Timeline of malnutrition

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This is a timeline of malnutrition, describing significant events related to both undernutrition and overnutrition.

Sample questions

The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:

  • What are events addressing undernutrition?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Category" and look for the group of rows with value "Undernutrition".
  • What are events addressing overnutrition?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Category" and look for the group of rows with value "Overnutrition".
  • What are events addressing both undernutrition and overnutrition?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Category" and look for the group of rows with value "General".
    • You will mostly see events covering milestones in nutrient research, as well as publications and organizations aimed at nutrition safety.
  • What events are related to the discovery and other scientific milestones related to vitamins?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Nutrient type" and look for the group of rows with value "Micronutrient (vitamin)".
    • Sort the full timeline by "Nutrient type" and look for the group of rows with value "Micronutrient (vitamin deficiency)", for the specific topic of deficiency.
  • What events are related to nutrients other than vitamins?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Nutrient type" and look for the group of rows with value "Mineral" for both macrominerals and trace minerals.
    • Sort the full timeline by "Nutrient type" and look for the group of rows with value "Macronutrient", for calory, proteins, fats, etc., and those related to obesity (overnutrition).
  • What are some important organizations addressing undernutrition and hunger?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Category" and look for the group of rows with value "Undernutrition".
    • You will see a list of organizations, mostly operating worldwide.
  • What are some notable organizations devoted to hunger relief?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Organization (charity)".
  • What are other important organizations?
  • What are some numbers showing the burden of malnutrition in the world?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Statistics".
  • What are some notable introduced food fortification programs as well as other related events?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Food fortification".

Big picture

Time period Development summary More details
Before c.10,000 BC Hunting and gathering era This period occupies about 90% of human history. People fare arguably better during this time than during the post agricultural revolution era, as the reduced population and nomadism are able to cope better with food scarcity. Also, hunter-gatherers enjoy a varied diet, while early farmers would obtain most of their food from one or a few starchy crops.[1][2]
c.10,000 BC onwards Post First Agricultural Revolution era An increase in food production is followed by a population increase, making hunting and gathering an impossible return for most of the world due to the size of human density. This time represents a change in diet and nutrition, which becomes less rich due to the proliferation of monoculture. Famines abound as a consequence of several risks carried by agriculture, like droughts and floods.[1][2]
c.18th–19th centuries onwards Liberal capitalist era A spectacular growth of wealth is experienced in this era. Capitalism creates abundance unmatched in human history. Famine becomes rare in those countries adopting the free market.
Mid 20th century onwards Raise of overnutrition Modern food production system, focused on increasing output, successfully meets, and even exceeds, the nutritional needs of consumers in developed countries. Not only it satisfies energy, protein and fat requirements, but it reduces real prices of food. One of the consequences of this is the rise of overnutrition among the population for the first time in human history.[3]

Visual data

The images below compare percentages of undernourished people and evolution of undernutrition in the last years in all developing regions.

World undernutrition.png
Africa undernutrition.png
Asia undernutrition.png
Latin America and Caribbean undernutrition.png

Full timeline

Year Type of malnutrition Nutrient type (when applicable) Event type Details Country/location
35,000 BP–20,000 BP Overnutrition Macronutrient The first sculptural representations of the human body depict obese females. Some attribute the Venus figurines to the tendency to emphasize fertility while others feel they represent "fatness" in the people of the time.[4]
1575 Overnutrition Macronutrient Medical development Atherosclerosis is first described.[5]
1600 Undernutrition Macronutrient (calory) Medical development the term 'Marasmus' is first introduced by Soranio to describe the condition of infants who suffer essentially from starvation.[6][7]
1620 Undernutrition Micronutrient (vitamin deficiency) Medical development An English bonesetter by name "Rickets" becomes famous for his diagnosis and treatment of vitamin D deficiency and his name becomes associated with the disease.[8] United Kingdom
1645 Undernutrition Micronutrient (vitamin deficiency) Medical development Rickets is first described by Daniel Whistler.[9]
1650 Undernutrition Micronutrient (vitamin deficiency) Medical development Francis Glisson first establishes rickets as a clinical entity.[8][9][10]
1735 Undernutrition Micronutrient (vitamin deficiency) Medical development Pellagra is first described in Spain. It is caused by a deficiency in niacin (vitamin B3).[11] Spain
1753 Undernutrition Micronutrient (vitamin deficiency) Medical development Vitamin C deficiency. Scottish surgeon in the Royal Navy, James Lind is generally credited with proving that scurvy can be successfully treated with citrus fruit.[12]
1822 Undernutrition Micronutrient (vitamin deficiency) Medical development The symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia are first described in by Dr James Scarth Combe in the Transactions of the Medico-Chirurgical Society of Edinburgh, under the title of History of a Case of Anaemia.[13]
1824 Undernutrition Micronutrient (vitamin deficiency) Medical development Combe of Edinburgh in Scotland first describes pernicious anemia.[14]
