influenza vaccines for use in the 2020 - 2021 northern hemisphere influenza season contain the following:
 +
 
 +
Egg-based Vaccines
 +
 
 +
* an A/Guangdong-Maonan/SWL1536/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
 +
* an A/Hong Kong/2671/2019 (H3N2)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Washington/02/2019 (B/Victoria lineage)-like virus.
 +
Cell- or recombinant-based Vaccines
 +
 
 +
* an A/Hawaii/70/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
 +
* an A/Hong Kong/45/2019 (H3N2)-like virus; and
 +
* a B/Washington/02/2019 (B/Victoria lineage)-like virus.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2020 - 2021 northern hemisphere influenza season |url=https://www.who.int/influenza/vaccines/virus/recommendations/2020-21_north/en/ |website=who.int |accessdate=4 May 2020}}</ref>
 +
|| {{w|Northern hemisphere}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
 
  
 
==Meta information on the timeline==
 
==Meta information on the timeline==
Line 176: Line 771:
 
===How the timeline was built===
 
===How the timeline was built===
  
The initial version of the timeline was written by [[User:FIXME|FIXME]].
+
The initial version of the timeline was written by [[User:Sebastian]].
  
 
{{funding info}} is available.
 
{{funding info}} is available.
Line 187: Line 782:
  
 
===What the timeline is still missing===
 
===What the timeline is still missing===
 
+
* {{w|Influenza vaccine}}
 
* {{w|Influenza treatment}}
 
* [https://www.who.int/immunization/diseases/influenza/en/]
 
* [https://www.who.int/influenza_vaccines_plan/en/]
 
* [https://www.who.int/vaccine_safety/initiative/en/]
 
 
 
 
===Timeline update strategy===
 
===Timeline update strategy===
  

Latest revision as of 20:56, 30 June 2020

The content on this page is forked from the English Wikipedia page entitled "Timeline of influenza". The original page still exists at Timeline of influenza. The original content was released under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License (CC-BY-SA), so this page inherits this license.

This is a timeline of influenza, briefly describing major events such as outbreaks, epidemics, pandemics, discoveries and developments of vaccines. In addition to specific year/period-related events, there's the seasonal flu that kills between 250,000 and 500,000 people every year, and has claimed between 340 million and 1 billion human lives throughout history.[1][2]

Sample questions

The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:

  • What are some notable outbreaks of influenza recorded throughout history?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Epidemic".
    • You will see oubreaks notable by their magnitude, like big epidemics and pandemics, or by the novelty of the influenza virus strain.
  • What are some notable outbreaks affecting non-human animals?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Epizootic".
  • What are some events describing notable infections on individuals (both human and non-human) that do not develop into epidemics or epizootics?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Infection".
    • You will mainly see the emergence of a specific strain detected in individuals.
  • What are some significant events describing research on influenza in the different fields of science?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Research".
    • For research in virology, look for the group of rows with value "Research (virology)". The same can be applied for research in epidemiology and other fields, clarified between parentheses.
  • What are some significant events describing the medical development progress on treating and preventing influenza?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Medical development".
    • For specific development of vaccines, look for the group of rows with value "Medical development (vaccine)".
  • What are the several influenza vaccine recommendations issued by important organizations?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Vaccine recommendation".
    • You will see a number of recommendations, like those by WHO for both Northern and Southern hemispheres starting from 1998.
  • What are some notable publications authored by experts and/or organizations concerning influenza?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Publication".
    • You will see publications about influenza in different fields, including virology and epidemiology, as well as numerous guidelines produced by the World Health Organization.

Big Picture

Year/period Key developments Details
400 BCE onward Post first description era This period marks the existence of influenza as a disease since its first description by Greek physician Hippocrates.
1510 onward Post first pandemic description era This period begins with the first recognition of pandemic influenza, giving birth to a five centuries period of documented influenza pandemics.
1930s onward Modern medical development era Period marking an accelerating time of scientific and medical development including the discovery of the influenza virus in both non-humans (1931) and humans (1933), as well as the first influenza vaccine (1936). After the end of World War II, international health organizations merge, and large scale vaccination campaigns begin.[3]
21th century Present time Today, worldwide accessible databases multiply in order to control outbreaks and prevent pandemics. New influenza strain outbreaks still occur. Efficacy of currently available vaccines is still insufficient to diminish the current annual health burden induced by the virus.[3]

Visual data

Reported cases of influenza in American countries for the period 1949-1958, illustrating the severity of influenza A virus subtype H2N2 pandemic in 1957. Chile (not shown in the graph) was severely hit and reported 1,408,430 cases in 1957.[4]

Google Trends

The image below shows Google Trends data from 2004 (the start of data availability) to June 2020 (when the screenshot was taken). See local maximums indicating interest peaking in April 2009 (Swine flu pandemic), and March 2020 (COVID-19 pandemic).[5]

