Difference between revisions of "Timeline of recycling"

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This is a '''timeline of {{w|recycling}}'''.
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This is a '''timeline of {{w|recycling}}''', attempting to describe significant events in the history of this process.
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== Sample questions ==
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The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:
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* How did recycling for every material evolved throughout time?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Material".
  
 
==Big picture==
 
==Big picture==
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| 19th Century || Scrap metal is purchased by sold by railroads.<ref name="Scrap Recycling – recognized as one of the world’s first green industries…"/> "Dustmen" collect ash from coal fires, in order to use it as soil conditioner and for brick–making. The practice is still alive today.<ref name="Know all about: reduce, reuse, recycle"/>  
 
| 19th Century || Scrap metal is purchased by sold by railroads.<ref name="Scrap Recycling – recognized as one of the world’s first green industries…"/> "Dustmen" collect ash from coal fires, in order to use it as soil conditioner and for brick–making. The practice is still alive today.<ref name="Know all about: reduce, reuse, recycle"/>  
 
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| 20th Century || In the 1930s, many people survive the {{w|Great Depression}} by peddling scraps of metal, rags and other items.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> Goods such as {{w|nylon}}, {{w|rubber}} and many metals are rationed and recycled during {{w|World War II}}.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/>. Further in the 1940s ad 1950s, recycling becomes less important as landfilling becomes a cheap way to dispose trash. The 1960s see the rise of the {{w|environmental movement}}, which provoques public awareness and rises environmental consciousness. In the 1970s, a strong worldwide growth in support for energy conservation is triggered partly by the energy shortages and rising prices resulting from the emergence of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC),<ref name="Conservation and Environmentalism: An Encyclopedia"/> thus recycling becomes more popular again and drop-off recycling centers are established.<ref name="History of Recycling"/> In the 1980s, major cities in the United States begin establishing {{w|curbside collection}} programs for plastics and other recyclables.<ref name="The History of Plastics Recycling"/> In the 1990s, municipal recycling programs are established throughout the United States and Europe.<ref name="Encyclopedia of Consumption and Waste: The Social Science of Garbage"/> {{w|Extended producer responsibility}} programs merge worldwide.  
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| 20th Century || In the 1930s, many people survive the {{w|Great Depression}} by peddling scraps of metal, rags and other items.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> Goods such as {{w|nylon}}, {{w|rubber}} and many metals are rationed and recycled during {{w|World War II}}.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> Further in the 1940s ad 1950s, recycling becomes less important as landfilling becomes a cheap way to dispose trash. The 1960s see the rise of the {{w|environmental movement}}, which provoques public awareness and rises environmental consciousness. In the 1970s, a strong worldwide growth in support for energy conservation is triggered partly by the energy shortages and rising prices resulting from the emergence of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC),<ref name="Conservation and Environmentalism: An Encyclopedia"/> thus recycling becomes more popular again and drop-off recycling centers are established.<ref name="History of Recycling"/> In the 1980s, major cities in the United States begin establishing {{w|curbside collection}} programs for plastics and other recyclables.<ref name="The History of Plastics Recycling"/> In the 1990s, municipal recycling programs are established throughout the United States and Europe.<ref name="Encyclopedia of Consumption and Waste: The Social Science of Garbage"/> {{w|Extended producer responsibility}} programs merge worldwide. "{{w|Single-stream recycling}} popped up in several California communities in the 1990s as a low-barrier entry into recycling."<ref name="thebalancesmb.com">{{cite web |title=Single-Stream Recycling and the Future of Waste |url=https://www.thebalancesmb.com/an-overview-of-single-stream-recycling-2877728 |website=thebalancesmb.com |accessdate=21 February 2020}}</ref><ref name="theatlantic.comsz"/>
 
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! Year !! Category !! Type of event !! Event !! Geographical location
 
! Year !! Category !! Type of event !! Event !! Geographical location
 
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|  3300 BC–1200 BC || Metal recycling || || Bronze scrap recovery systems are developed in Europe during the European {{w|Bronze Age}}.<ref name="Know all about: reduce, reuse, recycle">{{cite book|last1=Nongpluh|first1=Yoofisaca Syngkon|last2=Noronha|first2=Guy C.|title=Know all about: reduce, reuse, recycle|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=bkcPCAAAQBAJ&pg=PT79&lpg=PT79&dq=%22400+BC%22+%22plato%22+%22recycling%22&source=bl&ots=8EmBsrnMn5&sig=zB5vFQLHWLvNn5LxzlrybKxZH1o&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjt0pf1r93VAhXMPpAKHVVvB6EQ6AEIYjAN#v=onepage&q=%22400%20BC%22%20%22plato%22%20%22recycling%22&f=false|accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Europe}}
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|  3300 BC–1200 BC || {{w|Metal recycling}} || Recovery || Bronze scrap recovery systems are developed in Europe during the European {{w|Bronze Age}}.<ref name="Know all about: reduce, reuse, recycle">{{cite book|last1=Nongpluh|first1=Yoofisaca Syngkon|last2=Noronha|first2=Guy C.|title=Know all about: reduce, reuse, recycle|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=bkcPCAAAQBAJ&pg=PT79&lpg=PT79&dq=%22400+BC%22+%22plato%22+%22recycling%22&source=bl&ots=8EmBsrnMn5&sig=zB5vFQLHWLvNn5LxzlrybKxZH1o&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjt0pf1r93VAhXMPpAKHVVvB6EQ6AEIYjAN#v=onepage&q=%22400%20BC%22%20%22plato%22%20%22recycling%22&f=false|accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Europe}}
 
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| 2000 BC || Metal recycling || || Composting/Recycling methods, as well as recycling bronze for later use, are developed in {{w|China}}.<ref name="History of the Garbage Man">{{cite web|title=History of the Garbage Man|url=http://www.garbagemanday.org/history-of-the-garbage-man/|website=garbagemanday.org|accessdate=14 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|China}}
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| 2000 BC || {{w|Metal recycling}} || Recovery || Composting/Recycling methods, as well as recycling bronze for later use, are developed in {{w|China}}.<ref name="History of the Garbage Man">{{cite web|title=History of the Garbage Man|url=http://www.garbagemanday.org/history-of-the-garbage-man/|website=garbagemanday.org|accessdate=14 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|China}}
 
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| 400 BC || {{w|Glass recycling}} || || Recycling may start as early as this time, when some civilizations take glass from conquered villages and reuse the glass in their own settlements. Recycling materials, such as glass, becomes necessary for survival, especially in times of disease, war, or famine.<ref name="HISTORY OF GLASS RECYCLING">{{cite web |title=HISTORY OF GLASS RECYCLING |url=http://www.clearintentions.glass/trash-talk-blog/2016/7/21/history-of-glass-recycling |website=clearintentions.glass |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> ||  
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| 400 BC || {{w|Glass recycling}} || Recovery || Recycling may start as early as this time, when some civilizations take glass from conquered villages and reuse the glass in their own settlements. Recycling materials, such as glass, becomes necessary for survival, especially in times of disease, war, or famine.<ref name="HISTORY OF GLASS RECYCLING">{{cite web |title=HISTORY OF GLASS RECYCLING |url=http://www.clearintentions.glass/trash-talk-blog/2016/7/21/history-of-glass-recycling |website=clearintentions.glass |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> ||  
 
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| 105 AC || Textile || || "During the Han dynasty, the Chinese Minister for Agriculture Tsai Lun invents the idea of making paper from old linen rags."<ref name="paprec.comvv">{{cite web |title=THE HISTORY OF RECYCLING AROUND THE WORLD |url=https://www.paprec.com/en/understanding-recycling/recycling/history-recycling-around-world |website=paprec.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|China}}
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| 105 AC || {{w|Textile recycling}}  || Technology introduction || {{w|Han dynasty}}. During this period the Chinese Minister for Agriculture Tsai Lun invents the idea of making paper from old linen rags.<ref name="paprec.comvv">{{cite web |title=THE HISTORY OF RECYCLING AROUND THE WORLD |url=https://www.paprec.com/en/understanding-recycling/recycling/history-recycling-around-world |website=paprec.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|China}}
 
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| 1031 || {{w|Paper recycling}} || || The first ever recorded reuse of waste paper begins in {{w|Japan}}. Documents and paper are recycled and re-pulped into new paper then sold in local Staples across the country.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling">{{cite web|last1=Bradbury|first1=Matt|title=A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling|url=https://www.buschsystems.com/resource-center/page/a-brief-timeline-of-the-history-of-recycling|website=buschsystems.com|accessdate=15 August 2017}}</ref><ref name="History of Recyclinge">{{cite web |title=History of Recycling |url=https://www.hintonswaste.co.uk/news/history-of-recycling-timeline/ |website=hintonswaste.co.uk |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref><ref name="paprec.comvv"/> || {{w|Japan}}
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| 1031 || {{w|Paper recycling}} || Recovery || The first ever recorded reuse of waste paper begins in {{w|Japan}}. Documents and paper are recycled and re-pulped into new paper then sold in local Staples across the country.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling">{{cite web|last1=Bradbury|first1=Matt|title=A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling|url=https://www.buschsystems.com/resource-center/page/a-brief-timeline-of-the-history-of-recycling|website=buschsystems.com|accessdate=15 August 2017}}</ref><ref name="History of Recyclinge">{{cite web |title=History of Recycling |url=https://www.hintonswaste.co.uk/news/history-of-recycling-timeline/ |website=hintonswaste.co.uk |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref><ref name="paprec.comvv"/> || {{w|Japan}}
 
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| 1500s || Metal || || Spanish copper mines use scrap iron for [[w:cementation (metallurgy)|cementation]] of {{w|copper}}. This recycling practice survives to this day.<ref name="Know all about: reduce, reuse, recycle"/> ||
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| 1500s || {{w|Metal recycling}} || Recovery || Spanish copper mines use scrap iron for [[w:cementation (metallurgy)|cementation]] of {{w|copper}}. This recycling practice survives to this day.<ref name="Know all about: reduce, reuse, recycle"/> ||
 
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| 1690 || Paper/cardboard || || The recycled paper manufacturing process is introduced when Rittenhouse Mill, Philadelphia starts manufacturing paper from waste paper and rags.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice">{{cite book|last1=Chandrappa|first1=Ramesha|last2=Bhusan Das|first2=Diganta|title=Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=8c4h3qshpJYC&pg=PA10&lpg=PA10&dq=%22500+BC+%22+%22+municipal+dump%22+%22greece%22&source=bl&ots=r8nfQY1DuD&sig=_01OsTMVBtNdE5_eP9SykeXKtb0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjFoObqydDVAhVGg5AKHQf5Bi0Q6AEIKTAB#v=onepage&q=%22500%20BC%20%22%20%22%20municipal%20dump%22%20%22greece%22&f=false|accessdate=12 August 2017}}</ref><ref name="History of the Garbage Man"/><ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/><ref name="paprec.comvv"/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ipst.gatech.edu/amp/collection/museum_pm_usa.htm|title=Papermaking Moves to the United States|accessdate=20 October 2007|publisher=Robert C. Williams Paper Museum, Georgia Institute of Technology}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1690 || [[w:Paper recycling|Paper/cardboard recycling]] || Technology introduction || The recycled paper manufacturing process is introduced when Rittenhouse Mill, Philadelphia starts manufacturing paper from waste paper and rags.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice">{{cite book|last1=Chandrappa|first1=Ramesha|last2=Bhusan Das|first2=Diganta|title=Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=8c4h3qshpJYC&pg=PA10&lpg=PA10&dq=%22500+BC+%22+%22+municipal+dump%22+%22greece%22&source=bl&ots=r8nfQY1DuD&sig=_01OsTMVBtNdE5_eP9SykeXKtb0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjFoObqydDVAhVGg5AKHQf5Bi0Q6AEIKTAB#v=onepage&q=%22500%20BC%20%22%20%22%20municipal%20dump%22%20%22greece%22&f=false|accessdate=12 August 2017}}</ref><ref name="History of the Garbage Man"/><ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/><ref name="paprec.comvv"/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ipst.gatech.edu/amp/collection/museum_pm_usa.htm|title=Papermaking Moves to the United States|accessdate=20 October 2007|publisher=Robert C. Williams Paper Museum, Georgia Institute of Technology}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
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| 1776 || Metal || || The first metal recycling is produced in the United States when patriots in {{w|New York City}} manage to melt down a statue of {{w|King George III}} and make into 42,088 bullets.<ref name="Scrap Recycling – recognized as one of the world’s first green industries…">{{cite web|title=Scrap Recycling – recognized as one of the world’s first green industries…|url=http://gachman.com/one-hundred-years-in-recycling|website=gachman.com|accessdate=15 August 2017}}</ref><ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1776 || {{w|Metal recycling}} || Recovery || The first metal recycling is produced in the United States when patriots in {{w|New York City}} manage to melt down a statue of {{w|King George III}} and make into 42,088 bullets.<ref name="Scrap Recycling – recognized as one of the world’s first green industries…">{{cite web|title=Scrap Recycling – recognized as one of the world’s first green industries…|url=http://gachman.com/one-hundred-years-in-recycling|website=gachman.com|accessdate=15 August 2017}}</ref><ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
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| 1800 || {{w|Paper recycling}} || || English papermaker Matthias Koops is granted the first patent for paper recycling. His patent application involves extracting ink from printed and written paper and converting the paper into pulp to make new paper. This process was later adopted by paper mills worldwide."<ref name="Introduction to Paper Recycling"/>
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| 1800 || {{w|Paper recycling}} || Technology introduction || English papermaker {{w|Matthias Koops}} is granted the first patent for paper recycling. His patent application involves extracting ink from printed and written paper and converting the paper into pulp to make new paper. This process was later adopted by paper mills worldwide."<ref name="Introduction to Paper Recycling"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
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| 1813 || {{w|Textile recycling}} || Technology || Benjamin Law develops the process of turning rags into "shoddy" and "mungo" wool, through a process of combining fibres with virgin wool.<ref name="Know all about: reduce, reuse, recycle"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
| 1813 || {{w|Textile recycling}} || Technology || Benjamin Law develops the process of turning rags into "shoddy" and "mungo" wool, through a process of combining fibres with virgin wool.<ref name="Know all about: reduce, reuse, recycle"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
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| 1865 || || Organization || The Salvation Army is founded in London, and begins collecting, sorting and recycling unwanted goods. The Household Salvage Brigades employ the unskilled poor to recover discarded materials. In the 1990s, the organization and its program would migrate to the United States.<ref name="Exciting Plans Revealed for Salvation Army Shop at Boundless 2015">{{cite web|title=Exciting Plans Revealed for Salvation Army Shop at Boundless 2015|url=http://www.salvationarmy.org/ihq/news/inf150415|website=salvationarmy.org|accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref><ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
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| 1865 || General || Organization || The Salvation Army is founded in {{w|London}}, and begins collecting, sorting and recycling unwanted goods. The Household Salvage Brigades employ the unskilled poor to recover discarded materials. In the 1990s, the organization and its program would migrate to the United States.<ref name="Exciting Plans Revealed for Salvation Army Shop at Boundless 2015">{{cite web|title=Exciting Plans Revealed for Salvation Army Shop at Boundless 2015|url=http://www.salvationarmy.org/ihq/news/inf150415|website=salvationarmy.org|accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref><ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
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| 1874 || Paper/cardboard || || The first municipal paper recycling in the United States starts in {{w|Baltimore}}, {{w|Maryland}}. A second one opens in New York City in the same year.<ref name="Introduction to Paper Recycling">{{cite web |title=Introduction to Paper Recycling |url=https://www.thebalancesmb.com/an-introduction-to-paper-recycling-4036123 |website=thebalancesmb.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref>
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| 1874 || [[w:Paper recycling|Paper/cardboard recycling]] || Recovery || The first municipal paper recycling in the United States starts in {{w|Baltimore}}, {{w|Maryland}}. A second one opens in New York City in the same year.<ref name="Introduction to Paper Recycling">{{cite web |title=Introduction to Paper Recycling |url=https://www.thebalancesmb.com/an-introduction-to-paper-recycling-4036123 |website=thebalancesmb.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
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| 1884 || Glass || || An official recycling system for bottles with refundable deposits is established in Sweden.<ref name="Scrap Recycling – recognized as one of the world’s first green industries…"/> || {{w|Sweden}}  
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| 1884 || {{w|Glass recycling}} || Recovery || An official recycling system for bottles with refundable deposits is established in Sweden.<ref name="Scrap Recycling – recognized as one of the world’s first green industries…"/> || {{w|Sweden}}  
 
