Timeline of organ transplantation
This is a timeline of organ transplantation, describing important and historic events in the development of the field.
|Time period||Development summary|
|< mid-19th century||In the 18th century, researchers already experiment with organ transplantation on animals and humans. However, until well into the 19th century, the body is seen as an individual and functional unit, which interacts with its environment. Diseases are thought to be caused by disruptions in the balance of the body’s fluids and the result of the sick person’s way of life or some other environmental factor. Treatment in those times would focus on rebalancing the body’s fluids through procedures such as vomiting, purging, and bloodletting. Within such a framework replacing an organ wouldn’t have made much sense.|
|Mid-19th century||In the second half of the century, surgeons begin to view the body as a composite of organs and tissues with specific functions and realize that surgery could be used to remove diseased tissues or restore function.|
|20th century||The 20th century is considered the golden age of transplantation. Liver, heart and pancreas transplants are successfully performed by the late 1960s, while lung and intestinal organ transplant procedures begin in the 1980s. Until the early 1980s, the potential of organ rejection limits the number of transplants performed. Medical advances in the prevention and treatment of rejection would lead to more successful transplants and an increase in demand.|
|1668||Field development||Job van Meeneren documents the first successful bone graft, whereby bone from a dog's skull is used to repair a defect in human cranium.||Netherlands|
|1674||Scientific development||Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek describes the bone structure.||Netherlands|
|1822||Field development||An early successful skin autograft (transplantation of skin from one location on patient's body to another location on their body), is performed by Berger.|
|1823||Field development||German surgeon Carl Bunger performs an early plastic surgery on woman's nose, grafting skin from her thigh.|
|1867||Literature (book)||L. Ollier in France publishes Traite experimental et clinique de la regeneration des os, a treatise showing that bone autografts are viable.||France|
|1880||Field development||Scottish gurgeon William Macewen performs the first clinical bone autograft.|
|1868||Field development||Swiss surgeon Jacques-Louis Reverdin performs the first "fresh skin" allograft (transplant from one individual to another).|
|1886||Field development||German ophthalmologist Arthur von Hippel performs the first successful human corneal transplant with retained transparency of the graft, in a lamellar procedure.|
|1893||Field development||The first pancreatic xenotransplantation is performed in London, in a 15-year-old boy.||United Kingdom|
|1905||Field development||Austrian ophtalmogolist Eduard Zirm performs the first successful human full-thickness corneal transplant.|
|1908||Field development||German surgeon Erich Lexer performs a successful cadaveric knee joint transplant.|
|1911||Field development||Dr. Yamanouchi makes the first use of homologous vein tissue in arterial reconstruction.|
|1915||Literature (book)||F.H. Albee in New York publishes The Bone Graft Wedge. Its Use in the Treatment of Relapsing, Acquired, and Congenital Dislocation of the Hip, an influential text on bone graft surgery.||United States|
|1931||Field development||Erich Lexer performs the first face lift in Germany.||Germany|
|1933||Field development||Russian surgeon Serge Voronof performs the first human allograft (kidney from mother to son) without the benefit of tissue typing.|
|1949||Organization||The United States Navy establishes first tissue bank in the country at Bethesda, Maryland.||United States|
|1954||Field development||American plastic surgeon Joseph Murray at Peter Brent Brigham Hospital in Boston performs the first successful kidney transplantation from one identical twin to another without using anti-rejection drugs. Ronald Lee Herrick becomes the first living organ donor in a successful transplant, who donates a kidney to his identical twin brother.||United States|
|1955||Field development||Dr. Gordon Murray conducts the first fresh heart allograft put into descending aorta.|
|1955||Literature (journal)||ASAIO Journal is established. It features research and development of artificial organs.|
|1956||Field development||Shaw and Weelock conduct a frozen venous allograft for femoral bypass.|
|1962||Field development||Sir Brian Barratt-Boyes from New Zealand and South African-born Dr. Donald Ross in Great Britain, conduct first fresh heart valve transplants in cardiac position.|
|1963||Literature (journal)||Medical journal Transplantation is established.|
