Difference between revisions of "Timeline of search engine optimization"

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This is a '''timeline of {{w|search engine optimization}}'''.
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This is a '''timeline of {{w|search engine optimization}}''', attempting to describe significant events related to this practice. For the sake of context, many events directly related to {{w|search engine}}s, their evolution, products and updates, are included.  
  
 
== Sample questions ==
 
== Sample questions ==
  
 
The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:  
 
The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:  
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* What are some historically significant search engines and when were they launched?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Search engine launch".
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** You will see the launch of search engines, notable for their historical importance like {{w|WebCrawler}}, or by their magnitude, like {{w|Google}} and {{w|Yahoo!}}.
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* What are some significant updates involving search engines?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Notable update".
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** You will see some significant updates by prominent search engines, mainly Google; aimed at improving aspects like geographic intent, end-user data, {{w|content farm}} combating, etc.
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* What are some of the several competitions specialized in SEO?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "{{w|SEO contest}}".
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** You will see a number of notable contests launched in several countries. 
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* What are some numbers illustrating the evolution of search engine?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Statistics".
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** For internet userbase evolution, sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Statistics (internet userbase)".
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* What are some significant events illustrating the evolution of {{w|internet search}}?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Search evolution".
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** You will see the evolution of internet search toward {{w|mobile search}}, and the envisage of future mainstream search toward [[w:voice search|voice]].
  
 
==Big picture==
 
==Big picture==
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! Time period !! Development summary !! More details
 
! Time period !! Development summary !! More details
 
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| 2015 onward || Mobile search era ||
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| 1991–2002 || Prelude period<ref name="The Evolution Of SEO Trends Over 25 Years">{{cite web |title=The Evolution Of SEO Trends Over 25 Years |url=https://searchengineland.com/evolution-seo-trends-25-years-223424 |website=searchengineland.com |accessdate=4 January 2020}}</ref> || Early period starting from the launch of the world’s first website by {{w|Tim Berners-Lee}}. As websites start crowding the Internet, the first search engines fill a need for structure and accessibility. in 1993, search platforms like Excite revolutionize how information is cataloged and make finding information easier by sorting results based on keywords found within content and backend optimization. {{w|Webmaster}}s and content providers begin optimizing websites for search engines in the mid-decade. {{w|Yahoo!}} in 1994 and {{w|Google}} in 1997 enter the scene to improve and simplify how data is indexed and delivered. In this primitive stage, marketers would leverage keyword stuffing, excessive tagging, and (often spammy) backlinks to generate high rankings in search. Often, major algorithm updates would take several months to complete, allowing black-hat SEO tactics to remain effective for long stretches of time. In 1994, several new search engines become widely accessible to the public.<ref name="tellmeyourgoal.coms"/> In 1996, in which some consider the time when [[w:search engine optimization|SEO]] really took off, {{w|Sergey Brin}} and {{w|Larry Page}} begin building {{w|BackRub}}, the predecessor of {{w|Google}}, which would become the biggest, most recognized search engine.<ref name="bluefrogdm.coms"/> Around 1997, the first algorithm crackers appear. 1997 is the year that several SEO providers decode all 35 parameters of Excite’s algorithm.<ref name="A Brief History of SEOd">{{cite web |title=A Brief History of SEO |url=https://medium.com/tripika/a-brief-history-of-seo-3b35d7fa34d3 |website=medium.com |accessdate=10 January 2020}}</ref>     
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{| class="wikitable"
 
! Time period !! Development summary !! More details
 
|-
 
| 1991–2002 || Prelude time<ref name="The Evolution Of SEO Trends Over 25 Years">{{cite web |title=The Evolution Of SEO Trends Over 25 Years |url=https://searchengineland.com/evolution-seo-trends-25-years-223424 |website=searchengineland.com |accessdate=4 January 2020}}</ref> || Early period starting from launch of the world’s first website by {{w|Tim Berners-Lee}}. As websites start crowding the Internet, the first search engines fill a need for structure and accessibility. in 1993, search platforms like Excite revolutionize how information is cataloged and make finding information easier by sorting results based on keywords found within content and backend optimization. Webmasters and content providers begin optimizing websites for search engines in the mid-decade. Yahoo in 1994 and Google in 1997 enter the scene to improve and simplify how data is indexed and delivered. "This is a primitive stage of SEO, in which marketers would leverage keyword stuffing, excessive tagging, and (often spammy) backlinks to generate high rankings in search. Often, major algorithm updates would take several months to complete, allowing black-hat SEO tactics to remain effective for long stretches of time. "  "It was not until 1994, however, that several new search engines became widely accessible to the public. "<ref name="tellmeyourgoal.coms"/>   "However, in 1996, SEO really took off when Sergey Brin and Larry Page began building what would become the biggest, most recognized search engine to date: BackRub. "<ref name="bluefrogdm.coms"/> "The first algorithm crackers appeared around ’97. By decoding a search engine’s ranking algorithm, which at the time was nowhere near impossible, unscrupulous webmasters could get sites into the top 10 results at will. 1997 was the year that several SEO providers decoded all 35 parameters of Excite’s algorithm."<ref name="A Brief History of SEOd">{{cite web |title=A Brief History of SEO |url=https://medium.com/tripika/a-brief-history-of-seo-3b35d7fa34d3 |website=medium.com |accessdate=10 January 2020}}</ref>     
 
 
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| 2003–2005 || Early developments<ref name="The Evolution Of SEO Trends Over 25 Years"/> || "By 2004, the three major search engines that are left, Google, MSN and Yahoo!, start incorporating undisclosed page ranking factors into their algorithms. The era of keyword-spamming SEO is long over. Webmasters and content providers have to rely on more creative ways to promote content and generate inbound links in order to achieve long term increases in SE rankings."<ref name="A Brief History of SEOd"/>
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| 2003–2005 || Early developments<ref name="The Evolution Of SEO Trends Over 25 Years"/> || {{w|Google}}, {{w|MSN}} and {{w|Yahoo!}}, the three major search engines that are left, start incorporating undisclosed page ranking factors into their algorithms. The era of keyword-spamming SEO is long over. {{w|Webmaster}}s and content providers have to rely on more creative ways to promote content and generate inbound links in order to achieve long term increases in search engine rankings.<ref name="A Brief History of SEOd"/>
 
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| 2006–2009 || "The Middle Ages"<ref name="The Evolution Of SEO Trends Over 25 Years"/> ||
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| 2006–2009 || Middle period || This period introduces highlights like Google's Universal Search to offer additionally more engaging content media in search results such as news, images, and video.<ref name="The Evolution Of SEO Trends Over 25 Years"/>  
 
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| 2010–2012 || "The Enlightenment "<ref name="The Evolution Of SEO Trends Over 25 Years"/> || "That year also saw a growing importance of social media content in SEO. " "While the 2009 introduction of Google's real-time search had some social ramifications, social media is becoming a more pivotal piece of SEO strategy."<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/> "By 2010 a tactic had appeared where websites were created from large amounts of low-quality textual content, frequently updated and specifically designed to lure search engine algorithms. These sites were linked together forming so-called ‘content farms’ whose only purpose was to drive search engine traffic and, just like doorway pages before them, sending the incoming traffic to the final destination.
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| 2010–2012 || Consolidation period <ref name="The Evolution Of SEO Trends Over 25 Years"/> || Social media becomes a more pivotal piece of SEO strategy.<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/> By 2010, {{w|content farm}}s appear, designed to lure search engine algorithms. As a response, Google decides that the quality of the content should matter more for search engine rankings, and in 2011 launches its {{w|Google Panda}} update which effectively kills the practice.<ref name="A brief history of Search Engine Optimization (SEO)"/> Toward 2012, Google continues setting restrictions to means of improving users' ranking score and continues penalizing websites using unethical methods of rankings.<ref name="gopbn.comd">{{cite web |title=The History of Search Engine Optimization |url=https://gopbn.com/blog/history-of-seo/ |website=gopbn.com |accessdate=10 January 2020}}</ref>
As a response, Google decided that the quality of the content should matter more for search engine rankings, and in 2011 launched its ‘Panda’ update which effectively killed the practice. This was later followed by ‘Penguin’ which focused on websites that contained irrelevant links, sneakily added to the otherwise relevant content to the visitor."<ref name="A brief history of Search Engine Optimization (SEO)"/> "2010-2012 Google Sets the Table of SEO" "Google, once again, began setting restrictions to means of improving your ranking score and continue penalizing websites using unethical methods of rankings."<ref name="gopbn.comd">{{cite web |title=The History of Search Engine Optimization |url=https://gopbn.com/blog/history-of-seo/ |website=gopbn.com |accessdate=10 January 2020}}</ref>
 
 
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| 2013–present || Modern SEO era<ref name="The Evolution Of SEO Trends Over 25 Years"/> || "Then focus moved towards mobile. First in 2014, with the launch of app indexing making apps appear alongside websites in search results and then in 2015 with the so-called ‘Mobilegeddon’ update that made website mobile friendliness a ranking signal in searches."<ref name="A brief history of Search Engine Optimization (SEO)"/> "2018 started with the continuation of mobile as a key focus for search engines."<ref name="A brief history of Search Engine Optimization (SEO)"/> "By 2017, SEO is, for the most part, a conversation with Google Search. Google has over 70% of today’s search engine users and is thus the place you have to be in in order to start driving organic traffic your way. SEO campaigns are much more laborious and complex now than they were a decade ago, but this is largely a good thing. Users get better relevant results and webmasters and content providers have to provide actual value in order to rank high on search results."<ref name="A Brief History of SEOd"/>
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| 2013–present || Modern SEO era<ref name="The Evolution Of SEO Trends Over 25 Years"/> || Focus moves towards mobile search. In 2014, the app indexing launches, making apps appear alongside websites in search results. In 2015, the so-called ‘Mobilegeddon’ update appears, making website mobile friendliness a ranking signal in searches.<ref name="A brief history of Search Engine Optimization (SEO)"/> By 2017, SEO is considered, for the most part, a conversation with {{w|Google Search}}.<ref name="A Brief History of SEOd"/> 2018 starts with the continuation of mobile as a key focus for search engines.<ref name="A brief history of Search Engine Optimization (SEO)"/> As of 2019, SEO campaigns are much more laborious and complex than they were a decade ago. Users get better relevant results and webmasters and content providers have to provide actual value in order to rank high on search results.<ref name="A Brief History of SEOd"/>
 
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{| class="sortable wikitable"
 
{| class="sortable wikitable"
! Year !! Month and date !! Event type !! Details
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! Year !! Month and date !! Search engine (when applicable) !! Event type !! Details
 
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| 1945 || || || American engineer {{w|Vannevar Bush}} introduces the concept of “collection of data and observations, the extraction of parallel material from the existing record, and the final insertion of new material into the general body of the common record.”<ref name="amcodigital.com">{{cite web |title=THE HISTORY OF SEO (SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMIZATION) |url=https://www.amcodigital.com/history-of-seo/ |website=amcodigital.com |accessdate=7 January 2020}}</ref> Bush emphasizes the necessity for an expansive index for all knowledge, stating: "[Information] has been extended far beyond our present ability to make real use of the record. A record, if it is to be useful to science, must be continuously extended, it must be stored...Our ineptitude in getting at the record is largely caused by the artificiality of the systems of indexing. The human mind does not work this way. It operates by association."<ref name="whatisseo.comd">{{cite web |title=History of Search Engines |url=https://www.whatisseo.com/history-of-search-engines.html |website=whatisseo.com |accessdate=7 January 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Pariser |first1=Eli |title=The Filter Bubble: What The Internet Is Hiding From You |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=-FWO0puw3nYC&pg=PT165&dq=vannevar+bush+1945+collection+of+data&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjnm735idToAhXtIbkGHfNICPgQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=vannevar%20bush%201945%20collection%20of%20data&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Miller |first1=Gary |last2=Benke |first2=Meg |last3=Chaloux |first3=Bruce |last4=Ragan |first4=Lawrence C. |last5=Schroeder |first5=Raymond |last6=Smutz |first6=Wayne |last7=Swan |first7=Karen |title=Leading the e-Learning Transformation of Higher Education: Meeting the Challenges of Technology and Distance Education |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=6jeFAwAAQBAJ&pg=PT84&dq=vannevar+bush+1945+collection+of+data&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjnm735idToAhXtIbkGHfNICPgQ6AEISjAE#v=onepage&q=vannevar%20bush%201945%20collection%20of%20data&f=false}}</ref>
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| 1945 || || || Concept development || American engineer {{w|Vannevar Bush}} introduces the concept of “collection of data and observations, the extraction of parallel material from the existing record, and the final insertion of new material into the general body of the common record.”<ref name="amcodigital.com">{{cite web |title=THE HISTORY OF SEO (SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMIZATION) |url=https://www.amcodigital.com/history-of-seo/ |website=amcodigital.com |accessdate=7 January 2020}}</ref> Bush emphasizes the necessity for an expansive index for all knowledge, stating: "[Information] has been extended far beyond our present ability to make real use of the record. A record, if it is to be useful to science, must be continuously extended, it must be stored...Our ineptitude in getting at the record is largely caused by the artificiality of the systems of indexing. The human mind does not work this way. It operates by association."<ref name="whatisseo.comd">{{cite web |title=History of Search Engines |url=https://www.whatisseo.com/history-of-search-engines.html |website=whatisseo.com |accessdate=7 January 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Pariser |first1=Eli |title=The Filter Bubble: What The Internet Is Hiding From You |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=-FWO0puw3nYC&pg=PT165&dq=vannevar+bush+1945+collection+of+data&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjnm735idToAhXtIbkGHfNICPgQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=vannevar%20bush%201945%20collection%20of%20data&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Miller |first1=Gary |last2=Benke |first2=Meg |last3=Chaloux |first3=Bruce |last4=Ragan |first4=Lawrence C. |last5=Schroeder |first5=Raymond |last6=Smutz |first6=Wayne |last7=Swan |first7=Karen |title=Leading the e-Learning Transformation of Higher Education: Meeting the Challenges of Technology and Distance Education |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=6jeFAwAAQBAJ&pg=PT84&dq=vannevar+bush+1945+collection+of+data&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjnm735idToAhXtIbkGHfNICPgQ6AEISjAE#v=onepage&q=vannevar%20bush%201945%20collection%20of%20data&f=false}}</ref>
 
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| 1987 || || || Search engine [[w:Archie (search engine)|Archie]] begins as a project for students and staff at {{w|McGill University}}, with aims to connect the McGill University School of Computer Science to the internet.<ref name="tellmeyourgoal.coms">{{cite web |title=The History of Search Engine Optimization |url=https://www.tellmeyourgoal.com/the-history-of-search-engine-optimization |website=tellmeyourgoal.com |accessdate=10 January 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=ARCHIE SEARCH ENGINE FROM MCGILL UNIVERSITY |url=http://www.historyofdomainnames.com/archie/ |website=historyofdomainnames.com |accessdate=6 April 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=ARCHIE SEARCH ENGINE |url=http://community.worldheritage.org/articles/eng/Archie_search_engine |website=worldheritage.org |accessdate=6 April 2020}}</ref>
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| 1987 || || [[w:Archie (search engine)|Archie]] || Early development || Search engine [[w:Archie (search engine)|Archie]] begins as a project for students and staff at {{w|McGill University}}, with aims to connect the McGill University School of Computer Science to the internet.<ref name="tellmeyourgoal.coms">{{cite web |title=The History of Search Engine Optimization |url=https://www.tellmeyourgoal.com/the-history-of-search-engine-optimization |website=tellmeyourgoal.com |accessdate=10 January 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=ARCHIE SEARCH ENGINE FROM MCGILL UNIVERSITY |url=http://www.historyofdomainnames.com/archie/ |website=historyofdomainnames.com |accessdate=6 April 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=ARCHIE SEARCH ENGINE |url=http://community.worldheritage.org/articles/eng/Archie_search_engine |website=worldheritage.org |accessdate=6 April 2020}}</ref>
 