1847 Undernutrition Organization (charity) The British Relief Association is established by a group of prominent aristocrats, bankers and philanthropists.[15][16] The charity would be the largest private provider of relief during the Great Irish Famine and Highland Potato Famine of the 1840s.[17][18] United Kingdom (London)
1849 Undernutrition Micronutrient (vitamin deficiency) Scientific development The first clear description of vitamin B12 deficiency is made by Thomas Addison.[19][20]
1863 Undernutrition Micronutrient (vitamin deficiency) Scientific development Vitamin A deficiency. French physician Pierre Bitot first describes the later called Bitot's spots.[21]
1865 Overnutrition Micronutrient (Mineral) Medical development HFE hereditary haemochromatosis is first described by Armand Trousseau in a report on diabetes in patients presenting with a bronze pigmentation of their skin. It is related to excess of iron.[22]
1868 Undernutrition Medical development Anorexia nervosa is first given its name by English physician William Gull at Guy's Hospital, London.[23] United Kingdom
1869 Undernutrition Micronutrient (mineral deficiency) Scientific development Zinc deficiency. Significant historical events related to zinc deficiency begin when zinc is first discovered to be essential to the growth of an organism Aspergillus niger.[24]
1870 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Niacin chemical structure is first described. The vitamin is also first synthesized.[25]
1874 Undernutrition Medical development Anorexia nervosa is first documented medically.[26]
1875 Undernutrition Micronutrient (vitamin deficiency) Medical development Pepper reports bone marrow abnormalities in pernicious anemia patients.[14]
1903 Overnutrition General Medical development Bulimia Nervosa is first described in detail by French psychologist Pierre Janet in his publication Obsessions et la Psychasthenie.[27] France
1906 Undernutrition Macronutrient (calory) Medical development The term 'starchy food dystrophy' is used by Czerny and Keller for what is now commonly known as marasmus.[7]
1907 Undernutrition Micronutrient (vitamin deficiency) Scientific development Axel Holst and Theodor Frölich develop the guinea pig model for scurvy, which represents a major step toward the understanding of vitamin C.[25]
1907 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Vitamin A is isolated.[25]
1909 Undernutrition Micronutrient (mineral deficiency) Organization (charity) The Rockefeller Sanitary Commission for Eradication of Hookworm is established to combat hookworm and anemia in the southern United States.[25] United States
1910 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) is discovered.[28]
1911 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Niacin is first isolated.[25]
1912 Undernutrition Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Polish biochemist Casimir Funk coins the term vitamine to describe the newly discovered growth factors because they are thought to be vital to life and quite mistakenly amines.[29]
1913 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Vitamin A (Retinol) is discovered.[30][31]
1913 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Casimir Funk introduces the idea of a “vital amine” in food, originating from the observation that the hulk of unprocessed rice protected chickens against a beriberi-like condition.[32]
1913 Overnutrition Macronutrient (fat) Scientific development Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis at the University of Wisconsin and Thomas Osborne and Lafayette Mendel at Yale University show that fats are not equivalent in supporting growth, because a fat-soluble factor in butter or yolk supports growth in rats whereas lard do not.[25] United States
1913 General Policy The United States become the first country to enact mandatory food labeling, when the country passes the Gould Net Weight Amendment to the 1906 Act. The Gould Amendment requires all packaged foods to have the "quantity of their contents plainly and conspicuously marked on the outside of the package in terms of weight, measure or numerical count."[33] United States
1914 Undernutrition Organization (charity) Comité National de Secours et d'Alimentation (National Relief and Food Committee) is created as a relief organization with the purpose to distribute humanitarian aid to civilians in German-occupied Belgium during World War I.[34] Belgium
1916 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development The application of the alphabet to vitamins begin, when American biochemist Elmer McCollum proposes abandoning the term “vitamine” in favor of using “water-soluble B” to an unknown substance that causes polyneuritis in pigeons, in contrast to “fat-soluble A” that supports growth in rats.[25] United States
1918 Undernutrition Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development British pharmacologist Edward Mellanby at King's College shows that lack of fat-soluble vitamin A or a substance “with a similar distribution” caused rickets in dogs.[25] United Kingdom
1918 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Organization The Medical Research Council establishes the first expert group on vitamins, the Accessory Food Factors Committee.[25] United Kingdom
1920 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Casimir Funk introduces the term vitamin C to indicate the nutritional factor necessary to prevent the pathological state known as scurvy.[35]
1920 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Vitamin D (Calciferol) is discovered.[36]
1920 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) is discovered.[28]
1921 Overnutrition Micronutrient (vitamin) Diet introduction The first fast-food hamburger chain, White Castle, is founded in Wichita, Kansas.[37]
1921 General General Medical development The corpulence index is first proposed as the "Corpulence measure" by Swiss physician Fritz Rohrer.[38]
1922 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Vitamin E (Tocopherol) is discovered.[28]
1924 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Vitamin D is first synthesized.[25]
1926 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Dutch chemists, Barend Jansen and Willem Donath crystallize “water-soluble B” and identified it as thiamin.[32]