Influenza Google Trends.png

Full timeline

Year/period Strain Species Type of event Event Geographical location
400 BCE Medical development The symptoms of human influenza are described by Hippocrates.[6][7]
1173 Epidemic The first epidemic where symptoms are probably influenza, is reported.[8]
1357 Human Medical development The term influenza is first used to describe a disease prevailing in 1357. It would be applied again to the epidemic in 1386−1387.[9] Italy
1386–1387 Human Epidemic Influenza-like illness epidemic develops in Europe, preferentially killing elderly and debilitating persons. This is probably the first documentation of a key epidemiological feature of both pandemic and seasonal influenza.[9] Europe
1411 Human Epidemic Epidemic of coughing disease associated with spontaneous abortions is noted in Paris.[9] France
1510 Human Epidemic Influenza pandemic invades Europe from Africa in the summer of 1510 and proceedes northward to involve all of Europe and then the Baltic States. Attack rates are extremely high, but fatality is low and said to be restricted to young children.[9] This is the first recognition of pandemic influenza.[10] Africa, Europe
1557–1558 Human Epidemic The first influenza pandemic in which global involvement and westward spread from Asia to Europe is documented. Unlike the previous pandemic from 1510, this one is highly fatal, with deaths recorded as being due to "pleurisy and fatal peripneumony". High mortality in pregnant women is also recorded.[9] Eurasia
1580 Human Epidemic Influenza pandemic originates in Asia during the summer, spreading to Africa, and then to Europe along two corridors from Asia Minor and North-West Africa. Illness rates are high. 8000 deaths are reported in Rome, and some Spanish cities are decimated.[8][9] Eurasia, Africa
1729 Human Epidemic Influenza pandemic originates in Russia, spreading westwards in expanding waves to embrace all Europe within six months. High death rates are reported.[11][8][9] Eurasia
1761–1762 Human Epidemic Influenza pandemic originates. Remarkably it is estimated to have begun in the Americas in the spring of 1761 and to have spread from there to Europe and around the globe in 1762. It is the first pandemic to be studied by multiple observers who communicate with each other in learned societies and through medical journals and books. Influenza is characterized clinically to a greater degree than it has been previously, as physicians carefully record observations on series of patients and attempt to understand what would later be called the pathophysiology of the disease.[9] Americas, Europe
1780–1782 Human Epidemic Influenza pandemic originates in Southeast Asia and spreads to Russia and eastward into Europe. It is remarkable for extremely high attack rates but negligible mortality. It appears that in this pandemic the concept of influenza as a distinct entity with characteristic epidemiological features is first appreciated.[9] Eurasia
1830–1833 Human Epidemic Influenza pandemic breaks out in the winter of 1830 in China, further spreading southwards by sea to reach the Philippines, India and Indonesia, and across Russia into Europe. By 1831, the epidemic reaches the Americas. Overall the attack rate is estimated at 20–25% of the population, but the mortality rate is not exceptionally high.[8] Eurasia, Americas
1878 Non-human (Avian) Research Avian influenza is recorded for the first time. Originally known as Fowl Plague.[12] Italy
1889–1892 H3N8?[13] H2N2?[14][15] Human Epidemic 1889–90 flu pandemic. Dubbed the "Russian pandemic". Attack rates are reported in 408 geographic entities from 14 European countries and in the United States. Rapidly spreading, the pandemic would take only 4 months to circumnavigate the planet, reaching the United States 70 days after the original outbreak in Saint Petersburg.[16] Following this pandemic, interest is renewed in examining the recurrence patterns of influenza.[9] Eurasia, Americas
1901 Non-human (Avian) Research The causative organism of avian influenza is discovered to be a virus.[17]
1918-1920 Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Human Epidemic The Spanish flu (H1N1) pandemic is considered one of the deadliest natural disasters ever, infecting an estimated 500 million people across the globe and claiming between 50 and 100 million lives. This pandemic would be described as "the greatest medical holocaust in history" and is estimated to have killed in a single year more people than the Black Death bubonic plague killed in four years from 1347 to 1351.[18][19] Worldwide; originated in France (disputed)
1931 Non-human (porcine) Research The real cause of the flu, the Influenza Virus, is discovered by American virologist Richard Shope[20], who finds the etiological cause of influenza in pigs.[21] United States
1933 Human Research British researchers Wilson Smith, Christopher Andrews, and Patrick Laidlaw are the first to identify the human flu virus by experimenting with ferrets.[22][23][24] United Kingdom
1936 Human Medical development (vaccine) Soviet scientist A. Smorodintseff conducts the first attempt of a vaccination with a live influenza vaccine that has been passed about 30-times in eggs. Smorodintseff would later report that the modified virus causes only a barely perceptible, slight fever and that subjects are protected against reinfection.[25][26] Russia
1942 Influenzavirus B Human Medical development (vaccine) Bivalent vaccine is produced after the discovery of influenza B.[24]
1945 Human Medical development (vaccine) The first license to produce an influenza vaccine for civilian use is granted in the United States.[27] United States
1946 Organization The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is established by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in order to protect public health and safety through the control and prevention of diseases. The CDC would launch campaigns targeting the transmission of influenza.[28][29] United States (Atlanta)
1947 Organization The World Medical Association (WMA) is formed as an international confederation of free professional medical associations. Like CDC, the WMA would launch Influenza Immunization Campaigns.[30] France (serves worldwide)
1948 Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is established.[31]
1952 Organization (Research institute) The Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS) is established by the WHO with the purpose of conducting global influenza virological surveillance. GISRS monitors the evolution of influenza viruses and provides recommendations in areas including laboratory diagnostics, vaccines, antiviral susceptibility and risk assessment. It also serves as a global alert mechanism for the emergence of influenza viruses with pandemic potential.[32]
1956 Non-human (equine) Research Viruses that cause equine influenza are first isolated.[33]
1957 H2N2 Human Epidemic New, virulent influenza A virus subtype H2N2 breaks out in Guizhou (China). It would turn into pandemic (category 2) and kill 1 to 4 million people.[34] It is considered the second major influenza pandemic to occur in the 20th century, after the Spanish flu.[35][9] China
1959 H5N1 Non–human (avian) Epizootic Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 breaks out in Scotland and affects domestic chicken.[36] United Kingdom
1961 H5N1 Non–human (avian) Epizootic Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 strain is found in birds in South Africa.[37][38] South Africa
1963 H7N3 Non–human (avian) Epizootic Influenza A virus subtype H7N3 breaks out in England and affects domestic turkeys.[36] United Kingdom
1966 H5N9 Non–human (avian) Epizootic Influenza A virus subtype H5N9 breaks out in Ontario and affects domestic turkeys.[36] Canada
1966 Medical development The activity of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against influenza is first suggested.[39]
1968 Human Research Study of 1,900 male cadets after the 1968 Hong Kong A2 influenza epidemic at a South Carolina military academy, compares three groups: nonsmokers, heavy smokers, and light smokers. Compared with nonsmokers, heavy smokers (more than 20 cigarettes per day) had 21% more illnesses and 20% more bed rest, light smokers (20 cigarettes or fewer per day) had 10% more illnesses and 7% more bed rest.[40] United States
1968-1969 H3N2 Human Epidemic Hong Kong flu (H3N2) pandemic breaks out, caused by a virus that has been “updated” from the previously circulating virus by reassortment of avian genes.[9][41] Eurasia, North America
1973 Human Program launch The World Health Organization starts issuing annual recommendations for the composition of the influenza vaccine based on results from surveillance systems that would identify currently circulating strains.[24]
1976 Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Human Epidemic Swine flu outbreak is identified at U.S. army base in Fort Dix, New Jersey. Four soldiers infected resulting in one death. To prevent a major pandemic, the United States launches a vaccination campaign.[42][43] United States (New Jersey)
1976 H7N7 Non–human (avian) Epizootic Influenza A virus subtype H7N7 breaks out in Victoria (Australia) and affects domestic chicken.[36] Australia
1976 Influenzavirus A Human Medical development Symmetrel (amantadine) is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for preventing and treating infection caused by influenzavirus A.[44] United States
1977 Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Human Epidemic Russian flu (H1N1) epidemic. New influenza strain in humans. Isolated in northern China. A similar strain prevalent in 1947–57 causes most adults to have substantial immunity. This outbreak is not considered a pandemic because most patients are children.[43][45][46][47] Russia, China, worldwide
1978 Influenzavirus A, influenzavirus B Human Medical development (vaccine) The first trivalent influenza vaccine is introduced. It includes two influenza A strains and one influenza B strain.[24]
1979 Human Research Surveillance of an influenza outbreak at a military base for women in Israel reveals that influenza symptoms developed in 60.0% of the current smokers vs. 41.6% of the nonsmokers.[48] Israel
1980 Influenzavirus A, Influenzavirus B Human Medical development (vaccine) United States FDA approves influenza vaccine Fluzone (Sanofi Pasteur), developed for A subtype viruses and type B virus contained in the vaccine.[49] United States
1982 Human Research Study concludes that smoking may substantially contribute to the growth of influenza epidemics affecting the entire population.[50]
1983 H5N8 Non–human (avian) Epizootic Avian Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 breaks out. 8,000 turkeys, 28,020 chickens, and 270,000 ducks are slaughtered.[51][38] Ireland
1986 Publication Medical geographer Gerald F. Pyle publishes The Diffusion of Influenza.[52]
1988 Influenzavirus A (H1N2) Human Infection Influenza A virus subtype H1N2 is isolated from humans in six cities in China, but the virus does not spread further.[53] China
1990 Influenzavirus A, influenzavirus B Human Medical development Relenza (zanamivir) is first licensed to GlaxoSmithKline.[54]
1990-1996 Human Medical development Oseltamivir (often referenced by its trademark name Tamiflu) is developed by Gilead Sciences, using shikimic acid for synthesis. It would be widely used in further antiviral campaigns targeting influenza A and B. Included on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[55] United States
