Difference between revisions of "Timeline of the National Institutes of Health"

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==Visual data==
  
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[[File:NIH congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars. Cumulative.png|thumb|center|600px|National Institutes of Health (NIH) total congressional appropriations per year. Cumulative, in thousands of dollars. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) both stand out for their larger proportions, with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) in third place.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations">{{cite web|title=NIH congressional appropriations|url=https://officeofbudget.od.nih.gov/approp_hist.html|website=nih.gov|accessdate=27 March 2017}}</ref>]]
 
<gallery align="center" perrow="4" widths="190" heights="190" mode="nolines">
 
<gallery align="center" perrow="4" widths="190" heights="190" mode="nolines">
File:National Center for Research Resources congressional appropriations. In thousands of dollars.png|National Center for Research Resources congressional appropriations. In thousands of dollars.
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File:NCRR.png|National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
File:NCI.png| National Cancer Institute (NCI) congressional appropriations. In thousands of dollars.
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File:NCI.png| National Cancer Institute (NCI) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
File:National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) congressional appropriations. In thousands of dollars.png|thumb|National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) congressional appropriations. In thousands of dollars.
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File:NHLBI.png|thumb|National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
File:National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) congressional appropriations. In thousands of dollars.png|thumb|National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) congressional appropriations. In thousands of dollars.
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File:NIDCR.png|thumb|National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
File:National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.png|thumb|National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)  congressional appropriations. In thousands of dollars.
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File:NIDDK.png|thumb|National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)  congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
File:National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.png|thumb|National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)  congressional appropriations. In thousands of dollars.
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File:NINDS.png|thumb|National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)  congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
File:NIAID.png|thumb|National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Congressional apropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.
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File:NIAID.png|thumb|National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
File:NIA.png|thumb|National Institute on Aging (NIA) congressional apropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.
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File:NIA.png|thumb|National Institute on Aging (NIA) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
File:NIMH.png|thumb|National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) congressional apropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.
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File:NIMH.png|thumb|National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
File:NIAMS.png|thumb|National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) congressional apropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.
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File:NIAMS.png|thumb|National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
File:NICHD.png|thumb|Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) congressional apropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.
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File:NICHD.png|thumb|Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
NIEHS.png|thumb|National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) congressional apropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.
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NIEHS.png|thumb|National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
File:(NEI).png|thumb|National Eye Institute (NEI) congressional apropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.
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File:(NEI).png|thumb|National Eye Institute (NEI) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
File:NIDCD.png|thumb|National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) congressional apropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.
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File:NIDCD.png|thumb|National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
File:NIDA (NIH).png|thumb|National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) congressional apropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.
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File:NIDA (NIH).png|thumb|National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
File:NINR.png|thumb|National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) congressional apropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.
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File:NINR.png|thumb|National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
File:NIAAA.png|thumb|National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) congressional apropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.
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File:NIAAA.png|thumb|National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
File:NLM (NIH).png|thumb|National Library of Medicine (NLM) congressional apropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.
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File:NLM (NIH).png|thumb|National Library of Medicine (NLM) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
File:NHGRI.png|thumb|National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) congressional apropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.
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File:NHGRI.png|thumb|National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
File:NIBIB.png|thumb|National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) congressional apropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.
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File:NIBIB.png|thumb|National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
File:NIMHD.png|thumb|National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) congressional apropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.
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File:NIMHD.png|thumb|National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
File:NCCIH.png|thumb|National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) congressional apropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.
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File:NCCIH.png|thumb|National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
File:NCATS.png|thumb|National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) congressional apropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.
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File:NCATS.png|thumb|National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
File:FIC.png|thumb|Fogarty International Center (FIC) congressional apropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.
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File:FIC.png|thumb|Fogarty International Center (FIC) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
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File:OD (NIH).png|thumb|NIH Office of the Director (OD) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
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File:B&F.png|thumb|NIH Buildings and Facilities (B&F) congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
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File:NIH total congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars.png.png|thumb|National Institutes of Health total congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars. Logarithmic.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
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File:NIH total congressional appropriations per year. In millions of dollars. Non-logarithmic.png|thumb|National Institutes of Health total congressional appropriations per year. In thousands of dollars. Non-logarithmic.<ref name="NIH congressional appropriations"/>
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
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==Full timeline==
  