1928 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Hungarian biochemist Albert Szent-Györgyi isolates vitamin C from various plants and adrenal cortex.[25] Hungary
1929 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Vitamin K1 (Phylloquinone) is discovered by Danish nutritional biochemist Henrik Dam.[39] Denmark
1931 General Micronutrient (vitamin) International conference The League of Nations sponsors the first International Conference on Vitamin Standards in London. The Committee is convened to develop standards and measurement units for "fat-soluble vitamin A, anti-rachitic vitamin D, antineuritic vitamin B, and antiscorbutic vitamin C".[25] United Kingdom
1931 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) is discovered.[28]
1931 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Vitamin B7 (biotin) is discovered.[28]
1931 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Swiss biochemist Paul Karrer first describes the chemical structure of Vitamin A.[25] Switzerland
1931 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Three independent groups first purify and crystallize Vitamin D (also called ergocalciferol).[25]
1932 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Szent-Györgyi first crystallizes Vitamin C.[25] Hungary
1932 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Joseph Ellison shows that vitamin A supplementation reduces the mortality of vitamin A-deficient children with measles by nearly 60%.[25]
1933 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development British chemist Norman Haworth at the University of Birmingham first synthesizes vitamin C.[25] United Kingdom
1934 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Hungarian-born American biochemist Paul Gyorgy discovers vitamin B6 (pyridoxine).[40]
1934 Undernutrition Micronutrient (vitamin deficiency) Vitamin B12 deficiency. George Whipple shares the 1934 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with William P. Murphy and George Minot for the discovery of an effective treatment for pernicious anemia using liver concentrate, later found to contain a large amount of vitamin B12.[41][42] Sweden
1934 Undernutrition Micronutrient (mineral) Scientific development Magnesium deficiency in humans is first described in the medical literature.[43]
1935 General Organization The League of Nations Mixed Committee on the Problem of Nutrition is established by resolution of the 16th assembly of the League of Nations. The Committee is made up of experts in agriculture, economics, and nutrition, and their mandate is to improve nutrition in the world.[25]
1935 Undernutrition Macronutrient (protein) Medical development Jamaican pediatrician Cicely Williams introduces the term Kwashiorkor in a Lancet article, two years after she published the disease's first formal description. Kwashiorkor is a form of severe protein–energy malnutrition characterized by edema and an enlarged liver with fatty infiltrates.[44][45]
1936 General Micronutrient Food fortification The United States Committee on Foods meets to discuss fortified foods, in which it is generally understood that fortification means increasing the percentage of mineral or vitamins beyond that found in the same food as exists in nature.[25] United States
1936 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Robert Williams of Columbia University crystallizes thiamine (vitamine B1) and describes its chemical structure.[25]
1936 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Vitamin B3 (Niacin) is discovered.[28]
1936 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development German chemist Adolf Windaus describes the chemical structure of both ergocalciferol (vitamin D2), and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3).[25] Germany
1937 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development The vitamin C chemical structure is described. The vitamin is also first synthesized.[25]
1937 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Vitamin A is crystallized by Harry Holmes and Ruth Corbet.[25]
1938 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Food fortification The American Medical Association joint committee of the Council on Foods and Nutrition and the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry adopts a resolution, which states in part, “to encourage the restorative addition of vitamins and minerals or other dietary essentials, in such amounts as will raise the content of vitamin or mineral or other dietary essential of general purpose foods to recognized high natural levels . . . for which a wider distribution is considered by the Council to be in the interest of public health”[25] United States
1940 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Food fortification The British government decides to fortify their flour and bread with thiamin, but it is not put into effect except for the armed forces, because controversy arises that fortification would benefit the vitamin manufacturers.[25]
1940 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Food fortification The Subcommittee on Medical Nutrition is established in the United States by the National Research Council. The subcommittee recommends the fortification of flour with thiamin for use by the armed forces.[25] United States
1941 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Vitamin B9 (Folic acid) is discovered by Herschel K. Mitchell, Esmond E. Snell, and Roger J. Williams.[46] United States
1941 Undernutrition Micronutrient (vitamin) Food fortification United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt calls for a national conference, the National Nutrition Conference for Defense, to address the problem of poor nutrition in the United States. The attendees endorse the fortification of flour and bread at the meeting.[25] United States
1943 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Food fortification The United States War Food Administration requires that all white bread be enriched with the existing standard for enriched flour.[25] United States
1945 Undernutrition Organization The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is established. It is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger and improve nutrition and food security.[47][48]