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| 1896 || || || An early major recycling center is started by the Benedetto family in {{w|New York City}}, where they collect rags, newspaper, and trash with a pushcart.<ref>{{cite book |title=Politics and Public Policy |edition=Barbara Wejnert |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=5KFOn4Z0ZGYC&pg=PA129&lpg=PA129&dq=%22The+first+major+recycling+center+was+started+by+the+Benedetto+family+in+New+York+City,+where+they+collected+rags,+newspaper,+and+trash+with+a+pushcart%22&source=bl&ots=LeToeCxiNB&sig=ACfU3U3NBiKOwGMaVD7Excr7vhBraIZLWQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjBo_WZ59HnAhUIG7kGHX3FA_YQ6AEwAHoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22The%20first%20major%20recycling%20center%20was%20started%20by%20the%20Benedetto%20family%20in%20New%20York%20City%2C%20where%20they%20collected%20rags%2C%20newspaper%2C%20and%20trash%20with%20a%20pushcart%22&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1896 || General || Facility launch || An early major recycling center is started by the Benedetto family in {{w|New York City}}, where they collect rags, newspaper, and trash with a pushcart.<ref>{{cite book |title=Politics and Public Policy |edition=Barbara Wejnert |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=5KFOn4Z0ZGYC&pg=PA129&lpg=PA129&dq=%22The+first+major+recycling+center+was+started+by+the+Benedetto+family+in+New+York+City,+where+they+collected+rags,+newspaper,+and+trash+with+a+pushcart%22&source=bl&ots=LeToeCxiNB&sig=ACfU3U3NBiKOwGMaVD7Excr7vhBraIZLWQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjBo_WZ59HnAhUIG7kGHX3FA_YQ6AEwAHoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22The%20first%20major%20recycling%20center%20was%20started%20by%20the%20Benedetto%20family%20in%20New%20York%20City%2C%20where%20they%20collected%20rags%2C%20newspaper%2C%20and%20trash%20with%20a%20pushcart%22&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
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| 1897 || || Facility || A materials recovery facility is buit in {{w|New York City}}, where trash is sorted at “picking yards” and separated into various grades of paper, metals, and carpet. Burlap bags, twine, rubber and even horse hair are also sorted for recycling and reuse.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1897 || General || Facility launch || A materials recovery facility is buit in {{w|New York City}}, where trash is sorted at “picking yards” and separated into various grades of paper, metals, and carpet. Burlap bags, twine, rubber and even horse hair are also sorted for recycling and reuse.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
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| 1904 || {{w|Aluminium recycling}} || Facility || The first large–scale aluminum recyclers are operated in the metalworks of {{w|Chicago}}.<ref name="Encyclopedia of Consumption and Waste: The Social Science of Garbage">{{cite book|title=Encyclopedia of Consumption and Waste: The Social Science of Garbage|edition=Carl A. Zimring, William L. Rathje|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=VifrCgAAQBAJ&pg=PT87&lpg=PT87&dq=%221904%22+%22aluminum%22+%22recycling%22+%22Chicago%22&source=bl&ots=9KDjfjw1M3&sig=SvCwJGqg2ZJEmfXW9IRW5sfNeYE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj-7Nicht3VAhWFI5AKHYKUDbUQ6AEIPTAE#v=onepage&q=%221904%22%20%22aluminum%22%20%22recycling%22%20%22Chicago%22&f=false|accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1904 || {{w|Aluminium recycling}} || Facility launch || The first large–scale aluminum recyclers are operated in the metalworks of {{w|Chicago}}.<ref name="Encyclopedia of Consumption and Waste: The Social Science of Garbage">{{cite book|title=Encyclopedia of Consumption and Waste: The Social Science of Garbage|edition=Carl A. Zimring, William L. Rathje|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=VifrCgAAQBAJ&pg=PT87&lpg=PT87&dq=%221904%22+%22aluminum%22+%22recycling%22+%22Chicago%22&source=bl&ots=9KDjfjw1M3&sig=SvCwJGqg2ZJEmfXW9IRW5sfNeYE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj-7Nicht3VAhWFI5AKHYKUDbUQ6AEIPTAE#v=onepage&q=%221904%22%20%22aluminum%22%20%22recycling%22%20%22Chicago%22&f=false|accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
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| 1907 || || || The first synthetic plastic {{w|Bakelite}}, is produced. This marks the beginning of the global plastics industry.<ref name="Plastic Pollution">{{cite web |title=Plastic Pollution |url=https://ourworldindata.org/plastic-pollution |website=ourworldindata.org |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref>
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| 1907 || {{w|Plastic recycling}} || Background || The first synthetic plastic {{w|Bakelite}}, is produced. This marks the beginning of the global plastics industry.<ref name="Plastic Pollution">{{cite web |title=Plastic Pollution |url=https://ourworldindata.org/plastic-pollution |website=ourworldindata.org |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref> ||
 
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| 1916–1918 || || Organization || Due to massive shortages of raw materials during {{w|World War I}}, the United States Federal government creates the {{w|Waste Reclamation Service}} with the motto “Don’t Waste Waste – Save It.”.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1916–1918 || General || Organization (government agency) || Due to massive shortages of raw materials during {{w|World War I}}, the United States Federal government creates the {{w|Waste Reclamation Service}} with the motto “Don’t Waste Waste – Save It.”.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
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| 1934 || || || German Recycling and waste management company {{w|Remondis}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Learning from the Rethmann way |url=https://www.letsrecycle.com/news/latest-news/learning-from-the-rethmann-way/ |website=letsrecycle.com |accessdate=9 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
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| 1934 || General || Organization (for-profit) || German Recycling and waste management company {{w|Remondis}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Learning from the Rethmann way |url=https://www.letsrecycle.com/news/latest-news/learning-from-the-rethmann-way/ |website=letsrecycle.com |accessdate=9 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
 
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| 1939–1945 || || || Recycling and reusing materials become vital during {{w|The Great Depression}} and {{w|World War II}}, since resources and materials are limited and people can no longer afford to purchase new materials. Recycling and reusing become a symbol of the war, and a way for American’s back home to do their part to help the war effort.<ref name="HISTORY OF GLASS RECYCLING"/> ||
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| 1939–1945 || General || || Recycling and reusing materials become vital during {{w|The Great Depression}} and {{w|World War II}}, since resources and materials are limited and people can no longer afford to purchase new materials. Recycling and reusing become a symbol of the war, and a way for American’s back home to do their part to help the war effort.<ref name="HISTORY OF GLASS RECYCLING"/> ||
 
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| 1939–1945 || Paper/cardboard || || "During World War II (1939-1945), paper recycling efforts resurfaced when, due to a major shortage of paper pulp, people were asked to save used paper and rags to make new paper."<ref name="Introduction to Paper Recycling"/> ||
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| 1939–1945 || [[w:Paper recycling|Paper/cardboard recycling]] || || Paper recycling efforts resurface during {{w|World War II}} when, due to a major shortage of paper pulp, people are asked to save used paper and rags to make new paper.<ref name="Introduction to Paper Recycling"/> ||
 
