Difference between revisions of "Timeline of pollution in Beijing"

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! Time period !! Development summary   
 
! Time period !! Development summary   
 
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| 1990s || Air pollution in Beijing becomes very severe.<ref name="Improving Urban Air Quality in China: Beijing Case Study">{{cite web |title=Improving Urban Air Quality in China: Beijing Case Study |url=https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/10473289.2005.10464726 |website=tandfonline.com |accessdate=13 May 2019}}</ref>
+
| 1970s || Environmental protection starts in the late decade in China and Beijing.<ref name="Air pollution control in Beijing"/> 
 +
|-
 +
| 1990s || Air pollution in Beijing becomes very severe.<ref name="Improving Urban Air Quality in China: Beijing Case Study">{{cite web |title=Improving Urban Air Quality in China: Beijing Case Study |url=https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/10473289.2005.10464726 |website=tandfonline.com |accessdate=13 May 2019}}</ref> By the late decade, the ambient concentrations of pollutants including {{w|sulfur dioxide}} and total [[w:Suspended solids|suspended particles]] in Beijing seriously exceed Chinese national air quality standards.<ref name="Air pollution control in Beijing"/>   
 
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|}
 
|}
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|-
 
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| 1998 || || {{w|Air pollution}} || Program || Beijing begins an intensified air pollution control program, and begins to publish weekly air quality reports.<ref>{{cite web |title=A review of 20 Years’ Air Pollution Control in Beijing |url=https://www.unenvironment.org/resources/report/review-20-years-air-pollution-control-beijing |website=unenvironment.org |accessdate=13 June 2019}}</ref><ref name="Improving Urban Air Quality in China: Beijing Case Study"/>
 
| 1998 || || {{w|Air pollution}} || Program || Beijing begins an intensified air pollution control program, and begins to publish weekly air quality reports.<ref>{{cite web |title=A review of 20 Years’ Air Pollution Control in Beijing |url=https://www.unenvironment.org/resources/report/review-20-years-air-pollution-control-beijing |website=unenvironment.org |accessdate=13 June 2019}}</ref><ref name="Improving Urban Air Quality in China: Beijing Case Study"/>
 +
|-
 +
| 1998 || || {{w|Air pollution}} || Policy || Beijing launches the first local government air pollution control program in China. Hundreds of concrete measures are implemented targeting at key pollution sources of particulate matter and soot, namely coal consumption, industrial emissions, motor vehicle emissions, and dust.<ref name="Air pollution control in Beijing"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2008–2009 || || || || Air quality in Beijing improves significantly during and after the Olympics, but most of the effect fades away by the end of October 2009.<ref name="Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects">{{cite journal |last1=Jin |first1=Yana |last2=Andersson |first2=Henrik |last3=Zhang |first3=Shiqiu |title=Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects |doi=10.3390/ijerph13121219 |pmid=27941665 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5201360/ |pmc=5201360}}</ref>
 
| 2008–2009 || || || || Air quality in Beijing improves significantly during and after the Olympics, but most of the effect fades away by the end of October 2009.<ref name="Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects">{{cite journal |last1=Jin |first1=Yana |last2=Andersson |first2=Henrik |last3=Zhang |first3=Shiqiu |title=Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects |doi=10.3390/ijerph13121219 |pmid=27941665 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5201360/ |pmc=5201360}}</ref>
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| 2001 || January 1 || {{w|Air pollution}} || || Beijing introduces emission standard for exhaust emissions from motorcycles and mopeds.<ref name="Improving Urban Air Quality in China: Beijing Case Study"/>
 
| 2001 || January 1 || {{w|Air pollution}} || || Beijing introduces emission standard for exhaust emissions from motorcycles and mopeds.<ref name="Improving Urban Air Quality in China: Beijing Case Study"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2002 || March 1 || {{w|Air pollution}} || || Beijing introduces integrated emission standard of boilers pollutants.<ref name="Improving Urban Air Quality in China: Beijing Case Study"/>
+
| 2002 || March 1 || {{w|Air pollution}} || Policy || Beijing introduces integrated emission standard of boilers pollutants.<ref name="Improving Urban Air Quality in China: Beijing Case Study"/> Subsidies for urban coalfired boiler renovation are introduced.<ref name="Air pollution control in Beijing"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2003 || || {{w|Air pollution}} || || Euro-II emission standards are implemented for new vehicles in Beijing.<ref name="Improving Urban Air Quality in China: Beijing Case Study"/>
 