1945 Undernutrition Organization (charity) Care International is founded. Its programs in the developing world address a broad range of topics, including food security.[49][50] United States
1946 Undernutrition Organization (charity) Freedom from Hunger is founded. Throughout the decades, it would be responsible for a number of hunger alleviation programs in Latin America, Asia and Africa.[51] United States
1947 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Vitamin A is first synthesized.[25]
1948 General Organization The International Union of Nutritional Sciences is established to devote the advancement of nutrition.[52] United Kingdom
1948 General Policy (Human rights) The United Nations recognizes the Right to Food in the Declaration of Human Rights.[53]
1948 General Micronutrient (vitamin) Scientific development Vitamin B12 (Cobalamins) is first isolated by American chemist Karl August Folkers and British chemist Alexander R. Todd.[54]
1955 Overnutrition Trend growth Ray Kroc founds the first McDonald’s in Des Plaines, Illinois.[37] United States
1959 Overnutrition Macronutrient Medical development The Binge eating disorder is first described in by psychiatrist and researcher Albert Stunkard as "night eating syndrome" (NES).[55] The term "binge eating" was coined to describe the same bingeing-type eating behavior but without the exclusive nocturnal component.[56]
1961 Undernutrition Organization (charity) The World Food Programme is established.[57][58][59] It is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security.[60]
1961 Undernutrition Organization (charity) The Australian Freedom from Hunger Campaign is established.[61] Australia
1963 General Publication The WHO and FAO publish the Codex Alimentarius, which serves as a guideline to food safety.[62]
1967 Overnutrition Macronutrient (monosaccharide) Trend growth High fructose corn syrup is first introduced by The Food and Drug Administration and appears in fast food. This new substance is primarily used in soft drinks and to sweeten processed food items.[37]
1969 General Conference United States President Richard Nixon organizes a White House Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Health to draw attention to widespread malnutrition and the nutritional problems of Americans. The conference goal is to compose a national nutrition policy and determine how to make it effective.[37] United States
1969 Undernutrition Product introduction High energy food K-Mix 2 is developed by UNICEF as a therapeutic food in response to the Nigerian Civil War.[63][64]
1969 Overnutrition Organization The United States-based National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance (NAAFA) is formed. It describes itself as a civil rights organization dedicated to ending size discrimination.[65]
1971 Undernutrition Organization (charity) Food for the Hungry is founded. An international relief and development organization, it operates in more than 26 countries.[66][67]
1972 General General Medical development The body mass index (BMI) is first used under that name. It is based on the work of Belgian math expert Adolphe Quetelet (1796–1874), who figured out that an individual weight should be in proportion with his/her height and created the formula used for BMI.[68]
1973 General Regulation The United States Food and Drug Administration creates the first regulations that require the nutrition labeling of foods. These regulations make any foods that are advertised or labeled based on their nutritional value to provide full nutrition facts.[37] United States
1974 Undernutrition Organization The World Food Council is established by the United Nations General Assembly as a coordinating body with the purpose for national ministries of agriculture to help alleviate malnutrition and hunger and to facilitate the development of new agricultural techniques to increase food production.[69][70] WFC would be officially suspended in 1993, with its functions being absorbed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Food Programme.
1974 Undernutrition Organization Non-profit vegan food relief organization Food for Life Global is founded.[71]
1974 General Concept development At the 1974 World Food Conference, the term "food security" is defined with an emphasis on supply: "Food security is the availability at all times of adequate, nourishing, diverse, balanced and moderate world food supplies of basic foodstuffs to sustain a steady expansion of food consumption and to offset fluctuations in production and prices".[72]
1974 General Program launch The Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition is adopted.[73][74][75] Italy (Rome)
1975 Undernutrition Organization (charity) United States non-governmental organization WhyHunger is founded. It works around the world to support grassroots-led social movements, organizations, alliances and leaders working to end hunger and poverty.[76][77][78]
1975 Undernutrition Organization (charity) WhyHunger is founded. It operates in the United States and around the world with the purpose to end hunger and poverty.[79] United States
1975 Undernutrition Organization Food First, also known as the Institute for Food and Development Policy, is founded as a nonprofit organization with the mission “to eliminate the injustices that cause hunger”.[80] United States
1975 Undernutrition Study United States and British scientists independently conclude from the scientific evidence that a lack of food is the main problem of undernutrition: “The concept of a worldwide protein gap… is no longer tenable… the problem is mainly one of quantity rather than quality of food.”[32]
1977 Overnutrition Macronutrient Recommendation The United States Senate committee report Dietary Goals for the United States recommends low fat, low cholesterol diets for all.[32] United States
1977 Undernutrition Organization The Hunger Project is founded as an organization committed to the sustainable end of world hunger.[81][82][83] United States
1979 Undernutrition Organization (charity) Action Against Hunger (Action Contre La Faim) originates in France. It is a global humanitarian organization committed to ending world hunger, helping malnourished children and providing communities with access to safe water and sustainable solutions to hunger.[84][85] France
1979 Undernutrition General Organization (charity) Feed the Children is founded. It is a non-profit organization focused on alleviating childhood hunger.[86][87] United States