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| 1940 || {{w|Scrap}} || || " Nylon, elastic, used batteries and various scrap metals are recycled in Europe and the United States to benefit the war effort."<ref name="paprec.comvv"/> ||
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| 1940 || [[w:Scrap|Scrap recycling]] || || Nylon, elastic, used batteries and various scrap metals are recycled in {{w|Europe}} and the {{w|United States}} to benefit the [[w:World War II|war]] effort.<ref name="paprec.comvv"/> || {{w|Europe}}, {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1948 || || || The {{w|Bureau of International Recycling}} is formed. Headquartered in {{w|Brussels}}, it is considered to be the first federation to support the interests of the recycling industry on an international scale.<ref>{{cite web |title=Bureau of International Recycling (BIR) |url=https://www.letsrecycle.com/supplier/bir/ |website=letsrecycle.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Bureau of International Recycling (BIR) |url=https://lobbyfacts.eu/representative/199757d0b8be402c9a2abf0352dd6f75/bureau-of-international-recycling |website=lobbyfacts.eu |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Bureau of International Recycling |url=https://www.cividesk.com/blog/post/bureau-international-recycling |website=cividesk.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Belgium}}
+
| 1948 || General || Organization (non-profit) || The {{w|Bureau of International Recycling}} is formed. Headquartered in {{w|Brussels}}, it is considered to be the first federation to support the interests of the recycling industry on an international scale.<ref>{{cite web |title=Bureau of International Recycling (BIR) |url=https://www.letsrecycle.com/supplier/bir/ |website=letsrecycle.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Bureau of International Recycling (BIR) |url=https://lobbyfacts.eu/representative/199757d0b8be402c9a2abf0352dd6f75/bureau-of-international-recycling |website=lobbyfacts.eu |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Bureau of International Recycling |url=https://www.cividesk.com/blog/post/bureau-international-recycling |website=cividesk.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Belgium}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1953 || || || {{w|Keep America Beautiful}} || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1948 || {{w|Timber recycling}} || || A 100 meters tall tower of {{w|Golm transmitter}} near {{w|Potsdam}}, Germany is built from recycled timber from old radio towers. The tower would remain intact for 31 years.<ref name="timber">{{cite web |title=HISTORY OF RECLAIMED LUMBER |url=http://tntreclaimed.com/history-of-reclaimed-wood/ |website=tntreclaimed.com |accessdate=8 March 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1955 (1 August) || || Publication || {{w|Life magazine}} offers a two-page article on “Throwaway Living”, selling to consumers the idea that single-use items are a necessity of the modern lifestyle. Ease and convenience would soon become the two most desirable qualities in product marketing, inevitably leading to parks, forests and highways becoming littered with garbage.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1955 (1 August) || General || Publication || {{w|Life magazine}} offers a two-page article on “Throwaway Living”, selling to consumers the idea that single-use items are a necessity of the modern lifestyle. Ease and convenience would soon become the two most desirable qualities in product marketing, inevitably leading to parks, forests and highways becoming littered with garbage.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1960 || Paper/cardboard || || Recycling of paper and paperboard products in the United States is estimated at around 5 million tons.<ref name="Introduction to Paper Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1960 || [[w:Paper recycling|Paper/cardboard recycling]] || Statistics || Recycling of paper and paperboard products in the United States is estimated at around 5 million tons.<ref name="Introduction to Paper Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1962 || || Publication || {{w|Rachel Carson}} publishes {{w|Silent Spring}}, warning that, when you throw something away, it doesn't really go away.<ref name="Plastics in Food Packaging Conference">{{cite book|title=Plastics in Food Packaging Conference|publisher=Plastics Instit|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=_9BPbvE1QQ4C&pg=PA181&lpg=PA181&dq=%221551%22+%22andreas+Bernhart%22+%22packaging%22&source=bl&ots=YHqh8T0MQV&sig=Y-F2TRabnWNCOsgp4EYl0sy5xyo&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjT34Dj7dfVAhULgZAKHdr6BQgQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=%221551%22%20%22andreas%20Bernhart%22%20%22packaging%22&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1962 || General || Literature || {{w|Rachel Carson}} publishes {{w|Silent Spring}}, warning that, when you throw something away, it doesn't really go away.<ref name="Plastics in Food Packaging Conference">{{cite book|title=Plastics in Food Packaging Conference|publisher=Plastics Instit|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=_9BPbvE1QQ4C&pg=PA181&lpg=PA181&dq=%221551%22+%22andreas+Bernhart%22+%22packaging%22&source=bl&ots=YHqh8T0MQV&sig=Y-F2TRabnWNCOsgp4EYl0sy5xyo&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjT34Dj7dfVAhULgZAKHdr6BQgQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=%221551%22%20%22andreas%20Bernhart%22%20%22packaging%22&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1962 || || || The United States {{w|National Waste & Recycling Association}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=National Waste & Recycling Association |url=https://wasterecycling.org/page/AboutUs |website=wasterecycling.org |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Descripción general de National Waste & Recycling Association |url=https://www.glassdoor.com.ar/Descripci%C3%B3n-general/Trabajar-en-National-Waste-and-Recycling-Association-EI_IE825838.12,52.htm?countryRedirect=true |website=glassdoor.com.ar |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=National Waste and Recycling Association (NWRA) |url=https://nerc.org/advisory-members/member-spotlight/2015/06/national-waste-and-recycling-association-(nwra) |website=nerc.org |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1962 || General || Organization (non-profit) || The United States {{w|National Waste & Recycling Association}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=National Waste & Recycling Association |url=https://wasterecycling.org/page/AboutUs |website=wasterecycling.org |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Descripción general de National Waste & Recycling Association |url=https://www.glassdoor.com.ar/Descripci%C3%B3n-general/Trabajar-en-National-Waste-and-Recycling-Association-EI_IE825838.12,52.htm?countryRedirect=true |website=glassdoor.com.ar |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=National Waste and Recycling Association (NWRA) |url=https://nerc.org/advisory-members/member-spotlight/2015/06/national-waste-and-recycling-association-(nwra) |website=nerc.org |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1964 || Metal || Product || The {{w|aluminum}} {{w|beverage can}} is introduced and quickly becomes an industry standard.<ref name="Encyclopedia of Consumption and Waste: The Social Science of Garbage"/> ||  
+
| 1964 || {{w|Metal recycling}} || Product || The {{w|aluminum}} {{w|beverage can}} is introduced and quickly becomes an industry standard.<ref name="Encyclopedia of Consumption and Waste: The Social Science of Garbage"/> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1965–1970 || || Symbol introduction || American designer [[w:Gary Anderson (designer)|Gary Anderson]] introduces the symbol for Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, inspired in the {{w|Möbius strip}}.<ref name="Recycling">{{cite web|title=Recycling|url=http://recycling-by-jessamy-bryant.weebly.com/a-short-history-of-recycling.html|website=weebly.com|accessdate=16 August 2017}}</ref><ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1965–1970 || General || Symbol introduction || American designer [[w:Gary Anderson (designer)|Gary Anderson]] introduces the symbol for Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, inspired in the {{w|Möbius strip}}.<ref name="Recycling">{{cite web|title=Recycling|url=http://recycling-by-jessamy-bryant.weebly.com/a-short-history-of-recycling.html|website=weebly.com|accessdate=16 August 2017}}</ref><ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1968 || {{w|aluminum recycling}} || || The aluminum industry begins aluminum recycling.<ref name="Plastics in Food Packaging Conference"/> ||
+
| 1968 || {{w|Aluminium recycling}} || || The aluminum industry begins aluminum recycling.<ref name="Plastics in Food Packaging Conference"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1970 (April 22) || || || {{w|Earth Day}} is founded in the United States by Senator {{w|Gaylord Nelson}} and globally by entrepreneur [[w:John McConnell (peace activist)|John McConnell]].<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> ||
+
| 1970 (April 22) || || Annual event || {{w|Earth Day}} is founded in the United States by Senator {{w|Gaylord Nelson}} and globally by entrepreneur [[w:John McConnell (peace activist)|John McConnell]].<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1970 || || Program launch || "Ban The Can" is conceived and executed by Ruth "Pat" Webb as the first post-{{w|World War II}} mass recycling program in the {{w|United States}} in {{w|Honolulu, Hawaii}}.  Webb organizes military and civilian volunteers to collect over 9 tons (8,200&nbsp;kg) of metal cans from the roadways and highways of [[Oahu]]. The metal cans were later recycled into steel reinforcement bars to be used in local construction projects."<ref>1970 Navy Times Article</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1970 || {{w|Metal recycling}} || Program launch || "Ban The Can" is conceived and executed by Ruth "Pat" Webb as the first post-{{w|World War II}} mass recycling program in the {{w|United States}} in {{w|Honolulu, Hawaii}}.  Webb organizes military and civilian volunteers to collect over 9 tons (8,200&nbsp;kg) of metal cans from the roadways and highways of [[Oahu]]. The metal cans were later recycled into steel reinforcement bars to be used in local construction projects."<ref>1970 Navy Times Article</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1971 || Metal/glass recycling || Policy || The {{w|Oregon Bottle Bill}} is passed as a {{w|container-deposit legislation}} in {{w|Oregon}}, requiring cans, bottles, and other containers sold in Oregon to be returnable with a minimum refund value.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.oregon.gov/OLCC/bottle_bill.shtml/#Retailer_s_Responsibilities___Resources| title=Oregon's Bottle Bill| publisher= Oregon Liquor Control Commission| accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1971 || {{w|Metal recycling, {{w|Glass recycling}} || Policy || The {{w|Oregon Bottle Bill}} is passed as a {{w|container-deposit legislation}} in {{w|Oregon}}, requiring cans, bottles, and other containers sold in Oregon to be returnable with a minimum refund value.<ref>{{cite web| url=http://www.oregon.gov/OLCC/bottle_bill.shtml/#Retailer_s_Responsibilities___Resources| title=Oregon's Bottle Bill| publisher= Oregon Liquor Control Commission| accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1972 || || Facility || The first recycling mill is built in {{w|Conshohocken, Pennsylvania}}.<ref name="The History of Plastics Recycling">{{cite web|title=The History of Plastics Recycling|url=https://www.plasticsmakeitpossible.com/about-plastics/history-of-plastics/the-history-of-recycling-plastic/|website=plasticsmakeitpossible.com|accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref><ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1972 || General || Facility || The first recycling mill is built in {{w|Conshohocken, Pennsylvania}}.<ref name="The History of Plastics Recycling">{{cite web|title=The History of Plastics Recycling|url=https://www.plasticsmakeitpossible.com/about-plastics/history-of-plastics/the-history-of-recycling-plastic/|website=plasticsmakeitpossible.com|accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref><ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1973 || Plastic || || An early recycling center for plastic materials is created in {{w|Conshohocken, Pennsylvania}}.<ref name="paprec.comvv"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1973 || {{w|Plastic recycling}} || Facility || An early recycling center for plastic materials is created in {{w|Conshohocken, Pennsylvania}}.<ref name="paprec.comvv"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1974 || || Program || {{w|University City, Missouri}} starts offering {{w|curbside recycling}} to its residents.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1974 || {{w|Kerbside collection}} || Program || {{w|University City, Missouri}} starts offering {{w|curbside recycling}} to its residents.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1974 || || Program || The first multi–material [[w:Kerbside collection|curbside recycling]] program is launched in {{w|Canada}}.<ref name="Conservation and Environmentalism: An Encyclopedia"/> || {{w|Canada}}
+
| 1974 || {{w|Kerbside collection}} || Program || The first multi–material [[w:Kerbside collection|curbside recycling]] program is launched in {{w|Canada}}.<ref name="Conservation and Environmentalism: An Encyclopedia"/> || {{w|Canada}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1977 || || Organization || Zero Waste Systems Inc. (ZWS) is founded in Oakland, California, bringing with its name the term {{w|zero waste}}. || {{w|United States}}  
+
| 1970s || {{w|Timber recycling}} || || Industry pioneers on the {{w|East Coast of the United States}} begin selling of recycled lumber.<ref name="timber"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1981 || || Policy || {{w|Woodbury, New Jersey}} becomes the first city in the United States to mandate recycling.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Robinson|first1=William D.|title=The Solid Waste Handbook: A Practical Guide|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=a4GE5hR7UjYC&pg=PA247&lpg=PA247&dq=%22in+1981%22+%22Woodbury%22+%22recycling%22&source=bl&ots=x02IyZWewM&sig=8Ynf7Jgo64iI7dmecXqArmKAQTg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwignIq5jt3VAhWEhpAKHQpIDLgQ6AEIPjAE#v=onepage&q=%22in%201981%22%20%22Woodbury%22%20%22recycling%22&f=false|accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref><ref name="Know all about: reduce, reuse, recycle"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1981 || General || Policy || {{w|Woodbury, New Jersey}} becomes the first city in the United States to mandate recycling.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Robinson|first1=William D.|title=The Solid Waste Handbook: A Practical Guide|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=a4GE5hR7UjYC&pg=PA247&lpg=PA247&dq=%22in+1981%22+%22Woodbury%22+%22recycling%22&source=bl&ots=x02IyZWewM&sig=8Ynf7Jgo64iI7dmecXqArmKAQTg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwignIq5jt3VAhWEhpAKHQpIDLgQ6AEIPjAE#v=onepage&q=%22in%201981%22%20%22Woodbury%22%20%22recycling%22&f=false|accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref><ref name="Know all about: reduce, reuse, recycle"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1983 || || Program || The {{w|blue box recycling system}} (BBRS) is launched in {{w|Canada}}, initially as a {{w|waste management}} system used by [[w:Canada|Canadian]] municipalities to collect source separating [[w:Municipal solid waste|household waste]] materials for the purpose of recycling. The first full-scale community wide BBRS is implemented in the [[w:Kitchener, Ontario|City of Kitchener]], Ontario. Today, the blue box system and variations of it remain in place in hundreds of cities around the world.<ref name="Conservation and Environmentalism: An Encyclopedia">{{cite book|last1=Paehlke|first1=Robert|title=Conservation and Environmentalism: An Encyclopedia|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=9WUqqgfrBHQC&pg=PA549&lpg=PA549&dq=%221983%22+%22Canada%22+%E2%80%9CBlue+box+recycling+system%E2%80%9D&source=bl&ots=UfT26v190x&sig=FfPRnnBVMSVd9wZLCZDmFiJobA8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwinvNn2kN3VAhVChpAKHVicAQoQ6AEITzAJ#v=onepage&q=%221983%22%20%22Canada%22%20%E2%80%9CBlue%20box%20recycling%20system%E2%80%9D&f=false|accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Canada}}
+
| 1983 || General || Program || The {{w|blue box recycling system}} (BBRS) is launched in {{w|Canada}}, initially as a {{w|waste management}} system used by [[w:Canada|Canadian]] municipalities to collect source separating [[w:Municipal solid waste|household waste]] materials for the purpose of recycling. The first full-scale community wide BBRS is implemented in the [[w:Kitchener, Ontario|City of Kitchener]], Ontario. Today, the blue box system and variations of it remain in place in hundreds of cities around the world.<ref name="Conservation and Environmentalism: An Encyclopedia">{{cite book|last1=Paehlke|first1=Robert|title=Conservation and Environmentalism: An Encyclopedia|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=9WUqqgfrBHQC&pg=PA549&lpg=PA549&dq=%221983%22+%22Canada%22+%E2%80%9CBlue+box+recycling+system%E2%80%9D&source=bl&ots=UfT26v190x&sig=FfPRnnBVMSVd9wZLCZDmFiJobA8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwinvNn2kN3VAhVChpAKHVicAQoQ6AEITzAJ#v=onepage&q=%221983%22%20%22Canada%22%20%E2%80%9CBlue%20box%20recycling%20system%E2%80%9D&f=false|accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Canada}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1984 || || Statistics || Plastics recycling tops 100 million pounds in the United States for the first time in the history of plastics recycling.<ref name="The History of Plastics Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1983 || {{w|Blue box recycling system}} || || The first full-scale community wide {{w|blue box recycling system}} is implemented by the waste management contractor Ontario Total Recycling Systems Ltd. for the [[w:Kitchener, Ontario|City of Kitchener]], {{w|Ontario}}, {{w|Canada}}. || {{w|Canada}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1985–1989 || || Program || Rose Rowan starts the first {{w|kerbside collection}} service for recyclables.<ref name="Recycling"/> ||  
+
| 1983 || {{w|Automotive oil recycling}} || Policy || The Used Automotive Oil Recycling Ac is passed in {{w|Washington State}}, requiring sellers of 100 gallons or more oil per year to post signs on used oil recycling and to identify the nearest oil collection center.<ref name="oil">{{cite book |title=Used Oil Recycling |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=V8v9qGhPS3AC&pg=PP3&lpg=PP3&dq=%22Automotive+oil+recycling%22+%22in+1930..2018%22&source=bl&ots=mlev75Ias7&sig=ACfU3U2RXSvMTgwZNtokxd4uUpSS52rk6w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiv6auI9f7nAhW0K7kGHcLNAdAQ6AEwAHoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22Automotive%20oil%20recycling%22%20%22in%201930..2018%22&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1986 || || Policy || Rhode Island becomes the first U.S. state to mandate recycling, including some plastic bottles and containers.<ref name="The History of Plastics Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1984 || {{w|Plastic recycling}} || Statistics || Plastics recycling tops 100 million pounds in the United States for the first time in the history of plastics recycling.<ref name="The History of Plastics Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1987 || [[w:Scrap|Scrap recycling]] || || {{w|United States}}-based private, non-profit {{w|trade association}} {{w|Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=ISRI Time Capsule: ISRI Is Born |url=https://www.isri.org/news-publications/news-details/2017/01/04/isri-time-capsule-isri-is-born |website=isri.org |accessdate=14 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1985–1989 || {{w|Kerbside collection}} || Program || Rose Rowan starts the first {{w|kerbside collection}} service for recyclables.<ref name="Recycling"/> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1988 || || Statistics || The number of [[w:Kerbside collection|curbside]] recycling programs in the United States increases to about 1,050.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1986 || General || Policy || Rhode Island becomes the first U.S. state to mandate recycling, including some plastic bottles and containers.<ref name="The History of Plastics Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1989 || || || The {{w|Center for the Development of Recycling}} is founded at {{w|San Jose State University}}, {{w|California}}. It works on urban water conservation and recycling projects.<ref>{{cite web |title=Center for the Development of Recycling |url=https://www.recyclestuff.org/html/about.html |website=recyclestuff.org |accessdate=14 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1987 || [[w:Scrap|Scrap recycling]] || Organization (non-profit) || {{w|United States}}-based private, non-profit {{w|trade association}} {{w|Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=ISRI Time Capsule: ISRI Is Born |url=https://www.isri.org/news-publications/news-details/2017/01/04/isri-time-capsule-isri-is-born |website=isri.org |accessdate=14 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1990 || || Policy || {{w|McDonald’s}} announces phasing out use of Styrofoam containers. The 20th-anniversary theme for Earth Day is recycling.<ref>{{cite web|title=McDonald’s Trials to Stop Using Styrofoam Cups|url=http://www.care2.com/causes/mcdonalds-trials-to-stop-using-styrofoam-cups.html|website=care2.com|accessdate=16 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1988 || {{w|Kerbside collection}} || Statistics || The number of [[w:Kerbside collection|curbside]] recycling programs in the United States increases to about 1,050.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1990 || || Program || The concept of {{w|Extended producer responsibility}} (EPR) is first formally introduced by {{w|Thomas Lindhqvist}} in a report to the Swedish Ministry of the Environment. EPR is defined as an environmental protection strategy that makes the manufacturer of the appliance responsible for its entire life cycle and especially for the “take-back”, recycling and final disposal of the product.<ref>Thomas Lindhqvist & Karl Lidgren, "Models for Extended Producer Responsibility," in Sweden, October 1990.</ref> || {{w|Sweden}}
+
| 1988 || {{w|Plastic recycling}} || [[w:Recycling codes|Recycling code release]] || The Plastics Industry Trade Association (SPI) creates the Resin Identification Code to help recycling programs identify the resin content in plastic waste.<ref>{{cite web |title=The 7 Plastic Resin Identification Codes and the Significance of the Symbols |url=http://microdyneplastics.com/2015/08/recycling-codes-how-resins-relate-to-the-numerical-symbols/ |website=microdyneplastics.com/ |accessdate=3 March 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1990 || || || {{w|Coca-Cola}} begins blending recycled plastics into its beverage bottles.<ref name="The History of Plastics Recycling"/> ||
+
| 1989 || General || Organization (non-profit) || The {{w|Center for the Development of Recycling}} is founded at {{w|San Jose State University}}, {{w|California}}. It works on urban water conservation and recycling projects.<ref>{{cite web |title=Center for the Development of Recycling |url=https://www.recyclestuff.org/html/about.html |website=recyclestuff.org |accessdate=14 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1990s || || || Single-stream recycling is introduced in {{w|California}}, as a system that combines all recyclable items such as paper, plastic, metal, and glass together in a collection truck, rather than being sorted into separate materials and handled separately throughout the entire process.<ref name="HISTORY OF GLASS RECYCLING"/> ||
+
| 1990 || General || Program || The concept of {{w|Extended producer responsibility}} (EPR) is first formally introduced by {{w|Thomas Lindhqvist}} in a report to the Swedish Ministry of the Environment. EPR is defined as an environmental protection strategy that makes the manufacturer of the appliance responsible for its entire life cycle and especially for the “take-back”, recycling and final disposal of the product.<ref>Thomas Lindhqvist & Karl Lidgren, "Models for Extended Producer Responsibility," in Sweden, October 1990.</ref> || {{w|Sweden}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1991–2011 || || Policy || More than 70 {{w|Extended producer responsibility}} (EPR) laws are enacted in the {{w|United States}}, generally requiring manufacturers to implement EPR programs, though  without  specifying recycling targets.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Nash|first1=Jennifer|last2=Bosso|first2=Christopher|title=Extended Producer Responsibility in the United States|doi=10.1111/j.1530-9290.2012.00572.x|url=http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1530-9290.2012.00572.x/abstract|website=wiley.com|accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref>|| {{w|United States}}
+
| 1990 || {{w|Plastic recycling}} || Technology introduction || {{w|Coca-Cola}} begins blending recycled plastics into its beverage bottles.<ref name="The History of Plastics Recycling"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1991 || || Policy || {{w|Extended producer responsibility}} (EPR) is adopted in Germany, after the German Packaging Ordinance is passed, extending to producers the responsibility for their products and packaging, beyond production and delivery through to the entire life cycle. Since the adoption, until 1998, the per capita consumption of packaging is reduced from 94.7 kg to 82 kg, resulting in a reduction of 13.4%.<ref name="Cents and Sustainability: Securing Our Common Future by Decoupling Economic Growth from Environmental Pressures">{{cite book|last1=Smith|first1=Michael H.|last2=Hargroves|first2=Karlson|last3=Desha|first3=Cheryl|title=Cents and Sustainability: Securing Our Common Future by Decoupling Economic Growth from Environmental Pressures|accessdate=16 August 2017}}</ref><ref name="Hanisch 170A-75A">Hanisch, Carola. "Is Extended Producer Responsibility Effective?" Environmental Science & Technology 34.7 (2000): 170A-75A. Web.</ref><ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|Germany}}
+
| 1990s || General || {{w|Single-stream recycling}} || Single-stream recycling is introduced in {{w|California}}, as a system that combines all recyclable items such as paper, plastic, metal, and glass together in a collection truck, rather than being sorted into separate materials and handled separately throughout the entire process.<ref name="HISTORY OF GLASS RECYCLING"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1991 || || Organization || The Salvation Army Trading Company Ltd (SATCoL) is established, in order to create jobs and benefit the environment through recycling.<ref name="Exciting Plans Revealed for Salvation Army Shop at Boundless 2015"/> ||
+
| 1991–2011 || General || Policy || More than 70 {{w|Extended producer responsibility}} (EPR) laws are enacted in the {{w|United States}}, generally requiring manufacturers to implement EPR programs, though without specifying recycling targets.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Nash|first1=Jennifer|last2=Bosso|first2=Christopher|title=Extended Producer Responsibility in the United States|doi=10.1111/j.1530-9290.2012.00572.x|url=http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1530-9290.2012.00572.x/abstract|website=wiley.com|accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref>|| {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1991 || || || The first electronic waste recycling system is implemented in {{w|Switzerland}}, beginning with collection of old refrigerators but gradually expanding to cover all devices.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.swicorecycling.ch/en/about-us/|title=About us – Swico Recycling|website=www.swicorecycling.ch|accessdate=2015-07-29}}</ref> || {{w|Switzerland}}
+
| 1991 || Packaging || Policy || {{w|Extended producer responsibility}} (EPR) is adopted in Germany, after the German Packaging Ordinance is passed, extending to producers the responsibility for their products and packaging, beyond production and delivery through to the entire life cycle. Since the adoption, until 1998, the per capita consumption of packaging is reduced from 94.7 kg to 82 kg, resulting in a reduction of 13.4%.<ref name="Cents and Sustainability: Securing Our Common Future by Decoupling Economic Growth from Environmental Pressures">{{cite book|last1=Smith|first1=Michael H.|last2=Hargroves|first2=Karlson|last3=Desha|first3=Cheryl|title=Cents and Sustainability: Securing Our Common Future by Decoupling Economic Growth from Environmental Pressures|accessdate=16 August 2017}}</ref><ref name="Hanisch 170A-75A">Hanisch, Carola. "Is Extended Producer Responsibility Effective?" Environmental Science & Technology 34.7 (2000): 170A-75A. Web.</ref><ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|Germany}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1991 || General || Organization || The Salvation Army Trading Company Ltd (SATCoL) is established, in order to create jobs and benefit the environment through recycling.<ref name="Exciting Plans Revealed for Salvation Army Shop at Boundless 2015"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1991 || {{w|Electronic recycling}} || || The first electronic waste recycling system is implemented in {{w|Switzerland}}, beginning with collection of old refrigerators but gradually expanding to cover all devices.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.swicorecycling.ch/en/about-us/|title=About us – Swico Recycling|website=www.swicorecycling.ch|accessdate=2015-07-29}}</ref> || {{w|Switzerland}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1991–2017 || {{w|Tire recycling}} || || The stockpile of scrap tires shrinks from over a billion to just 60 million in this period. According to the tire industry, tire recycling is a major success story.<ref>{{cite web |title=The Importance of Tire Recycling |url=https://www.thebalancesmb.com/the-importance-of-tire-recycling-2878127 |website=thebalancesmb.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> ||
 