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| 1990 || || || McGill University student {{w|Alan Emtage}} launches [[w:Archie (search engine)|Archie]].<ref>{{cite web |title=Archie |url=https://twitter.com/mcgillu/status/1039248155211124737?lang=en |website=twitter.com |accessdate=6 April 2020}}</ref> Designed to search and store directory listings on file transfer protocol sites, it is considered by some to be the very first [[w:Web search engine|search engine]]<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/> Archie searches {{w|File Transfer Protocol}} (FTP) sites to create index of downloadable files. Due to limited space, only the listings are available and not for the contents for each site.<ref name="wordstream.come"/><ref name="amcodigital.com"/><ref name="whatisseo.comd"/><ref name="seo.comf"/>
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| 1990 || || [[w:Archie (search engine)|Archie]] || Early development || McGill University student {{w|Alan Emtage}} launches [[w:Archie (search engine)|Archie]].<ref>{{cite web |title=Archie |url=https://twitter.com/mcgillu/status/1039248155211124737?lang=en |website=twitter.com |accessdate=6 April 2020}}</ref> Designed to search and store directory listings on file transfer protocol sites, it is considered by some to be the very first [[w:Web search engine|search engine]]<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/> Archie searches {{w|File Transfer Protocol}} (FTP) sites to create index of downloadable files. Due to limited space, only the listings are available and not for the contents for each site.<ref name="wordstream.come"/><ref name="amcodigital.com"/><ref name="whatisseo.comd"/><ref name="seo.comf"/>
 
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| 1990 || || || "Search Methods Before the Internet – Phonebook"<ref name="seo.comf"/>
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| 1991 || || <code>vlib.org</code> || Early development || English computer scientist {{w|Tim Berners-Lee}} in {{w|Geneva}} launches his WWW Virtual Library <code>vlib.org</code>. It is considered the oldest catalog on the [[w:World Wide Web|Web]].<ref name="wordstream.come">{{cite web |title=THE HISTORY OF SEARCH ENGINES |url=https://www.wordstream.com/articles/internet-search-engines-history |website=wordstream.com |accessdate=7 January 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Van Rys |first1=John |last2=Meyer |first2=Verne |last3=Sebranek |first3=Patrick |title=The Research Writer, Spiral bound Version |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=g4HP5TIs2-cC&pg=PA84&dq=Tim+Berners-Lee+set+up+a+Virtual+Library+%221991%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi2l_vUlNToAhXTILkGHRNVD5IQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=Tim%20Berners-Lee%20set%20up%20a%20Virtual%20Library%20%221991%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Scheeren |first1=William O. |title=The Hidden Web: A Sourcebook |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=KgTqbPXQqroC&pg=PA46&dq=Tim+Berners-Lee+set+up+a+Virtual+Library+%221991%22+vlib.org&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjCgvDOltToAhWNI7kGHTwQCDIQ6AEIMzAB#v=onepage&q=Tim%20Berners-Lee%20set%20up%20a%20Virtual%20Library%20%221991%22%20vlib.org&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Tortosa |first1=Virgilio |title=Escrituras digitales: tecnologías de la creación en la era virtual |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=5UF-g_q2rqQC&pg=PA179&dq=Tim+Berners-Lee+set+up+a+Virtual+Library+%221991%22+vlib.org&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjCgvDOltToAhWNI7kGHTwQCDIQ6AEIPDAC#v=onepage&q=Tim%20Berners-Lee%20set%20up%20a%20Virtual%20Library%20%221991%22%20vlib.org&f=false}}</ref>
 
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| 1991 || || || English computer scientist {{w|Tim Berners-Lee}} in {{w|Geneva}} launches his WWW Virtual Library <code>vlib.org</code>. It is considered the oldest catalog on the [[w:World Wide Web|Web]].<ref name="wordstream.come">{{cite web |title=THE HISTORY OF SEARCH ENGINES |url=https://www.wordstream.com/articles/internet-search-engines-history |website=wordstream.com |accessdate=7 January 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Van Rys |first1=John |last2=Meyer |first2=Verne |last3=Sebranek |first3=Patrick |title=The Research Writer, Spiral bound Version |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=g4HP5TIs2-cC&pg=PA84&dq=Tim+Berners-Lee+set+up+a+Virtual+Library+%221991%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi2l_vUlNToAhXTILkGHRNVD5IQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=Tim%20Berners-Lee%20set%20up%20a%20Virtual%20Library%20%221991%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Scheeren |first1=William O. |title=The Hidden Web: A Sourcebook |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=KgTqbPXQqroC&pg=PA46&dq=Tim+Berners-Lee+set+up+a+Virtual+Library+%221991%22+vlib.org&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjCgvDOltToAhWNI7kGHTwQCDIQ6AEIMzAB#v=onepage&q=Tim%20Berners-Lee%20set%20up%20a%20Virtual%20Library%20%221991%22%20vlib.org&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Tortosa |first1=Virgilio |title=Escrituras digitales: tecnologías de la creación en la era virtual |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=5UF-g_q2rqQC&pg=PA179&dq=Tim+Berners-Lee+set+up+a+Virtual+Library+%221991%22+vlib.org&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjCgvDOltToAhWNI7kGHTwQCDIQ6AEIPDAC#v=onepage&q=Tim%20Berners-Lee%20set%20up%20a%20Virtual%20Library%20%221991%22%20vlib.org&f=false}}</ref>
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| 1991 || || || Early development || The first website is developed for the [[w:SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (work)|Stanford Linear Accelerator Center]].<ref name="William R.">{{cite book |last1=Parkhurst |first1=William R. |title=Routing First-step |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=IzR8ycHGTEkC&pg=PA279&lpg=PA279&dq=%221993%22+%22600+websites%22&source=bl&ots=P7bG2az1m1&sig=ACfU3U3M67pbWKsSJifP7hSGSq3Lw_eiqA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwith_WnuNToAhVzIrkGHWoCCHkQ6AEwCnoECAUQKQ#v=onepage&q=%221993%22%20%22600%20websites%22&f=false}}</ref> It is believed that {{w|SEO}} is born in this year, with the launch of the first website.<ref name="bluefrogdm.coms">{{cite web |title=A BRIEF HISTORY OF SEO |url=https://www.bluefrogdm.com/blog/a-brief-history-of-seo |website=bluefrogdm.com |accessdate=7 January 2020}}</ref>  
 
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| 1991 || || || The first website is developed for the [[w:SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (work)|Stanford Linear Accelerator Center]].<ref name="William R.">{{cite book |last1=Parkhurst |first1=William R. |title=Routing First-step |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=IzR8ycHGTEkC&pg=PA279&lpg=PA279&dq=%221993%22+%22600+websites%22&source=bl&ots=P7bG2az1m1&sig=ACfU3U3M67pbWKsSJifP7hSGSq3Lw_eiqA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwith_WnuNToAhVzIrkGHWoCCHkQ6AEwCnoECAUQKQ#v=onepage&q=%221993%22%20%22600%20websites%22&f=false}}</ref>
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| 1991 || Mid-year || || Early development || [[w:Gopher (protocol)|Gopher]] system is released by Mark P. McCahill, Farhad Anklesaria, Paul Lindner, Daniel Torrey, and Bob Alberti of the {{w|University of Minnesota}}<ref name="wwwunleashed">{{cite book|last=December|last2=Randall|first=John|first2=Neil|page=[https://archive.org/details/worldwidewebunle00dece/page/20 20]|title=The World Wide Web unleashed|year=1994|publisher=Sams Publishing|isbn=1-57521-040-1|url=https://archive.org/details/worldwidewebunle00dece/page/20}}</ref> Gopher is considered to be the first search engine using a hypertext paradigm.<ref name="thehistoryofseo.com">{{cite web |title=The History of Search Engine Optimization |url=http://www.thehistoryofseo.com/The-Industry/The_History_of_Search_Engine_Optimization.aspx|website=thehistoryofseo.com |accessdate=6 January 2020}}</ref> A step toward the {{w|World Wide Web}} hypertext transfer protocol ({{w|HTTP}}), it would become popular for several years, because it provides a way to share text files from all over the world.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Kent |first1=Allen |title=Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science: Volume 71 - Supplement 34 |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=saa39p6C538C&pg=PA148&lpg=PA148&dq=%22Gopher+was+a%22&source=bl&ots=qVqIqoC2jc&sig=ACfU3U0DyZVfruHDKqZWjJ42nsJ3rRX2rg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjlrIa43ovpAhWnKrkGHSrqCWwQ6AEwDHoECAwQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22Gopher%20was%20a%22&f=false}}</ref>  
 
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| 1991 || || || "It is believed that SEO was born in 1991. Around this time, the world’s first website was launched, and one quickly turned into many as websites crowded the internet. So, there was a huge need for structure and accessibility, and the world’s first search engines were created. "<ref name="bluefrogdm.coms">{{cite web |title=A BRIEF HISTORY OF SEO |url=https://www.bluefrogdm.com/blog/a-brief-history-of-seo |website=bluefrogdm.com |accessdate=7 January 2020}}</ref>
+
| 1993 || February || || Early development || Six Stanford students create Architext, a project seeking to use statistical analysis of word relationships to improve relevancy of searches on the Internet. Architext would later become the search engine {{w|Excite}}.<ref name="thehistoryofseo.com"/>  Excite would revolutionize how information is categorized, making it easier to find information “by sorting results based on keywords found within content and backend optimization.<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO">{{cite web |title=A Brief History of Search & SEO |url=https://blog.hubspot.com/marketing/a-brief-history-of-search-seo |website=blog.hubspot.com |accessdate=6 January 2020}}</ref><ref name="bluefrogdm.coms"/><ref>{{cite book |last1=Livingston |first1=Jessica |title=Founders at Work: Stories of Startups' Early Days |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=ktm885vGIXEC&pg=PA61&dq=%22architext%22+%221993%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiWiPeJsdToAhXPFbkGHU-sCR4Q6AEIPzAD#v=onepage&q=%22architext%22%20%221993%22&f=false}}</ref>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1991 || || || [[w:Gopher (protocol)|Gopher]] system is released by Mark P. McCahill, Farhad Anklesaria, Paul Lindner, Daniel Torrey, and Bob Alberti of the {{w|University of Minnesota}}<ref name="wwwunleashed">{{cite book|last=December|last2=Randall|first=John|first2=Neil|page=[https://archive.org/details/worldwidewebunle00dece/page/20 20]|title=The World Wide Web unleashed|year=1994|publisher=Sams Publishing|isbn=1-57521-040-1|url-access=registration|url=https://archive.org/details/worldwidewebunle00dece/page/20}}</ref> Gopher is considered to be the first search engine using a hypertext paradigm.<ref name="thehistoryofseo.com">{{cite web |title=The History of Search Engine Optimization |url=http://www.thehistoryofseo.com/The-Industry/The_History_of_Search_Engine_Optimization.aspx |website=thehistoryofseo.com |accessdate=6 January 2020}}</ref>
+
| 1993 || || || Notable update || The graphical Mosaic web browser improves [[w:Gopher (protocol)|Gopher]]’s primarily text-based interface.<ref name="thehistoryofseo.com"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1993 || February || || Six Stanford students create Architext, a project seeking to use statistical analysis of word relationships to improve relevancy of searches on the Internet. Architext would later become the search engine {{w|Excite}}.<ref name="thehistoryofseo.com">{{cite web |title=Short History of Early Search Engines |url=http://www.thehistoryofseo.com/The-Industry/Short_History_of_Early_Search_Engines.aspx |website=thehistoryofseo.com |accessdate=6 April 2020}}</ref> Excite would revolutionize how information is categorized, making it easier to find information “by sorting results based on keywords found within content and backend optimization.<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO">{{cite web |title=A Brief History of Search & SEO |url=https://blog.hubspot.com/marketing/a-brief-history-of-search-seo |website=blog.hubspot.com |accessdate=6 January 2020}}</ref><ref name="bluefrogdm.coms"/><ref>{{cite book |last1=Livingston |first1=Jessica |title=Founders at Work: Stories of Startups' Early Days |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=ktm885vGIXEC&pg=PA61&dq=%22architext%22+%221993%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiWiPeJsdToAhXPFbkGHU-sCR4Q6AEIPzAD#v=onepage&q=%22architext%22%20%221993%22&f=false}}</ref>
+
| 1993 || June || {{w|World Wide Web Wanderer}} || Early development || Matthew Gray at {{w|MIT}} develops the {{w|World Wide Web Wanderer}}, which is considered the first web crawler to measure the size of the Web.<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/><ref name="wordstream.come"/><ref name="seo.comf"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1993 || || || The graphical Mosaic web browser improves [[w:Gopher (protocol)|Gopher]]’s primarily text-based interface.<ref name="thehistoryofseo.com"/>
+
| 1993 || October || {{w|Aliweb}} || Search engine launch || Web search engine {{w|Aliweb}} launches. Created by Martijn Koster, it allows users to submit the locations of index files on their sites.<ref name="seo.comf"/><ref>{{cite book |last1=Maze |first1=Susan |last2=Moxley |first2=David |last3=Smith |first3=Donna J. |title=Authoritative Guide to Web Search Engines |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=ZkxqAAAAMAAJ&q=%22Aliweb%22+%221993%22&dq=%22Aliweb%22+%221993%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjUwJaDttToAhUiHbkGHb6JDMsQ6AEIYzAH}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Auxiliar Administrativo. Servicio Canario de Salud. SCS. Temario Vol. II. |edition=Editorial CEP |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=7y-xDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA326&dq=%22Aliweb%22+%221993%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjUwJaDttToAhUiHbkGHb6JDMsQ6AEIODAC#v=onepage&q=%22Aliweb%22%20%221993%22&f=false}}</ref><ref name="ddd">{{cite book |title=Enhancing the Power of the Internet |edition=Masoud Nikravesh, Ben Azvine, Ronald R. Yager, Lofti A. Zadeh |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=R2f8CAAAQBAJ&pg=PA17&dq=%22Aliweb%22+%221993%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjUwJaDttToAhUiHbkGHb6JDMsQ6AEIMDAB#v=onepage&q=%22Aliweb%22%20%221993%22&f=false}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1993 || June || || Matthew Gray at {{w|MIT}} develops the web crawler, {{w|World Wide Web Wanderer}}, to measure the size of the Web.<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/><ref name="wordstream.come"/> "Wanderer – The first web crawler to measure the size of the web. Created by Matthew Gray"<ref name="seo.comf"/>
+
| 1993 || || || Statistics || There are approximately 600 websites online at the time.<ref name="seo.comf"/><ref name="William R."/>
|-
 
| 1993 || October || Search engine launch || Web search engine {{w|Aliweb}} launches. Created by Martijn Koster, it allows users to submit the locations of index files on their sites.<ref name="seo.comf"/><ref>{{cite book |last1=Maze |first1=Susan |last2=Moxley |first2=David |last3=Smith |first3=Donna J. |title=Authoritative Guide to Web Search Engines |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=ZkxqAAAAMAAJ&q=%22Aliweb%22+%221993%22&dq=%22Aliweb%22+%221993%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjUwJaDttToAhUiHbkGHb6JDMsQ6AEIYzAH}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Auxiliar Administrativo. Servicio Canario de Salud. SCS. Temario Vol. II. |edition=Editorial CEP |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=7y-xDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA326&dq=%22Aliweb%22+%221993%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjUwJaDttToAhUiHbkGHb6JDMsQ6AEIODAC#v=onepage&q=%22Aliweb%22%20%221993%22&f=false}}</ref><ref name="ddd">{{cite book |title=Enhancing the Power of the Internet |edition=Masoud Nikravesh, Ben Azvine, Ronald R. Yager, Lofti A. Zadeh |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=R2f8CAAAQBAJ&pg=PA17&dq=%22Aliweb%22+%221993%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjUwJaDttToAhUiHbkGHb6JDMsQ6AEIMDAB#v=onepage&q=%22Aliweb%22%20%221993%22&f=false}}</ref>
 
|-
 
| 1993 || || || There are approximately 600 websites online at the time.<ref name="seo.comf"/><ref name="William R."/>
 