1979 Overnutrition General Medical development Bulimia nervosa is described by British psychiatrist Gerald Russell as a "chronic phase of anorexia nervosa" in which patients overeat and then use compensatory mechanisms, such as self-induced vomiting, laxatives, or prolonged periods of starvation.[88] United Kingdom
1979 General General Organization The Federation of European Nutrition Societies is established to support the European nutritional science community and European Nutrition Conferences.[89]
1980 Undernutrition General Organization (charity) Food Not Bombs is founded by a group of anti-nuclear activists protesting against corporate and government priorities which allow hunger to persist in the midst of abundance.[90][91] United States
1980 General General Organization The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism is established. It studies metabolic problems associated with acute diseases and their nutritional implications and management.[92]
1980 General General Publication Dietary Guidelines for Americans is published. It is one of the earliest such national guidelines.[93] United States
1982 Overnutrition Macronutrient Organization The Obesity Society is founded. It is focused on obesity science, treatment and prevention.[94][95]
1982 Undernutrition General Organization (charity) City Harvest is founded. A 501(c)3 nonprofit, it is New York City's largest food rescue organization.[96][97] United States
1985 Undernutrition General Organization The Famine Early Warning Systems Network is created by the United States Agency for International Development. It is a leading provider of early warning and analysis on acute food insecurity.[98][99] United States
1985 Undernutrition General Organization (charity) Project Open Hand is founded in San Francisco. It provides meals to sick and vulnerable people.[100][101][102] United States
1986 General General Program launch The WHO Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition is initiated to compile, systematize, and disseminate widely the results of anthropometric surveys performed in both developing and developed countries.[103]
1986 Undernutrition Micronutrient (Mineral deficiency) Organization The Iodine Global Network is founded.[104] It describes itself as a "non-profit, non-government organization for the sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency worldwide.[105]
1989 Overnutrition Macronutrient Trend growth (product introduction) Wendy’s first introduces their US$0.99 Super Value Menu, which consists of several popular items for a bargain.[37]
1990 Undernutrition Statistics There are a reported 216 million undernourished people in the world.[106] Worldwide
1992 Undernutrition Organization (charity) Food Donation Connection is founded as a private American company. It serves as the liaison between restaurants/food service companies interested in donating surplus food, and local social service agencies that distribute food to people in need.[107][108][109] United States
1992 Undernutrition Organization Nutrition International is founded.[110][111][112] It is an international not for profit agency based in Canada that works to eliminate vitamin and mineral deficiencies in developing countries.[113] Canada
1992 Undernutrition Micronutrient Food fortification 159 countries pledge at the FAO/WHO International Conference on Nutrition to make efforts to help combat issues of micronutrient deficiencies, highlighting the importance of decreasing the number of those with iodine, vitamin A, and iron deficiencies.[114]
1993 Undernutrition Study A research project finds that yields could be increased by 6 to 8-fold and child nutrition dramatically increased through zinc fertilization.[115]
1994 General Standard introduction The Nutrition Facts panel begins appearing on food packages. It is one of the most widely recognized graphics in the world, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.[33]
1995 Undernutrition Statistics The World Health Organization estimates that 13.8 million children have some degree of visual loss related to Vitamin A deficiency (VAD).[116]
1995 General Concept development The concept of nutrition security is defined by the International Food Policy Research Institute as "adequate nutritional status in terms of protein, energy, vitamins, and minerals for all household members at all times".[117]
1996 Undernutrition Program launch The World Summit on Food Security is held in Rome. It aims to renew a global commitment to the fight against hunger. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations calls the summit in response to widespread under-nutrition and growing concern about the capacity of agriculture to meet future food needs. The conference produces two key documents, the Rome Declaration on World Food Security and the World Food Summit Plan of Action.[118][119] Italy
1996 General Concept development The Food and Agriculture Organization defines: "Food security exists when all people at all times have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life."[120]
1996 Overnutrition Macronutrient Organization The International Obesity Taskforce is established with the purpose to address the emerging global epidemic of obesity.[121]
1996 Overnutrition Macronutrient (calory) Statistics The United States has the highest calory availability per capita in the world with 3654 cal per person.[122] United States
1997 Overnutrition Macronutrient Policy The WHO formally recognizes obesity as a global epidemic.[123] Worldwide
1997 Overnutrition Organization The International Size Acceptance Association (ISAA) is formed as a non-governmental organization (NGO). It describes its mission as promoting size acceptance and helping to end weight-based discrimination.[124] United States
1997 Undernutrition Food fortification (product introduction) A French medical researcher together with the French company Nutriset succeed in making a nutrient-dense spread for the treatment of severe acute malnutrition. The formula is used in therapeutic feeding centers where children are hospitalized for treatment.[125] France
1998 Undernutrition Organization (charity) Rise Against Hunger is founded. It is an international hunger relief non-profit organization that coordinates the packaging and distribution of food and other aid to people in developing nations.[126].[127][128]