| 1991–2017 || {{w|Tire recycling}} || || The stockpile of scrap tires shrinks from over a billion to just 60 million in this period. According to the tire industry, tire recycling is a major success story.<ref>{{cite web |title=The Importance of Tire Recycling |url=https://www.thebalancesmb.com/the-importance-of-tire-recycling-2878127 |website=thebalancesmb.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1992 || || Policy || The number of curbside programs in the United States reaches four thousand, up from just six hundred in 1989. With the rise of curbside recycling, industries abandon many of their buy–back programs and begin to rely largely on municipal services that require them to pay no extra fees.<ref name="Citizen Coke: The Making of Coca-Cola Capitalism">{{cite book|last1=Elmore|first1=Bartow J.|title=Citizen Coke: The Making of Coca-Cola Capitalism|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=NhJ0AwAAQBAJ&pg=PT240&lpg=PT240&dq=%22curbside+programs%22+%22united+states%22+%22in+1992%22&source=bl&ots=hnq2x__nZa&sig=yu3NI579A2QXfpO2hPcAj3Pk-Ws&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwie0Kv8jNzVAhWKkZAKHZsKB74Q6AEIJjAA#v=onepage&q=%22curbside%20programs%22%20%22united%20states%22%20%22in%201992%22&f=false|accessdate=16 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1992 || {{w|Kerbside collection}} || Policy || The number of curbside programs in the United States reaches four thousand, up from just six hundred in 1989. With the rise of curbside recycling, industries abandon many of their buy–back programs and begin to rely largely on municipal services that require them to pay no extra fees.<ref name="Citizen Coke: The Making of Coca-Cola Capitalism">{{cite book|last1=Elmore|first1=Bartow J.|title=Citizen Coke: The Making of Coca-Cola Capitalism|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=NhJ0AwAAQBAJ&pg=PT240&lpg=PT240&dq=%22curbside+programs%22+%22united+states%22+%22in+1992%22&source=bl&ots=hnq2x__nZa&sig=yu3NI579A2QXfpO2hPcAj3Pk-Ws&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwie0Kv8jNzVAhWKkZAKHZsKB74Q6AEIJjAA#v=onepage&q=%22curbside%20programs%22%20%22united%20states%22%20%22in%201992%22&f=false|accessdate=16 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1993 || {{w|Plastic recycling}} || || {{w|Brussels}}-based non-profit European trade association {{w|Petcore}} is founded to promote the collection, sorting and {{w|recycling}} of post-consumer [[w:Polyethylene terephthalate|PET]] bottles.<ref>{{cite web |title=Petcore Europe |url=https://www.petcore-europe.org/images/news/pdf/Petcore-Europe_General-presentation_2019.pdf |website=petcore-europe.org |accessdate=15 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Belgium}}
+
| 1993 || {{w|Plastic recycling}} || Organization || {{w|Brussels}}-based non-profit European trade association {{w|Petcore}} is founded to promote the collection, sorting and {{w|recycling}} of post-consumer [[w:Polyethylene terephthalate|PET]] bottles.<ref>{{cite web |title=Petcore Europe |url=https://www.petcore-europe.org/images/news/pdf/Petcore-Europe_General-presentation_2019.pdf |website=petcore-europe.org |accessdate=15 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Belgium}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1993 || || || "The first year when more paper was recycled than was buried in landfills in USA." || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1993 || General || Policy || Israel issues its Law for the Collection of Recycling (1993).<ref>{{cite web |title=חוק איסוף ופינוי פסולת למיחזור, התשנ׳׳ג–1993|trans-title=Law for the Collection of Recycling |language=Hebrew |url=http://www.sviva.gov.il/InfoServices/ReservoirInfo/DocLib/%D7%A4%D7%A1%D7%95%D7%9C%D7%AA/psolet09.pdf |publisher=State of Israel |website=Ministry of Environmental Protection |access-date=8 March 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Israel}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1994–2010 || {{w|Tire recycling}} || || The {{w|European Union}} increases the amount of tires recycled from 25% of annual discards to nearly 95%, with roughly half of the end-of-life tires used for energy, mostly in cement manufacturing.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Sienkiewicz|first1=Maciej|last2=Kucinska-Lipka|first2=Justyna|last3=Janik|first3=Helena|last4=Balas|first4=Adolf|title=Progress in used tyres management in the European Union: A review|journal=Waste Management|date=October 2012|volume=32|issue=10|pages=1742–1751|doi=10.1016/j.wasman.2012.05.010|pmid=22687707}}</ref> || {{w|European Union}}
+
| 1994 || {{w|Downcycling}} || || The term ''{{w|downcycling}}'' is first used.<ref>[https://www.salvoweb.com/files/sn99sm24y94tk181119.pdf Thornton Kay, Salvo in Germany - Reiner Pilz, p14 SalvoNEWS No99 11 October 1994]</ref> It refers to the {{w|recycling}} of {{w|waste}} where the recycled material is of lower quality and functionality than the original material.<ref name="Pires2018">{{cite book|author=Ana Pires|title=Sustainable Solid Waste Collection and Management|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=L3hvDwAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=downcycling&f=false|year=2018|publisher=Springer|isbn=978-3-319-93200-2}}</ref> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1995 || || Statistics || A record 47.6 billion soft drink containers are recycled in the {{w|United States}}, an increase of 500 million over the previous year. Aluminum cans are recycled at a rate of 63% in the country, with the highest state-wide rate in California at 80%.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> ||
+
| 1994–2010 || {{w|Tire recycling}} || Statistics || The {{w|European Union}} increases the amount of tires recycled from 25% of annual discards to nearly 95%, with roughly half of the end-of-life tires used for energy, mostly in cement manufacturing.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Sienkiewicz|first1=Maciej|last2=Kucinska-Lipka|first2=Justyna|last3=Janik|first3=Helena|last4=Balas|first4=Adolf|title=Progress in used tyres management in the European Union: A review|journal=Waste Management|date=October 2012|volume=32|issue=10|pages=1742–1751|doi=10.1016/j.wasman.2012.05.010|pmid=22687707}}</ref> || {{w|European Union}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1995 || || Organization || The {{w|Packaging Recovery Organisation Europe}} is founded as the umbrella organization of 31 national producer responsibility systems engaged in the selective collection and recycling of packaging waste.<ref>{{cite web|title=PRO Europe Website.|url=http://www.pro-e.org/|website=pro-e.org|accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1995 || {{w|Aluminum recycling}} || Statistics || A record 47.6 billion soft drink containers are recycled in the {{w|United States}}, an increase of 500 million over the previous year. Aluminum cans are recycled at a rate of 63% in the country, with the highest state-wide rate in California at 80%.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1996 || || Statistics || Recycling in the United States is rated at 25%, with the {{w|United States Environmental Protection Agency}} setting a new goal of 35%.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1995 || Packaging || Organization || The {{w|Packaging Recovery Organisation Europe}} is founded as the umbrella organization of 31 national producer responsibility systems engaged in the selective collection and recycling of packaging waste.<ref>{{cite web|title=PRO Europe Website.|url=http://www.pro-e.org/|website=pro-e.org|accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1996 || || Technology || Norwegian companies {{w|Elopak}} and {{w|SINTEF}} team up to sell the first infra-red sorting machine.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|Germany}}
+
| 1996 || General || Statistics || Recycling in the United States is rated at 25%, with the {{w|United States Environmental Protection Agency}} setting a new goal of 35%.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1996 || || || "Controversy over the benefits of recycling bubbled up in 1996 when columnist John Tierney posited in a New York Times Magazine article that “recycling is garbage.” “Mandatory recycling programs […] offer mainly short-term benefits to a few groups—politicians, public relations consultants, environmental organizations and waste handling corporations—while diverting money from genuine social and environmental problems. Recycling may be the most wasteful activity in modern America.”"<ref name="The Pros and Cons of Recycling">{{cite web |title=The Pros and Cons of Recycling |url=https://www.thoughtco.com/benefits-of-recycling-outweigh-the-costs-1204141 |website=thoughtco.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=4 Reasons Recycling Is Worth Its Associated Costs |url=https://www.hazardouswasteexperts.com/4-reasons-recycling-is-worth-its-associated-costs/ |website=hazardouswasteexperts.com |accessdate=11 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1996 || General || Technology || Norwegian companies {{w|Elopak}} and {{w|SINTEF}} team up to sell the first infra-red sorting machine.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|Germany}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1996 || || Organization || {{w|RREUSE}} ||  
+
| 1996 || General || Criticism || Columnist John Tierney writes in a {{w|New York Times Magazine}} article that “recycling is garbage.” “Mandatory recycling programs […] offer mainly short-term benefits to a few groups—politicians, public relations consultants, environmental organizations and waste handling corporations—while diverting money from genuine social and environmental problems. Recycling may be the most wasteful activity in modern America.”<ref name="The Pros and Cons of Recycling">{{cite web |title=The Pros and Cons of Recycling |url=https://www.thoughtco.com/benefits-of-recycling-outweigh-the-costs-1204141 |website=thoughtco.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=4 Reasons Recycling Is Worth Its Associated Costs |url=https://www.hazardouswasteexperts.com/4-reasons-recycling-is-worth-its-associated-costs/ |website=hazardouswasteexperts.com |accessdate=11 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1997 || || || "This holiday was created by the National Recycling Coalition in 1997. Every year since then, the President of the United States usually issues a Presidential Proclamation recognizing this day and encourage his fellow Americans to commit to the act of recycling." "November 15"<ref name="America Recycles Dayd">{{cite web |title=America Recycles Day |url=http://www.holidayscalendar.com/event/america-recycles-day/ |website=holidayscalendar.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1997 || General || Program launch || {{w|America Recycles Day}} is created on November 15 by the National Recycling Coalition. Every year since then, the President of the United States usually issues a [[w:Presidential proclamation (United States)|Presidential Proclamation]] recognizing this day and encourage his fellow Americans to commit to the act of recycling.<ref name="America Recycles Dayd">{{cite web |title=America Recycles Day |url=http://www.holidayscalendar.com/event/america-recycles-day/ |website=holidayscalendar.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1998 || || Policy || {{w|Extended producer responsibility}} (EPR) is adopted in {{w|Taiwan}} for electrical and electronic equipment, requiring producers to take back and recycle products such as televisions, refrigerators, washing machines, air–conditioners and computers, regardless of where they are sold.<ref name="Cents and Sustainability: Securing Our Common Future by Decoupling Economic Growth from Environmental Pressures"/> || {{w|Taiwan}}
+
| 1997 || {{w|Mobile phone recycling}} || Program launch || The first take back pilot program for mobile phone recycling takes place in Europe. It is run in Sweden and United Kingdom and is executed by member companies of the European Telecommunications and Professional Electronics Industry association., a group consisting of six mobile phone manufacturers.<ref name="Enri Damanhuri">{{cite book |title=Post-Consumer Waste Recycling and Optimal Production |edition=Enri Damanhuri |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=ueKdDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA139&lpg=PA139&dq=%22Mobile+phone+recycling%22+%22in+1990..2018%22&source=bl&ots=1JHpaqEIp2&sig=ACfU3U0wkeryinKDvPKa2t3ayZsDWcZqUQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiT4qey4vznAhUCE7kGHaIoAcsQ6AEwFXoECA0QAQ#v=onepage&q=%22Mobile%20phone%20recycling%22%20%22in%201990..2018%22&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|Sweden}}, {{w|United Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1997 || {{w|Vehicle recycling}} || Program launch || The {{w|European Commission}} adopts a Proposal for a Directive which makes vehicle dismantling and recycling more environmentally friendly, seting clear quantified targets for reuse, recycling and recovery of vehicles and their components and pushing producers to manufacture new vehicles also with a view to their recyclability.<ref>{{cite web |title=Commission proposes Directive on environmentally friendly handling of End of Life Vehicles |url=https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/IP_97_625 |website=ec.europa.eu |accessdate=8 March 2020}}</ref> || {{w|European Union}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1998 || {{w|Electronic recycling}} || Policy || {{w|Extended producer responsibility}} (EPR) is adopted in {{w|Taiwan}} for electrical and electronic equipment, requiring producers to take back and recycle products such as televisions, refrigerators, washing machines, air–conditioners and computers, regardless of where they are sold.<ref name="Cents and Sustainability: Securing Our Common Future by Decoupling Economic Growth from Environmental Pressures"/> || {{w|Taiwan}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1998 || || Policy || {{w|Extended producer responsibility}} programs (EPR) start being adopted in {{w|Switzerland}}.<ref>{{cite web|title=A comparison of electronic waste recycling in Switzerland and in India|url=http://oldweb.empa.ch/plugin/template/empa/*/51479/---/l=2|website=empa.ch|accessdate=16 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Switzerland}}
 