 
|-  
 
|-  
| 1993 || || || The are about 10 million internet users at the time.<ref name="seo.comf"/>
+
| 1993 || || || Statistics (internet userbase) || The are about 10 million internet users at the time.<ref name="seo.comf"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1993 || || || "Primitive Web Search"<ref name="tellmeyourgoal.coms"/>
+
| 1993 || September 2 || {{w|W3Catalog}} || Search engine launch || {{w|W3Catalog}}, the world’s first primitive web search engine, is started by {{w|Oscar Nierstrasz}} at the Centre Universitaire d’Informatique (CUI) of the {{w|University of Geneva}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=First Search Engine |url=https://thisdayintechhistory.com/09/02/first-search-engine/|website=thisdayintechhistory.com |accessdate=10 April 2020}}</ref><ref name="tellmeyourgoal.coms"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1993 || Late year || || {{w|World Wide Web Wanderer}} is used to generate an index called the "Wandex", an early web search engine.<ref>{{cite web |title=The First Web Search Engine? |url=historyofinformation |website=historyofinformation.com |accessdate=6 April 2020}}</ref> {{w|Wandex}} becomes the first search engine to crawl the web indexing and searching indexed pages on the Web.<ref name="thehistoryofseo.com"/><ref>{{cite book |last1=Odom |first1=Sean |title=Seo for 2011: Search Engine Optimization Secrets |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=A-dVj39Q71oC&pg=PA13&dq=%22Wandex%22+%221993%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjhi8zRr9ToAhXHEbkGHcddBP0Q6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=%22Wandex%22%20%221993%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Ledford |first1=Jerri L. |title=Search Engine Optimization Bible |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=2Gz-CAAAQBAJ&pg=PA5&dq=%22Wandex%22+%221993%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjhi8zRr9ToAhXHEbkGHcddBP0Q6AEIMTAB#v=onepage&q=%22Wandex%22%20%221993%22&f=false}}</ref>
+
| 1993 || Late year || {{w|World Wide Web Wanderer}} || Search engine launch || {{w|World Wide Web Wanderer}} is used to generate an index called the "Wandex", an early web search engine.<ref>{{cite web |title=The First Web Search Engine? |url=https://www.historyofinformation.com/detail.php?id=1050|website=historyofinformation.com |accessdate=6 April 2020}}</ref> {{w|Wandex}} becomes the first search engine to crawl the web indexing and searching indexed pages on the Web.<ref name="thehistoryofseo.com"/><ref>{{cite book |last1=Odom |first1=Sean |title=Seo for 2011: Search Engine Optimization Secrets |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=A-dVj39Q71oC&pg=PA13&dq=%22Wandex%22+%221993%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjhi8zRr9ToAhXHEbkGHcddBP0Q6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=%22Wandex%22%20%221993%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Ledford |first1=Jerri L. |title=Search Engine Optimization Bible |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=2Gz-CAAAQBAJ&pg=PA5&dq=%22Wandex%22+%221993%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjhi8zRr9ToAhXHEbkGHcddBP0Q6AEIMTAB#v=onepage&q=%22Wandex%22%20%221993%22&f=false}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1994 || January || || {{w|Stanford University}} students {{w|Jerry Wang}} and {{w|David Filo}} create {{w|Yahoo!}} in a campus trailer. Yahoo starts originally as an Internet bookmark list and directory of interesting sites. Webmasters have to manually submit their page to the Yahoo directory for indexing so that it would be there for Yahoo to find when someone performed a search.<ref>{{cite book |last1=So |first1=Shermon |last2=Westland |first2=J.Christopher |title=Red Wired: China’s Internet revolution |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=vbqIAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA1&dq=%22yahoo%22+%221994%22+%22wang%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwidqce2vtToAhX4HLkGHcw-BL4Q6AEIVDAF#v=onepage&q=%22yahoo%22%20%221994%22%20%22wang%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Huff |first1=Priscilla Y |title=Business and Industry |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=mywYAAAAIAAJ&q=%22yahoo%22+%221994%22+%22wang%22+%22filo%22&dq=%22yahoo%22+%221994%22+%22wang%22+%22filo%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiNs-HSvtToAhWNErkGHVkZBGkQ6AEIKDAA}}</ref><ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref name="wordstream.come"/>
+
| 1994 || January || {{w|Yahoo!}} || Search engine launch || {{w|Stanford University}} students {{w|Jerry Wang}} and {{w|David Filo}} create {{w|Yahoo!}} in a campus trailer. Yahoo starts originally as an Internet bookmark list and directory of interesting sites. Webmasters have to manually submit their page to the Yahoo directory for indexing so that it would be there for Yahoo to find when someone performed a search.<ref>{{cite book |last1=So |first1=Shermon |last2=Westland |first2=J.Christopher |title=Red Wired: China’s Internet revolution |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=vbqIAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA1&dq=%22yahoo%22+%221994%22+%22wang%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwidqce2vtToAhX4HLkGHcw-BL4Q6AEIVDAF#v=onepage&q=%22yahoo%22%20%221994%22%20%22wang%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Huff |first1=Priscilla Y |title=Business and Industry |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=mywYAAAAIAAJ&q=%22yahoo%22+%221994%22+%22wang%22+%22filo%22&dq=%22yahoo%22+%221994%22+%22wang%22+%22filo%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiNs-HSvtToAhWNErkGHVkZBGkQ6AEIKDAA}}</ref><ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref name="wordstream.come"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1994 || || || " the first full-text search engine, WebCrawler created in 1994 by Brian Pinkerton. Prior to this, only webpage names/domains were indexed in catalogues."<ref name="whatisseo.comd"/> "WebCrawler – First search engine to index full web pages and allow searchers to search with any word."<ref name="seo.comf"/>
+
| 1994 || || {{w|WebCrawler}} || Search engine launch || {{w|WebCrawler}}, the first full-text search engine, is created by {{w|Brian Pinkerton}}. Prior to this, only webpage names/domains were indexed in catalogues.<ref name="whatisseo.comd"/><ref name="seo.comf"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1994 || || || "The earliest pioneers in the field of SEO also found the Internet not only interesting, but a viable industry money maker. For example in 1994, Greg Boser discovered that he could use the Internet to sell protective foam equipment to fight fires. He built a website and started seeking ways to drive potential customers to his site for sales."<ref name="thehistoryofseo.com"/>
+
| 1994 || || || || Greg Boser discovers that he could use the Internet to sell protective foam equipment to fight fires. Boser builds a website and starts seeking ways to drive potential customers to his site for sales.<ref name="thehistoryofseo.com"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1994 || || || The number of websites grows to 10,000, up from 600 websites in 1993.<ref name="William R."/>
+
| 1994 || || || Statistics || The number of websites grows to 10,000, up from 600 websites in 1993.<ref name="William R."/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1995 || || || " For example in 1995, John Audette formed Multi-Media Marketing Group (MMG) in Lake Oswego, Oregon on the sale of 4,000 copies of his $30 online book about marketing on the World Wide Web."<ref name="thehistoryofseo.com"/>
+
| 1995 || || || Organization || John Audette forms Multi-Media Marketing Group, which would produce a popular newsletter with tips for influencing search engines.<ref>{{cite book |title=The SAGE Handbook of Web History |edition=Niels Brügger, Ian Milligan |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=PENeDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT437&lpg=PT437&dq=%22Multi-Media+Marketing+Group%22+%221995%22&source=bl&ots=dkUwAwaqG4&sig=ACfU3U3qN4RdZPOMmvB-2cBZdyolmNaMiA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjNlcW0-YvpAhUSA9QKHXKUCL8Q6AEwCnoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22Multi-Media%20Marketing%20Group%22%20%221995%22&f=false}}</ref><ref name="thehistoryofseo.com"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1995 || Late year || || {{w|Excite}} is commercially released as a crawling search engine.<ref>{{cite book |last1=DESAI |first1=SANDEEP |last2=SRIVASTAVA |first2=ABHISHEK |title=SOFTWARE TESTING : A Practical Approach |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=B4sQDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA280&dq=Excite+1995&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwibwo7-pNToAhVFE7kGHU08B3kQ6AEIQjAD#v=onepage&q=Excite%201995&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Comm |first1=Joel |title=Click Here to Order: Stories of the World's Most Successful Internet Marketing Entrepreneurs |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=YkEdWYvuUk8C&pg=PA263&dq=Excite+1995&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwibwo7-pNToAhVFE7kGHU08B3kQ6AEIUjAF#v=onepage&q=Excite%201995&f=false}}</ref><ref name="thehistoryofseo.com"/>  
+
| 1995 || Late year || {{w|Excite}} || Search engine launch || {{w|Excite}} is commercially released as a crawling search engine.<ref>{{cite book |last1=DESAI |first1=SANDEEP |last2=SRIVASTAVA |first2=ABHISHEK |title=SOFTWARE TESTING : A Practical Approach |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=B4sQDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA280&dq=Excite+1995&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwibwo7-pNToAhVFE7kGHU08B3kQ6AEIQjAD#v=onepage&q=Excite%201995&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Comm |first1=Joel |title=Click Here to Order: Stories of the World's Most Successful Internet Marketing Entrepreneurs |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=YkEdWYvuUk8C&pg=PA263&dq=Excite+1995&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwibwo7-pNToAhVFE7kGHU08B3kQ6AEIUjAF#v=onepage&q=Excite%201995&f=false}}</ref><ref name="thehistoryofseo.com"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1995 || || || The number of websites grows to 100,000, up from 10,000 websites in 1994.<ref name="William R."/>
+
| 1995 || || || Statistics || The number of websites grows to 100,000, up from 10,000 websites in 1994.<ref name="William R."/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1996 || January || || {{w|Stanford University}} students {{w|Larry Page}} and {{w|Sergey Brin}} build and test Backrub, a new search engine that ranks sites based on inbound link relevancy and popularity. Backrub would ultimately become {{w|Google}}.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Breverton |first1=Terry |title=Breverton's Encyclopedia of Inventions: A Compendium of Technological Leaps, Groundbreaking Discoveries and Scientific Breakthroughs that Changed the World |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=VepgBQAAQBAJ&pg=PT559&dq=backrub+1996&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjSo8P3qNToAhVUDrkGHd4jBoYQ6AEIMTAB#v=onepage&q=backrub%201996&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=MIRANDA GONZALEZ |first1=FRANCISCO JAVIER |last2=RUBIO LACOBA |first2=SERGIO |last3=CHAMORRO MERA |first3=ANTONIO |title=Dirección de operaciones. Casos prácticos y recursos didácticos |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=N9r7CAAAQBAJ&pg=PA105&dq=backrub+1996&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjSo8P3qNToAhVUDrkGHd4jBoYQ6AEIQzAD#v=onepage&q=backrub%201996&f=false}}</ref><ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref name="seo.comf"/>
+
| 1996 || January || Backrub || Search engine launch || {{w|Stanford University}} students {{w|Larry Page}} and {{w|Sergey Brin}} build and test Backrub, a new search engine that ranks sites based on inbound link relevancy and popularity. Backrub would ultimately become {{w|Google}}.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Breverton |first1=Terry |title=Breverton's Encyclopedia of Inventions: A Compendium of Technological Leaps, Groundbreaking Discoveries and Scientific Breakthroughs that Changed the World |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=VepgBQAAQBAJ&pg=PT559&dq=backrub+1996&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjSo8P3qNToAhVUDrkGHd4jBoYQ6AEIMTAB#v=onepage&q=backrub%201996&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=MIRANDA GONZALEZ |first1=FRANCISCO JAVIER |last2=RUBIO LACOBA |first2=SERGIO |last3=CHAMORRO MERA |first3=ANTONIO |title=Dirección de operaciones. Casos prácticos y recursos didácticos |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=N9r7CAAAQBAJ&pg=PA105&dq=backrub+1996&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjSo8P3qNToAhVUDrkGHd4jBoYQ6AEIQzAD#v=onepage&q=backrub%201996&f=false}}</ref><ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref name="seo.comf"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1996 || May || || {{w|Inktomi}} launches {{w|Hotbot}}.<ref name="tellmeyourgoal.coms"/>
+
| 1996 || May || {{w|Hotbot}} || Search engine launch || {{w|Inktomi}} launches {{w|Hotbot}} {{w|web search engine}}.<ref name="tellmeyourgoal.coms"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1996 || || || The number of websites grows to 650,000, up from 100,000 websites in 1995.<ref name="seo.comf"/><ref name="William R."/>
+
| 1996 || || || Statistics || The number of websites grows to 650,000, up from 100,000 websites in 1995.<ref name="seo.comf"/><ref name="William R."/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1996 || || || The are about 74 million internet Users at the time.<ref name="seo.comf"/>
+
| 1996 || || || Statistics (internet userbase) || The are about 74 million internet users at this time.<ref name="seo.comf"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1997 || || || According to industry analyst [[w:Danny Sullivan (technologist)|Danny Sullivan]], the phrase "search engine optimization" probably comes into use around this time. Sullivan credits Bruce Clay as one of the first people to popularize the term.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://forums.searchenginewatch.com/showpost.php?p=2119&postcount=10|title=Who Invented the Term "Search Engine Optimization"?|author=Danny Sullivan|date=June 14, 2004|publisher=[[Search Engine Watch]]|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100423051708/http://forums.searchenginewatch.com/showpost.php?p=2119|archive-date=23 April 2010|accessdate=May 14, 2007}} See [https://groups.google.com/group/alt.current-events.net-abuse.spam/browse_thread/thread/6fee2777dc17b8ab/3858bff94e56aff3?lnk=st&q=%22search+engine+optimization%22&rnum=1#3858bff94e56aff3 Google groups thread].</ref> "all signs definitely point to the term SEO originating around 1997."<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization">{{cite web |title=20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization |url=https://www.searchenginejournal.com/seo-101/seo-history/#close |website=searchenginejournal.com |accessdate=4 January 2020}}</ref> "In 1997, the words “search engine optimization” were first used by John Audette and Bruce Clay, and soon after SEO became a widely used term."<ref name="seo.comf">{{cite web |title=THE HISTORY OF SEARCH |url=https://www.seo.com/blog/the-history-of-search-infographic/ |website=seo.com |accessdate=10 January 2020}}</ref>
+
| 1997 || || || Concept development || According to industry analyst [[w:Danny Sullivan (technologist)|Danny Sullivan]], the phrase "search engine optimization" probably comes into use around this time. Sullivan credits Bruce Clay as one of the first people to popularize the term.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://forums.searchenginewatch.com/showpost.php?p=2119&postcount=10|title=Who Invented the Term "Search Engine Optimization"?|author=Danny Sullivan|date=June 14, 2004|publisher={{w|Search Engine Watch}}|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100423051708/http://forums.searchenginewatch.com/showpost.php?p=2119|archive-date=23 April 2010|accessdate=May 14, 2007}} See [https://groups.google.com/group/alt.current-events.net-abuse.spam/browse_thread/thread/6fee2777dc17b8ab/3858bff94e56aff3?lnk=st&q=%22search+engine+optimization%22&rnum=1#3858bff94e56aff3 Google groups thread].</ref> "all signs definitely point to the term SEO originating around 1997."<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization">{{cite web |title=20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization |url=https://www.searchenginejournal.com/seo-101/seo-history/#close |website=searchenginejournal.com |accessdate=4 January 2020}}</ref> "In 1997, the words “search engine optimization” were first used by John Audette and Bruce Clay, and soon after SEO became a widely used term."<ref name="seo.comf">{{cite web |title=THE HISTORY OF SEARCH |url=https://www.seo.com/blog/the-history-of-search-infographic/ |website=seo.com |accessdate=10 January 2020}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1997 || April || || Davis Warthen and Garrett Gruener launch Ask Jeeves as a natural language search engine, using human editors to try to match search queries.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Sajja |first1=Priti Srinivas |last2=Akerkar |first2=Rajendra |title=Intelligent Technologies for Web Applications |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=f_7RBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA88&dq=%22Ask+Jeeves%22+%22in+1997%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj35ryevNToAhXYCrkGHfJmD80Q6AEIMDAB#v=onepage&q=%22Ask%20Jeeves%22%20%22in%201997%22&f=false}}</ref> AskJeeves later becomes <code>ask.com</code>.<ref name="seo.comf"/><ref name="tellmeyourgoal.coms"/><ref name="ddd"/>
+
| 1997 || April || Ask Jeeves || Search engine launch || Davis Warthen and Garrett Gruener launch Ask Jeeves as a natural language search engine, using human editors to try to match search queries.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Sajja |first1=Priti Srinivas |last2=Akerkar |first2=Rajendra |title=Intelligent Technologies for Web Applications |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=f_7RBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA88&dq=%22Ask+Jeeves%22+%22in+1997%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj35ryevNToAhXYCrkGHfJmD80Q6AEIMDAB#v=onepage&q=%22Ask%20Jeeves%22%20%22in%201997%22&f=false}}</ref> AskJeeves later becomes [[w:Ask.com|<code>ask.com</code>]].<ref name="seo.comf"/><ref name="tellmeyourgoal.coms"/><ref name="ddd"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1997 || September || || <code>google.com</code> is registered as a domain name.
+
| 1997 || September || {{w|Google}} || || <code>google.com</code> is registered as a domain name.<ref>{{cite web |title=Google domain name was registered 20 years ago |url=https://www.businessinsider.com/heres-what-google-looked-like-the-first-day-it-launched-in-1998-2017-9 |website=businessinsider.com |accessdate=10 April 2020}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1997 || || || "Yandex Launched – Currently Russia’s largest search engine."<ref name="seo.comf"/>
+
| 1997 || September 23 || {{w|Yandex Search}} || Search engine launch || {{w|Yandex Search}} is announced.<ref>{{cite book |title=Hidden Champions in CEE and Turkey: Carving Out a Global Niche |edition=Peter McKiernan, Danica Purg |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=PGi4BAAAQBAJ&pg=PA300&lpg=PA300&dq=%22Yandex+Search%22+%22september+23%22&source=bl&ots=1fQcDh-YcJ&sig=ACfU3U0WxatvZ4q6wbel4tAr59N4KAbUWQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjZxYvk1ovpAhWQGbkGHVBvCWYQ6AEwAHoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22Yandex%20Search%22%20%22september%2023%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Johnsen |first1=Maria |title=Multilingual Digital Marketing: Become The Market Leader |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=vjOMCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA84&lpg=PA84&dq=%22Yandex+Search%22+%22september+23%22&source=bl&ots=8YgZ-E7AaI&sig=ACfU3U13sMAd0kRIllCx0hKkNrHo-mZcTQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjZxYvk1ovpAhWQGbkGHVBvCWYQ6AEwAXoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22Yandex%20Search%22%20%22september%2023%22&f=false}}</ref> It is Russia’s largest search engine.<ref name="seo.comf"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1997 || || || The number of websites surpasses 1,000,000, up from 650,000 websites in 1996.<ref name="William R."/><ref name="seo.comf"/>
+
| 1997 || || || Statistics || The number of websites surpasses 1,000,000, up from 650,000 websites in 1996.<ref name="William R."/><ref name="seo.comf"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1998 || || || {{w|Larry Page}} and {{w|Sergey Brin}}, then graduate students at {{w|Stanford University}}, develop "Backrub", a search engine that rely on a mathematical algorithm to rate the prominence of web pages. The number calculated by the algorithm, {{w|PageRank}}, is a function of the quantity and strength of {{w|inbound link}}s.<ref name="lgscalehyptxt">{{cite web|author1=Brin, Sergey  |author2=Page, Larry |lastauthoramp=yes |url=http://www-db.stanford.edu/~backrub/google.html|title=The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine|publisher=Proceedings of the seventh international conference on World Wide Web|year=1998|pages=107–117|accessdate=3 January 2020}}</ref>
+
| 1998 || || Backrub || Search engine launch || {{w|Larry Page}} and {{w|Sergey Brin}}, then graduate students at {{w|Stanford University}}, develop "Backrub", a search engine that rely on a mathematical algorithm to rate the prominence of web pages. The number calculated by the algorithm, {{w|PageRank}}, is a function of the quantity and strength of {{w|inbound link}}s.<ref name="lgscalehyptxt">{{cite web|author1=Brin, Sergey  |author2=Page, Larry |lastauthoramp=yes |url=http://www-db.stanford.edu/~backrub/google.html|title=The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine|publisher=Proceedings of the seventh international conference on World Wide Web|year=1998|pages=107–117|accessdate=3 January 2020}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1998 || || || "Goto.com launched with sponsored links and paid search. Advertisers bid on Goto.com to rank above organic search results, which were powered by Inktomi. Goto.com was ultimately acquired by Yahoo. DMOZ (the Open Directory Project) became the most sought-after place for SEO practitioners to get their pages listed. MSN entered into search with MSN Search, initially powered by Inktomi."<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref name="amcodigital.com"/>  
+
| 1998 || || [[w:Yahoo! Gemini|Goto.com]] || Search engine launch || [[w:Yahoo! Gemini|Goto.com]] launches with sponsored links and paid search. Advertisers bid on Goto.com to rank above organic search results, which are powered by {{w|Inktomi}}. Goto.com would be ultimately acquired by {{w|Yahoo!}}.<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref name="amcodigital.com"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1999 || || || "The first-ever all search marketing conference, Search Engine Strategies (SES), took place. You can read a retrospective on that event by Sullivan here. (The SES conference series continued running under various monikers and parent companies until shutting down in 2016.)"<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref name="amcodigital.com"/>
+
| 1999 || November 18 || || Conference || {{w|Search Engine Strategies}} (SES) takes place as the first-ever all search marketing conference.<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref name="amcodigital.com"/><ref name="seo.comf"/> 
 