 
{| class="sortable wikitable"
 
{| class="sortable wikitable"
 
! Year/period !! Type of event !! Event !! Location
 
! Year/period !! Type of event !! Event !! Location
 
|-
 
|-
| 1730 || Antecedent || A federal role in public health begins when [[wikipedia:pennsylvania|Pennsylvania]] starts collection of money to support medical treatment of sailors in hospitals.<ref name="A federal role begins">{{cite web|url=https://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/nih_origins/federal.html|title=A federal role begins|website=nih.gov|accessdate=21 March 2017}}</ref> ||  
+
| 1730 || Antecedent || A federal role in public health begins when [[wikipedia:pennsylvania|Pennsylvania]] starts collection of money to support medical treatment of sailors in hospitals.<ref name="A federal role begins">{{cite web|url=https://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/nih_origins/federal.html|title=A federal role begins|website=nih.gov|accessdate=21 March 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:pennsylvania|Pennsylvania]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1797 || Antecedent || In July, the first medical journal is published in the United States. ''The Medical Repository'' is the precursor of 249 private medical journals that would be printed in principal American cities between 1800 and 1850, informing the public on progress in the health field and giving physicians a chance to tell of their own and of European researches and observations.<ref name="A federal role begins"/> ||  
 
| 1797 || Antecedent || In July, the first medical journal is published in the United States. ''The Medical Repository'' is the precursor of 249 private medical journals that would be printed in principal American cities between 1800 and 1850, informing the public on progress in the health field and giving physicians a chance to tell of their own and of European researches and observations.<ref name="A federal role begins"/> ||  
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| 1798 || Antecedent || United States president [[wikipedia:John Adams|John Adams]] signs the first Federal public health law, "An act for the relief of sick and disabled Seamen."<ref name="A federal role begins"/> ||  
 