1993 Human Research In a prospective study of community-dwelling people 60–90 years of age, it is found that 23% of smokers have clinical influenza as compared with 6% of non-smokers.[56]
1993 Influenzavirus A Human Medical development Flumadine (rimantadine) is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for preventing and treating infection caused by influenzavirus A.[44] United States
1997 Influenzavirus A (H5N1) Human Infection Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 (also known as bird flu) is discovered in humans. The first time an influenza virus is found to be transmitted directly from birds to people. Eighteen people hospitalized, six of whom die. Hong Kong kills its entire poultry population of about 1.5 million birds. No pandemic develops.[57] China (Hong Kong)
1997 H7N4 Avian Epizootic Highly pathogenic Influenza A virus subtype H7N4 strain causes a minor flu outbreak in chicken in Australia.[58] Australia
1997 Human System launch FluNet is launched as a global web-based tool for influenza virological surveillance.[59]
1997 Human Medical development A randomized clinical trial finds that volunteers taking 1.2 grams of N-acetylcysteine daily for six months are as likely as those taking placebo to be infected by influenza, but only 25% of them experience clinical symptoms, as contrasted with 67% of the control group. The authors conclude that resistance to flu symptoms is associated with a shift in cell mediated immunity from anergy toward normoergy, as measured by the degree of skin reactivity to seven common antigens such as tetanus and Candida albicans.[60]
1998–1999 (November 1998–April 1999) Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 1998-1999 season containing the following:
  • an A/Sydney/5/97(H3N2)-like virus;
  • an A/Beijing/262/95(H1N1)-like virus;
  • a B/Beijing/184/93-like virus.[61]
Northern hemisphere
1999 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 1999 season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/Sydney/5/97 (H3N2)-like virus;
  • an A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1)-like virus;
  • a B/Beijing/184/93-like virus.[62]
Southern hemisphere
1999 Influenzavirus A (H9N2) Human Infection New Influenza A virus subtype H9N2 strain is detected in humans. It causes illness in two children in Hong Kong, with poultry being the probable source. No pandemic develops.[43][38] China (Hong Kong)
1999 Influenzavirus A, influenzavirus B Human Medical development Tamiflu (Oseltamivir) is approved for medical use in the United States.[63] United States
1999–2000 (November 1999 to April 2000) Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 1999-2000 season contain the following:
  • an A/Sydney/5/97 (H3N2)-like virus;
  • an A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1)-like virus; and
  • a B/Beijing/184/93-like virus or a B/Shangdong/7/97-like virus.[64]
2000 Human Alternative medicine Homeopathic preparation Oscillococcinum becomes one of the top ten selling drugs in France, is publicised widely in the media, and becomes widely prescribed for both influenza and the common cold.[65] France
2000 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2000 season (southern hemisphere winter) contain the following:
  • an A/Moscow/10/99 (H3N2)-like virus;
  • an A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1)-like virus;
  • a B/Beijing/184/93-like virus.[66]
Southern hemisphere
2000–2001 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2000-2001 season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/Moscow/10/99 (H3N2)-like virus;
  • an A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1)-like virus;
  • a B/Beijing/184/93-like virus.[67]
Northern hemisphere
2001 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2001 season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/Moscow/10/99 (H3N2)-like virus;
  • an A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1)-like virus;
  • a B/Sichuan/379/99-like virus.[68]
Southern hemisphere
2001–2002 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2001-2002 season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus;
  • an A/Moscow/10/99(H3N2)-like virus; and
  • a B/Sichuan/379/99-like virus.[69]
2002 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2002 season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus;
  • an A/Moscow/10/99(H3N2)-like virus;
  • a B/Sichuan/379/99-like virus.[70]
Southern hemisphere
2002 Influenzavirus A, Influenzavirus B Human Medical development High dietary intake of green tea is correlated with reduced risk of contracting influenza, as well as having an antiviral effect upon types A and B.[71]
2002 H7N2 Non-human (avian) Epizootic New avian influenza A virus subtype H7N2 strain affects 197 farms in Virginia and results in the killing of over 4.7 million birds. One person is infected, fully recovered.[72][38] United States
2002–2003 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2002-2003 season (Northern Hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus;
  • an A/Moscow/10/99(H3N2)-like virus; and
  • a B/Hong Kong/330/2001-like virus.[73]
Northern hemisphere
2003 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2003 season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus;
  • an A/Moscow/10/99(H3N2)-like virus; and
  • a B/Hong Kong/330/2001-like virus.[74]
Southern hemisphere
2003 Human System launch Influenzanet launches in the Netherlands and Belgium as a participatory surveillance system monitoring the incidence of influenza-like illness in Europe. It is based on data provided by volunteers who self-report their symptoms via the Internet throughout the influenza season.[75][76] Netherlands, Belgium
2003 Human Medical development The mixture of Eleutherococcus senticosus ("Siberian ginseng") and Andrographis paniculata, sold under the trade name Kan Jang, is reported in the Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy to outperform amantadine in reducing influenza-related sick time and complications in a Volgograd pilot study of 71 patients.[77] Russia
2003 Vaccine approval The United States FDA first licenses FluMist –an intranasally administered influenza vaccine, for healthy, nonpregnant persons aged 5–49 years.[78] United States
2003 H7N7 Human, avian Epidemic, epizootic First reported case of avian influenza A virus subtype H7N7 strain in humans. 88 people are infected, one dies. 30 million birds are slaughtered.[79][38] Netherlands
2003–2004 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2003-2004 season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus;
  • an A/Moscow/10/99(H3N2)-like virus; and
  • a B/Hong Kong/330/2001-like virus.[80]
2003–2007 Influenzavirus A (H5N1) Human, avian Epidemic, epizootic Avian (Influenza A virus subtype H5N1) strain is reported in humans. In February 2003, two people are infected in Hong Kong, one dies. In December 2003, H5N1 breaks out among chicken in South Korea. By January 2004, Japan has its first outbreak of avian flu since 1925 and Vietnam reports human cases. In Thailand, nine million chickens are slaughtered to stop the spread of the disease.[38] By December 2006, over 240 million poultry would die or be culled due to H5N1.[81] East Asia, Southeast Asia
2004 Influenzavirus A (H5N1) Human Publication The World Health Organizatin publishes its Guidelines for the use of seasonal influenza vaccine in humans at risk of H5N1 infection.[82]
2004 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2004 season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1) -like virus;
  • an A/Fujian/411/2002(H3N2) - like virus; and
  • a B/Hong Kong/330/2001-like virus.[83]
2004 Human Organization The Influenza Genome Sequencing Project is launched to investigate influenza evolution by providing a public data set of complete influenza genome sequences from collections of isolates representing diverse species distributions. Funded by the NIAID.[84]
2004 Human Publication The World Health Organizatin publishes its guideline Advice for people living in areas affected by bird flu or avian influenza.[82]
2004 H7N3 Human Infection New avian Influenza A virus subtype H7N3 strain is detected in humans. Two poultry workers become infected, eventually fully recovered.[85][38] Canada
2004 Influenzavirus A (H10N7) Human Infection New avian influenza A virus subtype H10N7 strain is detected in humans. Two children become infected.[86][38] Egypt
2004 Influenzavirus A H5N2 Non–human (avian) Epizootic Avian influenza A virus subtype H5N2 infects birds in Texas. 6,600 infected broiler chickens are slaughtered.[87][38] United States
2004 H3N8 Non-human (Canidae) Research Canine influenza (dog flu) virus subtype H3N8, is discovered to cause disease in canines.[88] United States
2004–2005 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2004-2005 northern hemisphere influenza season containing the following:
  • an A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus;
  • an A/Fujian/411/2002(H3N2)-like virus; and
  • a B/Shanghai/361/2002-like virus.[89]
Northern hemisphere
2005 Human Organization United States President George W. Bush unveils the National Strategy to Safeguard Against the Danger of Pandemic Influenza. US$1 billion for the production and stockpile of oseltamivir are requested after Congress approves $1.8 billion for military use of the drug.[90][91] United States
2005 Human Publication The World Health Organization publishes its guideline Clarification on the use of masks by health-care workers in pandemic settings - in WHO global influenza preparedness plan.[82]
2005 General Organization American president George W. Bush announces the International Partnership on Avian and Pandemic Influenza. The purpose of the partnership is protecting human and animal health as well as mitigating the global socioeconomic and security consequences of an influenza pandemic.[92][93] United States (New York City)
2005 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2005 season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus;
  • an A/Wellington/1/2004(H3N2)-like virus; and
  • a B/Shanghai/361/2002-like virus.[94]
2005 General Research (genomics) New technology development led by Elodie Ghedin at The Institute for Genomic Research is first published at journal Nature describing over 100 influenza genomes.[95]
2005 Influenzavirus A (H5N1) Human, avian Publication The World Health Organization publishes its WHO guidance on public health measures in countries experiencing their first outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza.[96]
2005 (August) Influenzavirus A H5N3 Non-human (avian) Infection Influenza A virus subtype H5N3 is identified in Quebec.[97] Canada
2005 H1N1 Human, avian Infection Avian influenza A virus subtype H1N1 strain kills one person in Cambodia. In Romania, a village is quarantined after three dead ducks test positive for H1N1.[98][38] Cambodia, Romania
2005 (Ocober) Influenzavirus A H5N3 Non-human (avian) Infection Influenza A virus subtype H5N3 is identified in Sweden.[99] Sweden
2005 (November) Influenzavirus A H5N2 Non-human (falcon) Infection It is reported that a falcon was found to have H5N2.[100]
2005–2006 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2005-2006 influenza season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:

A trivalent vaccine containing:

  • an A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus;
  • an A/California/7/2004(H3N2)-like virus;
  • a B/Shanghai/361/2002-like virus.[101]
Northern hemisphere
2006 Human Publication The World Health Organization publishes its guideline Avian influenza: food safety issues.[102][103]
2006 (May) Influenzavirus A (H5N1) Human Publication The World Health Organization publishes its WHO Rapid Advice Guidelines on pharmacological management of humans infected with avian influenza A (H5N1) virus.[104]
2006 Human, avian Organization The International Pledging Conference on Avian and Human Pandemic Influenza is held Beijing. Co-hosted by the Chinese Government, the European Commission and the World Bank. The purpose is to raise funds for international cooperation in the prevention and control of avian and human influenza.[105] China (Beijing)
2006 Human Website launch FluTrackers (flutrackers.com launches as a website, online forum and early warning system which tracks and gathers information relating to a wide range of infectious diseases, including flu and assists in how to use it to inform the general public.[106]
2006 Human Website launch flutracking.net launches in Australia as a weekly web-based survey of influenza-like illness (ILI). It monitors the transmission and severity of ILI across Australia. The survey documents symptoms (cough, fever, and sore throat), time off work or normal duties, influenza vaccination status, laboratory testing for influenza, and health seeking behavior.[107] Australia
2006 Human Research (epidemiology) A randomized trial published in the British Medical Journal shows that even being able to vaccinate half the nursing home staff can prevent half of all deaths during the influenza season.[108] United Kingdom
2006 Human Publication The World Health Organization publishes its WHO strategic action plan for pandemic influenza, a document on global alert and response (GAR).[109] Switzerland (Geneva)
2006 Human Program launch The Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP) launches as a strategy to reduce the global shortage of influenza vaccines for seasonal epidemics and pandemic influenza in all countries of the world through three major approaches:

The program would close in 2016.[110]

2006 Human Organization The Global action plan for influenza vaccines is launched as a 10-year initiative by the World Health Organization, with the purpose to reduce the global shortage and inequitable access to influenza vaccines in the event of an influenza pandemic.[111][112]
2006–2007 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2006-7 season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus;
  • an A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2)-like virus;
  • a B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like virus.[113]
Northern hemisphere
2007 Non-human (equine) Epizootic Equine influenza outbreak is diagnosed in Australia's horse population following the failure to contain infection in quarantine after the importation of one or more infected horses. The outbreak would also have a major impact on individual horse owners, the horse industry and associated sectors in both infected and uninfected states.[114] Australia
2007 Influenzavirus A Human, avian Publication The World Health Organization publishes its guideline Avian influenza, including influenza A (H5N1), in humans: WHO interim infection control guideline for health care facilities.[82]
2007 Influenzavirus A (H1N1, H3N2, H1N2) Non-human (swine) Research (virology) A study reports that in swine, three influenza A virus subtypes (H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2) are circulating throughout the world.[115] Worldwide
2007 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2007 season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1)-like virus;
  • an A/Wisconsin/67/2005(H3N2)-like virus;
  • a B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like virus.[116]
Southern hemisphere
2007–2008 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2007-8 season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 (H1N1)-like virus;
  • an A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2)-like virus; and
  • a B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like virus.[117]
Northern hemisphere
2008 Human Publication The World Health Organization publishes its guideline Pandemic influenza preparedness and mitigation in refugee and displaced populations.[118]
2008 Program launch The GISAID initiative (Global initiative on sharing all influenza data) launches as a public–private partnership between the German government and the nonprofit organization Friends of GISAID that provides public access to a collection of genetic sequence data of influenza viruses and related clinical and epidemiological data through its database (named EpiFlu).[119] Germany
2008 Human, avian Publication The World Health Organization publishes its guideline Aide-Memoire -Infection control recommendations for avian influenza in health-care facilities.[82]
2008 Influenzavirus A (H5N1) Human Publication The World Health Organization publishes its guideline Protection of individuals with high poultry contact in areas affected by avian influenza H5N1: Consolidation of pre-existing guidance.[120]
2008 Human Publication Roni K. Devlin publishes Influenza (Biographies of Disease). The book covers influenza as a disease with potential of being at the center of a new pandemic.[121]
2008 Human Publication Antivirals for Pandemic Influenza: Guidance on Developing a Distribution and Dispensing Program is published by the U.S. Institute of Medicine.[122] United States
2008 Influenzavirus A (H5N1) and others Human, avian Publication Avian Influenza, by Hans-Dieter Klenk, Mikhail N. Matrosovich, and Jürgen Stech, is published. It provides information about the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza with particular emphasis on recent H5N1 outbreaks in China, Siberia and Europe.[123]
2008 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2008 season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 (H1N1)-like virus;
  • an A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2)-like virus;
  • a B/Florida/4/2006-like virus.[124]
2008 General Research (virology) Research by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) finds that the influenza virus has a butter-like coating, which melts when it enters the respiratory tract. In the winter, the coating becomes a hardened shell; therefore, it can survive in the cold weather similar to a spore. In the summer, the coating melts before the virus reaches the respiratory tract.[125]
2008 General Research (epidemiology) OpenFluDB is launched as a database for human and animal influenza virus. It's used to collect, manage, store and distribute worldwide data on influenza.[126] Worldwide
2008 Human Service launch Google launches Google Flu Trends, a web service with aims at providing estimates of influenza activity by aggregating Google Search queries. The system would provide data to 29 countries worldwide, extending service to include surveillance for dengue.[127] United States
2008–2009 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2008-2009 influenza season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1)-like virus;
  • an A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2)-like virus; and
  • a B/Florida/4/2006-like virus.[128]
Northern hemisphere
2009 (January) Influenzavirus A H5N3 Non-human (avian) Epizootic Influenza A virus subtype H5N3 is identified at a La Garnache farm in France. 90 birds are found dead between 29 January 2009 and 31 January 2009. The remaining stock of 4,932 birds are culled on 1 February 2009.[129][130] France
2009 Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Human Epidemic New flu virus (H1N1) pandemic (colloquially called the swine flu pandemic), first recognized in the state of Veracruz, Mexico, spreads quickly across the United States and the world, prompting a strong global public reaction. Overseas flights are discouraged from government health bodies.[131] Worldwide, nearly 1 billion doses of H1N1 vaccine are ordered.[132] A total of 74 countries are affected. 18,500 deaths.[43] Worldwide
2009 (April 27) Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Human Policy The United States Food and Drug Administration issues Emergency Use Authorizations to make available Relenza and Tamiflu antiviral drugs to treat the swine influenza virus in cases for which they were currently unapproved. The agency issues these EUAs to allow treatment of patients younger than the current approval allows and to allow the widespread distribution of the drugs, including by volunteers.[133] United States
2009 (Late April) Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Human Epidemic The World Health Organization declares its first ever "public health emergency of international concern" (PHEIC) in response to the H1N1 pandemic.[134]
2009 (May) Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Human Research (epidemiology) A study at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that children have no preexisting immunity to the new pandemic H1N1/09 virus strain but that adults, particularly those over 60, have some degree of immunity. Children show no cross-reactive antibody reaction to the then-new strain, while adults aged 18 to 64 had 6–9%, and older adults 34%.[135][136] United States
2009 (May 22) Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Human Vaccine funding The United States Department of Health and Human Services directs US$1 billion toward development of vaccine for novel influenza A (H1N1).[137] United States
2009 (June) Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Human Policy The World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stop counting cases and declare the H1N1 outbreak a pandemic.[138] Worldwide
2009 Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Human Research (epidemiology) A link between obesity and 2009 H1N1 flu complications is found during the pandemic.[139]
2009 Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Human Publication The World Health Organization publishes its interim guidance Advice on the use of masks in the community setting in Influenza A(H1N1) outbreaks, which deals with emergencies preparedness and response.[140]
2009 Influenzavirus A H1N1 Human Statistics It is estimated that in the 2009 flu pandemic 11–21% of the then global population (of about 6.8 billion), or around 700 million to 1.4 billion people, contracted the illness—more in absolute terms than the Spanish flu pandemic. Calculated fatalities range between 12,000 and 18,000.[141][142] Worldwide
2009 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2009 influenza season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1)-like virus;
  • an A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2)-like virus; and
  • a B/Florida/4/2006-like virus.[143]
Southern hemisphere
2009 Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Human Medical development A few news reports suggest the use of an elderberry (Sambucus nigra) extract as a potential preventative against the 2009 flu pandemic.[144][145]
2009 Influenzavirus A (H17N10 Non-human (bats) The first bat influenza virus (IAV H17N10) is found in little yellow-shouldered bats (Sturnira lilium) in Guatemala.[146] Guatemala
2009 Influenzavirus A (H11N2) Non-human (mallards) IAV H11N2 is found in sentinel mallards.[147]
2009 (September 15) Influenzavirus A (H1N1 Human Vaccine approval The United States FDA approves four vaccines against the Influenza A virus subtype H1N1.[148][149] United States