|-
 
|-
| 1999 || || || "SES Conference – First Search Engine Strategies conference created by Danny Sullivan."<ref name="seo.comf"/>
+
| 1999 || || || Statistics || The number of websites online reaches 2.2 million.<ref name="seo.comf"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 1999 || || || "2.2 Million + Websites Online."<ref name="seo.comf"/>
+
| 1999 || || || Statistics (internet userbase) || The number of internet users reaches 279 million.<ref name="seo.comf"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1999 || || || "279 Million + Internet Users."<ref name="seo.comf"/>
+
| 2000 || January 18 || {{w|Baidu}} || Search engine launch || {{w|Baidu}} launches. It provides China’s largest search engine.<ref name="seo.comf"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2000 || || || "In 2000, Yahoo pulled off the worst strategic move in the history of search and partnered with Google and let Google power their organic results instead of Inktomi. Beforehand Google was a little-known search engine. Hardly known! The end result: every Yahoo search result said “Powered by Google” and they ended up introducing their largest competitor to the world and Google became a household name."<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>
+
| 2000 || || {{w|Yahoo!}}, {{w|Google}} || Partnership || In what is considered to be the worst strategic move in search history<ref name="dailytechmonde.blogspot.com">{{cite web |title=Story SEO: Search Engine Optimization |url=https://dailytechmonde.blogspot.com/2019/12/search-engine-optimization-story.html |website=dailytechmonde.blogspot.com |accessdate=27 April 2020}}</ref>, {{w|Yahoo!}} partners with {{w|Google}} and lets Google power their organic results instead of {{w|Inktomi}}. At this time Google is a little-known search engine. After this, every Yahoo search result would say “Powered by Google”, with Yahoo! ending up introducing their largest competitor to the world and Google becoming a household name.<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2000 || || || "It was also in 2000 that the Google Toolbar became available on Internet Explorer, allowing SEO practitioners to see their PageRank score (a number between 0-10). This ushered in an era of unsolicited link exchange request emails."<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref name="amcodigital.com"/>
+
| 2000 || December 11 || {{w|Google}} || Notable update || {{w|Google Toolbar}} becomes available as a web browser toolbar for {{w|Internet Explorer}}, allowing SEO practitioners to see their {{w|PageRank}} score (a number between 0-10).<ref>{{cite web |title=Google Toolbar History |url=http://www.seobythesea.com/2007/07/google-toolbar-history/ |website=seobythesea.com |accessdate=28 April 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Google Toolbar & GTPR – Google Algorithm Update December 11, 2000 |url=https://www.seocandyland.com/blog/seo-blog/google-algorithm-updates/google-toolbar-google-algorithm-update-december-2000/ |website=seocandyland.com |accessdate=28 April 2020}}</ref><ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref name="amcodigital.com"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2000 || || || "Google’s organic results also got some company in the form of AdWords ads starting in 2000. These paid search ads began appearing above, below, and to the right of Google’s unpaid results."<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>
+
| 2000 || October 23 || {{w|Google}} || Service launch || {{w|Google AdWords}} launches.<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/> It is a pay-per-click online advertising platform that allows advertisers to display their ads on Google's search engine results page.<ref>{{cite web |title=How Does Google AdWords Work? The Basics of Google Ads |url=https://www.freshbooks.com/hub/marketing/how-does-google-adwords-work |website=freshbooks.com |accessdate=28 April 2020}}</ref> 
 
|-
 
|-
| 2000 || || || "Meanwhile, a group of webmasters informally got together at a pub in London to start sharing information about all things SEO in 2000. This informal gathering eventually turned into Pubcon, a large search conference series that still runs today."
+
| 2000 || || || Conference || Pubcon launches in {{w|London}} as the first of a large search conference series.<ref>{{cite web |title=10 Things You Might Not Know About Pubcon |url=https://www.pubcon.com/10-things-you-might-not-know-about-pubcon |website=pubcon.com |accessdate=20 April 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=15 Facts About #Pubcon You May Not Know |url=https://www.searchenginejournal.com/15-facts-pubcon-may-not-know/140298/#close |website=searchenginejournal.com |accessdate=20 April 2020}}</ref> 
 
|-
 
|-
| 2000 || || || "Baidu – China’s largest search engine launched."<ref name="seo.comf"/>
+
| 2001 || || || Concept development || Danny Sullivan, a prominent industry writer, unsuccessfully suggests the term "search engine marketing" as a successor to "search engine optimization", with the purpose to cover the spectrum of activities involved in performing SEO, managing paid listings at the search engines, submitting sites to directories, and developing online marketing strategies for businesses, organizations, and individuals.<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref name="researchgate.nete">{{cite web |title=History Of Search Engines |url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265104813_History_Of_Search_Engines |website=researchgate.net |accessdate=10 January 2020}}</ref>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2001 || || || "At one point in 2001, one prominent industry writer suggested search engine marketing as a successor to search engine optimization. Obviously, it didn’t happen."<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/> ". The term "Search Engine Marketing" was proposed by Danny Sullivan in 2001 to cover the spectrum of activities involved in performing SEO, managing paid listings at the search engines, submitting sites to directories, and developing online marketing strategies for businesses, organizations, and individuals"<ref name="researchgate.nete">{{cite web |title=History Of Search Engines |url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265104813_History_Of_Search_Engines |website=researchgate.net |accessdate=10 January 2020}}</ref>
+
| 2001 || Year round || {{w|Google}} || Userbase || Users massively abandon old search engines like {{w|Lycos}}, {{w|Excite}}, {{w|AltaVista}} and {{w|Hotbot}}, and move their interest towards {{w|Google}}.<ref name="A Brief History of SEOd"/><ref name="seo.comf"/> Brett Tabke, Founder of WebmasterWorld, comments: “Many SEOs have sleepless nights as we realize it is Google or bust.”  <ref name="seo.comf"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2001 || || || "The 2001 Exodus was a huge kick in the shorts for many, as users abandoned older search engines like HotBot, AltaVista and Excite. Many users had moved their interest towards the new kid on the block, and so began “The Reign of Google.”"<ref name="seo.comf"/>
+
| 2002 || November 15 || || {{w|SEO contest}} || {{w|Schnitzelmitkartoffelsalat}} is launched by German webmasters as the first recorded SEO Contest.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Lenssen |first1=Philipp |title=55 Ways to Have Fun with Google |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=-XDkb3htVikC&pg=PA29&lpg=PA29&dq=2002+November+15+SEO+contest+Schnitzelmitkartoffelsalat&source=bl&ots=q0Mc3fYinG&sig=ACfU3U3KvITDxH4FENSsEr6Rk13eRt-LhA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjYzZiqi97oAhWRIrkGHeHcCnMQ6AEwAXoECAwQKw#v=onepage&q=2002%20November%2015%20SEO%20contest%20Schnitzelmitkartoffelsalat&f=false}}</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| 2002 || || {{w|Google}} || Service launch || {{w|Google}} announces the launch of [[W:Google Shopping|Froogle]], a free product listing and price comparison service where users can discover various products from across the vendors, sort them and make a purchase.<ref name="seo.comf"/><ref>{{cite web |title=AN INTRODUCTION TO GOOGLE SHOPPING |url=https://blog.adnabu.com/google-shopping-introduction/ |website=blog.adnabu.com |accessdate=28 April 2020}}</ref> 
 
|-
 
|-
| 2001 || || || "“Many SEOs have sleepless nights as we realize it is Google or bust.” – Brett Tabke, Founder of WebmasterWorld."<ref name="seo.comf"/>
+
| 2003 || || {{w|Google}} || Product launch || After acquiring [[w:Blogger (service)|Blogger.com]], Google launches [[w:Google AdSense|AdSense]], which serves contextually targeted Google AdWords ads on publisher sites.<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2001 || Year round || || Users abandon search engines like {{w|Lycos}}, {{w|Excite}}, {{w|AltaVista}} and {{w|Hotbot}}.<ref name="A Brief History of SEOd"/>
+
| 2003 || || || SEO evolution || Blogging becomes popular and is utilized for SEO. {{w|Blogger}} and {{w|WordPress}} become widely used.<ref name="seo.comf"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2002 || November 15 || || "The first recorded SEO Contest was {{w|Schnitzelmitkartoffelsalat}} by German webmasters, started on November 15, 2002, in the [[w:German language|German]]-language {{w|usenet}} group de.comm.infosystems.www.authoring.misc."
+
| 2003 || || || Statistics (internet userbase) || The number of websites online reaches 38 million.<ref name="seo.comf"/>
|-
 
| 2002 || || || "Google – Announced the launch of Froogle, a product search engine."<ref name="seo.comf"/>
 