| 1998 || || Policy || {{w|Extended producer responsibility}} programs (EPR) start being adopted in {{w|Switzerland}}.<ref>{{cite web|title=A comparison of electronic waste recycling in Switzerland and in India|url=http://oldweb.empa.ch/plugin/template/empa/*/51479/---/l=2|website=empa.ch|accessdate=16 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Switzerland}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1998 || Waste recycling || Organization || Ukranian {{w|state enterprise}} {{w|Ukrecoresursy}} launches with the purpose to provide waste recycling services.<ref>{{cite web |title=Ukrecoresursy |url=http://eco-invest.org.ua/en/partners_partners/#.XkTN7Gj0mUm |website=eco-invest.org.ua/ |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Recycling Around the World A-Z: Ukraine |url=https://www.recyclingbins.co.uk/blog/recycling-around-the-world-ukraine/ |website=recyclingbins.co.uk |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Ukraine}}
+
| 1998 || Waste || Organization || Ukranian {{w|state enterprise}} {{w|Ukrecoresursy}} launches with the purpose to provide waste recycling services.<ref>{{cite web |title=Ukrecoresursy |url=http://eco-invest.org.ua/en/partners_partners/#.XkTN7Gj0mUm |website=eco-invest.org.ua/ |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Recycling Around the World A-Z: Ukraine |url=https://www.recyclingbins.co.uk/blog/recycling-around-the-world-ukraine/ |website=recyclingbins.co.uk |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Ukraine}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1999 || || Policy || {{w|Extended producer responsibility}} programs start adoption in {{w|Denmark}}, the {{w|Netherlands}} and {{w|Norway}}. || {{w|Denmark}}, {{w|Netherlands}}, {{w|Norway}}
 
| 1999 || || Policy || {{w|Extended producer responsibility}} programs start adoption in {{w|Denmark}}, the {{w|Netherlands}} and {{w|Norway}}. || {{w|Denmark}}, {{w|Netherlands}}, {{w|Norway}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2000 || || Study || The {{w|United States Environmental Protection Agency}} (EPA) confirms a link between {{w|global warming}} and waste, showing that reducing garbage and recycling cuts down {{w|greenhouse gas}} emissions.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> ||
+
| 2000 || General || Study || The {{w|United States Environmental Protection Agency}} (EPA) confirms a link between {{w|global warming}} and waste, showing that reducing garbage and recycling cuts down {{w|greenhouse gas}} emissions.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2000 || || Organization || The European Recovered Paper Council (ERPC) is set up as an industry self-initiative with the purpose of monitoring progress towards meeting the paper recycling targets set out in the European Declaration on Paper Recycling, which is published the same year. ||  
+
| 2000 || Paper || Organization || The European Recovered Paper Council (ERPC) is set up as an industry self-initiative with the purpose of monitoring progress towards meeting the paper recycling targets set out in the European Declaration on Paper Recycling, which is published the same year. ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2000 || || Organization || New Zelander non-profit organization {{w|Xtreme Waste}} is founded. It is dedicated to recycling.<ref>{{cite web |title=Xtreme Waste |url=http://xtremezerowaste.org.nz/our-story/ |website=xtremezerowaste.org.nz/ |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|New Zealand}}
+
| 2000 || || Organization (non-profit) || New Zelander non-profit organization {{w|Xtreme Waste}} is founded. It is dedicated to recycling.<ref>{{cite web |title=Xtreme Waste |url=http://xtremezerowaste.org.nz/our-story/ |website=xtremezerowaste.org.nz/ |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|New Zealand}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2001 || || Policy || The Home Appliance Recycling Law comes into force in Japan, thus making recycling of waste electrics a legal requirement under the Specific Household Appliance Recycling Law and the Law for Promotion of Effective Utilization Resources. Consumers are required to pay a combined fee for retailers to take back discarded air–conditioners, televisions, refrigerators and washing machines and for producers to recycle them.<ref name="Cents and Sustainability: Securing Our Common Future by Decoupling Economic Growth from Environmental Pressures"/><ref name="buekens">{{cite journal | last1 = Buekens | first1 = A. | last2 = Yang | first2 = J. | year = 2014 | title = Recycling of WEEE plastics: A review | url = | journal = The Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management | volume = 16 | issue = 3| pages = 415–434 | doi = 10.1007/s10163-014-0241-2 }}</ref> || {{w|Japan}}
+
| 2001 || {{w|Electronic recycling}} || Policy || The Home Appliance Recycling Law comes into force in Japan, thus making recycling of waste electrics a legal requirement under the Specific Household Appliance Recycling Law and the Law for Promotion of Effective Utilization Resources. Consumers are required to pay a combined fee for retailers to take back discarded air–conditioners, televisions, refrigerators and washing machines and for producers to recycle them.<ref name="Cents and Sustainability: Securing Our Common Future by Decoupling Economic Growth from Environmental Pressures"/><ref name="buekens">{{cite journal | last1 = Buekens | first1 = A. | last2 = Yang | first2 = J. | year = 2014 | title = Recycling of WEEE plastics: A review | url = | journal = The Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management | volume = 16 | issue = 3| pages = 415–434 | doi = 10.1007/s10163-014-0241-2 }}</ref> || {{w|Japan}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2001 || || Policy || {{w|Extended producer responsibility}} programs start adoption in {{w|Belgium}} and {{w|Sweden}}. || {{w|Belgium}}, {{w|Sweden}}
 
| 2001 || || Policy || {{w|Extended producer responsibility}} programs start adoption in {{w|Belgium}} and {{w|Sweden}}. || {{w|Belgium}}, {{w|Sweden}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2001 || {{w|Metal recycling}} || Organization || The {{w|British Metals Recycling Association}} is formed. It represents over 300 organizations working across the British metal recycling sector.<ref>{{cite web |title=BMRA celebrates 100 Years in Scrap |url=https://www.recyclemetals.org/newsandarticles/bmra-celebrates-100-years-in-scrap.html |website=recyclemetals.org |accessdate=15 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 2001 || [[w:Metal recycling|Metal]] || Organization || The {{w|British Metals Recycling Association}} is formed. It represents over 300 organizations working across the British metal recycling sector.<ref>{{cite web |title=BMRA celebrates 100 Years in Scrap |url=https://www.recyclemetals.org/newsandarticles/bmra-celebrates-100-years-in-scrap.html |website=recyclemetals.org |accessdate=15 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2001 || {{w|Vehicle recycling}} || Policy || China implements its Management Rules of Recycling End-of-Life Vehicles.<ref>{{cite book |title=Cascade Use in Technologies 2018: Internationale Konferenz zur Kaskadennutzung und Kreislaufwirtschaft – Oldenburg 2018 |edition=Alexandra Pehlken, Matthias Kalverkamp, Rikka Wittstock |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=uP1oDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA65&lpg=PA65&dq=Vehicle+recycling+%22in+1970..2015%22&source=bl&ots=I5UhsNNCTE&sig=ACfU3U0ThIwnoClbCwtlmGoO41wRhddbhA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwister-huvnAhVeCrkGHbzMDMYQ6AEwDXoECAwQAQ#v=onepage&q=Vehicle%20recycling%20%22in%201970..2015%22&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|China}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2001 || || Policy || {{w|Extended producer responsibility}} (EPR) is adopted in {{w|Japan}} with three basic laws setting the legal structure, establishing the 3R (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle), also mandating recycling fees which include consumers.<ref name="Assessing Extended Producer  Responsibility  LAWS in JAPAN">{{cite web|title=Assessing Extended Producer  Responsibility  LAWS in JAPAN|url=http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/es072561x|website=acs.org|accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Japan}}
 
| 2001 || || Policy || {{w|Extended producer responsibility}} (EPR) is adopted in {{w|Japan}} with three basic laws setting the legal structure, establishing the 3R (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle), also mandating recycling fees which include consumers.<ref name="Assessing Extended Producer  Responsibility  LAWS in JAPAN">{{cite web|title=Assessing Extended Producer  Responsibility  LAWS in JAPAN|url=http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/es072561x|website=acs.org|accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Japan}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2001 || || Organization || Danish company {{w|Gypsum Recycling International}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Gypsum Recycling International |url=https://stateofgreen.com/en/partners/gypsum-recycling-international/ |website=stateofgreen.com |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Gypsum Recycling |url=http://www.gypsumrecycling.biz/15892-1_Companyprofile/ |website=gypsumrecycling.biz |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Denmark}}
+
| 2001 || {{w|Plasterboard}}/{{w|drywall}} recycling || Organization || Danish company {{w|Gypsum Recycling International}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Gypsum Recycling International |url=https://stateofgreen.com/en/partners/gypsum-recycling-international/ |website=stateofgreen.com |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Gypsum Recycling |url=http://www.gypsumrecycling.biz/15892-1_Companyprofile/ |website=gypsumrecycling.biz |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Denmark}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2001 || || Organization (for-profit) || American recycling company {{w|TerraCycle}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=TerraCycle in the news |url=https://www.terracycle.com/en-US/about-terracycle/news?page=554&show_= |website=terracycle.com |accessdate=15 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2002 || {{w|Textile recycling}} || Organization || The {{w|Carpet America Recovery Effort}} launches as a joint industry-government {{w|non-profit}} organization whose mission is to develop market-based solutions for recovering value from discarded {{w|carpet}}s.<ref>{{cite web |title=Carpet America Recovery Effort (CARE) |url=https://www.recyclingproductnews.com/company/5490/carpet-america-recovery-effort-care |website=recyclingproductnews.com |accessdate=14 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=CARE 2012 Annual Report |url=https://carpetrecovery.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Carpet-America-Recovery-Effort-2012-Annual-Report.pdf |website=carpetrecovery.org |accessdate=14 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2001 || || Organization || American recycling company {{w|TerraCycle}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=TerraCycle in the news |url=https://www.terracycle.com/en-US/about-terracycle/news?page=554&show_= |website=terracycle.com |accessdate=15 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2002 || {{w|Glass recycling}}, {{w|Plastic recycling}} || Policy || {{w|New York City}}, an early municipal recycling pioneer, eliminates glass and plastic recycling, after finding that the benefits of recycling plastic and glass are outweighed by the price—recycling cost twice as much as disposal.<ref name="The Pros and Cons of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2002 || {{w|Textile recycling}} || || {{w|Carpet America Recovery Effort}}<ref>{{cite web |title=Carpet America Recovery Effort (CARE) |url=https://www.recyclingproductnews.com/company/5490/carpet-america-recovery-effort-care |website=recyclingproductnews.com |accessdate=14 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=CARE 2012 Annual Report |url=https://carpetrecovery.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Carpet-America-Recovery-Effort-2012-Annual-Report.pdf |website=carpetrecovery.org |accessdate=14 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2003 || {{w|Electronic recycling}} || Policy || The {{w|Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive}} (WEEE) is passed into {{w|European Law}}. It sets collection, recycling and recovery targets for all types of electrical goods. ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2002 || || || "But in 2002, New York City, an early municipal recycling pioneer, found that its much-lauded recycling program was losing money, so it eliminated glass and plastic recycling. According to Mayor Michael Bloomberg, the benefits of recycling plastic and glass were outweighed by the price—recycling cost twice as much as disposal. Meanwhile, low demand for the materials meant that much of it was ending up in landfills anyway, despite best intentions."<ref name="The Pros and Cons of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2003 || {{w|Electronic recycling}} || Policy || The {{w|California Electronic Waste Recycling Act}} is signed, establishing a new program for consumers to return, recycle, and ensure the safe and environmentally sound disposal of video display devices, such as televisions and computer monitors, that are hazardous wastes when discarded.<ref name="electronic">Electronic Hazardous Waste. (2010). Retrieved from Department of Toxic Substances Control website: http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/hazardouswaste/ewaste/</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || Electronics || Policy || The {{w|Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive}} (WEEE) is passed into {{w|European Law}}. It sets collection, recycling and recovery targets for all types of electrical goods. ||
+
| 2003 || {{w|Kerbside collection}} || Organization || American independent {{w|501(c)3}} {{w|Curbside Value Partnership}}<ref>{{cite web |title=The Recycling Partnership |url=http://www.cancentral.com/recycling-sustainability/programs-initiatives/the-recycling-partnership |website=cancentral.com |accessdate=14 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Curbside Value Partnership changes name |url=https://www.recyclingtoday.com/article/curbside-value-partnership-name-change/ |website=recyclingtoday.com |accessdate=14 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || || Policy || The {{w|California Electronic Waste Recycling Act}} is signed, establishing a new program for consumers to return, recycle, and ensure the safe and environmentally sound disposal of video display devices, such as televisions and computer monitors, that are hazardous wastes when discarded.<ref name="electronic">Electronic Hazardous Waste. (2010). Retrieved from Department of Toxic Substances Control website: http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/hazardouswaste/ewaste/</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2003 || Waste || Organization || {{w|The Freecycle Network}} (<code>freecycle.org</code>[https://www.freecycle.org/]) launches as a website in {{w|Tucson}}, {{w|Arizona}}. It coordinates a worldwide network of "gifting" groups to divert reusable goods from landfills. The network would grow into nearly 5,000 community-based Freecycle groups in over 85 countries around the world.<ref>{{cite web |title=The Freecycle Network: Good for the Planet (and Your Wallet) |url=https://www.aarp.org/money/budgeting-saving/info-11-2009/freecycle_network.html |website=aarp.org |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=A Decade of Sharing: The Freecycle Network Turns 10 |url=https://earth911.com/business-policy/business/the-freecycle-network-10-years/ |website=earth911.com |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Freecycle |url=https://anjr.com/njwastewise/2012/Freecycle%20booklet.pdf |website=anjr.com |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || {{w|Curbside recycling}} || Organization || American independent {{w|501(c)3}} {{w|Curbside Value Partnership}}<ref>{{cite web |title=The Recycling Partnership |url=http://www.cancentral.com/recycling-sustainability/programs-initiatives/the-recycling-partnership |website=cancentral.com |accessdate=14 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Curbside Value Partnership changes name |url=https://www.recyclingtoday.com/article/curbside-value-partnership-name-change/ |website=recyclingtoday.com |accessdate=14 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2003 || {{w|Electronic recycling}} || Organization || The {{w|e-Stewards}} initiative launches as an electronics waste recycling standard created by the {{w|Basel Action Network}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=What are R2 and e-Stewards Certifications? |url=https://greencitizen.com/what-are-r2-and-e-steward-certifications/ |website=greencitizen.com |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || || || {{w|The Freecycle Network}} (<code>https://www.freecycle.org/</code>[https://www.freecycle.org/]) launches as a website in {{w|Tucson}}, {{w|Arizona}}. It coordinates a worldwide network of "gifting" groups to divert reusable goods from landfills. The network would grow into nearly 5,000 community-based Freecycle groups in over 85 countries around the world.<ref>{{cite web |title=The Freecycle Network: Good for the Planet (and Your Wallet) |url=https://www.aarp.org/money/budgeting-saving/info-11-2009/freecycle_network.html |website=aarp.org |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=A Decade of Sharing: The Freecycle Network Turns 10 |url=https://earth911.com/business-policy/business/the-freecycle-network-10-years/ |website=earth911.com |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Freecycle |url=https://anjr.com/njwastewise/2012/Freecycle%20booklet.pdf |website=anjr.com |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2003 || {{w|Appliance recycling}} || Policy || The {{w|California Electronic Waste Recycling Act}} is signed. It establishes a new program for consumers to return, recycle, and ensure the safe and environmentally sound disposal of video display devices, such as televisions and computer monitors, that are hazardous wastes when discarded.<ref name="electronic">Electronic Hazardous Waste. (2010). Retrieved from Department of Toxic Substances Control website: http://www.dtsc.ca.gov/hazardouswaste/ewaste/</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || || || {{w|e-Stewards}}<ref>{{cite web |title=What are R2 and e-Stewards Certifications? |url=https://greencitizen.com/what-are-r2-and-e-steward-certifications/ |website=greencitizen.com |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2004 || {{w|Vegetable oil recycling}} || Policy || The different Belgian regions impose collection and recycling targets on producers of frying oils and frying fats.<ref name="Exploration of the">{{cite web |title=Exploration of the Role of Extended Producer Responsibility for the circular economy in the Netherlands |url=https://lap3.nl/publish/pages/138151/ernst_young_exploration_of_the_role_of_extended_producer_responsibility_for_the_circular_economy_in_.pdf |website= |accessdate=3 March 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Belgium}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2006 || || || {{w|World Reuse, Repair and Recycling Association}}<ref>{{cite web |title=World Reuse, Repair and Recycling Association |url=https://www.morebooks.de/store/gb/book/world-reuse,-repair-and-recycling-association/isbn/978-613-3-66974-1 |website=morebooks.de |accessdate=14 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Frequently Asked Questions about Fair Trade Recycling |url=http://ingenthron.net/mission/faq.html |website=ingenthron.net/ |accessdate=14 February 2020}}</ref> ||
+
| 2005 || {{w|Single-stream recycling}} || Statistics || About a fifth of all communities in the United States with recycling programs use {{w|single-stream recycling}}.<ref name="theatlantic.comsz">{{cite web |title=Single-Stream Recycling Is Easier for Consumers, but Is It Better? |url=https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2014/09/single-stream-recycling-is-easier-for-consumers-but-is-it-better/380368/ |website=theatlantic.com |accessdate=21 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2006 || || Organization || {{w|I-recycle}} || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 2005 || {{w|Vehicle recycling}} || Policy || Japan passes its Automobile Recycling Law, the first in Asia.<ref name="Roy Serrona">{{cite journal |last1=Chea |first1=Jia |last2=Jeong-soo |first2=Yu |last3=Roy Serrona |first3=Kevin |title=End-of-life vehicle recycling and international cooperation between Japan, China and Korea: Present and future scenario analysis |doi=10.1016/S1001-0742(11)61103-0 |url=https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1001074211611030}}</ref> || {{w|Japan}}  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2007 || Electronics || Policy || Five U.S. states pass laws requiring that unwanted electronics be recycled.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2006 || {{w|Electronic recycling}} || Organization || The {{w|World Reuse, Repair and Recycling Association}} launches. It is a business {{w|consortium}} dedicated to the reform of the trade of {{w|e-waste}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=World Reuse, Repair and Recycling Association |url=https://www.morebooks.de/store/gb/book/world-reuse,-repair-and-recycling-association/isbn/978-613-3-66974-1 |website=morebooks.de |accessdate=14 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Frequently Asked Questions about Fair Trade Recycling |url=http://ingenthron.net/mission/faq.html |website=ingenthron.net/ |accessdate=14 February 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2006 || {{w|Battery recycling}} || Policy || The European Union passes the {{w|Battery Directive}}, one of the aims of which is a higher rate of battery recycling. The [[w:European Union|EU]] directive states that at least 25% of all the EU's used batteries must be collected by 2012, and rising to no less than 45% by 2016, of which at least 50% must be recycled.<ref name="bbc">{{cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4969544.stm|title=EU agrees battery recycling law|date=3 May 2006|work=BBC Online|accessdate=22 October 2010}}</ref> || {{w|European Union}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2007 || {{w|Electronic recycling}} || Policy || Five U.S. states pass laws requiring that unwanted electronics be recycled.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2007 || {{w|Plastic recycling}} || Organization || Non-governmental organization {{w|Trashy Bags}} is founded in Ghana with the purpose to "contribute to cleaning up the streets of {{w|Accra}}". It turns plastic waste into reusable shopping bags, fashion accessories, school supplies, and other products.<ref>{{cite web |title=Trashy Bags |url=http://trashybags.org/ |website=trashybags.org |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Ghana’s pure water irony: Trashy bags it’s solution? |url=https://www.modernghana.com/news/188133/ghanas-pure-water-irony-trashy-bags-its-solutio.html |website=modernghana.com |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Ghana}}
 
