Timeline of organ transplantation

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This is a timeline of organ transplantation, describing important and historic events in the development of the field.

Big picture

Time period Development summary
< mid-19th century In the 18th century, researchers already experiment with organ transplantation on animals and humans.[1] However, until well into the 19th century, the body is seen as an individual and functional unit, which interacts with its environment. Diseases are thought to be caused by disruptions in the balance of the body’s fluids and the result of the sick person’s way of life or some other environmental factor. Treatment in those times would focus on rebalancing the body’s fluids through procedures such as vomiting, purging, and bloodletting. Within such a framework replacing an organ wouldn’t have made much sense.[2]
Mid-19th century In the second half of the century, surgeons begin to view the body as a composite of organs and tissues with specific functions and realize that surgery could be used to remove diseased tissues or restore function.[2]
20th century The 20th century is considered the golden age of transplantation.[3] Liver, heart and pancreas transplants are successfully performed by the late 1960s, while lung and intestinal organ transplant procedures begin in the 1980s. Until the early 1980s, the potential of organ rejection limits the number of transplants performed. Medical advances in the prevention and treatment of rejection would lead to more successful transplants and an increase in demand.[4]

Full timeline

Year Event type Details
1668 Field development Job van Meeneren documents the first successful bone graft, whereby bone from a dog's skull is used to repair a defect in human cranium.[5] Netherlands
1674 Scientific development Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek describes the bone structure.[5] Netherlands
1822 Field development An early successful skin autograft (transplantation of skin from one location on patient's body to another location on their body), is performed by Berger.[5]
1823 Field development German surgeon Carl Bunger performs an early plastic surgery on woman's nose, grafting skin from her thigh.[6]
1867 Literature (book) L. Ollier in France publishes Traite experimental et clinique de la regeneration des os, a treatise showing that bone autografts are viable.[5][7] France
1880 Field development Scottish gurgeon William Macewen performs the first clinical bone autograft.[5]
1868 Field development Swiss surgeon Jacques-Louis Reverdin performs the first "fresh skin" allograft (transplant from one individual to another).[5]
1886 Field development German ophthalmologist Arthur von Hippel performs the first successful human corneal transplant with retained transparency of the graft, in a lamellar procedure.[8]
1893 Field development The first pancreatic xenotransplantation is performed in London, in a 15-year-old boy.[9] United Kingdom
1905 Field development Austrian ophtalmogolist Eduard Zirm performs the first successful human full-thickness corneal transplant.[10][3]
1908 Field development German surgeon Erich Lexer performs a successful cadaveric knee joint transplant.[5]
1911 Field development Dr. Yamanouchi makes the first use of homologous vein tissue in arterial reconstruction.[5]
1915 Literature (book) F.H. Albee in New York publishes The Bone Graft Wedge. Its Use in the Treatment of Relapsing, Acquired, and Congenital Dislocation of the Hip, an influential text on bone graft surgery.[5][11] United States
1931 Field development Erich Lexer performs the first face lift in Germany.[12] Germany
1933 Field development Russian surgeon Serge Voronof performs the first human allograft (kidney from mother to son) without the benefit of tissue typing.[13]
1949 Organization The United States Navy establishes first tissue bank in the country at Bethesda, Maryland.[5][14] United States
1954 Field development American plastic surgeon Joseph Murray at Peter Brent Brigham Hospital in Boston performs the first successful kidney transplantation from one identical twin to another without using anti-rejection drugs.[4][5][15] Ronald Lee Herrick becomes the first living organ donor in a successful transplant, who donates a kidney to his identical twin brother.[16] United States
1955 Field development Dr. Gordon Murray conducts the first fresh heart allograft put into descending aorta.[5]
1955 Literature (journal) ASAIO Journal is established. It features research and development of artificial organs.[17]
1956 Field development Shaw and Weelock conduct a frozen venous allograft for femoral bypass.[5]
1962 Field development Sir Brian Barratt-Boyes from New Zealand and South African-born Dr. Donald Ross in Great Britain, conduct first fresh heart valve transplants in cardiac position.[5]