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || || || "In 2003, after acquiring Blogger.com, Google launched AdSense, which serves contextually targeted Google AdWords ads on publisher sites. The mix of AdSense and Blogger.com leads to a surge in monetized simple Internet publishing and a blogging revolution."<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>
+
| 2003 || || || Statistics (internet userbase) || The number of internet users reaches 782 million.<ref name="seo.comf"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || || || "Blogger and WordPress – Blogging became popular and was utilized for SEO."<ref name="seo.comf"/>
+
| 2004 || March || || {{w|SEO contest}} || Promoweb agency organizes the first French-speaking contest, ''Mangeur de Cigogne'' (eater of stork).<ref name="dsdf">{{cite web |title=SEO contests or web ranking competitions |url=http://www.noname.fr/concours-de-referencement/seo-contest.html |website=noname.fr |accessdate=28 April 2020}}</ref>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || || || "38 Million + Websites Online."<ref name="seo.comf"/>
+
| 2004 || May || || {{w|SEO contest}} || Nigritude Ultramarine 2004 launches as the first english language SEO competition, created by darkblue.com and run by SearchGuild.<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions">{{cite web |title=Previous SEO Competitions |url=https://beanseohero.com/seo-competitions.php |website=beanseohero.com |accessdate=8 January 2020}}</ref>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || || || "782 Million + Internet Users."<ref name="seo.comf"/>
+
| 2004 || August || || {{w|SEO contest}} || A new contest of SEO is organized in the {{w|United Kingdom}} by a web agency, based this time on keywords seraphim proudleduck.<ref name="dsdf"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2004 || May || || Nigritude Ultramarine 2004 launches as the first english language SEO competition, created by darkblue.com and run by SearchGuild.<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions">{{cite web |title=Previous SEO Competitions |url=https://beanseohero.com/seo-competitions.php |website=beanseohero.com |accessdate=8 January 2020}}</ref>
+
| 2004 || || {{w|Google}} || Notable update || Google and other top search engines start improving results for queries that have a geographic intent (e.g., a restaurant, plumber, or some other type of business or service provider in the user's location).<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2004 || || || Google and other top search engines start improving results for queries that have a geographic intent (e.g., a restaurant, plumber, or some other type of business or service provider in the user's location).<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>
+
| 2004 || || {{w|Google}} || Notable update || {{w|Google}} and other search engines begin making greater use of end-user data, such as search history and interests, to personalize search results. This means that the results the user sees could be different than what another person obtains sitting next to the user in another computer when searching for the same query.<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2004 || || || "It was also around 2004 that Google and search engines began making greater use of end-user data, such as search history and interests, to personalize search results. This meant that the results you saw could be different than what another person sitting next to you in a coffee shop when searching for the same query."<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>
+
| 2004 || || || {{w|SEO contest}} || Seraphim Proudleduck is held. This SEO Contest is presented by Salmonbones.<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2004 || || || "Seraphim Proudleduck 2004" "This SEO Contest presented by Salmonbones had prizes of 1,000, 300, and 200 British pounds as well as a bonus prize of a website and 1 year of hosting. The winner was whoever ranked highest for "seraphim proudleduck" on January 1st, 2005 at 1am in the UK. Sadly, the prize money in this contest was never distributed to the winner, Philipp Lenssen, for which the contest owner later apologized."<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>
+
| 2004 || || || Service launch || [[w:Moz (marketing software)|SEO Moz]] is founded by Rand Fiskin. First a blog, SEOmoz would grow to become one of the largest providers of SEO Tools.<ref name="seo.comf"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2004 || || || "SEOMOZ – Founded by Rand Fiskin, first a blog, SEOmoz grew to become one of the largest providers of SEO Tools."<ref name="seo.comf"/>
+
| 2004 || || {{w|Google}}, {{w|MSN}}, {{w|Yahoo!}} || Notable update || The three major search engines that are left, {{w|Google}}, {{w|MSN}} and {{w|Yahoo!}}, start incorporating undisclosed page ranking factors into their algorithms.<ref name="A Brief History of SEOd"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2004 || || || "By 2004, the three major search engines that are left, Google, MSN and Yahoo!, start incorporating undisclosed page ranking factors into their algorithms."<ref name="A Brief History of SEOd"/>
+
| 2005 || January || {{w|Google}}, {{w|MSN}}, {{w|Yahoo!}} || Partnership || {{w|Google}} unites with {{w|Yahoo!}} and {{w|MSN}} for the {{w|nofollow}} attribute, which is created in part to decrease the amount of spammy links and comments on websites, especially blogs.<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2005 || January || || "One of the biggest years in the search engine world was 2005. That January, Google united with Yahoo and MSN for the Nofollow Attribute, which was created in part to decrease the amount of spammy links and comments on websites, especially blogs."<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/>
+
| 2005 || March 1 || || {{w|SEO contest}} || Loquine Glupe is held. It is hosted by <code>webmaster-forums.co.uk</code>.<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2005 || March || {{w|SEO contest}} || "Loquine Glupe 2005. Needing to top google by March 1st, the winner of this contest hosted by webmaster-forums.co.uk would receive a link from a PR6 website and free hosting for a year, while the runner-up would get free advertising in the forum."<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>
+
| 2005 || May–December || || {{w|SEO contest}} || Hommingberger Gepardenforelle 2005 launches as another German contest. The goal of this SEO contest is to figure out how search engines determine rankings.<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2005 || May–December || {{w|SEO contest}} || "Hommingberger Gepardenforelle 2005. Another German contest, the goal of this SEO contest was to figure out how search engines determined rankings. Sponsored by Computer Magazine, the contest was run from May 15 - December 15th, 2005."<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>
+
| 2005 || June || {{w|Google}} || Notable update || Google debuts personalized search, which makes use of user personal search and browsing history to make results more relevant.<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2005 || June || || Google debuts personalized search, which makes use of user personal search and browsing history to make results more relevant.<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/>
+
| 2005 || || || Product launch || {{w|Nofollow tag}}s are created as a means to combat spam. SEO professionals begin using this tag as a way of {{w|PageRank}} sculpting.<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2005 || || || "Also in 2005, nofollow tags were created as a means to combat spam. SEO pros began using this tag as a way of PageRank sculpting."<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>
+
| 2005 || September || {{w|Google}} || Notable update || {{w|Google}} releases Jagger, an update that helps to diminish the level of unsolicited link exchanges that fly around.<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Google’s Jagger Update Rocks Manipulative Link Building |url=https://www.searchenginejournal.com/google-algorithm-history/jagger-update/#close |website=searchenginejournal.com |accessdate=4 January 2020}}</ref>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2005 || September || || "Google also unleashed a couple of noteworthy updates:" "Jagger, which helped to diminish the level of unsolicited link exchanges that were flying around, as well as heralding the decline in the importance of anchor text as a factor due to its corruptibility."<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Google’s Jagger Update Rocks Manipulative Link Building |url=https://www.searchenginejournal.com/google-algorithm-history/jagger-update/#close |website=searchenginejournal.com |accessdate=4 January 2020}}</ref>
+
| 2005 || || || {{w|SEO contest}} || Msnbetter Thangoogle launches as a Polish SEO contest intended to promote SEO in {{w|Poland}} and get the attention of search engines.<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2005 || || {{w|SEO contest}} || "Msnbetter Thangoogle 2005. Polish SEO contest intended to promote SEO in Poland and get the attention of search engines. There were some small prizes like an MP3 player, and SEO book, a cup, and even an honorary title of “Polish master of positioning internet websites 2005.” The contest ended on October 1st, 2005."<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>
+
| 2005 || November || {{w|Google}} || Service launch || {{w|Google}} launches {{w|Google Analytics}}. This free, web-based tool would become so popular at launch that webmasters would experience downtime and maintenance warnings.<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/><ref name="seo.comf"/><ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2005 || November || || {{w|Google}} launches {{w|Google Analytics}}. This free, web-based tool would become so popular at launch that webmasters would experience downtime and maintenance warnings.<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/><ref name="seo.comf"/><ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>
+
| 2005 || December || {{w|Google}} || Notable update || Google releases Big Daddy, an update that improves the architecture of Google to allow for improved understanding of the worth and relationship of links between sites.<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Google’s Big Daddy Update: Big Changes to Google’s Infrastructure & the SERPs |url=https://www.searchenginejournal.com/google-algorithm-history/big-daddy-update/ |website=searchenginejournal.com |accessdate=4 January 2020}}</ref>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2005 || December || || "Google also unleashed a couple of noteworthy updates:" "Big Daddy (coined by Jeff Manson of RealGeeks), which improved the architecture of Google to allow for improved understanding of the worth and relationship of links between sites."<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Google’s Big Daddy Update: Big Changes to Google’s Infrastructure & the SERPs |url=https://www.searchenginejournal.com/google-algorithm-history/big-daddy-update/ |website=searchenginejournal.com |accessdate=4 January 2020}}</ref>
+
| 2005 || December 20 || || {{w|SEO contest}} || The V7ndotcom Elursrebmem Competition is organized in the United States.<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/><ref name="dsdf"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2005 || December 20 || {{w|SEO contest}} || "v7ndotcom elursrebmem 2006. This competition from John Scott on the forum v7n.com was won by Scott Jones with second place Jim Westergren. The winner gave 50% of the prize money to a charity supporting Celiac Disease. The branded keyword v7ndotcom and secondary word elursrebmem (membersrule backwards) were used. The contest was announced December 20, 2005 and ended on May 15, 2006 at 12PM Pacific. There were prizes totaling over $9,000 with $7,000 to the winner and this was the biggest SEO competition at the time. Greg Boser didn't like one of the rules of this competition that required a link to V7N so he offered the same prize in exchange for linking to Matt Cutts blog instead. Greg ended up awarding his prize to Scott Jones. One major accomplishment for this contest was that it drew mainstream attention from the WSJ."<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>
+
| 2005 || || {{w|Google}} || Notable update || Google starts personalizing search results, taking into account a user’s search history to come up with customized results pages when that user is logged in.<ref name="A Brief History of SEOd"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2005 || || || Google starts personalizing search results, taking into account a user’s search history to come up with customized results pages when that user is logged in.<ref name="A Brief History of SEOd"/>
+
| 2006 || February–May || || SEO contest || "The Four Required Words" SEO Contest launches. It is sponsored by milliondollarscreenshot.com and is the first contest to use an expression in quotes and targeted image search, even though no images are shown in the time of the contest.<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2006 || February–May || || ""the four required words" 2006. Run from February 15th - May 15th, 2006, this contest had prizes of $100 for Google, $20 for MSN, $20 for Yahoo, $20 for A9, $20 in Google Images, $20 in A9 Images, and $20 in Ask Images. It was sponsored by milliondollarscreenshot.com and was the first contest to use an expression in quotes and targeted image search, even though no images were shown in the time of the contest."<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>
+
| 2006 || March–December || || SEO contest || Carcasherdotcom seocontest launches.<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2006 || March–December || || "carcasherdotcom-seocontest 2006. Run from March 1st - December 1st, 2006, CarCrasher offered monthly $500, $200, and $100 prizes and on December 31st, the prizes jumped to $3000, $2000, and $1000. There were also prizes like a Plasma TV, Sony PSP, and even an iPod."<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>
+
| 2006 || October || {{w|Google}} || Acquisition || {{w|Google}} acquires {{w|YouTube}} for US$1.65 billion. Youtube would ultimately become the second most used search property in the world.<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2006 || || || " By 2006, Google rolled out a Maps Plus Box, which I was quite impressed by at the time."<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>
+
| 2006 || || {{w|Google}} || Product launch || Google launches Google Webmaster Tools, a suite of SEO tools that provides data and configuration control and lets webmasters view crawling errors, see what searches the user's site showed up for, and request reinclusion.<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>  
|-
 
| 2006 || October || || {{w|Google}} acquires {{w|YouTube}} for US$1.65 billion. Youtube would ultimately become the second most used search property in the world.<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>
 
 
|-
 
|-
| 2006 || || || "Google also launched two incredibly important products in 2006:" "Google Webmaster Tools. Now known as the Search Console, Google Webmaster Tools let webmasters view crawling errors, see what searches your site showed up for, and request reinclusion."<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>
+
| 2006 || || || Product launch || {{w|XML}} {{w|sitemaps}} are introduced, soon acquiring a great support from the search engines. XML sitemaps allow webmasters to display to the search engines, every {{w|URL}} on their website that is available for crawling. An XML sitemap contains not only a list of URLs but a range of further information, which help search engines to crawl more intelligently.<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref name="amcodigital.com"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2006 || || || "Also in 2006 XML sitemaps gained universal support from the search engines. XML sitemaps allow webmasters to display to the search engines, every URL on their website that is available for crawling. An XML sitemap contains not only a list of URLs but a range of further information, which helped search engines to crawl more intelligently."<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/> "XML Sitemaps, introduced in 2006 and acquired a great support from the search engines."<ref name="amcodigital.com"/>
+
| 2006 || || {{w|Google}} || Controversy || {{w|BMW}} is banned and utterly removed from {{w|Google}}’s search results for using a technique called {{w|cloaking}}, which means showing one type of content for search engines and another one for users.<ref name="A brief history of Search Engine Optimization (SEO)">{{cite web |title=A brief history of Search Engine Optimization (SEO) |url=https://blog.zooma.se/en/blog/a-brief-history-of-search-engine-optimization-seo |website=blog.zooma.se |accessdate=6 January 2020}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2006 || || || "In 2006 it was time for BMW to get banned and utterly removed from Google’s search results for using a technique called cloaking, which means showing one type of content for search engines and another one for users."<ref name="A brief history of Search Engine Optimization (SEO)">{{cite web |title=A brief history of Search Engine Optimization (SEO) |url=https://blog.zooma.se/en/blog/a-brief-history-of-search-engine-optimization-seo |website=blog.zooma.se |accessdate=6 January 2020}}</ref>
+
| 2006 || || || {{w|SEO contest}} || Redscowl Bluesingsky SEO contest takes place. It is sponsored by SEOLogs.<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2006 || || {{w|SEO contest}} || "Redscowl Bluesingsky 2006. More made up words, this SEO contest was sponsored by SEOLogs. Shoemoney won the contest but since he had put up the money for the contest, he gave the money to the runner."<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>
+
| 2006 || || {{w|Google}} || Service launch || {{w|Google Webmaster Central}} is launched. It is a free portal from that notifies the user of major technical issues with his/her website.<ref name="seo.comf"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Technical Considerations for Your Local Business Website |url=https://moz.com/learn/seo/local-website-technical-recommendations |website=moz.com |accessdate=28 April 2020}}</ref> 
 