1999 Undernutrition Notable comment American humanitarian Fred Cuny writes: "The distribution of food within a country is a political issue. Governments in most countries give priority to urban areas, since that is where the most influential and powerful families and enterprises are usually located. The government often neglects subsistence farmers and rural areas in general. The more remote and underdeveloped the area the less likely the government will be to effectively meet its needs. Many agrarian policies, especially the pricing of agricultural commodities, discriminate against rural areas. Governments often keep prices of basic grains at such artificially low levels that subsistence producers cannot accumulate enough capital to make investments to improve their production. Thus, they are effectively prevented from getting out of their precarious situation."[129]
1999 Overnutrition Macronutrient Medical development The obesity paradox (excluding cholesterol paradox) was first described in overweight and obese people undergoing hemodialysis,[130]
2000 Overnutrition Macronutrient Organization National Obesity Forum is founded as a British independent professional organization which campaigns for a more interventional approach to obesity.[131] United Kingdom
2000 Undernutrition Statistics Rates of child malnutrition are much higher in low income countries (36 percent) compared to middle income countries (12 percent) and the United States (1 percent).[132]
2000 Undernutrition Organization The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is founded.[133][134] United States
2002 Overnutrition Macronutrient Legal McDonald’s is sued by a group of overweight children for obesity related health problems because of their consumption of the company's products.[37] United States
2002 Undernutrition Program launch The United Nations Special Session on Children sets a goal of the elimination of vitamin A deficiency by 2010.[135]
2002 Undernutrition Organization Swiss-based foundation Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition is founded. It works with diverse partners to address the problem of malnutrition in the world.[136][137][138]
2002 Undernutrition Program launch The United Nations Special Session on Children sets a goal of the elimination of vitamin A deficiency by 2010.[139]
2003 Undernutrition Organization California-based Nutrition and Education International is formed to fight widespread malnutrition among women and children who live in high-mortality areas in Afghanistan.[140] [141][142]
2003 Overnutrition Macronutrient Medical development The terminology "reverse epidemiology" is first proposed by Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh in the journal Kidney International in 2003[143] It is a term used for a medical hypothesis which holds that high serum cholesterol and obesity may (counter intuitively) be protective and associated with greater survival in certain groups of people, such as very-old individuals or those with certain chronic diseases.[144]
2003–2005 General Macronutrient (calory) Statistics According to FAO food balances, available calories in OECD countries average 3,400 per person, up from 2,900 in 1964-66. Similar increases are recorded outside the OECD, in Latin America, North Africa and Asia-Pacific, where daily per capita caloric availability now generally exceeds 3,000 calories per person.[3]
2005 Overnutrition Macronutrient Organization The Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity is founded. It is a non-profit research and public policy organization devoted to improving the world’s diet, preventing obesity, and reducing weight stigma.[145]
2006 Undernutrition Concept development The Global Hunger Index is created.[146][147]
2006 Overnutrition Macronutrient Organization Obesity Canada is established. It connects members of the public affected by obesity, researchers, health professionals and others with an interest in obesity.[148] Canada
2006 General Concept development The World Bank defines: "Nutrition security exists when food security is combined with a sanitary environment, adequate health services, and proper care and feeding practices to ensure a healthy life for all household members."[120]
2007 Undernutrition Program launch The World Hunger Relief program is launched by American fast food corporation Yum! Brands. It is most expansive private sector hunger relief effort, providing millions of meals to people in many countries.[149][150]
2007 Overnutrition Macronutrient Organization The United States National Policy and Legal Analysis Network to Prevent Childhood Obesity is founded with the goal "to create strong childhood obesity policy interventions that will reverse the epidemic by 2015".[151] United States
2007 Undernutrition Statistics 923 million people are reported as being undernourished, an increase of 80 million since 1990-92.[152] Worldwide
2008 Overnutrition Statistics The United States have an estimated 16 million atherosclerotic heart disease cases and 5.8 million strokes. Cardiovascular diseases that were caused by arteriosclerosis also caused almost 812,000 deaths in the year, more than any other cause, including cancer.[153] United States
2008 Undernutrition Micronutrient (mineral deficiency) Statistics The World Health Organization publishes the Worldwide Prevalence of Anemia 1993–2005, estimating that anemia affects 1.62 billion people.[154] Worldwide
2008 Undernutrition General Study A study in Bangladesh in reports that rates of malnutrition are higher in female children than male children.[155] Bangladesh
2008 Undernutrition Statistics The World Health Organization estimates that globally, half of all cases of undernutrition in children under five are caused by unsafe water, inadequate sanitation or insufficient hygiene.[156] Worldwide
2008 Undernutrition General Organization Nourishing USA is founded. It consists of a nationwide network of more than 9500 community advocates and food rescue organizations that serves in the United States as well as Puerto Rico.[157][158] United States
2008 Undernutrition Scientific development A UNICEF UK report finds that the world's poorest and most vulnerable children are being hit the hardest by climate change. The report, Our Climate, Our Children, Our Responsibility: The Implications of Climate Change for the World's Children, says that access to clean water and food supplies will become more difficult, particularly in Africa and Asia.[159] United Kingdom