2009 (October) Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Human Medical development It is reported that the experimental antiviral drug Peramivir has been effective in treating serious cases of swine flu.[150]
2009 (October 25) Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Human Epidemic United States President Barack Obama officially declares H1N1 a national emergency.[151] United States
2009 (November) Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Human Research (virology) A study is published in Virology Journal suggesting that the influenza A virus subtype H1N1 virus may be the product of three strains from three continents that swapped genes in a lab or a vaccine-making plant, and subsequently "escaped". The study follows debate among researchers in May 2009, when the authors asked the World Health Organization to consider the hypothesis. After reviewing the initial paper, WHO and other organizations conclude the pandemic strain is a naturally-occurring virus and not laboratory-derived.[152]
2009 (December) Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Non-human (canine) Infection The first case of a dog with H1N1 is reported.[153] United States
2009 (December) Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Human Medical development A study finds that H1N1 flu can cause pulmonary embolism, surmised as a leading cause of death in the pandemic. The study authors suggest physician evaluation via contrast enhanced CT scans for the presence of pulmonary emboli when caring for patients diagnosed with respiratory complications from a "severe" case of the H1N1 flu.[154] United States
2009 (December 23) Human Vaccine approval The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves high-dose inactivated influenza vaccine (Fluzone High-Dose) for people ages 65 years and older.[155] United States
2009–2010 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2009-2010 influenza season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1)-like virus; and
  • an A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2)-like virus.[156]
Northern hemisphere
2010 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2010 influenza season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus;
  • an A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2)-like virus; and
  • a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus.[157]
Southern hemisphere
2010 Human Publication Influenza and Public Health: Learning from Past Pandemics is published by Tamara Giles-Vernick, Susan Craddock, and Jennifer Lee Gunn. The book explores past influenza pandemics with the purpose to obtain critical insights into possible transmission patterns, experiences, mistakes, and interventions.[158]
2010 (August 11) Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Human Epidemic The World Health Organization declares end to 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic.[159]
2010 Influenzavirus A Tool launch The Influenza Risk Assessment Tool (IRAT) is launched as an evaluation tool developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and external influenza experts. IRAT has the purpose to asses the potential pandemic risk posed by influenza A viruses that currently circulate in animals but not in humans. It evaluates risk elements in three domains: virus (e.g. genomic variation), population (e.g. existing population immunity), and ecology (e.g. global geographic distribution).[160][161] United States
2010–2011 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2010-2011 influenza season (northern hemisphere):
  • an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus;
  • an A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2)-like virus; and
  • a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus.[162]
Northern hemisphere
2011 (March) General Publication The World Health Organization releases its global standards and tools for influenza surveillance. The report summarizes the discussions and recommendations concluded in a global consultation aimed at reviewing influenza surveillance standards and the current data-sharing and reporting tools.[163]
2011 H3N8 Non–human Epizootic Influenza A virus subtype H3N8 causes death of more than 160 baby seals in New England.[164] United States
2011 Influenzavirus A (H1N1) General Recommendation The Advisers to the WHO Consultation on the Composition of Influenza Vaccines for the Southern Hemisphere 2012, advise WHO to use the nomenclature: A(H1N1)pdm09 in order to minimize confusion, and to differentiate the virus from the old seasonal A(H1N1) viruses circulating in humans before the pandemic (H1N1) 2009. This standardization would help to minimize potential confusion among the scientific community as well as the general public.[165]
2011 (July 22) Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Non-human (mink) Infection The Norwegian Veterinary Institute reports the first occurrence of 2009-H1N1 influenza virus in minks.[166] Norway
2011 (August) Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Non-human (sea otter) Epizootic According to the United States Geological Survey and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, northern sea otters off the coast of Washington state were infected with the same version of the H1N1 flu virus that caused the 2009 pandemic and "may be a newly identified animal host of influenza viruses".[167] United States
2011 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2011 influenza season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus;
  • an A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2)-like virus; and
  • a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus.[168]
Southern hemisphere
2011–2012 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2011-2012 influenza season (northern hemisphere) containing the following:
  • an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus;
  • an A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2)-like virus; and
  • a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus.[169]
Northern hemisphere
2012 Research A 2012 meta-analysis finds that flu shots are efficacious 67 percent of the time.[170]
2012 Influenzavirus A (H5N1) Research (virology) American virologists Ron Fouchier and Yoshihiro Kawaoka intentionally develop a strain based on H5N1 for which no vaccine exists, causing outrage in both the media and scientific community.[171][172][173] Netherlands (Erasmus Medical Center), United States (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
2012 (July) Human Publication The World Health Organization publishes its WHO Global Epidemiological Surveillance Standards for Influenza.[174]
2012 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2012 influenza season (southern hemisphere) containing the following:
  • an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
  • an A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2)-like virus; and
  • a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus.[175]
2012 General Publication Yoshihiro Kawaoka and Gabriele Neumann publish Influenza Virus: Methods and Protocols. It summarizes techniques ranging from protocols for virus isolation, growth, and subtyping to procedures for the efficient generation of any influenza virus.[176]
2012 Human Medical development (vaccine) United States FDA approves first seasonal influenza vaccine manufactured using cell culture technology.[177] United States
2012 Human Publication Jonathan Van-Tam publishes Pandemic Influenza, which covers the science and operational application of influenza epidemiology, virology and immunology.[178]
2012 (November 20) Human Medical development (vaccine) Novartis receives approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the first cell-culture influenza vaccine.[179] United States
2012 (December 12) Human Vaccine approval The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves quadrivalent formulation of Fluarix (inactivated influenza vaccine; GlaxoSmithKline).[180] United States
2012–2013 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2012-2013 influenza season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
  • an A/Victoria/361/2011 (H3N2)-like virus; and
  • a B/Wisconsin/1/2010-like virus.[181]
Northern hemisphere
2013 H7N9 Human, avian Epidemic Avian Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 strain, a low pathogenic AI virus, breaks out in China. As of April 11, 2014, the outbreak's overall reaches 419 people, including 7 in Hong Kong, with the unofficial death toll at 127.[182][183] China, Vietnam
2013 (June 7) Human Vaccine approval The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves Fluzone (Sanofi Pasteur) as the third quadrivalent influenza vaccine licensed for U.S. use.[184] United States
2013 (June 20) Human Vaccine recommendation The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) votes to recommend FluBlok influenza vaccine for people age 18 through 49 with egg allergy.[185] United States
2013 (August 16) Human Vaccine approval The U.S. Food and Drug Administration extends FluLaval IIV (GlaxoSmithKline) age range to include children and teens age 3–17 years; licenses quadrivalent FluLaval product.[186] United States
2013 Non-human (domestic duck) Influenzavirus A (H11N9 H11N9 was isolated from a domestic duck in live-poultry markets in Eastern China.[187] China