| 2007 || {{w|Plastic recycling}} || Organization || Non-governmental organization {{w|Trashy Bags}} is founded in Ghana with the purpose to "contribute to cleaning up the streets of {{w|Accra}}". It turns plastic waste into reusable shopping bags, fashion accessories, school supplies, and other products.<ref>{{cite web |title=Trashy Bags |url=http://trashybags.org/ |website=trashybags.org |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Ghana’s pure water irony: Trashy bags it’s solution? |url=https://www.modernghana.com/news/188133/ghanas-pure-water-irony-trashy-bags-its-solutio.html |website=modernghana.com |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Ghana}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2007 || || || {{w|BuyMyTronics.com}}<ref>{{cite web |title=BuyMyTronics.com |url=https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/buymytronics |website=crunchbase.com |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2007 || {{w|Electronic recycling}} || Organization || {{w|BuyMyTronics.com}} launches as an electronics resale business in {{w|Denver}}, {{w|Colorado}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=BuyMyTronics.com |url=https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/buymytronics |website=crunchbase.com |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2008 || || || {{w|USPS Post Office Box Lobby Recycling program}} || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2008 || {{w|Paper recycling}} || Program launch || The {{w|USPS Post Office Box Lobby Recycling program}} launches in the United States as a project for consumers to recycle paper items, using recycling bins placed in the customer lobbies of post office buildings.<ref>{{cite web |title=USPS Post Office Box Lobby Recycling program |url=http://officeschoices.blogspot.com/2017/10/usps-post-office-box-lobby-recycling.html |website=officeschoices.blogspot.com/ |accessdate=17 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || {{w|Scrap}} || Publication || American professor {{w|Carl A. Zimring}} publishes ''Cash for your trash'', one of the first specialized studies about scrap recycling in the United States.<ref>{{cite web|title=Zimring, Carl A.  Cash for your trash : Scrap recycling in America|url=http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rbh/v33n66/en_a17v33n66.pdf|website=scielo.br|accessdate=16 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2009 || [[w:Scrap|Scrap recycling]] || Publication || American professor {{w|Carl A. Zimring}} publishes ''Cash for your trash'', one of the first specialized studies about scrap recycling in the United States.<ref>{{cite web|title=Zimring, Carl A.  Cash for your trash : Scrap recycling in America|url=http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rbh/v33n66/en_a17v33n66.pdf|website=scielo.br|accessdate=16 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2010 || Metal recycling || || The metal recycling industry generates US$64 billion in the United States in the year.<ref>{{cite web |title=SCRAP METAL RECYCLING 101 – A GUIDE FOR COMPLETE BEGINNERS |url=https://verichek.net/scrap-metal-recycling.html |website=verichek.net |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2010 || {{w|Metal recycling}} || Statistics || The metal recycling industry generates US$64 billion in the United States in the year.<ref>{{cite web |title=SCRAP METAL RECYCLING 101 – A GUIDE FOR COMPLETE BEGINNERS |url=https://verichek.net/scrap-metal-recycling.html |website=verichek.net |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2010 || {{w|Mobile phone recycling}} || Program launch || {{w|Nokia}} introduces {{w|mobile recycling}} programs in {{w|Uganda}}, {{w|Saudi Arabia}}, {{w|Lebanon}}, {{w|Sri Lanka}}, {{w|Uruguay}}, {{w|Pakistan}}, {{w|Panama}}, {{w|Belarus}}, {{w|Bosnia}}, {{w|Malta}}, and {{w|Ukraine}}, in order to promote a recycling culture.<ref name="Enri Damanhuri"/> || {{w|Uganda}}, {{w|Saudi Arabia}}, {{w|Lebanon}}, {{w|Sri Lanka}}, {{w|Uruguay}}, {{w|Pakistan}}, {{w|Panama}}, {{w|Belarus}}, {{w|Bosnia}}, {{w|Malta}}, {{w|Ukraine}} 
 +
|-
 +
| 2011 || {{w|Computer recycling}} || Program launch || Australia establishes its National Television and Computer Recycling Scheme to provide local households and small businesses with access to free industry-funded collection and recycling services for televisions and computers, including printers, computer parts and peripherals.<ref>{{cite web |title=National Television and Computer Recycling Scheme |url=https://www.environment.gov.au/protection/waste-resource-recovery/television-and-computer-recycling-scheme |website=environment.gov.au |accessdate=3 March 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Australia}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2012 || {{w|Electronic recycling}} || Statistics || More than 585 million pounds of consumer electronics are recycled. This is an increase of 125 million pounds (more than 25%) over 2011.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> ||
 
| 2012 || {{w|Electronic recycling}} || Statistics || More than 585 million pounds of consumer electronics are recycled. This is an increase of 125 million pounds (more than 25%) over 2011.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2012 || {{w|Single-stream recycling}} || Infrastructure || As of year there are 248 [[w:Materials recovery facility|materials recovery facilities]] operating in the United States.<ref>{{cite web |title=What is Single Stream Recycling? |url=https://www.charlevoixcounty.org/recycling/about_single_stream/index.php |website=charlevoixcounty.org |accessdate=21 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2013 || {{w|Single-stream recycling}} || Statistics || As of year, 100 million Americans are served by {{w|single-stream recycling}} programs.<ref>{{Cite news|url=http://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2013-07/how-it-works-recycling-machines-separate-junk-type|title=How It Works: Inside The Machine That Separates Your Recyclables|last=|first=|date=|work=Popular Science|access-date=21 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2013 || || Program launch || Operation Green Fence launches in China as an effort to start getting exporting countries to clean their recycling, their plastics in particular.<ref name="America’s new recycling crisis, explained by an expert"/> || {{w|China}}
 
| 2013 || || Program launch || Operation Green Fence launches in China as an effort to start getting exporting countries to clean their recycling, their plastics in particular.<ref name="America’s new recycling crisis, explained by an expert"/> || {{w|China}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2014 || Textile || Statistics || "More than 15 million tons of used textile waste is generated each year in the United States, and the amount has doubled over the last 20 years. In 2014, over 16 million tons of textile waste was generated, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. Of this amount, 2.62 million tons were recycled, 3.14 million tons were combusted for energy recovery, and 10.46 million tons were sent to the landfill. An average American throws away approximately 80 pounds of used clothing per person per year. On average, nationally, it costs cities $45 per ton to dispose of old clothing. Synthetic clothing may take hundreds of years to decompose."<ref name="Textile and Garment Recycling Facts and Figures">{{cite web |title=Textile and Garment Recycling Facts and Figures |url=https://www.thebalancesmb.com/textile-recycling-facts-and-figures-2878122 |website=thebalancesmb.comd |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2014 || {{w|Textile recycling}}  || Statistics || Over 16 million tons of textile waste are generated in the United States in the year. Of this amount, 2.62 million tons are recycled, 3.14 million tons are combusted for energy recovery, and 10.46 million tons are sent to the landfill.<ref name="Textile and Garment Recycling Facts and Figures">{{cite web |title=Textile and Garment Recycling Facts and Figures |url=https://www.thebalancesmb.com/textile-recycling-facts-and-figures-2878122 |website=thebalancesmb.comd |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2014 || {{w|Waste}} || Background || About 258 million tons of trash are generated in the United States. 66.4 million tons are cecycled and 23 million tons of this material are composted. A 34.6 percent recycling rate is calculated. On average, Americans recycle and compost 1.51 pounds of their individual waste generation of 4.44 pounds per person per day.<ref name="lbre.stanford.edu">{{cite web |title=Frequently Asked Questions: Benefits of Recycling |url=https://lbre.stanford.edu/pssistanford-recycling/frequently-asked-questions/frequently-asked-questions-benefits-recycling |website=lbre.stanford.edu |accessdate=9 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2015 || {{w|Plastic recycling}} || Statistics || An estimated 9 percent out of a cumulative 5800 million tons of primary plastic no longer in use is estimated to have been recycled.<ref name="Plastic Pollution"/> In the year, an estimated 55 percent of global plastic waste is discarded, 25 percent is incinerated, and 20 percent recycled.<ref name="Plastic Pollution"/> || {{w|Worldwide}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2014 || || || About 258 million tons of trash are generated in the United States. 66.4 million tons are cecycled and 23 million tons of this material are composted. A 34.6 percent recycling rate is calculated. On average, Americans recycle and compost 1.51 pounds of their individual waste generation of 4.44 pounds per person per day.<ref name="lbre.stanford.edu">{{cite web |title=Frequently Asked Questions: Benefits of Recycling |url=https://lbre.stanford.edu/pssistanford-recycling/frequently-asked-questions/frequently-asked-questions-benefits-recycling |website=lbre.stanford.edu |accessdate=9 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2015 || {{w|Tire recycling}} || Organization (for-profit) || {{w|New Delhi}}-based environment {{w|sustainability}} company {{w|Tyrelessly}} is founded. It provides {{w|tire Recycling}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Ploughing on tyrelessly |url=https://www.thehindu.com/features/kids/Ploughing-on-tyrelessly/article14024617.ece |website=thehindu.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=16-YO Anubhav Wadhwa Has The Perfect Alternative To Disposing Old Tyres Without Burning Them |url=https://www.indiatimes.com/news/india/16-yo-anubhav-wadhwa-has-the-perfect-alternative-to-disposing-old-tyres-without-burning-them-249520.html |website=indiatimes.com |accessdate=20 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|India}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2015 || {{w|Plastic recycling}} || || "Of the 5800 million tonnes of primary plastic no longer in use, only 9 percent has been recycled since 1950."<ref name="Plastic Pollution"/>
+
| 2016 || General || Financial || The recycling industry generates revenue volume of US$160 billion throughout the world in the year, and employs around 1.5 million people.<ref name="paprec.comvv"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2015 || {{w|Plastic recycling}} || || In the year, an estimated 55 percent of global plastic waste is discarded, 25 percent is incinerated, and 20 percent recycled.<ref name="Plastic Pollution"/> ||
+
| 2016 || General || || Study by the United States Recycling Economic Information (REI) finds that in a single year, recycling and reuse activities in the United States account for: 757,000 jobs, U$36.6 billion in wages, and US$6.7 billion in tax revenues. This equates to 1.57 jobs, US$76,000 in wages, and US$14,101 in tax revenues for every 1,000 tons of materials recycled.<ref>{{cite web |title=Recycling Basics |url=https://www.epa.gov/recycle/recycling-basics |website=epa.gov |accessdate=9 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2016 || || || The recycling industry generates revenue volume of US$160 billion throughout the world in the year, and employs around 1.5 million people.<ref name="paprec.comvv"/> ||  
+
| 2016 || {{w|Paint recycling}} || Organization || Paintback is founded in Australia as an industry-led initiative "designed to divert unwanted paint and packaging from ending up in landfill and vital waterways".<ref>{{cite web |title=Paintback |url=https://recyclingnearyou.com.au/paint/ |website=recyclingnearyou.com.au |accessdate=8 March 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Australia}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2017 (July) || || Policy || China announces its Operation National Sword.<ref name="America’s new recycling crisis, explained by an expert"/> || {{w|China}}
 