|-
 
|-
| 2006 || || || "Google – Google Webmaster Central is launched. Google, along with MSN and Yahoo, announced joint support for sitemap protocol."<ref name="seo.comf"/>
+
| 2007 || January 15 || || {{w|SEO contest}} || SEO World Championship launches. It is sponsored by European Internet Marketing company Eastpoin.<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2007 || January 15 || || "SEO World Championship 2007. Sponsored by European Internet Marketing company Eastpoint, this contest went from January 15th 2007 - May 1st 2007. The keyword they chose was "globalwarming awareness2007". This actually explains one of the domains that showed up in the SERPs for the Wix SEO Hero competition early on, as it was likely one of the competing websites back in 2007. A friend of mine Benj Arriola actually won this one. The prizes included a Citreon C2, a Caribbean Cruice, a plasma TV, $500, and $100."<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>
+
| 2007 || March 20 || {{w|Google}} || Product launch || {{w|Google}} announces Plus Box, a new search feature that lets users see more information about individual search results.<ref>{{cite web |title=More than meets the eye |url=https://googleblog.blogspot.com/2007/03/more-than-meets-eye.html |website=googleblog.blogspot.com |accessdate=28 April 2020}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2007 || May 2 || || Jason Gambert attempts to trademark the term SEO by convincing the Trademark Office in Arizona that SEO is a "process" involving manipulation of keywords and not a "marketing service."<ref>{{cite web|title=Trademark/Service Mark Application, Principal Register|url=http://tsdr.uspto.gov/documentviewer?caseId=sn77171330&docId=APP20070505071211#docIndex=71&page=1|accessdate=3 January 2020}}</ref>  
+
| 2007 || May 2 || || || Jason Gambert attempts to trademark the term SEO by convincing the Trademark Office in Arizona that SEO is a "process" involving manipulation of keywords and not a "marketing service."<ref>{{cite web|title=Trademark/Service Mark Application, Principal Register|url=http://tsdr.uspto.gov/documentviewer?caseId=sn77171330&docId=APP20070505071211#docIndex=71&page=1|accessdate=3 January 2020}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2007 || || || "We really began to see search starting to evolve in new and exciting ways starting in 2007. All of these updates were aimed at improving the user experience." "Let’s start with Google’s Universal Search. Until this point, the search results had consisted of 10 blue links."<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>
+
| 2007 || May 16 || {{w|Google}} || Product launch || {{w|Google}} undertakes the most radical change to its search results ever, with the introduction of its [[w:Google Search|Universal Search]] system that blends listings from its news, video, images, local and book search engines among those it gathers from crawling web pages.<ref>{{cite web |title=Google Launches “Universal Search” & Blended Results |url=https://searchengineland.com/google-20-google-universal-search-11232 |website=searchengineland.com |accessdate=17 May 2020}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2007 || || || ". In 2007, Google starts a campaign against paid links affecting PageRank."<ref name="A Brief History of SEOd"/>
+
| 2007 || || || Search evolution || Search starts to evolve in new ways. Updates are aimed at improving the user experience.<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2008 || February–April || {{w|SEO contest}} || "seocontest2008. This one was sponsored by the UK Webmaster World Community and launched February 1st and lasted until April 1st, 2008. The keyword was seocontest2008 and the prize was $1000 for the winner and $100 for the next 3 participants."<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>
+
| 2007 || || {{w|Google}} || Program launch || Google starts a campaign against paid links affecting {{w|PageRank}}.<ref name="A Brief History of SEOd"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2008 || June–August || {{w|SEO contest}} || "Busby SEO Challenge 2008. Running from June 1st - August 31st, 2008, this contest targeted "busby seo challenge" and was sponsored by an Australian society, Busby Web Solutions. Prizes: $5,000 for the winner, the second prize: $2,000 and for the third prize: $500."<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>
+
| 2008 || February–April || || {{w|SEO contest}} || seocontest2008 launches. It is sponsored by the UK Webmaster World Community.<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2008 || || || {{w|Yoast SEO}} starts operations as a SEO tool.<ref>{{cite web |title=YOAST SEO |url=https://wordpress.org/plugins/wordpress-seo/ |website=wordpress.org |accessdate=8 January 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=The history of Yoast |url=https://yoast.com/about-us/history/ |website=yoast.com |accessdate=8 January 2020}}</ref>
+
| 2008 || June–August || || {{w|SEO contest}} || Busby SEO Challenge 2008 is held. It is sponsored by Busby Web Solutions based in {{w|Australia}}.<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Busby SEO Challenge World Cup |url=http://ryangaraygay.com/busby-seo-challenge-world-cup/ |website=ryangaraygay.com |accessdate=27 April 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Busby SEO Challenge Contest 2008 |url=http://www.3seo.com/Busby-SEO-Challenge/ |website=3seo.com |accessdate=27 April 2020}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2008 || || {{w|SEO contest}} || "Busby SEO World Cup 2 2008. A second challenge from Busby targeted "busby seo test" with a prize of $5,000, 2nd place $2,000, 3rd $500, 4th $250, and 5th $100."<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>
+
| 2008 || || || Product launch || {{w|Yoast SEO}} starts operations as a SEO tool.<ref>{{cite web |title=YOAST SEO |url=https://wordpress.org/plugins/wordpress-seo/ |website=wordpress.org |accessdate=8 January 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=The history of Yoast |url=https://yoast.com/about-us/history/ |website=yoast.com |accessdate=8 January 2020}}</ref> It is a {{w|WordPress}} {{w|plugin}} that makes it easy for users to do things like control titles and meta descriptions, set their targeted keywords and track how often they're using them, manage sitemaps, and other tasks.<ref>{{cite web |title=Everything You Need to Know About Using Yoast SEO for Wordpress |url=https://moz.com/blog/using-yoast-seo-for-wordpress |website=moz.com |accessdate=28 April 2020}}</ref>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || January 18 || || "In 2008, then-Google CEO Eric Schmidt said the Internet was becoming a cesspool and that brands were the solution. “Brands are how you sort out the cesspool,” he said. Less than six months after his comment, along came a Google update called Vince. Big brands suddenly seemed to be ranking a whole lot better in the SERPs." "The Vince Update appeared January 18, 2009. It was named after a Google engineer by this name in admiration of his effort in this algorithmic change – or what Matt Cutts, who was head of Google’s webspam team at the time, would refer to as a “simple change.”"<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Google’s Vince Update: The Day Big Brands Won |url=https://www.searchenginejournal.com/google-algorithm-history/vince-update/ |website=searchenginejournal.com |accessdate=4 January 2020}}</ref>
+
| 2009 || January 18 || {{w|Google}} || Notable update || Google Vince Update is released. It favors brand websites when it comes to search results for traffic-rich keywords.<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Google’s Vince Update: The Day Big Brands Won |url=https://www.searchenginejournal.com/google-algorithm-history/vince-update/ |website=searchenginejournal.com |accessdate=4 January 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Why is the Vince Update also referred to as the Brand Update? |url=https://www.sistrix.com/ask-sistrix/google-updates-and-algorithm-changes/google-vince-update/why-is-the-vince-update-also-referred-to-as-the-brand-update/ |website=sistrix.com |accessdate=10 April 2020}}</ref> 
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || March–August || {{w|SEO contest}} || "Net Builders SEO Contest 2009. Winner: Hellas. The contest ran from March 15 - August 15, 2009. 1st place received $1000, 2nd $500, and 3rd got $250. The targeted keyword was "sulumits retsambew" which is webmaster stimulus backwards. Backwards seems to be a common trend in these contests."<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>
+
| 2009 || March–August || || {{w|SEO contest}} || Net Builders SEO Contest is held. The targeted keyword is "sulumits retsambew" which is webmaster stimulus backwards. Backwards seems to be a common trend in these contests.<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || June || || "In 2009, the search engine world saw a bit of a shakeup. Bing premiered that June, with Microsoft aggressively marketing it as the search engine that would produce noticeably better results than Google. But as SEL predicted, it was no “Google-killer,” nor did its advice for optimizing content significantly contrast Google’s. In fact, according to Search Engine Journal, the only noticeable difference was Bing’s tendency to give priority to keywords in URLs, as well as favoring capitalized words and “pages from large sites.”"<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/> "In 2009, Microsoft gathered all that it had learned from its previous search engines (MSN Search, live Search, Windows live Search) and wrapped it all into what they now call Bing. About a year later, Yahoo! jumps on board with Microsoft and begins using the Bing search technology as well."<ref name="seo.comf"/>
+
| 2009 || June 3 || [[w:Bing (search engine)|Bing]] || Search engine launch || [[w:Bing (search engine)|Bing]] launches, with {{w|Microsoft}} aggressively marketing it as the search engine that would produce noticeably better results than {{w|Google}}.<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/><ref name="seo.comf"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || August 10 || || "On August 10, 2009, Google announced Caffeine which would become one of the most important updates in the search engine’s history."<ref>{{cite web |title=Google’s Caffeine Update: Better Indexing & Fresher Search Results |url=https://www.searchenginejournal.com/google-algorithm-history/caffeine-update/ |website=searchenginejournal.com |accessdate=4 January 2020}}</ref>
+
| 2009 || August 10 || {{w|Google}} || Notable update || {{w|Google}} announces [[w:Google Caffeine Update|Caffeine]], which would become one of the most important updates in the search engine’s history.<ref>{{cite web |title=Google’s Caffeine Update: Better Indexing & Fresher Search Results |url=https://www.searchenginejournal.com/google-algorithm-history/caffeine-update/ |website=searchenginejournal.com |accessdate=4 January 2020}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || || || "In 2009, Microsoft Live Search became Bing. Then, in an attempt to challenge Google’s nearly 70 percent grip of the U.S. search market, Yahoo and Microsoft joined forces to partner on a 10-year search deal (though it ended up being reworked five years later)."<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>
+
| 2009 || || {{w|Bing}} || Partnership || After Microsoft Live Search becomes {{w|Bing}}, in an unsuccessful attempt to challenge Google’s nearly 70 percent grip of the U.S. search market, {{w|Yahoo!}} and {{w|Microsoft}} join forces to partner on a 10-year search deal (though it would end up being reworked five years later).<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || September–December || {{w|SEO contest}} || "OES Tsetnoc SEO Contest 2009. This contest literally for SEO Contest in reverse was from September 10th til December 15th 2009. Organized by PromoJunkie, there were prizes of $1000, $300, and $200. Some guy who went by Handsome won."<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>
+
| 2009 || September–December || || {{w|SEO contest}} || OES Tsetnoc SEO Contest is held.<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || Year round || || {{w|Google}} executes between 350 and 550 adjustments to its search algorithm along the year, meaning at least once a day, showing the "rapid advancement required to stay on top if playing the game of SEO at the highest level".<ref name="A brief history of Search Engine Optimization (SEO)"/>
+
| 2009 || Year round || {{w|Google}} || Notable update || {{w|Google}} executes between 350 and 550 adjustments to its search algorithm along the year, meaning at least once a day, showing the "rapid advancement required to stay on top if playing the game of SEO at the highest level".<ref name="A brief history of Search Engine Optimization (SEO)"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || || || {{w|Google}} announces it is attempting to stop the effects of {{w|PageRank}} sculpting that come as a result of nofollow links.<ref name="A Brief History of SEOd"/>
+
| 2009 || || {{w|Google}} || {{w|Google}} || {{w|Google}} announces attempt to stop the effects of {{w|PageRank}} sculpting that come as a result of nofollow links.<ref name="A Brief History of SEOd"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2010 || December || || " In December 2010, both Google and Bing added "social signals," which first displayed any written Facebook posts, for example, from your own network that matched your query. But it also began to give PageRank to Twitter profiles that were linked to with some frequency. The importance of Twitter in SEO didn't end there -- stay tuned."<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/>
+
| 2010 || December || {{w|Google}} || Notable update || Both {{w|Google}} and {{w|Bing}} add "social signals," which first display any written Facebook posts, for example, from the user's own network that matches his/her query.<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2010 || || || "By 2010 a tactic had appeared where websites were created from large amounts of low-quality textual content, frequently updated and specifically designed to lure search engine algorithms. These sites were linked together forming so-called ‘{{w|content farm}}s’ whose only purpose was to drive search engine traffic and, just like doorway pages before them, sending the incoming traffic to the final destination."<ref name="A brief history of Search Engine Optimization (SEO)"/>
+
| 2010 || || || || A tactic appears where websites are created from large amounts of low-quality textual content, frequently updated and specifically designed to lure search engine algorithms. These sites are linked together forming so-called ‘{{w|content farm}}s’ whose only purpose is to drive search engine traffic and, just like doorway pages before them, sending the incoming traffic to the final destination.<ref name="A brief history of Search Engine Optimization (SEO)"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2010 || Year round || || "Companies’ SEO Spending in 2010. 52% – Spending more on SEO. 39% Spending about the same. 9% Spending less."<ref name="seo.comf"/>
+
| 2010 || Year round || || Statistics || 52% of the companies are estimated to spend more on SEO, 39% Spending about the same, and 9% Spending less.<ref name="seo.comf"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2011 || || || "In 2011, Google found its search results facing severe scrutiny because so-called “content farms” (websites that produced high volumes of low-quality content) were dominating the search results. Google’s SERPs were also cluttered with websites featuring unoriginal and auto-generated content – and even, in some instances, scraper sites were outranking content originators."<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>
+
| 2011 || February 23 || {{w|Google}} || Notable update || Google launches {{w|Google Panda}}, a algorithm update aimed at combating {{w|content farm}}s by rewarding high-quality websites and diminishing the presence of low-quality websites in Google’s organic search engine results. Google Panda is initially known as "Farmer."<ref>{{cite web |title=Google Panda |url=https://moz.com/learn/seo/google-panda |website=moz.com |accessdate=18 May 2020}}</ref>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2012 || April || || "In April 2012, Google took what it called “another step to reward high-quality sites” with the first of many Penguin updates -- and, in the process of announcing it, acknowledged Bing’s month-earlier blog post on the changing face of SEO. "<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/> " Penguin 4.0 is the latest version of Penguin, which was originally introduced in April, 2012."<ref name="tellmeyourgoal.coms"/>
+
| 2012 || April 24 || {{w|Google}} || Notable update || {{w|Google Penguin}} launches as a Google algorithm update.<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/><ref name="tellmeyourgoal.coms"/> It is aimed at decreasing [[w:Search engine optimization|search engine rankings]] of websites that violate Google's Webmaster Guidelines.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://support.google.com/webmasters/answer/35769#3|title=Webmaster Guidelines - Webmaster Tools Help|publisher=Support.google.com|accessdate=10 April 2020}}</ref>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2012 || May || || {{w|Google}} unveils the {{w|Knowledge Graph}}, a new visual interface that provides popular facts about people, places and things alongside Google's traditional results. This constitutes a major shift away from interpreting keywords strings to understanding semantics and intent.<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Google Testing Semantic Search Update |url=https://www.searchenginejournal.com/google-semantic-search-update/43443/ |website=searchenginejournal.com |accessdate=4 January 2020}}</ref> The {{w|Knowledge Graph}} would become popular in knowledge representation and knowledge management applications widely across search engine, biomedical, media and industrial domains.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Wasny |first1=Garrett |title=Advanced Googling: How to Search Smarter, Faster and More Efficiently on Google |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=2W3CAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA123&dq=%22Knowledge+Graph%22+%222012%22+%22google%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi9uemPwdToAhU3F7kGHQ8VAl0Q6AEIQjAD#v=onepage&q=%22Knowledge%20Graph%22%20%222012%22%20%22google%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Pan |first1=Jeff Z. |last2=Calvanese |first2=Diego |last3=Eiter |first3=Thomas |last4=Horrocks |first4=Ian |last5=Kifer |first5=Michael |last6=Lin |first6=Fangzhen |last7=Zhao |first7=Yuting |title=Reasoning Web: Logical Foundation of Knowledge Graph Construction and Query Answering: 12th International Summer School 2016, Aberdeen, UK, September 5-9, 2016, Tutorial Lectures |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=-J47DgAAQBAJ&pg=PA1&dq=%22Knowledge+Graph%22+%222012%22+%22google%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi9uemPwdToAhU3F7kGHQ8VAl0Q6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=%22Knowledge%20Graph%22%20%222012%22%20%22google%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Färber |first1=M. |title=Semantic Search for Novel Information |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=wHc2DwAAQBAJ&pg=PA23&dq=%22Knowledge+Graph%22+%222012%22+%22google%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi9uemPwdToAhU3F7kGHQ8VAl0Q6AEIMDAB#v=onepage&q=%22Knowledge%20Graph%22%20%222012%22%20%22google%22&f=false}}</ref>
+
| 2012 || May || {{w|Google}} || Product launch || {{w|Google}} unveils the {{w|Knowledge Graph}}, a new visual interface that provides popular facts about people, places and things alongside Google's traditional results. This constitutes a major shift away from interpreting keywords strings to understanding semantics and intent.<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Google Testing Semantic Search Update |url=https://www.searchenginejournal.com/google-semantic-search-update/43443/ |website=searchenginejournal.com |accessdate=4 January 2020}}</ref> The {{w|Knowledge Graph}} would become popular in knowledge representation and knowledge management applications widely across search engine, biomedical, media and industrial domains.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Wasny |first1=Garrett |title=Advanced Googling: How to Search Smarter, Faster and More Efficiently on Google |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=2W3CAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA123&dq=%22Knowledge+Graph%22+%222012%22+%22google%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi9uemPwdToAhU3F7kGHQ8VAl0Q6AEIQjAD#v=onepage&q=%22Knowledge%20Graph%22%20%222012%22%20%22google%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Pan |first1=Jeff Z. |last2=Calvanese |first2=Diego |last3=Eiter |first3=Thomas |last4=Horrocks |first4=Ian |last5=Kifer |first5=Michael |last6=Lin |first6=Fangzhen |last7=Zhao |first7=Yuting |title=Reasoning Web: Logical Foundation of Knowledge Graph Construction and Query Answering: 12th International Summer School 2016, Aberdeen, UK, September 5-9, 2016, Tutorial Lectures |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=-J47DgAAQBAJ&pg=PA1&dq=%22Knowledge+Graph%22+%222012%22+%22google%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi9uemPwdToAhU3F7kGHQ8VAl0Q6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=%22Knowledge%20Graph%22%20%222012%22%20%22google%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Färber |first1=M. |title=Semantic Search for Novel Information |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=wHc2DwAAQBAJ&pg=PA23&dq=%22Knowledge+Graph%22+%222012%22+%22google%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi9uemPwdToAhU3F7kGHQ8VAl0Q6AEIMDAB#v=onepage&q=%22Knowledge%20Graph%22%20%222012%22%20%22google%22&f=false}}</ref>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2013 || October || || "launch of app indexing making apps appear alongside websites in search results"<ref name="A brief history of Search Engine Optimization (SEO)"/> "Google App Indexing was launched in October 2013 for a limited set of publishers."<ref>{{cite web |title=Google: App Indexing |url=https://searchengineland.com/library/google/google-app-indexing |website=searchengineland.com |accessdate=7 January 2020}}</ref>
+
| 2013 || October || {{w|Google}} || System launch || Google App Indexing is launched for a limited set of publishers. It is a system that allows searchers to click on listings in Google's search results, taking them into apps on their [[w:Android (operating system)|Android]] and {{w|iOS}} smartphones and tablets.<ref name="A brief history of Search Engine Optimization (SEO)"/> <ref>{{cite web |title=Google: App Indexing |url=https://searchengineland.com/library/google/google-app-indexing |website=searchengineland.com |accessdate=7 January 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=The Death of the Desktop: The Future For Mobile SEO |url=https://www.4mation.com.au/blog/death-desktop-future-mobile-seo/ |website=4mation.com.au |accessdate=28 April 2020}}</ref>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2014 || || || "Keeping with the tradition of animal-named algorithm updates, Google released "Pigeon" (dubbed so by SEL) in 2014, which carried quite an impact on local search results. At the time, it seems to have been designed to improve Maps queries, which began to be treated with some of the same technology that was applied to its other search functions, like "Knowledge Graph, spelling correction, synonyms". Local searches were going to become a big deal -- and it will only continue to do so, as you'll see in a bit."<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/>
+
| 2014 || || {{w|Google}} || Notable update || Google releases "Pigeon", an algorithm update whose goal is to improve local search rankings.<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Google Pigeon – What Is It and What Should I Do? |url=http://www.leapgo.com/google-pigeon/ |website=leapgo.com |accessdate=28 April 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Google Pigeon |url=https://www.webopedia.com/TERM/G/google-pigeon.html |website=webopedia.com |accessdate=28 April 2020}}</ref>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2014 || November || || "Back in 2014, Google added a "mobile-friendly" label for search results that were optimized for such platforms -- where text is readable without zooming or horizontal scrolling, and links are spaced well enough so that there’s a reduced chance of mis-tapping."<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Helping users find mobile-friendly pages |url=https://webmasters.googleblog.com/2014/11/helping-users-find-mobile-friendly-pages.html |website=webmasters.googleblog.com |accessdate=6 January 2020}}</ref>
+
| 2014 || November || {{w|Google}} || Notable update || {{w|Google}} adds a "mobile-friendly" label for search results that are optimized for such platforms, where text is readable without zooming or horizontal scrolling, and links are spaced well enough so that there’s a reduced chance of mis-tapping.<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Helping users find mobile-friendly pages |url=https://webmasters.googleblog.com/2014/11/helping-users-find-mobile-friendly-pages.html |website=webmasters.googleblog.com |accessdate=6 January 2020}}</ref>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2015 || February || || "Google announced that change in advance, in February 2015, with a mobile-friendly test that allowed webmasters to view potential issues and make changes before the rollout."<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/>
+
| 2015 || February || {{w|Google}} || Notable update || Google announces a change, with a mobile-friendly test that allows webmasters to view potential issues and make changes before the rollout.<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2015 || April || || "The biggest post-2010 SEO announcement might have been Google’s mobile update of April 2015, when non-mobile-friendly websites would start getting lower rankings. That meant SEO was no longer about keywords and content -- responsive design mattered, too."<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/>
+
| 2015 || April || {{w|Google}} || Notable update || Google introduces mobile update. Since then, non-mobile-friendly websites would start getting lower rankings. This means SEO is no longer about keywords and content, with responsive design as new factor.<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2015 || May || || {{w|Mobile search}} surpasses desktop search.<ref>[https://adwords.blogspot.com/2015/05/building-for-next-moment.html "Inside AdWords: Building for the next moment" ''Google Inside Adwords'' May 15, 2015.]</ref>
+
| 2015 || May || || Search evolution || {{w|Mobile search}} surpasses desktop search.<ref>[https://adwords.blogspot.com/2015/05/building-for-next-moment.html "Inside AdWords: Building for the next moment" ''Google Inside Adwords'' May 15, 2015.]</ref>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2015 || || || {{w|2015}} is known as the Year of Mobile, the point at which {{w|mobile search}}es overtake {{w|desktop search}} for the first time on {{w|Google}}.<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>
+
| 2015 || || || Search evolution || {{w|2015}} is known as the Year of Mobile, the point at which {{w|mobile search}}es overtake {{w|desktop search}} for the first time on {{w|Google}}.<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2015 || October || || "In terms of search, we’ve already started to see the impact of AI with Google RankBrain. Announced in October 2015, RankBrain was initially used to try to interpret the 15 percent of searches that Google has never seen before, based on the words or phrases the user has entered."<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref>{{cite web |title=A Complete Guide to the Google RankBrain Algorithm |url=https://www.searchenginejournal.com/google-algorithm-history/rankbrain/ |website=searchenginejournal.com |accessdate=4 January 2020}}</ref>
+
| 2015 || October || {{w|Google}} || System launch || {{w|Google}} {{w|RankBrain}} is announced. It is a {{w|machine learning}} (AI) algorithm initially used to try to interpret the 15 percent of searches that Google has never seen before, based on the words or phrases the user has entered.<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref>{{cite web |title=A Complete Guide to the Google RankBrain Algorithm |url=https://www.searchenginejournal.com/google-algorithm-history/rankbrain/ |website=searchenginejournal.com |accessdate=4 January 2020}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2015 || April 21 || || Google introduces search engine algorithm update so-called ‘{{w|Mobilegeddon}}’, which makes website mobile friendliness a ranking signal in searches.<ref name="A brief history of Search Engine Optimization (SEO)"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Finding more mobile-friendly search results |url=https://webmasters.googleblog.com/2015/02/finding-more-mobile-friendly-search.html |website=webmasters.googleblog.com |accessdate=7 January 2020}}</ref>
+
| 2015 || April 21 || {{w|Google}} || Notable update || Google introduces search engine algorithm update so-called ‘{{w|Mobilegeddon}}’, which makes website mobile friendliness a ranking signal in searches.<ref name="A brief history of Search Engine Optimization (SEO)"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Finding more mobile-friendly search results |url=https://webmasters.googleblog.com/2015/02/finding-more-mobile-friendly-search.html |website=webmasters.googleblog.com |accessdate=7 January 2020}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2015 || || || "According to a 2015 study, the top-ranking factors for search engines and their algorithms (including Google’s core algorithm) are ranked in order of importance as:
+
| 2015 || || {{w|Google}} || Standard development || According to a study, the top-ranking factors for search engines and their algorithms (including Google’s core algorithm) are ranked in order of importance as:
 
