Timeline of nuclear medicine

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This is a timeline of nuclear medicine, describing significant events in the development of the field. Organizations, important conferences, journals and books are included.

Big picture

Time period Development summary
1930s The origin of nuclear medicine starts with the invention of the cyclotron by Ernest Lawrence.[1] The first uses of radioactive iodine and strontium for diagnostic purposes occur in the late decade.[2]
1950s By the 1950s, the clinical use of nuclear medicine becomes widespread as researchers increase their understanding of detecting radioactivity and using radionuclides to monitor biochemical processes.[3] The commercial use of radiopharmaceuticals begins in the decade.[2]
1980s The decade sees improvements in computer networking systems with enhanced image resolution. Rubidium is introduced for cardiac perfusion testing in the late 1980s.[2]
1990s The speed of the Internet improves through optical cabling satellite technology. New radiopharmaceuticals are introduced along with the use of FDG PET studies to assess patient response to chemotherapy treatments. The PET/CT scanner is first used on human patients.[2]

Full timeline

Year Event type Details Location
1896 Scientific development French physicist Henri Becquerel discovers that uranium emits penetrating rays similar to X-rays.[4] France
1911 Scientific development Hungarian chemist George de Hevesy, working under Ernest Rutherford at the Cavendish Laboratory, develops the idea that a radioactive substance, chemically unseparable from a stable substance, could be used as an indicator of the latter.[5] United Kingdom
1927 Field development Hermann Blumgart and Soma Weiss use Bi214 to measure circulation time from one arm to the other in both normal and abnormal patients. This is the first time a radionuclide is employed in diagnostic medicine.[5] United States
1928 American scientist Ernest Lawrence starts working at University of California in Berkeley as a nuclear physicist.[1] United States
1928 Organization The International Commission on Radiological Protection is formed.[6][7][8]
1929 Organization The U.S. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements is founded.[6] United States
1930 Scientific development American scientist Ernest Lawrence, at the University of California, Berkeley builds the first cyclotron which is only 4 inches in diameter. It involves 2 D-shaped magnets, which create a circular magnetic field, with a small gap between them. The alternating electric field accelerates the particles and causing the radius of the circular path to increase until it hits the target.[1][5] United States
1932 Scientific development British physicist James Chadwick discovers the neutron.[5] United Kingdom
1933 Scientific development Ernest Lawrence buid a machine capable of yielding a beam of 3 MeV deutrons and with an intensity equivalent to enormous quantities of radium in a Ra-Be source.[5] United States
1934 Scientofoc development Artificial radioactivity is first discovered,[3] when French physicists Frédéric Joliot-Curie and Irène Joliot-Curie are able to prove the production of an artificial radionuclide.[5] France
1935 Scientific development John H. Lawrence (Ernest Lawrence's brother), in his experiments on neutrons finds that they are far more dangerous than X-rays, resulting in the first safety measures being drawn up for the medical use of radioactive materials.[9]
1935 – 1939 Field development Use of radioactive iodine and strontium for diagnostic purposes begins.[2]
1936 Field development Hamilton and Stone in California, employ the first artificially produced radioisotope for therapeutic trials.[5] United States
1937 Scientific development Italian physicist Emilio Segrè discovers technetium from leftover molybdenum.[2] Italy
1942 Scientofoc development Italian physicist Enrico Fermi and co-workers achieve the first self-sustained nuclear chain reaction and the construction of the nuclear reactor begins.[5] United States
1946 Field development Radionuclides are first produced for medical use at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.[3] United States
1946 Field development Nuclear medicine first becomes recognized as a potential medical speciality when it is described by Samuel M. Seidlin in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Seidlin reports on the success of radioactive iodine (I-131) in treating a patient with advanced thyroid cancer.[3] Radionuclides for medical and biological research are now available for general use and the first commercial announcement is published in an issue of the journal Science.[5] United States
1947 Field development The production of radionuclides at Harwell begins in the United Kingdom, prompting the start of nuclear medicine in the Nordic countries.[5] United Kingdom
1950 Field development Diagnostic nuclear medicine begins in Sweden with the thyroid in all the university hospitals with Bengt Skanse as the pioneer.[5] Sweden
1950 Field development Commercial use of radiopharmaceuticals begin.[2]
1950 – 1955 Field development Benedict Cassen and associates develop the rectilinear scanner, a machine that permits the user to scan the distribution of radioiodine in the thyroid gland.[2]
1951 Organization The Japan Radioisotope Association is formed.[10] Japan
1952 Scientific development American electrical engineer Hal Anger at Donner Laboratory in the USA constructs a pin-hole camera for gamma-rays. With this instrument, an image of the radionuclide distribution is obtained.[5] United States
1954 Organization The Society of Nuclear Medicine is formed in Spokane, Washington.[3] United States
1957 Orgnization The National Institute of Radiological Sciences is established in Japan.[11] Japan
1959 Literature (book) Specialized textbook Diagnostic radioisotopes is published. It contains 528 references concerning iodine metabolism, thyroid function and diagnostic tests.[5]
1961 Field development The first cyclotron is installed at Washington University Medical Center.[2] United States