2008 Undernutrition Concept development The India State Hunger Index (ISHI) is published. It is a tool to calculate hunger and malnutrition at the regional level in India.[160] India
2008 Overnutrition Macronutrient Statistics The WHO estimates that at least 500 million adults (greater than 10%) are obese, with higher rates among women than men.[161] Worldwide
2008 General Concept development UNICEF defines: "Food and nutrition security is achieved when adequate food (quantity, quality, safety, socio-cultural acceptability) is available and accessible for and satisfactorily used and utilized by all individuals at all times to live a healthy and active life."[120]
2008 Undernutrition Statistics According to a review an estimated 178 million children under age 5 are stunted, most of whom live in sub-Saharan Africa. Another review of malnutrition finds that about 55 million children are wasted, including 19 million who have severe wasting or severe acute malnutrition.[162] Worldwide
2009 Undernutrition Statistics It is calculated that in the United States, approximately one out of six people are "food insecure", including 17 million children, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture.[163] United States
2009 General Concept development The Food and Agriculture Organization defines: "Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life".[120]
2009 General Organization The European Food Information Resource Network is established.[164] Íts purpose is the development, management, publication and exploitation of food composition data, and the promotion of international cooperation and harmonization through improved data quality, food composition database searchability and standards.[165]
2010 General Statistics As of date, malnutrition is reported to be the cause of 1.4% of all disability adjusted life years.[166]
2010 General Organization The Association for Nutrition is established. It is the voluntary regulator for nutritionists and nutrition scientists in the United Kingdom.[167] United Kingdom
2010 General Program launch The Government of the United States launches the Feed the Future Initiative, with the purpose to address global hunger and food insecurity.[168] United States
2010 Undernutritiom Organization (charity) World Central Kitchen is founded. It is a not-for-profit non-governmental organization devoted to providing meals in the wake of natural disasters.[169][170]
2010 Overnutrition Macronutrient Organization The Task Force on Childhood Obesity is established by United States President Barack Obama, with the purpose to create a comprehensive interagency national action plan to solve the challenge of childhood obesity within a generation.[171] United States
2010 Overnutrition Macronutrient Statistics More than 40% of children in the North American and eastern Mediterranean WHO regions, 38% in Europe, 27% in the Western Pacific, and 22% in Southeast Asia are predicted to be overweight or obese. [172]
2010 Undernutrition Statistics Iodine deficiency resulting in goiter occurs in 187 million people globally (2.7% of the population).[173]
2010–2012 Undernutrition Statistics With its prevalence of undernourishment (PoU) indicator, the FAO reports that almost 870 million people were chronically undernourished in this period. This represents 12.5% of the global population, or 1 in 8 people.[174]
2011 Overnutrition Macronutrient Organization EPODE International Network is founded. It is a non-governmental organization that seeks to support childhood obesity-prevention programs across the world.[175]
2011 General Concept development The Food and Agriculture Organization defines: "Food and nutrition security exists when all people at all times have physical, social and economic access to food of sufficient quantity and quality in terms of variety, diversity, nutrient content and safety to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life, coupled with a sanitary environment, adequate health, education and care."[120]
2011 Undernutrition Medical development An international consensus group adopts a definition of cachexia as “a multifactorial syndrome defined by an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass (with or without loss of fat mass) that can be partially but not entirely reversed by conventional nutritional support.”[176]
2011–2013 Undernutrition Statistics An estimated 842 million people suffer from chronic hunger in this period.[177] Worldwide
2012 General Organization The Food Assistance Convention is signed. It is the world's first legally binding international agreement on food aid.[178][179]
2012 Undernutrition Organization National Crusade Against Hunger (Mexico) is founded. A program sponsored by the Mexican government, its main purpose is to significantly reduce hunger and poverty in Mexico through social intervention, increasing the general socio economic status of the communities by the development of infrastructure.[180] Mexico
2012 Undernutrition Charity Charitable organization Vitamin Angels partners with vitamin A manufacturer DSM on distribution programs to eradicate childhood blindness by vitamin A supplementation.[181]
2012 Undernutrition Recommendation The Copenhagen Consensus recommends that efforts to combat hunger and malnutrition should be the first priority for politicians and private sector philanthropists looking to maximize the effectiveness of aid spending. They put this ahead of other priorities, like the fight against malaria and AIDS.[182] Denmark
2012–2018 Undernutrition Statistics The number of stunted children decreases from 165.8 million to 148.9 million in the period.[183] Worldwide
2013 Overnutrition Trend growth (product) Wendy’s enhances the size and names of their drinks to keep up with the demand for soda from their consumers. They 32-ounce soda “biggie” is changed to medium, adding large 42-ounce soda, and changing medium French fries to small, “biggie” to medium, and “great biggie” to large.[37]
2013 Overnutrition Macronutrient Medical development The American Medical Association classifies obesity as a chronic disease.[184] United States
2013 Overnutrition Macronutrient Statistics An estimated 2.1 billion adults are overweight, as compared with 857 million in 1980.[185] Of adults who are overweight, 31% are obese.[186] Worldwide