| 2017 (July) || || Policy || China announces its Operation National Sword.<ref name="America’s new recycling crisis, explained by an expert"/> || {{w|China}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2017 || Paper/cardboard || || The recycling rate in the United States is reported at 65.9%, which is among the highest compared to other materials in municipal solid waste.<ref name="Introduction to Paper Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2017 || [[w:Paper recycling|Paper/cardboard recycling]] || Statistics || The recycling rate in the United States is reported at 65.9%, which is among the highest compared to other materials in municipal solid waste.<ref name="Introduction to Paper Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2018 || || || The Global Recycling Day launches on March 18.<ref>{{cite web |title=Global Recycling Day 2020 to focus on recycling heroes |url=https://www.recyclingtoday.com/article/global-recycling-day-bir-2020-focus-heroes/ |website=recyclingtoday.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> ||  
+
| 2018 || General || Program launch || The Global Recycling Day launches on March 18.<ref>{{cite web |title=Global Recycling Day 2020 to focus on recycling heroes |url=https://www.recyclingtoday.com/article/global-recycling-day-bir-2020-focus-heroes/ |website=recyclingtoday.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2018 || Paper/cardboard || || Recycling of paper and paperboard products in the United States is estimated to be of approximately 5 million tons.<ref name="Introduction to Paper Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2018 || [[w:Paper recycling|Paper/cardboard recycling]] || Statistics || Recycling of paper and paperboard products in the United States is estimated to be of approximately 5 million tons.<ref name="Introduction to Paper Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2018 || || {{w|Electronic recycling}} || {{w|Apple Inc.}} introduces Daisy, a smartphone-recycling robot that can take apart 200 iPhones every hour. About 48,000 metric tons of electronic waste are reported are reported to be diverted from landfills this year.<ref>{{cite web |title=The World Has an E-Waste Problem |url=https://time.com/5594380/world-electronic-waste-problem/ |website=time.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> ||  
+
| 2018 || {{w|Electronic recycling}} || Product launch || {{w|Apple Inc.}} introduces Daisy, a smartphone-recycling robot that can take apart 200 iPhones every hour. About 48,000 metric tons of electronic waste are reported are reported to be diverted from landfills this year.<ref>{{cite web |title=The World Has an E-Waste Problem |url=https://time.com/5594380/world-electronic-waste-problem/ |website=time.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2018 || {{w|Paper recycling}} || Organization || RecyclePaperZA is established in South Africa.<ref>{{cite web |title=RecyclePaperZA |url=https://recyclepaper.co.za/about-us/ |website=recyclepaper.co.za |accessdate=15 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|South Africa}}
 
| 2018 || {{w|Paper recycling}} || Organization || RecyclePaperZA is established in South Africa.<ref>{{cite web |title=RecyclePaperZA |url=https://recyclepaper.co.za/about-us/ |website=recyclepaper.co.za |accessdate=15 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|South Africa}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2018 (March) || || || China's Operation National Sword goes into full effect, banning 24 types of scrap and implementing much stricter and more rigorous contamination standards. As a result, local governments and the recycling industry begin to face an unprecedented recycling crisis, especially in plastics.<ref>{{cite web |title=How American Recycling Is Changing After China’s National Sword |url=https://www.citylab.com/environment/2019/04/recycling-waste-management-us-china-national-sword-change/584665/ |website=citylab.com |accessdate=11 February 2020}}</ref><ref name="America’s new recycling crisis, explained by an expert">{{cite web |title=America’s new recycling crisis, explained by an expert |url=https://www.vox.com/the-goods/2019/4/2/18290956/recycling-crisis-china-plastic-operation-national-sword |website=vox.com |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|China}}
+
| 2018 (March) || [[w:Scrap|Scrap recycling]] || Policy || China's Operation National Sword goes into full effect, banning 24 types of scrap and implementing much stricter and more rigorous contamination standards. As a result, local governments and the recycling industry begin to face an unprecedented recycling crisis, especially in plastics.<ref>{{cite web |title=How American Recycling Is Changing After China’s National Sword |url=https://www.citylab.com/environment/2019/04/recycling-waste-management-us-china-national-sword-change/584665/ |website=citylab.com |accessdate=11 February 2020}}</ref><ref name="America’s new recycling crisis, explained by an expert">{{cite web |title=America’s new recycling crisis, explained by an expert |url=https://www.vox.com/the-goods/2019/4/2/18290956/recycling-crisis-china-plastic-operation-national-sword |website=vox.com |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|China}}
 
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| 2019 || || || America Recycles Day becomes an integral part of the Keep America Beautiful Campaign.<ref name="America Recycles Dayd"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2019 || || Program launch || America Recycles Day becomes an integral part of the Keep America Beautiful Campaign.<ref name="America Recycles Dayd"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
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| 2030 || Plastic || || "Coca Cola intends to use 50% recycled Polyethylene terephthalate in its containers by 2030."<ref name="thebalancesmb.com">{{cite web |title=Recycling Polyethylene Terephthalate |url=https://www.thebalancesmb.com/recycling-polyethylene-terephthalate-pet-2877869 |website=thebalancesmb.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> ||  
+
| 2030 || {{w|Plastic recycling}} || || {{w|Coca Cola}} intends to use 50% recycled {{w|polyethylene terephthalate}} in its containers by this year.<ref name="thebalancesmb.com"/> ||  
 
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Latest revision as of 11:33, 8 March 2020

This is a timeline of recycling, attempting to describe significant events in the history of this process.

Sample questions

The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:

  • How did recycling for every material evolved throughout time?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Material".

Big picture

Time period Development summary
Ancient times As early as 400 BC, people are known to recycle. Archaeological evidence indicates that glass is recycled in the ancient city of Sagalassos, Turkey, during the imperial Byzantine times.[1] Early Romans are also found to recycle bronze coins into statues that could be sold at a higher monetary value than the original coins.[2] Bronze scrap recovery systems are developed in Europe
18th Century Industrial revolution. It becomes easier and cheaper to produce goods, it is also easier and sometimes cheaper to throw used items away.[2]
19th Century Scrap metal is purchased by sold by railroads.[3] "Dustmen" collect ash from coal fires, in order to use it as soil conditioner and for brick–making. The practice is still alive today.[4]
20th Century In the 1930s, many people survive the Great Depression by peddling scraps of metal, rags and other items.[5] Goods such as nylon, rubber and many metals are rationed and recycled during World War II.[5] Further in the 1940s ad 1950s, recycling becomes less important as landfilling becomes a cheap way to dispose trash. The 1960s see the rise of the environmental movement, which provoques public awareness and rises environmental consciousness. In the 1970s, a strong worldwide growth in support for energy conservation is triggered partly by the energy shortages and rising prices resulting from the emergence of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC),[6] thus recycling becomes more popular again and drop-off recycling centers are established.[2] In the 1980s, major cities in the United States begin establishing curbside collection programs for plastics and other recyclables.[7] In the 1990s, municipal recycling programs are established throughout the United States and Europe.[8] Extended producer responsibility programs merge worldwide. "Single-stream recycling popped up in several California communities in the 1990s as a low-barrier entry into recycling."[9][10]