1964 Organization The Swiss Society for Radiation Biology is founded in Geneva.[12] Switzerland
1964 Literature The Journal of Nuclear Medicine is first issued.[13]
1966 Organization The British Nuclear Medicine Society is founded.[14] United Kingdom
1967 Organization The Society of Nuclear Medicine, India (SNM-India) is founded with the aim to promote, encourage and help the development and advancement of Nuclear Medicine as a specialty in the country.[15] India
1968 Literature (book) Principles of Nuclear Medicine, by Henry N. Wagner, is published.[16]
1970 The World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB) is founded at the third ALASBIMN Congress in Mexico City.[17] Mexico
1971 Field development The American Medical Association acknowledges nuclear medicine as an official medical specialty.[3] United States
1972 Organization The American College of Nuclear Medicine is founded to advance the science of nuclear medicine.[2] United States
1972 Organization The American Board of Nuclear Medicine is formed.[3] United States
1973 Literature The Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology is established.[18]
1974 Organization The American College of Nuclear Physicians (ACNP) is established.[2] United States
1974 Congress The First World Congress of Nuclear Medicine is held in Tokyo and Kyoto, Japan.[17] Japan
1976 Organization The American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine is founded.[19] United States
1976 Literature (journal) The European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging is first issued.[20]
1978 Congress The World Congress of Nuclear Medicine is held in Washington, D.C.. The congress is attended by approximately 1700 people.[17] United States
1979 Literature (book) Fundamentals of Nuclear Pharmacy, by Gopal B. Saha is published.[21]
1980 Organization The Chinese Nuclear Society is founded.[22] China
1980 Literature (book) James A. Sorenson publishes Physics in Nuclear Medicine.[23]
1982 Congress The World Congress of Nuclear Medicine is held in Paris.[17] France
1983 Literature (book) Fred A. Mettler, Milton J. Guiberteau publish Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Imaging.[24]
1984 Literature (journal) Peer-reviewed medical journal Magnetic Resonance in Medicine is first issued.[25]
1985 Organization The European Association of Nuclear Medicine is formed.[26]
1985 Literature (book) Pediatric Nuclear Medicine, by S.T. Treves is published.[27]
1986 The World Congress of Nuclear Medicine is held in Buenos Aires.[17] Argentina
1988 Literature (book) Ignac Fogelman publishes An Atlas of Clinical Nuclear Medicine.[28]
1989 Literature (book) Practical Nuclear Medicine, by Peter F. Sharp, is published.[29]
1990 The World Congress of Nuclear Medicine is held in Montreal.[17] Canada
1993 Organization The Society of Nuclear Medicine, Bangladesh is formed.[30] Bangladesh
1993 Literature (book) Physics and radiobiology of nuclear medicine, by Gopal B. Saha, is published.[31]
1993 Organization The American Society of Nuclear Cardiology is formed.[32] United States
1994 Congress The World Congress of Nuclear Medicine is held in Sydney.[17] Australia
1994 Literature The Journal of Nuclear Cardiology is first issued.[33]
1995 Literature (book) Harvey A. Ziessman, James H Thrall, and Janis P. O'Malley publish Nuclear Medicine: The Requisites.[34]
1996 Organization The Brazilian Society on Nuclear Biosciences is founded.[35] Brazil
1996 Organization The U.S. Certification Board of Nuclear Cardiology (CBNC) is founded by the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology to examine and certify as competent physicians working in nuclear cardiology.[2] United States
1998 Literature (book) Ramesh Chandra publishes Nuclear medicine physics.[36]
1998 The World Congress of Nuclear Medicine is held in Berlin.[17] Germany
2000 Literature (book) Nuclear Medicine Technology: Procedures and Quick Reference by Pete Shackett is published.[37]
2000 Literature (book) Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine, by Christiaan Schiepers, is published.[38]
2002 Literature (book) Nuclear Medicine Technology: Review Questions for the Board Examinations, by Abass Alavi and Karen Ramer, is published.[39]
2002 The World Congress of Nuclear Medicine is held in Santiago.[17] Chile
2002 Literature (book) Therapeutic Applications of Monte Carlo Calculations in Nuclear Medicine, by H. Zaidi and G Sgouros, is published.[40]
2002 Statistics 18.4 million nuclear medicine procedures were performed in 7,000 hospital and non-hospital provider sites in the United States.[2] United States
2004 Literature (book) Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT: Technology and Techniques by Kristen M. Waterstram-Rich and Paul Christian is published.[41]
2004 Field development Taylor et al report that indium is a very specific radionuclide that works well in detecting soft-tissue infection in the body.[2]
2006 Congress The World Congress of Nuclear Medicine is held in Seoul.[17] South Korea
2007 Literature (book) Clinical Nuclear Medicine, by Hans-Jürgen Biersack and Leonard M. Freeman, is published.[42]
2008 Congress The World Congress of Nuclear Medicine is held in Capetown.[17] South Africa
2010 Literature (book) Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation, by Jennifer Prekeges, is published.[43]
2012 Literature (book) Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, by Rahul Velez, is published.[44]
2014 Congress The World Congress of Nuclear Medicine is held in Cancun.[17] Mexico
2014 Literature (book) Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine is published.[45]
2015 Literature (book) Chirayu Shah and Marques Bradshaw publish Nuclear Medicine: A Core Review.[46]
2015 Literature (book) Diagnostic Imaging: Nuclear Medicine, by Paige Bennett and Umesh D. Oza, is published.[47]
2016 Literature (book) Quality in Nuclear Medicine, by Andor W.J.M. Glaudemans, Jitze Medema, Annie K. van Zanten, and Rudi A.J.O. Dierckx, is published.[48]
2018 Congress The World Congress of Nuclear Medicine is held in Melbourne.[17] Australia