2013 Undernutrition Program launch Caritas International starts an initiative aimed at ending systemic hunger by 2025.[187]
2013 Undernutrition Micronutrient (vitamin deficiency) Statistics The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency is 29% in low-income and middle-income countries, remaining highest in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.[188]
2013 Undernutrition Statistics An estimated 165 million children are estimated to have stunted growth from malnutrition in the year.[189] Worldwide
2013 Undernutrition Statistics The UNICEF reports that, globally, approximately 16% of babies have low birth weight.[190]
2013 Undernutrition Statistics The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency is calculated at 29% in low-income and middle-income countries, remaining highest in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.[188]
2014 Undernutrition Statistics There are a reported 795 million undernourished people in the world in in the year, a decrease of 216 million since 1990.[106] Worldwide
2014 Undernutrition Program launch ShareTheMeal is founded. It is a crowdfunding smartphone application to fight global hunger through the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP). It enables users to make small donations to specific WFP projects and to track its progress. [191]
2014 Overnutrition Macronutrient Organization Global Energy Balance Network is founded. It is a US-based nonprofit claiming to fund research into causes of obesity.[192] United States
2014 Overnutrition Statistics As of date, approximately one billion adults or ~22% of the population of the world have hypertension.[193] Worldwide
2014 Undernutrition Organization No Food Waste is founded in India to address the problem of hunger.[194] India
2014 Overnutrition Macronutrient Program launch The World Health Organization establishes a high-level commission to end childhood obesity.[195]
2014 Overnutrition Macronutrient Policy The European Court of Justice rules that morbid obesity is a disability. The Court says that if an employee's obesity prevents him from "full and effective participation of that person in professional life on an equal basis with other workers", then it shall be considered a disability and that firing someone on such grounds is discriminatory.[196] Europe
2015 Overnutrition Statistics As of date, there are approximately 392 million people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, compared to around 30 million in 1985.[197] Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise.[198] Worldwide
2015 Undernutrition Program launch The European Union and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launch a partnership to combat undernutrition especially in children. The program initiatilly is expected to be implemented in Bangladesh, Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Laos and Niger, aiming at helping these countries to improve information and analysis about nutrition so they can develop effective national nutrition policies.[199] Worldwide
2015 Undernutrition Statistics Protein-energy malnutrition is estimated to result in 323,000 deaths worldwide.[200] Worldwide
2015 Undernutrition Statistics One in seven newborns, or 20.5 million babies globally, suffer from low birthweight in the year, with wide variations across regions, from 7.0 percent in Northern America and Europe to 17.3 percent in Asia.[183] Worldwide
2015 Undernutrition Micronutrient (mineral deficiency) Statistics Iron-deficiency anemia results in about 54,000 deaths, down from 213,000 deaths in 1990.[201][202] Worldwide
2015 Undernutrition Micronutrient (mineral deficiency) Statistics Iron-deficiency anemia affects about 1.48 billion people.[197] Worldwide
2015 Undernutrition Organization (charity) 412 Food Rescue is established.[203][204] It is a nonprofit organization dedicated to ending hunger by organizing volunteers to deliver surplus food to insecure communities instead of landfills.[205] United States
2017 Undernutrition Statistics More than 75 percent of the world’s hungry, 78 percent of the stunted children and 64 percent of the extreme poor live in middle-income countries, and only in a handful of the world’s poorest countries.[183] Developing world
2017 Undernutrition Micronutrient (vitamin deficiency) Scientific development Vitamin A deficiency. A review finds that vitamin A supplementation in children 5 years old and younger in 70 countries is associated with a 12% reduction in mortality rate.[206]
2018 Undernutrition General Statistics The United Nations estimates that there were 821 million undernourished people in the world in the year (10.8% of the total population).[207] Worldwide
2018 Overnutrition Statistics Globally, overweight affects 40.1 million children under five years of age in the year. While Asia and Africa have the lowest overweight prevalence (5.2 percent and 4.9 percent respectively), together they account for nearly three-quarters of all overweight under-fives in the world (46.9 percent in Asia and 23.8 percent in Africa).[183] Worldwide
2018 Undernutrition General Statistics Worldwide, 49.5 million children under five are affected by acute malnutrition or wasting. More than two-thirds of all wasted children under five live in Asia.[183] Worldwide
2018 Overnutrition Macronutrient Statistics The World Health Organization publishes an updated list of statistics finds that global obesity has tripled since 1975.[208] Worldwide
2019 Overnutrition Macronutrient The Lancet Commission on Obesity calls for a global treaty — modelled on the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control — committing countries to address obesity and undernutrition, explicitly excluding the food industry from policy development. They estimate the global cost of obesity US$2 trillion a year, about or 2.8% of world GDP.[209]
2020 Undernutrition General Study A research paper that maps stunting, wasting and underweight among children across 105 low- and middle-income countries finds that only five countries are expected to meet global nutrition targets in all second administrative subdivisions.[210]

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See also

External links


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