| 1798 || Antecedent || United States president [[wikipedia:John Adams|John Adams]] signs the first Federal public health law, "An act for the relief of sick and disabled Seamen."<ref name="A federal role begins"/> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1887 || Foundation || A one-room laboratory is created as an experiment within the Marine Hospital Service (MHS), which is charged with preventing people with cholera, yellow fever, and other diseases from entering the United States.<ref name="Encyclopedia of Epidemiology"/><ref>{{cite web|title=History|url=https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/who-we-are/history|website=nih.gov|accessdate=20 March 2017}}</ref> [[wikipedia:Joseph J. Kinyoun|Joseph J. Kinyoun]], M.D. becomes its director.<ref name="NIH Directors">{{cite web|url=https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/what-we-do/nih-almanac/nih-directors|title=NIH Directors|website=nih.gov|accessdate=21 March 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Staten Island|Staten Island]], [[New York City]]<ref name="Encyclopedia of Epidemiology"/>  
+
| 1887 || Foundation || A one-room laboratory is created as an experiment within the Marine Hospital Service (MHS), which is charged with preventing people with cholera, yellow fever, and other diseases from entering the United States.<ref name="Encyclopedia of Epidemiology"/><ref>{{cite web|title=History|url=https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/who-we-are/history|website=nih.gov|accessdate=20 March 2017}}</ref> [[wikipedia:Joseph J. Kinyoun|Joseph J. Kinyoun]], M.D. becomes its director.<ref name="NIH Directors">{{cite web|url=https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/what-we-do/nih-almanac/nih-directors|title=NIH Directors|website=nih.gov|accessdate=21 March 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Staten Island|Staten Island]], [[wikipedia:New York City|New York City]]<ref name="Encyclopedia of Epidemiology"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1891 || Reform || The laboratory is renamed [[wikipedia:Hygienic Laboratory|Hygienic Laboratory]] and moves to Washington, D.C.<ref name="History of Ophthalmology: Sub auspiciis Academiae Ophthalmologicae Internationalis">{{cite book|title=History of Ophthalmology: Sub auspiciis Academiae Ophthalmologicae Internationalis|edition=Daniel M. Albert|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=3LqLBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA130&lpg=PA130&dq=%22hygienic+laboratory%22+%22in+1888..1905%22+%22joseph+kinyoun%22&source=bl&ots=QR9PZ22fsa&sig=JGhZ0beGpDN5pui7o7RS7-CNb74&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjSk6XxveXSAhUCjJAKHW2RAEoQ6AEIMDAE#v=onepage&q=%22hygienic%20laboratory%22%20%22in%201888..1905%22%20%22joseph%20kinyoun%22&f=false|accessdate=20 March 2017}}</ref> ||  
+
| 1891 || Reform || The laboratory is renamed [[wikipedia:Hygienic Laboratory|Hygienic Laboratory]] and moves to Washington, D.C.<ref name="History of Ophthalmology: Sub auspiciis Academiae Ophthalmologicae Internationalis">{{cite book|title=History of Ophthalmology: Sub auspiciis Academiae Ophthalmologicae Internationalis|edition=Daniel M. Albert|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=3LqLBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA130&lpg=PA130&dq=%22hygienic+laboratory%22+%22in+1888..1905%22+%22joseph+kinyoun%22&source=bl&ots=QR9PZ22fsa&sig=JGhZ0beGpDN5pui7o7RS7-CNb74&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjSk6XxveXSAhUCjJAKHW2RAEoQ6AEIMDAE#v=onepage&q=%22hygienic%20laboratory%22%20%22in%201888..1905%22%20%22joseph%20kinyoun%22&f=false|accessdate=20 March 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Washington, D.C.|Washington, D.C.]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1899 (May) || Administration || Milton Joseph Rosenau, M.D. succeeds Joseph J. Kinyoun as director of the Hygienic Laboratory. In office until September 1909.<ref name="NIH Directors"/> ||
 
| 1899 (May) || Administration || Milton Joseph Rosenau, M.D. succeeds Joseph J. Kinyoun as director of the Hygienic Laboratory. In office until September 1909.<ref name="NIH Directors"/> ||
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| 1931 || Scientific development || Research begins at the NIH, discovering fluoride effective enough to prevent tooth decay. From then on, successful scientific investigations at NIH would lead to the discovery and eradication of a number of diseases, including undulant fever, pellagra and psittacosis. Researchers would often contract the diseases they study.<ref name="The National Institute of Health 1930"/> ||  
 
| 1931 || Scientific development || Research begins at the NIH, discovering fluoride effective enough to prevent tooth decay. From then on, successful scientific investigations at NIH would lead to the discovery and eradication of a number of diseases, including undulant fever, pellagra and psittacosis. Researchers would often contract the diseases they study.<ref name="The National Institute of Health 1930"/> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1937 || Foundation || The National Institute of Health moves to [[wikipedia:Bethesda|Bethesda]], [[wikipedia:Maryland|Maryland]]. Also, the National Cancer Institute is founded (by 1944 it would become part of the National Institute of Health.<ref name="History of Ophthalmology: Sub auspiciis Academiae Ophthalmologicae Internationalis"/><ref name="Encyclopedia of Epidemiology"/> ||  
+
| 1937 || Foundation || The National Institute of Health moves to [[wikipedia:Bethesda|Bethesda]], [[wikipedia:Maryland|Maryland]]. Also, the National Cancer Institute is founded (by 1944 it would become part of the National Institute of Health.<ref name="History of Ophthalmology: Sub auspiciis Academiae Ophthalmologicae Internationalis"/><ref name="Encyclopedia of Epidemiology"/> || [[wikipedia:Maryland|Maryland]] ([[wikipedia:Bethesda|Bethesda]])
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1937 (February) || Incorporation || The Rocky Mountain Laboratory becomes part of the National Institute of Health, and is administratively made part of the Division of Infectious Diseases.<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
 