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See also

External links

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "The History of Nuclear Medicine". bris.ac.uk. Retrieved 15 November 2018. 
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 "The Nuclear Medicine Workforce" (PDF). chwsny.org. Retrieved 3 January 2019. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 "History of Nuclear Medicine". news-medical.net. Retrieved 15 November 2018. 
  4. Rootwelt, K. "Henri Beckquerel's discovery of radioactivity, and history of nuclear medicine. 100 years in the shadow or on the shoulder of Röntgen". PMID 9019879. 
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 "A Glance At The History Of Nuclear Medicine". tandfonline.com. Retrieved 16 November 2018. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Eisenbud, Merrill; Gesell, Thomas F. Environmental Radioactivity from Natural, Industrial and Military Sources: From Natural, Industrial and Military Sources. 
  7. Biddle, Wayne. A Field Guide to Radiation. 
  8. Chicken, John C. Nuclear Power Hazard Control Policy. 
  9. "History of Nuclear Medicine". study.com. Retrieved 16 November 2018. 
  10. "Japan Radioisotope Association". jrias.or.jp. Retrieved 3 January 2019. 
  11. "National Institute of Radiological Sciences". qst.go.jp. Retrieved 3 January 2019. 
  12. "Swiss Society for Radiation Biology". ssrpm.ch. Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  13. "JNM". snmjournals.org. Retrieved 3 January 2019. 
  14. "A History of Radionuclide Studies in the UK: 50th Anniversary of the British Nuclear Medicine Society". researchgate.net. Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  15. "Society of Nuclear Medicine, India". snmicon2018.com. Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  16. "Principles of Nuclear Medicine". Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  17. 17.00 17.01 17.02 17.03 17.04 17.05 17.06 17.07 17.08 17.09 17.10 17.11 17.12 "World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology". wfnmb.org. Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  18. "JNMT". snmjournals.org. Retrieved 3 January 2019. 
  19. "The American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine". absnm.org. Retrieved 3 January 2019. 
  20. "EJNMMI – European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging". eanm.org. Retrieved 3 January 2019. 
  21. "Fundamentals of nuclear pharmacy". Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  22. Wang, Shih-Chen; Chou, Chien. "A brief overview of nuclear medicine in China". doi:10.1016/S0001-2998(89)80008-X. 
  23. "Physics in Nuclear Medicine". Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  24. Mettler, Fred A.; Guiberteau, Milton J. Essentials of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 
  25. "Magnetic Resonance in Medicine". wiley.com. Retrieved 3 January 2019. 
  26. "General Information". eanm.org. Retrieved 3 January 2019. 
  27. "Pediatric Nuclear Medicine". Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  28. "An Atlas of Clinical Nuclear Medicine". Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  29. "Practical Nuclear Medicine". Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  30. "Society of Nuclear Medicine, Bangladesh". snm-bd.org/. Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  31. "Physics and radiobiology of nuclear medicine". Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  32. "Nuclear Medicine: The Requisites". Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  33. "Journal of Nuclear Cardiology". springer.com. Retrieved 3 January 2019. 
  34. "Nuclear Medicine: The Requisites". abebooks.com. Retrieved 3 January 2019. 
  35. "Brazilian Society on Nuclear Biosciences". sbbn.org.br. Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  36. "Nuclear medicine physics". Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  37. "Nuclear Medicine Technology: Procedures and Quick Reference". Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  38. "Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine". Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  39. "Nuclear Medicine Technology: Review Questions for the Board Examinations". Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  40. "Therapeutic Applications of Monte Carlo Calculations in Nuclear Medicine". Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  41. "Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT: Technology and Techniques". Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  42. "Clinical Nuclear Medicine". Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  43. "Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation". Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  44. "Nuclear Medicine and Radiology". Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  45. "Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine". Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  46. "Nuclear Medicine: A Core Review". Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  47. "Diagnostic Imaging: Nuclear Medicine". Retrieved 17 November 2018. 
  48. "Quality in Nuclear Medicine". Retrieved 17 November 2018.