1963 Literature (journal) Medical journal Transplantation is established.[18]
1963 Field development American physician Thomas Starzl performs the first liver transplant at the University of Colorado, Denver.[5][19][3] United States
1964 Field development Dr. James Hardy from University of Mississippi, Jackson, performs the first lung transplant.[5] United States
1964 Field development Roberto Gilbert Elizalde performs the world's first hand transplant in Guayaquil, Ecuador. However, the graft would fail in three weeks.[20] Ecuador
1966 Field development The first successful pancreas/kidney transplant is performed by drs. Richard Lillehei and William Kelly a the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.[4][15] United States
1966 Field development The first attempt to cure type 1 diabetes by pancreas transplantation is done at the University of Minnesota, in Minneapolis, followed by a series of whole pancreas transplantation.[21] United States
1967 Field development The first reported human intestinal transplant is performed by Lillihei and coworkers. Before 1970, eight clinical cases of small-intestine transplantation would be reportedly performed worldwide; maximum graft survival time being 79 days, and all patients dying of technical complications, sepsis, or rejection.[22]
1967 Field development Lebanese-American cardiovascular surgeon Michael DeBakey manages to implant an artificial left ventricle device of his design in a patient at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston.[23] United States
1967 Field development The First successful liver transplant is performed by Dr. Thomas Starzl, at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver.[15][4] United States
1967 Field development South African surgeon Christiaan Barnard performs the first human heart transplant at Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town.[24][25] South Africa
1968 Field development The first successful isolated pancreas transplant is performed by Dr. Richard Lillehei, at University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.[15][4] United States
1968 Field development American surgeon Norman Shumway at Stanford University Hospital performs the first adult heart transplantation in the United States.[26][4][15] United States
1968 Field development Edison Teixeira in Brazil performs the first isolated segmental pancreas transplant.[27] Brazil
1969 Field development Dr. Lillche, at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, performs an early pancreas transplant.[5] United States
1969 Literature (journal) Medical journal Transplantation Proceedings is established.[28]
1969 Field development The liotta-Cooley Artificial Heart, developed by Argentine surgeon Domingo Liotta, is implanted by American surgeon Denton Cooley. It is the first completely artificial heart in a human.[29][30] United States
1970s Field development Dr. Mark O’Brien from Australia and Dr. William Angell from the Stanford Medical Center, Palo Alto, California, make first use of cryopreserved (frozen) heart valves.[5] United States
1972 Field development Cryopreserved human skin allografts are introduced.[5][6]
1973 Field development Dent and Weber make use of cryopreserved venous allograft.[5]
1978 Drug Cyclosporin is introduced into the clinical arena of transplantation, thus revolutionizing medical management after transplantation and improving early graft survival siignificantly.[31]
1981 The first successful heart-lung transplant is performed by Dr. Bruce Reitz at Stanford University Hospital, Stanford,[4][15] United States
1981 Field development Norman Shumway performs the first heart/lung transplant, at Stanford Medical Center, Palo Alto, California.[5] United States
1982 Field development The first permanent artificial heart, designed by Dr. Robert Jarvik, is implanted.[23] United States
1983 Field development The first successful single-lung transplant is performed by dr. Joel D. Cooper from Toronto General Hospital.[4][15] Canada
1983 Drug Cyclosporine is introduced. It is the first of a number of drugs that effectively treat organ rejection by suppressing the human immune system.[4]
1984 Field development The world's first successful pediatric heart transplant is performed at Columbia on a four-year-old boy.[23] United States
1984 Policy The U.S. National Organ Transplant Act makes organ sales illegal.[32] United States
1985 Policy The World Medical Authority's denounces organs for commercial use.[33]
1986 Field development The first successful double-lung transplant is performed by dr. Joel Cooper from Toronto General Hospital.[4][15] Canada
1986 Literature (journal) Peer-reviewed medical journal Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation is established.[34]
1986 Literature (journal) Peer-reviewed medical journal Bone Marrow Transplantation is established.[35]