|1963||Field development||American physician Thomas Starzl performs the first liver transplant at the University of Colorado, Denver.||United States|
|1964||Field development||Dr. James Hardy from University of Mississippi, Jackson, performs the first lung transplant.||United States|
|1964||Field development||Roberto Gilbert Elizalde performs the world's first hand transplant in Guayaquil, Ecuador. However, the graft would fail in three weeks.||Ecuador|
|1966||Field development||The first successful pancreas/kidney transplant is performed by drs. Richard Lillehei and William Kelly a the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.||United States|
|1966||Field development||The first attempt to cure type 1 diabetes by pancreas transplantation is done at the University of Minnesota, in Minneapolis, followed by a series of whole pancreas transplantation.||United States|
|1967||Field development||The first reported human intestinal transplant is performed by Lillihei and coworkers. Before 1970, eight clinical cases of small-intestine transplantation would be reportedly performed worldwide; maximum graft survival time being 79 days, and all patients dying of technical complications, sepsis, or rejection.|
|1967||Field development||Lebanese-American cardiovascular surgeon Michael DeBakey manages to implant an artificial left ventricle device of his design in a patient at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston.||United States|
|1967||Field development||The First successful liver transplant is performed by Dr. Thomas Starzl, at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver.||United States|
|1967||Field development||South African surgeon Christiaan Barnard performs the first human heart transplant at Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town.||South Africa|
|1968||Field development||The first successful isolated pancreas transplant is performed by Dr. Richard Lillehei, at University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.||United States|
|1968||Field development||American surgeon Norman Shumway at Stanford University Hospital performs the first adult heart transplantation in the United States.||United States|
|1968||Field development||Edison Teixeira in Brazil performs the first isolated segmental pancreas transplant.||Brazil|
|1969||Field development||Dr. Lillche, at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, performs an early pancreas transplant.||United States|
|1969||Literature (journal)||Medical journal Transplantation Proceedings is established.|
|1969||Field development||The liotta-Cooley Artificial Heart, developed by Argentine surgeon Domingo Liotta, is implanted by American surgeon Denton Cooley. It is the first completely artificial heart in a human.||United States|
|1970s||Field development||Dr. Mark O’Brien from Australia and Dr. William Angell from the Stanford Medical Center, Palo Alto, California, make first use of cryopreserved (frozen) heart valves.||United States|
|1972||Field development||Cryopreserved human skin allografts are introduced.|
|1973||Field development||Dent and Weber make use of cryopreserved venous allograft.|
|1978||Drug||Cyclosporin is introduced into the clinical arena of transplantation, thus revolutionizing medical management after transplantation and improving early graft survival siignificantly.|
|1981||The first successful heart-lung transplant is performed by Dr. Bruce Reitz at Stanford University Hospital, Stanford,||United States|
|1981||Field development||Norman Shumway performs the first heart/lung transplant, at Stanford Medical Center, Palo Alto, California.||United States|
|1982||Field development||The first permanent artificial heart, designed by Dr. Robert Jarvik, is implanted.||United States|
|1983||Field development||The first successful single-lung transplant is performed by dr. Joel D. Cooper from Toronto General Hospital.||Canada|
|1983||Drug||Cyclosporine is introduced. It is the first of a number of drugs that effectively treat organ rejection by suppressing the human immune system.|
|1984||Field development||The world's first successful pediatric heart transplant is performed at Columbia on a four-year-old boy.||United States|
|1984||Policy||The U.S. National Organ Transplant Act makes organ sales illegal.||United States|
|1985||Policy||The World Medical Authority's denounces organs for commercial use.|
|1986||Field development||The first successful double-lung transplant is performed by dr. Joel Cooper from Toronto General Hospital.||Canada|
|1986||Literature (journal)||Peer-reviewed medical journal Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation is established.|
|1986||Literature (journal)||Peer-reviewed medical journal Bone Marrow Transplantation is established.|