+
* Domain-level link features
Domain-level link features
+
* Page-level link features
Page-level link features
+
* Page-level keyword and content-based features
Page-level keyword and content-based features
+
* Page-level keyword agnostic features
Page-level keyword agnostic features
+
* Engagement and traffic/query data
Engagement and traffic/query data
+
* Domain-level brand metrics
Domain-level brand metrics
+
* Domain-level keyword usage
Domain-level keyword usage
+
* Domain-level keyword-agnostic features
Domain-level keyword-agnostic features
+
* Page-level social metrics<ref name="tellmeyourgoal.coms"/>  
Page-level social metrics"<ref name="tellmeyourgoal.coms"/>
 
 
|-
 
|-
| 2016 || March–June || {{w|SEO contest}} || "Apex Forum SEO Contest 2016. Winner Scott Paxton. The keyword was "Club Penguin Walkthrough". Contest began on March 25th and went through June 22nd. There were lots of prizes totaling $8,684.04 for the winner with $1,000 in cash, $2,859.80 in prizes for second including $250 cash, and $1,769.80 in prizes for third including $100 cash."<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>
+
| 2016 || March–June || || {{w|SEO contest}} || Apex Forum SEO Contest is held.<ref name="Previous SEO Competitions"/>  
 
|-  
 
|-  
| 2016 || August || || Google announces a crackdown on mobile pop-ups.<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/>
+
| 2016 || August || {{w|Google}} || || Google announces a crackdown on mobile pop-ups.<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2017 || January || || {{w|Google}} introduces an algorithmic change called the “Intrusive Interstitial Penalty” in order to “punish aggressive interstitials and pop-ups that might damage the mobile user experience.”<ref name="tellmeyourgoal.coms"/>
+
| 2017 || January || {{w|Google}} || Notable update || {{w|Google}} introduces an algorithmic change called the “Intrusive Interstitial Penalty” in order to “punish aggressive interstitials and pop-ups that might damage the mobile user experience.”<ref name="tellmeyourgoal.coms"/>
 +
|- 
 +
| 2017 || March || {{w|Google}} || Notable update || Google introduces update informally known as “Fred”, which would have a major impact on the SEO community.<ref name="tellmeyourgoal.coms"/> 
 
|-
 
|-
| 2017 || March || || Google introduces update informally known as “Fred”, which would have a major impact on the SEO community.<ref name="tellmeyourgoal.coms"/>
+
| 2018 || June || {{w|Google}} || Market distribution || As of date, {{w|Google}} accounts for over 72.47% of all global desktop search traffic, followed by {{w|Baidu}} at 13.47%, {{w|Bing}} at 7.64%, and {{w|Yahoo!}} at 4.74%.<ref name="seoexpertbrad.comss">{{cite web |title=GOOGLE LOCAL SEO STATISTICS THAT EVERY SEARCH MARKETER SHOULD READ |url=https://seoexpertbrad.com/local-seo-stats/ |website=seoexpertbrad.com |accessdate=6 April 2020}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2018 || June || || As of date, {{w|Google}} accounts for over 72.47% of all global desktop search traffic, followed by {{w|Baidu}} at 13.47%, {{w|Bing}} at 7.64%, and {{w|Yahoo!}} at 4.74%.<ref name="seoexpertbrad.comss">{{cite web |title=GOOGLE LOCAL SEO STATISTICS THAT EVERY SEARCH MARKETER SHOULD READ |url=https://seoexpertbrad.com/local-seo-stats/ |website=seoexpertbrad.com |accessdate=6 April 2020}}</ref>  
+
| 2018 || July || {{w|Google}} || Notable update || {{w|Google}} announces that from then on, page speed would be a ranking factor for mobile searches.<ref name="A brief history of Search Engine Optimization (SEO)"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Using page speed in mobile search ranking |url=https://webmasters.googleblog.com/2018/01/using-page-speed-in-mobile-search.html |website=webmasters.googleblog.com |accessdate=7 January 2020}}</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 2018 || July || || {{w|Google}} announces that from then on, page speed will be a ranking factor for mobile searches.<ref name="A brief history of Search Engine Optimization (SEO)"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Using page speed in mobile search ranking |url=https://webmasters.googleblog.com/2018/01/using-page-speed-in-mobile-search.html |website=webmasters.googleblog.com |accessdate=7 January 2020}}</ref>
+
| 2020 || || || Search evolution || Comscore predicts that by this year, 50% all searches will be voice.<ref name="A brief history of Search Engine Optimization (SEO)"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Stat of the week – Voice Search |url=https://blog.zooma.se/en/blog/stat-of-the-week-voice-search |website=blog.zooma.se |accessdate=7 January 2020}}</ref>
|-
 
| 2020 || || || Comscore predicts that by this year, 50% all searches will be voice.<ref name="A brief history of Search Engine Optimization (SEO)"/><ref>{{cite web |title=Stat of the week – Voice Search |url=https://blog.zooma.se/en/blog/stat-of-the-week-voice-search |website=blog.zooma.se |accessdate=7 January 2020}}</ref>
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
Line 299: Line 300:
  
 
===What the timeline is still missing===
 
===What the timeline is still missing===
 
* [https://www.searchenginejournal.com/seo-101/seo-history/#close]
 
* [https://searchengineland.com/evolution-seo-trends-25-years-223424]
 
* [https://blog.hubspot.com/marketing/a-brief-history-of-search-seo]
 
* [http://www.thehistoryofseo.com/The-Industry/The_History_of_Search_Engine_Optimization.aspx]
 
* [https://blog.zooma.se/en/blog/a-brief-history-of-search-engine-optimization-seo]
 
* [https://www.bluefrogdm.com/blog/a-brief-history-of-seo]
 
* [https://seoexpertbrad.com/local-seo-stats/]
 
 
 
 
 
* [https://www.tellmeyourgoal.com/the-history-of-search-engine-optimization]
 
* [https://mikekhorev.com/the-history-of-search]
 
 
  
 
===Timeline update strategy===
 
===Timeline update strategy===
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 +
 +
* [[Timeline of Google Search]]
 +
* [[Timeline of web search engines]]
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==

Latest revision as of 10:47, 30 May 2020

This is a timeline of search engine optimization, attempting to describe significant events related to this practice. For the sake of context, many events directly related to search engines, their evolution, products and updates, are included.

Sample questions

The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:

  • What are some historically significant search engines and when were they launched?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Search engine launch".
    • You will see the launch of search engines, notable for their historical importance like WebCrawler, or by their magnitude, like Google and Yahoo!.
  • What are some significant updates involving search engines?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Notable update".
    • You will see some significant updates by prominent search engines, mainly Google; aimed at improving aspects like geographic intent, end-user data, content farm combating, etc.
  • What are some of the several competitions specialized in SEO?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "SEO contest".
    • You will see a number of notable contests launched in several countries.
  • What are some numbers illustrating the evolution of search engine?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Statistics".
    • For internet userbase evolution, sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Statistics (internet userbase)".
  • What are some significant events illustrating the evolution of internet search?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Search evolution".
    • You will see the evolution of internet search toward mobile search, and the envisage of future mainstream search toward voice.

Big picture

Time period Development summary More details
1991–2002 Prelude period[1] Early period starting from the launch of the world’s first website by Tim Berners-Lee. As websites start crowding the Internet, the first search engines fill a need for structure and accessibility. in 1993, search platforms like Excite revolutionize how information is cataloged and make finding information easier by sorting results based on keywords found within content and backend optimization. Webmasters and content providers begin optimizing websites for search engines in the mid-decade. Yahoo! in 1994 and Google in 1997 enter the scene to improve and simplify how data is indexed and delivered. In this primitive stage, marketers would leverage keyword stuffing, excessive tagging, and (often spammy) backlinks to generate high rankings in search. Often, major algorithm updates would take several months to complete, allowing black-hat SEO tactics to remain effective for long stretches of time. In 1994, several new search engines become widely accessible to the public.[2] In 1996, in which some consider the time when SEO really took off, Sergey Brin and Larry Page begin building BackRub, the predecessor of Google, which would become the biggest, most recognized search engine.[3] Around 1997, the first algorithm crackers appear. 1997 is the year that several SEO providers decode all 35 parameters of Excite’s algorithm.[4]
2003–2005 Early developments[1] Google, MSN and Yahoo!, the three major search engines that are left, start incorporating undisclosed page ranking factors into their algorithms. The era of keyword-spamming SEO is long over. Webmasters and content providers have to rely on more creative ways to promote content and generate inbound links in order to achieve long term increases in search engine rankings.[4]
2006–2009 Middle period This period introduces highlights like Google's Universal Search to offer additionally more engaging content media in search results such as news, images, and video.[1]
2010–2012 Consolidation period [1] Social media becomes a more pivotal piece of SEO strategy.[5] By 2010, content farms appear, designed to lure search engine algorithms. As a response, Google decides that the quality of the content should matter more for search engine rankings, and in 2011 launches its Google Panda update which effectively kills the practice.[6] Toward 2012, Google continues setting restrictions to means of improving users' ranking score and continues penalizing websites using unethical methods of rankings.[7]
2013–present Modern SEO era[1] Focus moves towards mobile search. In 2014, the app indexing launches, making apps appear alongside websites in search results. In 2015, the so-called ‘Mobilegeddon’ update appears, making website mobile friendliness a ranking signal in searches.[6] By 2017, SEO is considered, for the most part, a conversation with Google Search.[4] 2018 starts with the continuation of mobile as a key focus for search engines.[6] As of 2019, SEO campaigns are much more laborious and complex than they were a decade ago. Users get better relevant results and webmasters and content providers have to provide actual value in order to rank high on search results.[4]