| 2003 || || {{w|Air pollution}} || || Euro-II emission standards are implemented for new vehicles in Beijing.<ref name="Improving Urban Air Quality in China: Beijing Case Study"/>
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|-
 
|-
 
| 2003 || October 1 || {{w|Air pollution}} || || Beijing adopts emission controls and limits for oil-gas from gas stations, emission controls and measurement standard for oil-gas from fuel depots, and emission controls and measurement standard for oil-gas from tank trucks.<ref name="Improving Urban Air Quality in China: Beijing Case Study"/>
 
| 2003 || October 1 || {{w|Air pollution}} || || Beijing adopts emission controls and limits for oil-gas from gas stations, emission controls and measurement standard for oil-gas from fuel depots, and emission controls and measurement standard for oil-gas from tank trucks.<ref name="Improving Urban Air Quality in China: Beijing Case Study"/>
 +
|-
 +
| 2005 || || {{w|Air pollution}} || Policy || Beijing introduces subsidies for phasing out old and used buses and taxies. Low electricity tariffs and subsidies for demonstration areas of coal-to-electricity transformation are introduced, as well as extension of the subsidies to city-wide boiler renovation.<ref name="Air pollution control in Beijing"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2008 || January || {{w|Air pollution}} || || Beijing becomes the first city in China to require the Chinese equivalent to the Euro 4 {{w|emission standard}}.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.automotiveworld.com/AEM/content.asp?contentid=65589 |title=China: Beijing launches Euro 4 standards |publisher=Automotiveworld.com |date=4 January 2008 |accessdate=1 June 2010 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100427051912/http://www.automotiveworld.com/news/emerging-markets/65589-china-beijing-launches-euro-4-standards |archive-date=27 April 2010}}</ref>
 
| 2008 || January || {{w|Air pollution}} || || Beijing becomes the first city in China to require the Chinese equivalent to the Euro 4 {{w|emission standard}}.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.automotiveworld.com/AEM/content.asp?contentid=65589 |title=China: Beijing launches Euro 4 standards |publisher=Automotiveworld.com |date=4 January 2008 |accessdate=1 June 2010 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100427051912/http://www.automotiveworld.com/news/emerging-markets/65589-china-beijing-launches-euro-4-standards |archive-date=27 April 2010}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2008 || || || || Beijing holds the Olympic Games, and starts policy to eradicate cockroaches, flies, and mosquitoes in a bid to make the city cleaner and more “civilized.” <ref name="Beijing Urbanizes"/>
 
| 2008 || || || || Beijing holds the Olympic Games, and starts policy to eradicate cockroaches, flies, and mosquitoes in a bid to make the city cleaner and more “civilized.” <ref name="Beijing Urbanizes"/>
 +
|-
 +
| 2008 || || General || Program || A number of subsidies up to a maximum of 3 million Yuan are granted for the closing of high-polluting, energy-intensive and water-intensive enterprises and the upgrading of production processes and equipment.<ref name="Air pollution control in Beijing"/>
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 || || {{w|Air pollution}} || Policy || Beijing introduces subsidies for early retirement or transfer of vehicles and for resident purchase of electric heating equipment.<ref name="Air pollution control in Beijing"/>
 +
|-
 +
| 2010 || || {{w|Air pollution}} || Policy || Beijing introduces solar collector subsidies and expansion of subsidies to coal-fired boilers over 14MV.<ref name="Air pollution control in Beijing"/>
 +
|-
 +
| 2011 || || {{w|Air pollution}} || Policy || Beijing introduces subsidies for purchase of electric vehicles for taxi or postal services; battery leasing and charging subsidies for electric buses and sanitation vehicles. Authorities also introduce subsidy for loan interest for buying new clean trucks.<ref name="Air pollution control in Beijing"/>
 +
|-
 +
| 2012 || || {{w|Air pollution}} || Policy || Beijing increases subsidies for early retirement of vehicles.<ref name="Air pollution control in Beijing"/>
 +
|-
 +
| 2012 || || {{w|Air pollution}} || Policy || Beijing cumulates 18 implemented phases of the air pollution control programs based on the requirements of the five-year plan for environmental protection, including two phases for some years (heating season and non-heating season) during 1998-2010 and one phase per year during 2011-2012.<ref name="Air pollution control in Beijing"/>
 +
|-
 +
| 2013 || || {{w|Air pollution}} || Policy || Beijing introduces subsidies for electric passenger vehicles, industry-purpose vehicles and fuel-cell vehicles. Authorities also introduce heat pump construction subsidies.<ref name="Air pollution control in Beijing"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2013 || || {{w|Air pollution}} || || As part pof a campaign, Beijing starts phasing out coal-fired stoves in the city. Natural gas and other forms of clean energy are used to replace coal.<ref name="Beijing, northern China hit by worst pollution this year">{{cite web |title=Beijing, northern China hit by worst pollution this year|url=https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/environment/pollution/beijing-northern-china-hit-by-worst-pollution-this-year/articleshow/66618105.cms |website=economictimes.indiatimes.com |accessdate=12 May 2019}}</ref>  
 