2013 Human Vaccine approval The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves influenza vaccine Flublok (Protein Sciences), developed through recombinant DNA technology.[188] United States
2013 Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Human Publication Radiology of Influenza A (H1N1) is published by Hongjun Li, presenting the theory of influenza and its imaging characteristics.[189]
2013 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2013 influenza season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
  • an A/Victoria/361/2011 (H3N2)-like virus; and
  • a B/Wisconsin/1/2010-like virus.[190]
Southern hemisphere
2013 Human Medical development (vaccine) United States FDA approves influenza vaccine Flublok (Protein Sciences), developed through recombinant DNA technology.[191] United States
2013 H10N8 Human, avian Infection Avian Influenza A virus subtype H10N8 strain in reported to infect humans for the first time and kills one person.[192][38] China
2013–2014 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2013-14 influenza season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
  • an A(H3N2) virus antigenically like the cell-propagated prototype virus A/Victoria/361/2011; and
  • a B/Massachusetts/2/2012-like virus.[193]
Northern hemisphere
2014 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2014 influenza season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
  • an A/Texas/50/2012 (H3N2)-like virus; and
  • a B/Massachusetts/2/2012-like virus.[194]
Southern hemisphere
2014 Human Vaccine cost The wholesale price per dose of influenza vaccine in the developing world is about US$5.25 as of year.[195] Developing world
2014 (December 11) Human Vaccine approval The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves quadrivalent formulation of Fluzone Intradermal inactivated influenza vaccine.[196] United States
2014 (December 19) Human Vaccine approval The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves Rapivab to treat influenza infection.[197] United States
2014–2015 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2014-2015 influenza season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
  • an A/Texas/50/2012 (H3N2)-like virus; and
  • a B/Massachusetts/2/2012-like virus.[198]
Northern hemisphere
2015 Human Program Google Flu Trends shuts down in August 2015 after successive inaccuracies in the big data analysis.[199] After performing well for two to three years since the service launch in 2008, GFT would start to fail significantly and require substantial revision.[200] However, Google Flu Trends would also inspire several other similar projects that use social media data to predict disease trends.[201] United States
2015 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2015 influenza season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
  • an A/Switzerland/9715293/2013 (H3N2)-like virus; and
  • a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus.[202]
Southern hemisphere
2015 (July 12) Influenzavirus A (H5N6) Human Infection As of date, four known cases of influenza A virus subtype H5N6 infection, three fatal, have occurred in humans.[203][204][205][206]
2015 Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Human Epidemic The 2015 Indian swine flu outbreak causes nearly 30,000 laboratory confirmed cases with more than 1700 deaths by March 15. Most of these cases are reported from the states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.[207] India
2015 (November 24) Human Vaccine approval The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves new injectable influenza vaccine, Fluad, for use in people age 65 years and older.[208] United States
2015–2016 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2015-2016 influenza season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
  • an A/Switzerland/9715293/2013 (H3N2)-like virus;
  • a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus.[209]
Northern hemisphere
2016 (May) Human Tool launch The Tool for Influenza Pandemic Risk Assessment (TIPRA) is developed by the World Health Organization to provide a standardized and transparent approach to support the risk assessment of influenza viruses with pandemic potential. TIPRA supports hazard assessment by asking a risk question about the pandemic likelihood and impact of an influenza virus.[210]
2016 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2016 influenza season (southern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
  • an A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus;
  • a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus.[211]
Southern hemisphere
2016 Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Non-human (porcine) Research (virology) A report by researchers at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine finds that the 2009 H1N1 virus likely originated from pigs in a very small region of central Mexico.[212] Mexico, United States
2016 Human Medical development (vaccine) Vaxigrip Tetra is approved in Europe except for infants younger than three years old.[213] Europe
2016 (November 18) Human Vaccine approval The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves extending the age range for use of FluLaval Quadrivalent to include children 6 to 35 months of age.[214] United States
2016 (November–December) Influenzavirus A (H5N6) Human Infection Human cases of H5N6 are reported in China.[215] China
2016–2017 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2016-2017 influenza season (northern hemisphere winter) containing the following:
  • an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
  • an A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus;
  • a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus.[216]
Northern hemisphere
2017 Human Medical development Researchers from the University of Texas at Arlington build influenza detector that can diagnose at a breath, without the intervention of a doctor.[217] United States
2017 H5N6 Avian Epizootic 2017 Central Luzon H5N6 outbreak[218] Philippines
2017 Human Research Researchers from the University of Helsinki demonstrate that three anti-influenza compounds effectively inhibit zika virus infection in human cells.[219] Finland
2017 Human Publication Mieczyslaw Pokorski publishes Influenza and Respiratory Care.[220]
2017 (August 25) Influenza Human Recommendation The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention publishes ACIP 2017–18 influenza vaccination recommendations.[221]
2017 (August 31) Human Vaccine approval The U.S. Food and Drug Administration expands licensure of Afluria quadrivalent (Seqirus) to include people age 5 years and older.[222]
2017–2018 Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Human Epidemic Pakistan reports H1N1 cases mostly arising from the city of Multan, with deaths resulting from the epidemic reaching 42.[223] Pakistan
2017–2018 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2017-2018 northern hemisphere influenza season containing the following:
  • an A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
  • an A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus;
  • a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus.[224]
Northern hemisphere
2018 (January 11) Human Vaccine approval The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves expanded pediatric age indication for Fluarix Quadrivalent influenza vaccine."[225] United States
2018 (February) Influenzavirus A, influenzavirus B Human Medical development Antiviral medication Xofluza (baloxavir marboxil) is approved for sale in Japan.[226] Japan
2018 (June 8) Human Vaccine recommendation The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention publishes ACIP's recommendations for the use of quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) in the 2018–19 influenza season."[227]
2018 (August 24) Human Vaccine recommendation The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention publishes ACIP's 2018–19 influenza vaccination recommendations.[228]
2018 (October) Human Vaccine approval The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves expanded age indication for Seqirus’s Afluria influenza vaccine to include children age 6 months through 59 months.[229]
2018 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2018 southern hemisphere influenza season containing the following:
  • an A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
  • an A/Singapore/INFIMH-16-0019/2016 (H3N2)-like virus;
  • a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus.[230]
Southern hemisphere
2019 (January) Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Human Epidemic An outbreak of H1N1 is recorded in Morocco, with nine confirmed fatalities.[231] Morocco
2019 (January 23) Human Vaccine approval The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves use of the 0.5 mL dose of Sanofi's Fluzone Quadrivalent influenza vaccine to include children age 6 through 35 months.[232] United States
2019 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2019 southern hemisphere influenza season containing the following:
  • an A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
  • an A/Switzerland/8060/2017 (H3N2)-like virus;
  • a B/Colorado/06/2017-like virus (B/Victoria/2/87 lineage);
  • a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus (B/Yamagata/16/88 lineage).