Full timeline

Year Month and date Search engine (when applicable) Event type Details
1945 Concept development American engineer Vannevar Bush introduces the concept of “collection of data and observations, the extraction of parallel material from the existing record, and the final insertion of new material into the general body of the common record.”[8] Bush emphasizes the necessity for an expansive index for all knowledge, stating: "[Information] has been extended far beyond our present ability to make real use of the record. A record, if it is to be useful to science, must be continuously extended, it must be stored...Our ineptitude in getting at the record is largely caused by the artificiality of the systems of indexing. The human mind does not work this way. It operates by association."[9][10][11]
1987 Archie Early development Search engine Archie begins as a project for students and staff at McGill University, with aims to connect the McGill University School of Computer Science to the internet.[2][12][13]
1990 Archie Early development McGill University student Alan Emtage launches Archie.[14] Designed to search and store directory listings on file transfer protocol sites, it is considered by some to be the very first search engine[5] Archie searches File Transfer Protocol (FTP) sites to create index of downloadable files. Due to limited space, only the listings are available and not for the contents for each site.[15][8][9][16]
1991 vlib.org Early development English computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee in Geneva launches his WWW Virtual Library vlib.org. It is considered the oldest catalog on the Web.[15][17][18][19]
1991 Early development The first website is developed for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.[20] It is believed that SEO is born in this year, with the launch of the first website.[3]
1991 Mid-year Early development Gopher system is released by Mark P. McCahill, Farhad Anklesaria, Paul Lindner, Daniel Torrey, and Bob Alberti of the University of Minnesota[21] Gopher is considered to be the first search engine using a hypertext paradigm.[22] A step toward the World Wide Web hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP), it would become popular for several years, because it provides a way to share text files from all over the world.[23]
1993 February Early development Six Stanford students create Architext, a project seeking to use statistical analysis of word relationships to improve relevancy of searches on the Internet. Architext would later become the search engine Excite.[22] Excite would revolutionize how information is categorized, making it easier to find information “by sorting results based on keywords found within content and backend optimization.”[5][3][24]
1993 Notable update The graphical Mosaic web browser improves Gopher’s primarily text-based interface.[22]
1993 June World Wide Web Wanderer Early development Matthew Gray at MIT develops the World Wide Web Wanderer, which is considered the first web crawler to measure the size of the Web.[5][15][16]
1993 October Aliweb Search engine launch Web search engine Aliweb launches. Created by Martijn Koster, it allows users to submit the locations of index files on their sites.[16][25][26][27]
1993 Statistics There are approximately 600 websites online at the time.[16][20]
1993 Statistics (internet userbase) The are about 10 million internet users at the time.[16]
1993 September 2 W3Catalog Search engine launch W3Catalog, the world’s first primitive web search engine, is started by Oscar Nierstrasz at the Centre Universitaire d’Informatique (CUI) of the University of Geneva.[28][2]
1993 Late year World Wide Web Wanderer Search engine launch World Wide Web Wanderer is used to generate an index called the "Wandex", an early web search engine.[29] Wandex becomes the first search engine to crawl the web indexing and searching indexed pages on the Web.[22][30][31]
1994 January Yahoo! Search engine launch Stanford University students Jerry Wang and David Filo create Yahoo! in a campus trailer. Yahoo starts originally as an Internet bookmark list and directory of interesting sites. Webmasters have to manually submit their page to the Yahoo directory for indexing so that it would be there for Yahoo to find when someone performed a search.[32][33][34][15]
1994 WebCrawler Search engine launch WebCrawler, the first full-text search engine, is created by Brian Pinkerton. Prior to this, only webpage names/domains were indexed in catalogues.[9][16]
1994 Greg Boser discovers that he could use the Internet to sell protective foam equipment to fight fires. Boser builds a website and starts seeking ways to drive potential customers to his site for sales.[22]
1994 Statistics The number of websites grows to 10,000, up from 600 websites in 1993.[20]
1995 Organization John Audette forms Multi-Media Marketing Group, which would produce a popular newsletter with tips for influencing search engines.[35][22]
1995 Late year Excite Search engine launch Excite is commercially released as a crawling search engine.[36][37][22]
1995 Statistics The number of websites grows to 100,000, up from 10,000 websites in 1994.[20]
1996 January Backrub Search engine launch Stanford University students Larry Page and Sergey Brin build and test Backrub, a new search engine that ranks sites based on inbound link relevancy and popularity. Backrub would ultimately become Google.[38][39][34][16]
1996 May Hotbot Search engine launch Inktomi launches Hotbot web search engine.[2]
1996 Statistics The number of websites grows to 650,000, up from 100,000 websites in 1995.[16][20]
1996 Statistics (internet userbase) The are about 74 million internet users at this time.[16]
1997 Concept development According to industry analyst Danny Sullivan, the phrase "search engine optimization" probably comes into use around this time. Sullivan credits Bruce Clay as one of the first people to popularize the term.[40] "all signs definitely point to the term SEO originating around 1997."[34] "In 1997, the words “search engine optimization” were first used by John Audette and Bruce Clay, and soon after SEO became a widely used term."[16]
1997 April Ask Jeeves Search engine launch Davis Warthen and Garrett Gruener launch Ask Jeeves as a natural language search engine, using human editors to try to match search queries.[41] AskJeeves later becomes ask.com.[16][2][27]
1997 September Google google.com is registered as a domain name.[42]
1997 September 23 Yandex Search Search engine launch Yandex Search is announced.[43][44] It is Russia’s largest search engine.[16]
1997 Statistics The number of websites surpasses 1,000,000, up from 650,000 websites in 1996.[20][16]
1998 Backrub Search engine launch Larry Page and Sergey Brin, then graduate students at Stanford University, develop "Backrub", a search engine that rely on a mathematical algorithm to rate the prominence of web pages. The number calculated by the algorithm, PageRank, is a function of the quantity and strength of inbound links.[45]
1998 Goto.com Search engine launch Goto.com launches with sponsored links and paid search. Advertisers bid on Goto.com to rank above organic search results, which are powered by Inktomi. Goto.com would be ultimately acquired by Yahoo!.[34][8]
1999 November 18 Conference Search Engine Strategies (SES) takes place as the first-ever all search marketing conference.[34][8][16]
1999 Statistics The number of websites online reaches 2.2 million.[16]
1999 Statistics (internet userbase) The number of internet users reaches 279 million.[16]
2000 January 18 Baidu Search engine launch Baidu launches. It provides China’s largest search engine.[16]
2000 Yahoo!, Google Partnership In what is considered to be the worst strategic move in search history[46], Yahoo! partners with Google and lets Google power their organic results instead of Inktomi. At this time Google is a little-known search engine. After this, every Yahoo search result would say “Powered by Google”, with Yahoo! ending up introducing their largest competitor to the world and Google becoming a household name.[34]
2000 December 11 Google Notable update Google Toolbar becomes available as a web browser toolbar for Internet Explorer, allowing SEO practitioners to see their PageRank score (a number between 0-10).[47][48][34][8]
2000 October 23 Google Service launch Google AdWords launches.[34] It is a pay-per-click online advertising platform that allows advertisers to display their ads on Google's search engine results page.[49]
2000 Conference Pubcon launches in London as the first of a large search conference series.[50][51]
2001 Concept development Danny Sullivan, a prominent industry writer, unsuccessfully suggests the term "search engine marketing" as a successor to "search engine optimization", with the purpose to cover the spectrum of activities involved in performing SEO, managing paid listings at the search engines, submitting sites to directories, and developing online marketing strategies for businesses, organizations, and individuals.[34][52]
2001 Year round Google Userbase Users massively abandon old search engines like Lycos, Excite, AltaVista and Hotbot, and move their interest towards Google.[4][16] Brett Tabke, Founder of WebmasterWorld, comments: “Many SEOs have sleepless nights as we realize it is Google or bust.” [16]
2002 November 15 SEO contest Schnitzelmitkartoffelsalat is launched by German webmasters as the first recorded SEO Contest.[53]
2002 Google Service launch Google announces the launch of Froogle, a free product listing and price comparison service where users can discover various products from across the vendors, sort them and make a purchase.[16][54]
2003 Google Product launch After acquiring Blogger.com, Google launches AdSense, which serves contextually targeted Google AdWords ads on publisher sites.[34]
2003 SEO evolution Blogging becomes popular and is utilized for SEO. Blogger and WordPress become widely used.[16]
2003 Statistics (internet userbase) The number of websites online reaches 38 million.[16]
2003 Statistics (internet userbase) The number of internet users reaches 782 million.[16]
2004 March SEO contest Promoweb agency organizes the first French-speaking contest, Mangeur de Cigogne (eater of stork).[55]
2004 May SEO contest Nigritude Ultramarine 2004 launches as the first english language SEO competition, created by darkblue.com and run by SearchGuild.[56]
2004 August SEO contest A new contest of SEO is organized in the United Kingdom by a web agency, based this time on keywords seraphim proudleduck.[55]
2004 Google Notable update Google and other top search engines start improving results for queries that have a geographic intent (e.g., a restaurant, plumber, or some other type of business or service provider in the user's location).[34]
2004 Google Notable update Google and other search engines begin making greater use of end-user data, such as search history and interests, to personalize search results. This means that the results the user sees could be different than what another person obtains sitting next to the user in another computer when searching for the same query.[34]
2004 SEO contest Seraphim Proudleduck is held. This SEO Contest is presented by Salmonbones.[56]
2004 Service launch SEO Moz is founded by Rand Fiskin. First a blog, SEOmoz would grow to become one of the largest providers of SEO Tools.[16]
2004 Google, MSN, Yahoo! Notable update The three major search engines that are left, Google, MSN and Yahoo!, start incorporating undisclosed page ranking factors into their algorithms.[4]
2005 January Google, MSN, Yahoo! Partnership Google unites with Yahoo! and MSN for the nofollow attribute, which is created in part to decrease the amount of spammy links and comments on websites, especially blogs.[5]
2005 March 1 SEO contest Loquine Glupe is held. It is hosted by webmaster-forums.co.uk.[56]
2005 May–December SEO contest Hommingberger Gepardenforelle 2005 launches as another German contest. The goal of this SEO contest is to figure out how search engines determine rankings.[56]
2005 June Google Notable update Google debuts personalized search, which makes use of user personal search and browsing history to make results more relevant.[5]
2005 Product launch Nofollow tags are created as a means to combat spam. SEO professionals begin using this tag as a way of PageRank sculpting.[34]
2005 September Google Notable update Google releases Jagger, an update that helps to diminish the level of unsolicited link exchanges that fly around.[34][57]
2005 SEO contest Msnbetter Thangoogle launches as a Polish SEO contest intended to promote SEO in Poland and get the attention of search engines.[56]
2005 November Google Service launch Google launches Google Analytics. This free, web-based tool would become so popular at launch that webmasters would experience downtime and maintenance warnings.[5][16][34]
2005 December Google Notable update Google releases Big Daddy, an update that improves the architecture of Google to allow for improved understanding of the worth and relationship of links between sites.[34][58]
2005 December 20 SEO contest The V7ndotcom Elursrebmem Competition is organized in the United States.[56][55]
2005 Google Notable update Google starts personalizing search results, taking into account a user’s search history to come up with customized results pages when that user is logged in.[4]
2006 February–May SEO contest "The Four Required Words" SEO Contest launches. It is sponsored by milliondollarscreenshot.com and is the first contest to use an expression in quotes and targeted image search, even though no images are shown in the time of the contest.[56]
2006 March–December SEO contest Carcasherdotcom seocontest launches.[56]
2006 October Google Acquisition Google acquires YouTube for US$1.65 billion. Youtube would ultimately become the second most used search property in the world.[34]
2006 Google Product launch Google launches Google Webmaster Tools, a suite of SEO tools that provides data and configuration control and lets webmasters view crawling errors, see what searches the user's site showed up for, and request reinclusion.[34]
2006 Product launch XML sitemaps are introduced, soon acquiring a great support from the search engines. XML sitemaps allow webmasters to display to the search engines, every URL on their website that is available for crawling. An XML sitemap contains not only a list of URLs but a range of further information, which help search engines to crawl more intelligently.[34][8]
2006 Google Controversy BMW is banned and utterly removed from Google’s search results for using a technique called cloaking, which means showing one type of content for search engines and another one for users.[6]
2006 SEO contest Redscowl Bluesingsky SEO contest takes place. It is sponsored by SEOLogs.[56]
2006 Google Service launch Google Webmaster Central is launched. It is a free portal from that notifies the user of major technical issues with his/her website.[16][59]
2007 January 15 SEO contest SEO World Championship launches. It is sponsored by European Internet Marketing company Eastpoin.[56]
2007 March 20 Google Product launch Google announces Plus Box, a new search feature that lets users see more information about individual search results.[60]
2007 May 2 Jason Gambert attempts to trademark the term SEO by convincing the Trademark Office in Arizona that SEO is a "process" involving manipulation of keywords and not a "marketing service."[61]
2007 May 16 Google Product launch Google undertakes the most radical change to its search results ever, with the introduction of its Universal Search system that blends listings from its news, video, images, local and book search engines among those it gathers from crawling web pages.[62]
2007 Search evolution Search starts to evolve in new ways. Updates are aimed at improving the user experience.[34]
2007 Google Program launch Google starts a campaign against paid links affecting PageRank.[4]
2008 February–April SEO contest seocontest2008 launches. It is sponsored by the UK Webmaster World Community.[56]
2008 June–August SEO contest Busby SEO Challenge 2008 is held. It is sponsored by Busby Web Solutions based in Australia.[56][63][64]
2008 Product launch Yoast SEO starts operations as a SEO tool.[65][66] It is a WordPress plugin that makes it easy for users to do things like control titles and meta descriptions, set their targeted keywords and track how often they're using them, manage sitemaps, and other tasks.[67]
2009 January 18 Google Notable update Google Vince Update is released. It favors brand websites when it comes to search results for traffic-rich keywords.[34][68][69]
2009 March–August SEO contest Net Builders SEO Contest is held. The targeted keyword is "sulumits retsambew" which is webmaster stimulus backwards. Backwards seems to be a common trend in these contests.[56]
2009 June 3 Bing Search engine launch Bing launches, with Microsoft aggressively marketing it as the search engine that would produce noticeably better results than Google.[5][16]
2009 August 10 Google Notable update Google announces Caffeine, which would become one of the most important updates in the search engine’s history.[70]
2009 Bing Partnership After Microsoft Live Search becomes Bing, in an unsuccessful attempt to challenge Google’s nearly 70 percent grip of the U.S. search market, Yahoo! and Microsoft join forces to partner on a 10-year search deal (though it would end up being reworked five years later).[34]
2009 September–December SEO contest OES Tsetnoc SEO Contest is held.[56]
2009 Year round Google Notable update Google executes between 350 and 550 adjustments to its search algorithm along the year, meaning at least once a day, showing the "rapid advancement required to stay on top if playing the game of SEO at the highest level".[6]
2009 Google Google Google announces attempt to stop the effects of PageRank sculpting that come as a result of nofollow links.[4]
2010 December Google Notable update Both Google and Bing add "social signals," which first display any written Facebook posts, for example, from the user's own network that matches his/her query.[5]
2010 A tactic appears where websites are created from large amounts of low-quality textual content, frequently updated and specifically designed to lure search engine algorithms. These sites are linked together forming so-called ‘content farms’ whose only purpose is to drive search engine traffic and, just like doorway pages before them, sending the incoming traffic to the final destination.[6]
2010 Year round Statistics 52% of the companies are estimated to spend more on SEO, 39% Spending about the same, and 9% Spending less.[16]
2011 February 23 Google Notable update Google launches Google Panda, a algorithm update aimed at combating content farms by rewarding high-quality websites and diminishing the presence of low-quality websites in Google’s organic search engine results. Google Panda is initially known as "Farmer."[71]
2012 April 24 Google Notable update Google Penguin launches as a Google algorithm update.[5][2] It is aimed at decreasing search engine rankings of websites that violate Google's Webmaster Guidelines.[72]
2012 May Google Product launch Google unveils the Knowledge Graph, a new visual interface that provides popular facts about people, places and things alongside Google's traditional results. This constitutes a major shift away from interpreting keywords strings to understanding semantics and intent.[34][73] The Knowledge Graph would become popular in knowledge representation and knowledge management applications widely across search engine, biomedical, media and industrial domains.[74][75][76]
2013 October Google System launch Google App Indexing is launched for a limited set of publishers. It is a system that allows searchers to click on listings in Google's search results, taking them into apps on their Android and iOS smartphones and tablets.[6] [77][78]
2014 Google Notable update Google releases "Pigeon", an algorithm update whose goal is to improve local search rankings.[5][79][80]
2014 November Google Notable update Google adds a "mobile-friendly" label for search results that are optimized for such platforms, where text is readable without zooming or horizontal scrolling, and links are spaced well enough so that there’s a reduced chance of mis-tapping.[5][81]
2015 February Google Notable update Google announces a change, with a mobile-friendly test that allows webmasters to view potential issues and make changes before the rollout.[5]
2015 April Google Notable update Google introduces mobile update. Since then, non-mobile-friendly websites would start getting lower rankings. This means SEO is no longer about keywords and content, with responsive design as new factor.[5]
2015 May Search evolution Mobile search surpasses desktop search.[82]
2015 Search evolution 2015 is known as the Year of Mobile, the point at which mobile searches overtake desktop search for the first time on Google.[34]
2015 October Google System launch Google RankBrain is announced. It is a machine learning (AI) algorithm initially used to try to interpret the 15 percent of searches that Google has never seen before, based on the words or phrases the user has entered.[34][83]
2015 April 21 Google Notable update Google introduces search engine algorithm update so-called ‘Mobilegeddon’, which makes website mobile friendliness a ranking signal in searches.[6][84]
2015 Google Standard development According to a study, the top-ranking factors for search engines and their algorithms (including Google’s core algorithm) are ranked in order of importance as:
  • Domain-level link features
  • Page-level link features
  • Page-level keyword and content-based features
  • Page-level keyword agnostic features
  • Engagement and traffic/query data
  • Domain-level brand metrics
  • Domain-level keyword usage
  • Domain-level keyword-agnostic features
  • Page-level social metrics[2]
2016 March–June SEO contest Apex Forum SEO Contest is held.[56]
2016 August Google Google announces a crackdown on mobile pop-ups.[5]
2017 January Google Notable update Google introduces an algorithmic change called the “Intrusive Interstitial Penalty” in order to “punish aggressive interstitials and pop-ups that might damage the mobile user experience.”[2]
2017 March Google Notable update Google introduces update informally known as “Fred”, which would have a major impact on the SEO community.[2]
2018 June Google Market distribution As of date, Google accounts for over 72.47% of all global desktop search traffic, followed by Baidu at 13.47%, Bing at 7.64%, and Yahoo! at 4.74%.[85]
2018 July Google Notable update Google announces that from then on, page speed would be a ranking factor for mobile searches.[6][86]
2020 Search evolution Comscore predicts that by this year, 50% all searches will be voice.[6][87]

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

Feedback and comments

Feedback for the timeline can be provided at the following places:

  • FIXME

What the timeline is still missing

Timeline update strategy

See also

External links

References

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