1987 Extended survival of an intestinal transplant recipient is first accomplished when a 3½-year-old girl lives for 192 days after receiving a multiorgan transplant for short-gut syndrome and TPN-induced liver failure.[36]
1987 Policy The World Health Organization first declares organ trade illegal, stating that such a trade violates the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.[37]
1987 Field development The first intestine transplant is performed by Dr. Thomas Starzl.[3] United States
1988 Field development Deltz and coworkers in Kiel, Germany, perform what is considered to be the first successful intestinal transplant.[22] Germany
1988 Field development A split liver transplantation (SLT), in which a deceased donor liver is divided into two parts for two recipients, is first described by Pichlmayr.[38]
1989 Statistics 200,000 tissue transplants are performed in the United States in the year.[5] United States
1989 Field development The first successful living-related liver transplant is performed by dr. Christoph Broelsch, at the University of Chicago Medical Center.[4][15] United States
1989 Policy The Human Organ Transplant Act of the United Kingdom first makes the organ sales illegal.[32] United Kingdom
1990 Field development The first successful living-related lung transplant is performed by dr. Vaughn A. Starnes at Stanford University Medical Center.[4][15] United States
1993 Field development The first adult-to-adult living donor liver transplant (LDLT) is performed in Hong Kong.[39] Hong Kong
1994 Drug Tacrolimus or FK-506, originally discovered in a fungus sample, is approved for immunosuppression in transplant patients.[23]
1998 Literature (journal) Medical journal Xenotransplantation is established.[40]
1996 Statistics 500,000 tissue transplants are performed in the United States in the year.[5] United States
1996 Literature (journal) Quarterly peer-reviewed medical journal Annals of Transplantation is established.[41]
1997 Literature (journal) Peer-reviewed medical journal Pediatric Transplantation is established.[42]
1998 Field development A pioneering hand transplantation is performed in Lyon, France, by an international team of surgeons. Since then, hand transplantation programs would be launched in the United States, China, Italy, Austria and Belgium.[43] France
1999 Literature (journal) The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation publishes its first issue.[44]
2001 Literature (journal) The American Journal of Transplantation is established.[45] United States
2005 Field development The first successful partial face transplant is performed in France.[46] France
2005 Literature Mark Cherry publishes Kidney for sale by owner, which advocates using markets to increase the supply of organs available for transplantation.[32]
2006 Field development Eric M. Genden at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, conducts the first jaw transplant to combine donor jaw with bone marrow from the patient.[5]
2006 Policy Iran becomes the only country to legally allow individuals to sell their kidneys, with a market price of the order of US$2,000 to US$4,000.[32] Iran
2006 Policy China makes selling of organs illegal.[32] China
2008 Field development The first successful complete full double arm transplant is performed by Edgar Biemer, Christoph Höhnke and Manfred Stangl at the Technical University of Munich.[5] Germany
2008 Field development The first baby is born from transplanted ovary.[47][5]
2008 Field development the world's first tissue-engineered whole organ transplant - using a windpipe made with the patient's own stem cells, is performed by Paolo Macchiarini in Barcelona.[48] Spain
2008 Field development Polish transplant surgeon Maria Siemionow in Cleveland, Ohio, performs the first successful transplantation of near total area (80%) of face, (including palate, nose, cheeks, and eyelid.[5]
2008 Policy The Declaration of Istanbul is created at the Istanbul Summit on Organ Trafficking and Transplant Tourism. It clarifies the issues of transplant tourism, trafficking and commercialism and provides ethical guidelines for practice in organ donation and transplantation.[49] Turkey
2010 Field development The first full facial transplant is performed by Dr Joan Pere Barret and team at the Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron in Barcelona.[5][50] Spain
2011 Field development The first double leg transplant is performed by Dr. Cavadas and team at Valencia's Hospital La Fe, Spain.[5][51] Spain
2014 Field development The first child is born after uterus transplantation at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden.[52] Sweden
2015 Field development The world's first successful penis transplant is reported by a surgical team in South Africa.[53] South Africa

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See also

External links


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