Full timeline

Year Category Type of event Event Geographical location
3300 BC–1200 BC Metal recycling Recovery Bronze scrap recovery systems are developed in Europe during the European Bronze Age.[4] Europe
2000 BC Metal recycling Recovery Composting/Recycling methods, as well as recycling bronze for later use, are developed in China.[11] China
400 BC Glass recycling Recovery Recycling may start as early as this time, when some civilizations take glass from conquered villages and reuse the glass in their own settlements. Recycling materials, such as glass, becomes necessary for survival, especially in times of disease, war, or famine.[12]
105 AC Textile recycling Technology introduction Han dynasty. During this period the Chinese Minister for Agriculture Tsai Lun invents the idea of making paper from old linen rags.[13] China
1031 Paper recycling Recovery The first ever recorded reuse of waste paper begins in Japan. Documents and paper are recycled and re-pulped into new paper then sold in local Staples across the country.[5][14][13] Japan
1500s Metal recycling Recovery Spanish copper mines use scrap iron for cementation of copper. This recycling practice survives to this day.[4]
1690 Paper/cardboard recycling Technology introduction The recycled paper manufacturing process is introduced when Rittenhouse Mill, Philadelphia starts manufacturing paper from waste paper and rags.[15][11][5][13][16] United States
1776 Metal recycling Recovery The first metal recycling is produced in the United States when patriots in New York City manage to melt down a statue of King George III and make into 42,088 bullets.[3][15] United States
1800 Paper recycling Technology introduction English papermaker Matthias Koops is granted the first patent for paper recycling. His patent application involves extracting ink from printed and written paper and converting the paper into pulp to make new paper. This process was later adopted by paper mills worldwide."[17] United Kingdom
1813 Textile recycling Technology Benjamin Law develops the process of turning rags into "shoddy" and "mungo" wool, through a process of combining fibres with virgin wool.[4] United Kingdom
1865 General Organization The Salvation Army is founded in London, and begins collecting, sorting and recycling unwanted goods. The Household Salvage Brigades employ the unskilled poor to recover discarded materials. In the 1990s, the organization and its program would migrate to the United States.[18][5] United Kingdom
1874 Paper/cardboard recycling Recovery The first municipal paper recycling in the United States starts in Baltimore, Maryland. A second one opens in New York City in the same year.[17] United States
1884 Glass recycling Recovery An official recycling system for bottles with refundable deposits is established in Sweden.[3] Sweden
1896 General Facility launch An early major recycling center is started by the Benedetto family in New York City, where they collect rags, newspaper, and trash with a pushcart.[19] United States
1897 General Facility launch A materials recovery facility is buit in New York City, where trash is sorted at “picking yards” and separated into various grades of paper, metals, and carpet. Burlap bags, twine, rubber and even horse hair are also sorted for recycling and reuse.[5] United States
1904 Aluminium recycling Facility launch The first large–scale aluminum recyclers are operated in the metalworks of Chicago.[8] United States
1907 Plastic recycling Background The first synthetic plastic Bakelite, is produced. This marks the beginning of the global plastics industry.[20]
1916–1918 General Organization (government agency) Due to massive shortages of raw materials during World War I, the United States Federal government creates the Waste Reclamation Service with the motto “Don’t Waste Waste – Save It.”.[5] United States
1934 General Organization (for-profit) German Recycling and waste management company Remondis is founded.[21] Germany
1939–1945 General Recycling and reusing materials become vital during The Great Depression and World War II, since resources and materials are limited and people can no longer afford to purchase new materials. Recycling and reusing become a symbol of the war, and a way for American’s back home to do their part to help the war effort.[12]
1939–1945 Paper/cardboard recycling Paper recycling efforts resurface during World War II when, due to a major shortage of paper pulp, people are asked to save used paper and rags to make new paper.[17]
1940 Scrap recycling Nylon, elastic, used batteries and various scrap metals are recycled in Europe and the United States to benefit the war effort.[13] Europe, United States
1948 General Organization (non-profit) The Bureau of International Recycling is formed. Headquartered in Brussels, it is considered to be the first federation to support the interests of the recycling industry on an international scale.[22][23][24] Belgium
1948 Timber recycling A 100 meters tall tower of Golm transmitter near Potsdam, Germany is built from recycled timber from old radio towers. The tower would remain intact for 31 years.[25] Germany
1955 (1 August) General Publication Life magazine offers a two-page article on “Throwaway Living”, selling to consumers the idea that single-use items are a necessity of the modern lifestyle. Ease and convenience would soon become the two most desirable qualities in product marketing, inevitably leading to parks, forests and highways becoming littered with garbage.[5] United States
1960 Paper/cardboard recycling Statistics Recycling of paper and paperboard products in the United States is estimated at around 5 million tons.[17] United States
1962 General Literature Rachel Carson publishes Silent Spring, warning that, when you throw something away, it doesn't really go away.[26] United States
1962 General Organization (non-profit) The United States National Waste & Recycling Association is founded.[27][28][29] United States
1964 Metal recycling Product The aluminum beverage can is introduced and quickly becomes an industry standard.[8]
1965–1970 General Symbol introduction American designer Gary Anderson introduces the symbol for Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, inspired in the Möbius strip.[30][5] United States
1968 Aluminium recycling The aluminum industry begins aluminum recycling.[26]
1970 (April 22) Annual event Earth Day is founded in the United States by Senator Gaylord Nelson and globally by entrepreneur John McConnell.[5]
1970 Metal recycling Program launch "Ban The Can" is conceived and executed by Ruth "Pat" Webb as the first post-World War II mass recycling program in the United States in Honolulu, Hawaii. Webb organizes military and civilian volunteers to collect over 9 tons (8,200 kg) of metal cans from the roadways and highways of Oahu. The metal cans were later recycled into steel reinforcement bars to be used in local construction projects."[31] United States
1971 Metal recycling, Glass recycling Policy The Oregon Bottle Bill is passed as a container-deposit legislation in Oregon, requiring cans, bottles, and other containers sold in Oregon to be returnable with a minimum refund value.[32] United States
1972 General Facility The first recycling mill is built in Conshohocken, Pennsylvania.[7][5] United States
1973 Plastic recycling Facility An early recycling center for plastic materials is created in Conshohocken, Pennsylvania.[13] United States
1974 Kerbside collection Program University City, Missouri starts offering curbside recycling to its residents.[5] United States
1974 Kerbside collection Program The first multi–material curbside recycling program is launched in Canada.[6] Canada
1970s Timber recycling Industry pioneers on the East Coast of the United States begin selling of recycled lumber.[25] United States
1981 General Policy Woodbury, New Jersey becomes the first city in the United States to mandate recycling.[33][4] United States
1983 General Program The blue box recycling system (BBRS) is launched in Canada, initially as a waste management system used by Canadian municipalities to collect source separating household waste materials for the purpose of recycling. The first full-scale community wide BBRS is implemented in the City of Kitchener, Ontario. Today, the blue box system and variations of it remain in place in hundreds of cities around the world.[6] Canada
1983 Blue box recycling system The first full-scale community wide blue box recycling system is implemented by the waste management contractor Ontario Total Recycling Systems Ltd. for the City of Kitchener, Ontario, Canada. Canada
1983 Automotive oil recycling Policy The Used Automotive Oil Recycling Ac is passed in Washington State, requiring sellers of 100 gallons or more oil per year to post signs on used oil recycling and to identify the nearest oil collection center.[34] United States
1984 Plastic recycling Statistics Plastics recycling tops 100 million pounds in the United States for the first time in the history of plastics recycling.[7] United States
1985–1989 Kerbside collection Program Rose Rowan starts the first kerbside collection service for recyclables.[30]
1986 General Policy Rhode Island becomes the first U.S. state to mandate recycling, including some plastic bottles and containers.[7] United States
1987 Scrap recycling Organization (non-profit) United States-based private, non-profit trade association Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries is founded.[35] United States
1988 Kerbside collection Statistics The number of curbside recycling programs in the United States increases to about 1,050.[5] United States
1988 Plastic recycling Recycling code release The Plastics Industry Trade Association (SPI) creates the Resin Identification Code to help recycling programs identify the resin content in plastic waste.[36] United States
1989 General Organization (non-profit) The Center for the Development of Recycling is founded at San Jose State University, California. It works on urban water conservation and recycling projects.[37] United States
1990 General Program The concept of Extended producer responsibility (EPR) is first formally introduced by Thomas Lindhqvist in a report to the Swedish Ministry of the Environment. EPR is defined as an environmental protection strategy that makes the manufacturer of the appliance responsible for its entire life cycle and especially for the “take-back”, recycling and final disposal of the product.[38] Sweden
1990 Plastic recycling Technology introduction Coca-Cola begins blending recycled plastics into its beverage bottles.[7]
1990s General Single-stream recycling Single-stream recycling is introduced in California, as a system that combines all recyclable items such as paper, plastic, metal, and glass together in a collection truck, rather than being sorted into separate materials and handled separately throughout the entire process.[12]
1991–2011 General Policy More than 70 Extended producer responsibility (EPR) laws are enacted in the United States, generally requiring manufacturers to implement EPR programs, though without specifying recycling targets.[39] United States
1991 Packaging Policy Extended producer responsibility (EPR) is adopted in Germany, after the German Packaging Ordinance is passed, extending to producers the responsibility for their products and packaging, beyond production and delivery through to the entire life cycle. Since the adoption, until 1998, the per capita consumption of packaging is reduced from 94.7 kg to 82 kg, resulting in a reduction of 13.4%.[40][41][5] Germany
1991 General Organization The Salvation Army Trading Company Ltd (SATCoL) is established, in order to create jobs and benefit the environment through recycling.[18]
1991 Electronic recycling The first electronic waste recycling system is implemented in Switzerland, beginning with collection of old refrigerators but gradually expanding to cover all devices.[42] Switzerland
1991–2017 Tire recycling The stockpile of scrap tires shrinks from over a billion to just 60 million in this period. According to the tire industry, tire recycling is a major success story.[43]
1992 Kerbside collection Policy The number of curbside programs in the United States reaches four thousand, up from just six hundred in 1989. With the rise of curbside recycling, industries abandon many of their buy–back programs and begin to rely largely on municipal services that require them to pay no extra fees.[44] United States
1993 Plastic recycling Organization Brussels-based non-profit European trade association Petcore is founded to promote the collection, sorting and recycling of post-consumer PET bottles.[45] Belgium
1993 General Policy Israel issues its Law for the Collection of Recycling (1993).[46] Israel
1994 Downcycling The term downcycling is first used.[47] It refers to the recycling of waste where the recycled material is of lower quality and functionality than the original material.[48]
1994–2010 Tire recycling Statistics The European Union increases the amount of tires recycled from 25% of annual discards to nearly 95%, with roughly half of the end-of-life tires used for energy, mostly in cement manufacturing.[49] European Union
1995 Aluminum recycling Statistics A record 47.6 billion soft drink containers are recycled in the United States, an increase of 500 million over the previous year. Aluminum cans are recycled at a rate of 63% in the country, with the highest state-wide rate in California at 80%.[5]
1995 Packaging Organization The Packaging Recovery Organisation Europe is founded as the umbrella organization of 31 national producer responsibility systems engaged in the selective collection and recycling of packaging waste.[50] United States
1996 General Statistics Recycling in the United States is rated at 25%, with the United States Environmental Protection Agency setting a new goal of 35%.[5] United States
1996 General Technology Norwegian companies Elopak and SINTEF team up to sell the first infra-red sorting machine.[5] Germany
1996 General Criticism Columnist John Tierney writes in a New York Times Magazine article that “recycling is garbage.” “Mandatory recycling programs […] offer mainly short-term benefits to a few groups—politicians, public relations consultants, environmental organizations and waste handling corporations—while diverting money from genuine social and environmental problems. Recycling may be the most wasteful activity in modern America.”[51][52] United States
1997 General Program launch America Recycles Day is created on November 15 by the National Recycling Coalition. Every year since then, the President of the United States usually issues a Presidential Proclamation recognizing this day and encourage his fellow Americans to commit to the act of recycling.[53] United States
1997 Mobile phone recycling Program launch The first take back pilot program for mobile phone recycling takes place in Europe. It is run in Sweden and United Kingdom and is executed by member companies of the European Telecommunications and Professional Electronics Industry association., a group consisting of six mobile phone manufacturers.[54] Sweden, United Kingdom
1997 Vehicle recycling Program launch The European Commission adopts a Proposal for a Directive which makes vehicle dismantling and recycling more environmentally friendly, seting clear quantified targets for reuse, recycling and recovery of vehicles and their components and pushing producers to manufacture new vehicles also with a view to their recyclability.[55] European Union
1998 Electronic recycling Policy Extended producer responsibility (EPR) is adopted in Taiwan for electrical and electronic equipment, requiring producers to take back and recycle products such as televisions, refrigerators, washing machines, air–conditioners and computers, regardless of where they are sold.[40] Taiwan
1998 Policy Extended producer responsibility programs (EPR) start being adopted in Switzerland.[56] Switzerland
1998 Waste Organization Ukranian state enterprise Ukrecoresursy launches with the purpose to provide waste recycling services.[57][58] Ukraine
1999 Policy Extended producer responsibility programs start adoption in Denmark, the Netherlands and Norway. Denmark, Netherlands, Norway
2000 General Study The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) confirms a link between global warming and waste, showing that reducing garbage and recycling cuts down greenhouse gas emissions.[5]
2000 Paper Organization The European Recovered Paper Council (ERPC) is set up as an industry self-initiative with the purpose of monitoring progress towards meeting the paper recycling targets set out in the European Declaration on Paper Recycling, which is published the same year.
2000 Organization (non-profit) New Zelander non-profit organization Xtreme Waste is founded. It is dedicated to recycling.[59] New Zealand
2001 Electronic recycling Policy The Home Appliance Recycling Law comes into force in Japan, thus making recycling of waste electrics a legal requirement under the Specific Household Appliance Recycling Law and the Law for Promotion of Effective Utilization Resources. Consumers are required to pay a combined fee for retailers to take back discarded air–conditioners, televisions, refrigerators and washing machines and for producers to recycle them.[40][60] Japan
2001 Policy Extended producer responsibility programs start adoption in Belgium and Sweden. Belgium, Sweden
2001 Metal Organization The British Metals Recycling Association is formed. It represents over 300 organizations working across the British metal recycling sector.[61] United Kingdom
2001 Vehicle recycling Policy China implements its Management Rules of Recycling End-of-Life Vehicles.[62] China
2001 Policy Extended producer responsibility (EPR) is adopted in Japan with three basic laws setting the legal structure, establishing the 3R (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle), also mandating recycling fees which include consumers.[63] Japan
2001 Plasterboard/drywall recycling Organization Danish company Gypsum Recycling International is founded.[64][65] Denmark
2001 Organization (for-profit) American recycling company TerraCycle is founded.[66] United States
2002 Textile recycling Organization The Carpet America Recovery Effort launches as a joint industry-government non-profit organization whose mission is to develop market-based solutions for recovering value from discarded carpets.[67][68] United States
2002 Glass recycling, Plastic recycling Policy New York City, an early municipal recycling pioneer, eliminates glass and plastic recycling, after finding that the benefits of recycling plastic and glass are outweighed by the price—recycling cost twice as much as disposal.[51] United States
2003 Electronic recycling Policy The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE) is passed into European Law. It sets collection, recycling and recovery targets for all types of electrical goods.
2003 Electronic recycling Policy The California Electronic Waste Recycling Act is signed, establishing a new program for consumers to return, recycle, and ensure the safe and environmentally sound disposal of video display devices, such as televisions and computer monitors, that are hazardous wastes when discarded.[69] United States
2003 Kerbside collection Organization American independent 501(c)3 Curbside Value Partnership[70][71] United States
2003 Waste Organization The Freecycle Network (freecycle.org[1]) launches as a website in Tucson, Arizona. It coordinates a worldwide network of "gifting" groups to divert reusable goods from landfills. The network would grow into nearly 5,000 community-based Freecycle groups in over 85 countries around the world.[72][73][74] United States
2003 Electronic recycling Organization The e-Stewards initiative launches as an electronics waste recycling standard created by the Basel Action Network.[75] United States
2003 Appliance recycling Policy The California Electronic Waste Recycling Act is signed. It establishes a new program for consumers to return, recycle, and ensure the safe and environmentally sound disposal of video display devices, such as televisions and computer monitors, that are hazardous wastes when discarded.[69] United States
2004 Vegetable oil recycling Policy The different Belgian regions impose collection and recycling targets on producers of frying oils and frying fats.[76] Belgium
2005 Single-stream recycling Statistics About a fifth of all communities in the United States with recycling programs use single-stream recycling.[10] United States
2005 Vehicle recycling Policy Japan passes its Automobile Recycling Law, the first in Asia.[77] Japan
2006 Electronic recycling Organization The World Reuse, Repair and Recycling Association launches. It is a business consortium dedicated to the reform of the trade of e-waste.[78][79]
2006 Battery recycling Policy The European Union passes the Battery Directive, one of the aims of which is a higher rate of battery recycling. The EU directive states that at least 25% of all the EU's used batteries must be collected by 2012, and rising to no less than 45% by 2016, of which at least 50% must be recycled.[80] European Union
2007 Electronic recycling Policy Five U.S. states pass laws requiring that unwanted electronics be recycled.[5] United States
2007 Plastic recycling Organization Non-governmental organization Trashy Bags is founded in Ghana with the purpose to "contribute to cleaning up the streets of Accra". It turns plastic waste into reusable shopping bags, fashion accessories, school supplies, and other products.[81][82] Ghana
2007 Electronic recycling Organization BuyMyTronics.com launches as an electronics resale business in Denver, Colorado.[83] United States
2008 Paper recycling Program launch The USPS Post Office Box Lobby Recycling program launches in the United States as a project for consumers to recycle paper items, using recycling bins placed in the customer lobbies of post office buildings.[84] United States
2009 Scrap recycling Publication American professor Carl A. Zimring publishes Cash for your trash, one of the first specialized studies about scrap recycling in the United States.[85] United States
2010 Metal recycling Statistics The metal recycling industry generates US$64 billion in the United States in the year.[86] United States
2010 Mobile phone recycling Program launch Nokia introduces mobile recycling programs in Uganda, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Sri Lanka, Uruguay, Pakistan, Panama, Belarus, Bosnia, Malta, and Ukraine, in order to promote a recycling culture.[54] Uganda, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Sri Lanka, Uruguay, Pakistan, Panama, Belarus, Bosnia, Malta, Ukraine
2011 Computer recycling Program launch Australia establishes its National Television and Computer Recycling Scheme to provide local households and small businesses with access to free industry-funded collection and recycling services for televisions and computers, including printers, computer parts and peripherals.[87] Australia
2012 Electronic recycling Statistics More than 585 million pounds of consumer electronics are recycled. This is an increase of 125 million pounds (more than 25%) over 2011.[5]
2012 Single-stream recycling Infrastructure As of year there are 248 materials recovery facilities operating in the United States.[88] United States
2013 Single-stream recycling Statistics As of year, 100 million Americans are served by single-stream recycling programs.[89] United States
2013 Program launch Operation Green Fence launches in China as an effort to start getting exporting countries to clean their recycling, their plastics in particular.[90] China
2014 Textile recycling Statistics Over 16 million tons of textile waste are generated in the United States in the year. Of this amount, 2.62 million tons are recycled, 3.14 million tons are combusted for energy recovery, and 10.46 million tons are sent to the landfill.[91] United States
2014 Waste Background About 258 million tons of trash are generated in the United States. 66.4 million tons are cecycled and 23 million tons of this material are composted. A 34.6 percent recycling rate is calculated. On average, Americans recycle and compost 1.51 pounds of their individual waste generation of 4.44 pounds per person per day.[92] United States
2015 Plastic recycling Statistics An estimated 9 percent out of a cumulative 5800 million tons of primary plastic no longer in use is estimated to have been recycled.[20] In the year, an estimated 55 percent of global plastic waste is discarded, 25 percent is incinerated, and 20 percent recycled.[20] Worldwide
2015 Tire recycling Organization (for-profit) New Delhi-based environment sustainability company Tyrelessly is founded. It provides tire Recycling.[93][94] India
2016 General Financial The recycling industry generates revenue volume of US$160 billion throughout the world in the year, and employs around 1.5 million people.[13]
2016 General Study by the United States Recycling Economic Information (REI) finds that in a single year, recycling and reuse activities in the United States account for: 757,000 jobs, U$36.6 billion in wages, and US$6.7 billion in tax revenues. This equates to 1.57 jobs, US$76,000 in wages, and US$14,101 in tax revenues for every 1,000 tons of materials recycled.[95] United States
2016 Paint recycling Organization Paintback is founded in Australia as an industry-led initiative "designed to divert unwanted paint and packaging from ending up in landfill and vital waterways".[96] Australia
2017 (July) Policy China announces its Operation National Sword.[90] China
2017 Paper/cardboard recycling Statistics The recycling rate in the United States is reported at 65.9%, which is among the highest compared to other materials in municipal solid waste.[17] United States
2018 General Program launch The Global Recycling Day launches on March 18.[97]
2018 Paper/cardboard recycling Statistics Recycling of paper and paperboard products in the United States is estimated to be of approximately 5 million tons.[17] United States
2018 Electronic recycling Product launch Apple Inc. introduces Daisy, a smartphone-recycling robot that can take apart 200 iPhones every hour. About 48,000 metric tons of electronic waste are reported are reported to be diverted from landfills this year.[98]
2018 Paper recycling Organization RecyclePaperZA is established in South Africa.[99] South Africa
2018 (March) Scrap recycling Policy China's Operation National Sword goes into full effect, banning 24 types of scrap and implementing much stricter and more rigorous contamination standards. As a result, local governments and the recycling industry begin to face an unprecedented recycling crisis, especially in plastics.[100][90] China
2019 Program launch America Recycles Day becomes an integral part of the Keep America Beautiful Campaign.[53] United States
2030 Plastic recycling Coca Cola intends to use 50% recycled polyethylene terephthalate in its containers by this year.[9]

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

What the timeline is still missing

Timeline update strategy

See also

References

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  25. 25.0 25.1 "HISTORY OF RECLAIMED LUMBER". tntreclaimed.com. Retrieved 8 March 2020. 
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