|1987||Extended survival of an intestinal transplant recipient is first accomplished when a 3½-year-old girl lives for 192 days after receiving a multiorgan transplant for short-gut syndrome and TPN-induced liver failure.|
|1987||Policy||The World Health Organization first declares organ trade illegal, stating that such a trade violates the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.|
|1987||Field development||The first intestine transplant is performed by Dr. Thomas Starzl.||United States|
|1988||Field development||Deltz and coworkers in Kiel, Germany, perform what is considered to be the first successful intestinal transplant.||Germany|
|1988||Field development||A split liver transplantation (SLT), in which a deceased donor liver is divided into two parts for two recipients, is first described by Pichlmayr.|
|1989||Statistics||200,000 tissue transplants are performed in the United States in the year.||United States|
|1989||Field development||The first successful living-related liver transplant is performed by dr. Christoph Broelsch, at the University of Chicago Medical Center.||United States|
|1989||Policy||The Human Organ Transplant Act of the United Kingdom first makes the organ sales illegal.||United Kingdom|
|1990||Field development||The first successful living-related lung transplant is performed by dr. Vaughn A. Starnes at Stanford University Medical Center.||United States|
|1993||Field development||The first adult-to-adult living donor liver transplant (LDLT) is performed in Hong Kong.||Hong Kong|
|1994||Drug||Tacrolimus or FK-506, originally discovered in a fungus sample, is approved for immunosuppression in transplant patients.|
|1998||Literature (journal)||Medical journal Xenotransplantation is established.|
|1996||Statistics||500,000 tissue transplants are performed in the United States in the year.||United States|
|1996||Literature (journal)||Quarterly peer-reviewed medical journal Annals of Transplantation is established.|
|1997||Literature (journal)||Peer-reviewed medical journal Pediatric Transplantation is established.|
|1998||Field development||A pioneering hand transplantation is performed in Lyon, France, by an international team of surgeons. Since then, hand transplantation programs would be launched in the United States, China, Italy, Austria and Belgium.||France|
|1999||Literature (journal)||The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation publishes its first issue.|
|2001||Literature (journal)||The American Journal of Transplantation is established.||United States|
|2005||Field development||The first successful partial face transplant is performed in France.||France|
|2005||Literature||Mark Cherry publishes Kidney for sale by owner, which advocates using markets to increase the supply of organs available for transplantation.|
|2006||Field development||Eric M. Genden at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, conducts the first jaw transplant to combine donor jaw with bone marrow from the patient.|
|2006||Policy||Iran becomes the only country to legally allow individuals to sell their kidneys, with a market price of the order of US$2,000 to US$4,000.||Iran|
|2006||Policy||China makes selling of organs illegal.||China|
|2008||Field development||The first successful complete full double arm transplant is performed by Edgar Biemer, Christoph Höhnke and Manfred Stangl at the Technical University of Munich.||Germany|
|2008||Field development||The first baby is born from transplanted ovary.|
|2008||Field development||the world's first tissue-engineered whole organ transplant - using a windpipe made with the patient's own stem cells, is performed by Paolo Macchiarini in Barcelona.||Spain|
|2008||Field development||Polish transplant surgeon Maria Siemionow in Cleveland, Ohio, performs the first successful transplantation of near total area (80%) of face, (including palate, nose, cheeks, and eyelid.|
|2008||Policy||The Declaration of Istanbul is created at the Istanbul Summit on Organ Trafficking and Transplant Tourism. It clarifies the issues of transplant tourism, trafficking and commercialism and provides ethical guidelines for practice in organ donation and transplantation.||Turkey|
|2010||Field development||The first full facial transplant is performed by Dr Joan Pere Barret and team at the Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron in Barcelona.||Spain|
|2011||Field development||The first double leg transplant is performed by Dr. Cavadas and team at Valencia's Hospital La Fe, Spain.||Spain|
|2014||Field development||The first child is born after uterus transplantation at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden.||Sweden|
|2015||Field development||The world's first successful penis transplant is reported by a surgical team in South Africa.||South Africa|
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