| 2013 || || {{w|Air pollution}} || || As part pof a campaign, Beijing starts phasing out coal-fired stoves in the city. Natural gas and other forms of clean energy are used to replace coal.<ref name="Beijing, northern China hit by worst pollution this year">{{cite web |title=Beijing, northern China hit by worst pollution this year|url=https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/environment/pollution/beijing-northern-china-hit-by-worst-pollution-this-year/articleshow/66618105.cms |website=economictimes.indiatimes.com |accessdate=12 May 2019}}</ref>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2013 || || {{w|Air pollution}} || || "In January 2013, Beijing experienced a prolonged bout of smog so severe that citizens dubbed it an “airpocalypse”; the concentration of hazardous particles was forty times the level deemed safe by the World Health Organization (WHO)." <ref name="China’s Environmental Crisis">{{cite web |title=China’s Environmental Crisis |url=https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/chinas-environmental-crisis |website=cfr.org |accessdate=13 May 2019}}</ref>
+
| 2013 || January || {{w|Air pollution}} || Crisis || Beijing experiences a prolonged bout of smog so severe that citizens dub it an “airpocalypse”; the concentration of hazardous particles reaches forty times the level deemed safe by the {{w|World Health Organization}}.<ref name="China’s Environmental Crisis">{{cite web |title=China’s Environmental Crisis |url=https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/chinas-environmental-crisis |website=cfr.org |accessdate=13 May 2019}}</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| 2013 || || {{w|Air pollution}} || Infrastructure || A total of 35 ambient air quality monitoring stations which can monitor 6 major pollutants such as PM2.5 and O3, are installed across Beijing.<ref name="Air pollution control in Beijing"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2013 || || {{w|Air pollution}} || || A total of 35 ambient air quality monitoring stations which can monitor 6 major pollutants such as PM2.5 and O3, are installed across Beijing.<ref name="Air pollution control in Beijing"/>
+
| 2013 || December || {{w|Air pollution}} || || Beijing is asked to lead the establishment of the Mechanism for Coordinated Prevention and Control of Air Pollution in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and Surrounding Areas with the support of China’s State Council.<ref name="Air pollution control in Beijing"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2013 || December || || || Beijing is asked to lead the establishment of the Mechanism for Coordinated Prevention and Control of Air Pollution in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and Surrounding Areas with the support of China’s State Council.<ref name="Air pollution control in Beijing"/>
+
| 2014 || || {{w|Air pollution}} || Policy || Beijing introduces subsidies for environmental-friendly technological transformation, for the closing of polluting enterprises, and for individual purchase of electric passenger vehicles and fuel-cell vehicles. Construction waste transportation vehicle reconstruction assistance is introduced. Authorities also increase subsidies for suburban coal-fired boiler renovation.<ref name="Air pollution control in Beijing"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2015 || December || {{w|Air pollution}} || || "In December 2015, Beijing issued red alerts for severe pollution—the first since the emergency alert system was established. The municipal government closed schools, limited road traffic, halted outdoor construction, and paused factory manufacturing. "<ref name="China’s Environmental Crisis"/>
 
| 2015 || December || {{w|Air pollution}} || || "In December 2015, Beijing issued red alerts for severe pollution—the first since the emergency alert system was established. The municipal government closed schools, limited road traffic, halted outdoor construction, and paused factory manufacturing. "<ref name="China’s Environmental Crisis"/>

Latest revision as of 16:19, 13 June 2019

This is a timeline of FIXME.