The World Health Organization also recommends that egg based trivalent vaccines for use in the 2019 southern hemisphere influenza season contain the following:

  • an A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
  • an A/Switzerland/8060/2017 (H3N2)-like virus; and
  • a B/Colorado/06/2017-like virus (B/Victoria/2/87 lineage).

It is recommended that the A(H3N2) component of non-egg based vaccines for use in the 2019 southern hemisphere influenza season be:

  • A/Singapore/INFIMH-16-0019/2016-like virus together with the other vaccine components as indicated above.[233]
2019 (August 28) Vaccine recommendation The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention releases ACIP recommendations on the use of influenza vaccines for the 2019–20 influenza season.[234] United States
2019 (November 4) Vaccine approval The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent (Sanofi Pasteur) for adults 65+ years of age—will be available for 2020–21 flu season.[235] United States
2019 (November) Influenzavirus A (H1N1) Human Epidemic An outbreak of H1N1 is recorded in Iran, with 56 fatalities and 4,000 people hospitalized.[236] Iran
2019–2020 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2019-2020 northern hemisphere influenza season containing the following:
  • an A/Brisbane/02/2018 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
  • an A/Kansas/14/2017 (H3N2)-like virus;
  • a B/Colorado/06/2017-like virus (B/Victoria/2/87 lineage); and
  • a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus (B/Yamagata/16/88 lineage).[237]
Northern hemisphere
2020 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2020 southern hemisphere influenza season containing the following:
  • an A/Brisbane/02/2018 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
  • an A/South Australia/34/2019 (H3N2)-like virus;
  • a B/Washington/02/2019-like (B/Victoria lineage) virus;
  • a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like (B/Yamagata lineage) virus.

WHO also recommends that trivalent influenza vaccines for use in the 2020 southern hemisphere influenza season contain the following:

  • an A/Brisbane/02/2018 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
  • an A/South Australia/34/2019 (H3N2)-like virus; and
  • a B/Washington/02/2019-like (B/Victoria lineage) virus.[238]
Southern hemisphere
2020 (January) Influenzavirus A (H5N1) Human Medical development (vaccine) The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves Audenz, an adjuvanted influenza A (H5N1) monovalent vaccine.[239][240] Audenz is a vaccine indicated for active immunization for the prevention of disease caused by the influenza A virus H5N1 subtype contained in the vaccine. Audenz is approved for use in persons six months of age and older at increased risk of exposure to the influenza A virus H5N1 subtype contained in the vaccine.[239] United States
2020 (February 21) Human Vaccine approval The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves the first adjuvanted quadrivalent flu shot for seniors.[241] United States
2020–2021 Influenzavirus A (H3N2, H1N1) Human Vaccine recommendation The World Health Organization recommends vaccines to be used in the 2020 - 2021 northern hemisphere influenza season containing the following:

Egg-based Vaccines:

  • an A/Guangdong-Maonan/SWL1536/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
  • an A/Hong Kong/2671/2019 (H3N2)-like virus;
  • a B/Washington/02/2019 (B/Victoria lineage)-like virus; and
  • a B/Phuket/3073/2013 (B/Yamagata lineage)-like virus.

Cell- or recombinant-based Vaccines:

  • an A/Hawaii/70/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
  • an A/Hong Kong/45/2019 (H3N2)-like virus;
  • a B/Washington/02/2019 (B/Victoria lineage)-like virus; and
  • a B/Phuket/3073/2013 (B/Yamagata lineage)-like virus.

It is recommended that trivalent influenza vaccines for use in the 2020 - 2021 northern hemisphere influenza season contain the following:

Egg-based Vaccines

  • an A/Guangdong-Maonan/SWL1536/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
  • an A/Hong Kong/2671/2019 (H3N2)-like virus; and
  • a B/Washington/02/2019 (B/Victoria lineage)-like virus.

Cell- or recombinant-based Vaccines

  • an A/Hawaii/70/2019 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus;
  • an A/Hong Kong/45/2019 (H3N2)-like virus; and
  • a B/Washington/02/2019 (B/Victoria lineage)-like virus.[242]
Northern hemisphere

Meta information on the timeline

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See also

External links

References

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