Big picture

Time period Development summary
1970s Environmental protection starts in the late decade in China and Beijing.[1]
1990s Air pollution in Beijing becomes very severe.[2] By the late decade, the ambient concentrations of pollutants including sulfur dioxide and total suspended particles in Beijing seriously exceed Chinese national air quality standards.[1]

Full timeline

Year Month and date Category Event type Details
1980s Beijing starts to build its air quality monitoring system.[1]
1986 Air pollution Beijing experiences photochemical smog in the summer.[3]
1988 Beijing’s municipal government maintains a preventative policy of eradicating the rodents, which would dramatically reduce rat numbers.[4]
1998 Air pollution Program Beijing begins an intensified air pollution control program, and begins to publish weekly air quality reports.[5][2]
1998 Air pollution Policy Beijing launches the first local government air pollution control program in China. Hundreds of concrete measures are implemented targeting at key pollution sources of particulate matter and soot, namely coal consumption, industrial emissions, motor vehicle emissions, and dust.[1]
2008–2009 Air quality in Beijing improves significantly during and after the Olympics, but most of the effect fades away by the end of October 2009.[6]
1999 January 1 Policy Beijing introduces emission standard for exhaust pollutants from light-duty vehicles.[2]
1999 April 1 Policy Beijing introduces mission standard for pollutants at double idle speed from vehicle with petrol engine, and for smoke at free acceleration from farm vehicles.[2]
2000 Air pollution Beijing starts publishing daily reports on its air quality.[7]
2001 January 1 Air pollution Beijing introduces emission standard for exhaust emissions from motorcycles and mopeds.[2]
2002 March 1 Air pollution Policy Beijing introduces integrated emission standard of boilers pollutants.[2] Subsidies for urban coalfired boiler renovation are introduced.[1]
2003 Air pollution Euro-II emission standards are implemented for new vehicles in Beijing.[2]
2003 Air pollution Beijing adopts limits and measurement methods for exhaust smoke under lugdown test from agricultural vehicles, motorcycles and mopeds under steady-state loaded mode, exhaust pollutants from gasoline vehicles

under steady-state loaded mode, and exhaust smoke standard for diesel vehicle under lug-down test.[2]

2003 April 1 Air pollution Beijing adopts limits and measurement methods for exhaust pollutants from nonroad diesel engines.[2]
2003 October 1 Air pollution Beijing adopts emission controls and limits for oil-gas from gas stations, emission controls and measurement standard for oil-gas from fuel depots, and emission controls and measurement standard for oil-gas from tank trucks.[2]
2005 Air pollution Policy Beijing introduces subsidies for phasing out old and used buses and taxies. Low electricity tariffs and subsidies for demonstration areas of coal-to-electricity transformation are introduced, as well as extension of the subsidies to city-wide boiler renovation.[1]
2008 January Air pollution Beijing becomes the first city in China to require the Chinese equivalent to the Euro 4 emission standard.[8]
2008 Beijing holds the Olympic Games, and starts policy to eradicate cockroaches, flies, and mosquitoes in a bid to make the city cleaner and more “civilized.” [4]
2008 General Program A number of subsidies up to a maximum of 3 million Yuan are granted for the closing of high-polluting, energy-intensive and water-intensive enterprises and the upgrading of production processes and equipment.[1]
2009 Air pollution Policy Beijing introduces subsidies for early retirement or transfer of vehicles and for resident purchase of electric heating equipment.[1]
2010 Air pollution Policy Beijing introduces solar collector subsidies and expansion of subsidies to coal-fired boilers over 14MV.[1]
2011 Air pollution Policy Beijing introduces subsidies for purchase of electric vehicles for taxi or postal services; battery leasing and charging subsidies for electric buses and sanitation vehicles. Authorities also introduce subsidy for loan interest for buying new clean trucks.[1]
2012 Air pollution Policy Beijing increases subsidies for early retirement of vehicles.[1]
2012 Air pollution Policy Beijing cumulates 18 implemented phases of the air pollution control programs based on the requirements of the five-year plan for environmental protection, including two phases for some years (heating season and non-heating season) during 1998-2010 and one phase per year during 2011-2012.[1]
2013 Air pollution Policy Beijing introduces subsidies for electric passenger vehicles, industry-purpose vehicles and fuel-cell vehicles. Authorities also introduce heat pump construction subsidies.[1]
2013 Air pollution As part pof a campaign, Beijing starts phasing out coal-fired stoves in the city. Natural gas and other forms of clean energy are used to replace coal.[9]
2013 January Air pollution Crisis Beijing experiences a prolonged bout of smog so severe that citizens dub it an “airpocalypse”; the concentration of hazardous particles reaches forty times the level deemed safe by the World Health Organization.[10]
2013 Air pollution Infrastructure A total of 35 ambient air quality monitoring stations which can monitor 6 major pollutants such as PM2.5 and O3, are installed across Beijing.[1]
2013 December Air pollution Beijing is asked to lead the establishment of the Mechanism for Coordinated Prevention and Control of Air Pollution in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and Surrounding Areas with the support of China’s State Council.[1]
2014 Air pollution Policy Beijing introduces subsidies for environmental-friendly technological transformation, for the closing of polluting enterprises, and for individual purchase of electric passenger vehicles and fuel-cell vehicles. Construction waste transportation vehicle reconstruction assistance is introduced. Authorities also increase subsidies for suburban coal-fired boiler renovation.[1]
2015 December Air pollution "In December 2015, Beijing issued red alerts for severe pollution—the first since the emergency alert system was established. The municipal government closed schools, limited road traffic, halted outdoor construction, and paused factory manufacturing. "[10]
2015 December Air pollution "In December 2015, the Asian Development Bank approved a $300 million loan to help China address the capital region’s choking smog."[10]
2015 Water pollution A reported 1.96 million cubic meters of untreated wastewater was discharged in Beijing. This water has been ruled unusable for agricultural, industrial and even decorative purposes dumped into rivers and lakes.[11]
2015 Air pollution Policy Beijing authorities start implementing a “coal-to-gas” policy.[1]
2016 Air pollution A new generation of integrated air quality monitoring network is established in Bijing, combining advanced technologies like high resolution satellite remote sensing and laser radar.[1]
2017 January Water pollution According to study, 39.9% of water is Beijing is so polluted that it is essentially functionless.[11]
2017 Air pollution Average PM2.5 pollution level in Beijing remains 65% above the national standard – and six times above the World Health Organization guidelines.[4]
2017 October Air pollution Beijing starts the biggest shutdown of steel factories in history. The measures are a part of an aggressive nationwide action plan that aims to cut wintertime particulate pollution by 15% year-on-year over the next five months.[12]
2017 Air pollution Emissions of PM2.5, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide in Beijing are found to be reduced by 97%, 98% and 86% respectively compared with 20 years earlier, resulting in significant environmental and health benefits.[1]
2018 The State Council releases new blue sky action plan for 2018-2020, which requires Beijing lower PM2.5 concentrations and reduce the frequency of heavy pollution days, to improve air quality substantially.[1]

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

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See also

External links

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 "Air pollution control in Beijing" (PDF). wedocs.unep.org. Retrieved 13 June 2019. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 "Improving Urban Air Quality in China: Beijing Case Study". tandfonline.com. Retrieved 13 May 2019. 
  3. Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Engineering, National Research Council, National Academy of Engineering, Policy and Global Affairs, Development, Security, and Cooperation, Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United States. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Beijing Urbanizes, and a Much-Loved Bird Vanishes From the City". sixthtone.com. Retrieved 12 May 2019. 
  5. "A review of 20 Years' Air Pollution Control in Beijing". unenvironment.org. Retrieved 13 June 2019. 
  6. Jin, Yana; Andersson, Henrik; Zhang, Shiqiu. "Air Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects". PMC 5201360Freely accessible. PMID 27941665. doi:10.3390/ijerph13121219. 
  7. Chen, Wei; Wang, Fusheng; Xiao, Guofeng; Wu, Kai; Zhang, Shixuan. "Air Quality of Beijing and Impacts of the New Ambient Air Quality Standard". doi:10.3390/atmos6081243. 
  8. "China: Beijing launches Euro 4 standards". Automotiveworld.com. 4 January 2008. Archived from the original on 27 April 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2010. 
  9. "Beijing, northern China hit by worst pollution this year". economictimes.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 12 May 2019. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 "China's Environmental Crisis". cfr.org. Retrieved 13 May 2019. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 "In China, the water you drink is as dangerous as the air you breathe". theguardian.com. Retrieved 19 May 2019. 
  12. "'Beautiful China': Beijing starts the biggest shutdown of steel factories in history". unearthed.greenpeace.org. Retrieved 14 May 2019.