| 1937 (February) || Incorporation || The Rocky Mountain Laboratory becomes part of the National Institute of Health, and is administratively made part of the Division of Infectious Diseases.<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
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| 1956 || Foundation || The National Library of Medicine (NLM) is established as an institute of the NIH.<ref name="List of NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices"/> ||  
 
| 1956 || Foundation || The National Library of Medicine (NLM) is established as an institute of the NIH.<ref name="List of NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices"/> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1961 (December) || Foundation || The NIH European Office is established in [[wikipedia:Paris|Paris]].<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> || [[France]]
+
| 1961 (December) || Foundation || The NIH European Office is established in [[wikipedia:Paris|Paris]].<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> || [[wikipedia:France|France]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1962 || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development|Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development]] (NICHD) and the [[wikipedia:National Institute of General Medical Sciences|National Institute of General Medical Sciences]] (NIGMS) are established as institutes of the NIH.<ref name="List of NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices"/> ||  
 
| 1962 || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development|Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development]] (NICHD) and the [[wikipedia:National Institute of General Medical Sciences|National Institute of General Medical Sciences]] (NIGMS) are established as institutes of the NIH.<ref name="List of NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices"/> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1962 (July) || Foundation || The NIH Latin American Office is established in [[wikipedia:|Rio de Janeiro]].<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> || [[wikipedia:|Brazil]]
+
| 1962 (July) || Foundation || The NIH Latin American Office is established in [[wikipedia:|Rio de Janeiro]].<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> || [[wikipedia:Brazil|Brazil]]
 
|-
 
|-
| 1963 (January) || Foundation || The NIH Pacific Office is established in [[wikipedia:Tokyo|Tokyo]].<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> || [[Japan]]
+
| 1963 (January) || Foundation || The NIH Pacific Office is established in [[wikipedia:Tokyo|Tokyo]].<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> || [[wikipedia:Japan|Japan]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1963 (January) || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:National Institute of Child Health and Human Development|National Institute of Child Health and Human Development]] and the [[wikipedia:National Institute of General Medical Sciences|National Institute of General Medical Sciences]] are established.<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
 
| 1963 (January) || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:National Institute of Child Health and Human Development|National Institute of Child Health and Human Development]] and the [[wikipedia:National Institute of General Medical Sciences|National Institute of General Medical Sciences]] are established.<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
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| 1964 (January) || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System|Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System]] (MEDLARS) becomes operational at the [[wikipedia:National Library of Medicine|National Library of Medicine]].<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
 
| 1964 (January) || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System|Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System]] (MEDLARS) becomes operational at the [[wikipedia:National Library of Medicine|National Library of Medicine]].<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1964 (April) || Foundation || The Division of Computer Research and Technology (DCRT) is established (actual Center for Information Technology).<ref name="Chronology of Events"/><ref name="List of NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices"/> ||  
+
| 1964 (April) || Foundation || The Division of Computer Research and Technology (DCRT) is established (actual [[wikipedia:Center for Information Technology|Center for Information Technology]]).<ref name="Chronology of Events"/><ref name="List of NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices"/> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1966 || Policy || The National Institute of Health budget surpasses one billion dolars.<ref name="Encyclopedia of Epidemiology"/> ||  
 
| 1966 || Policy || The National Institute of Health budget surpasses one billion dolars.<ref name="Encyclopedia of Epidemiology"/> ||  
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| 1968 (September) || Administration || Robert Q. Marston, M.D. succeeds James Shannon as director of the National Institute of Health. In office until January 1973.<ref name="NIH Directors"/> ||
 
| 1968 (September) || Administration || Robert Q. Marston, M.D. succeeds James Shannon as director of the National Institute of Health. In office until January 1973.<ref name="NIH Directors"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1968 (October) || || Dr. [[wikipedia:Marshall Warren Nirenberg|Marshall Warren Nirenberg]], chief of NIH's Laboratory of Biochemical Genetics, is awarded a [[wikipedia:Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine]], for discovering the key to deciphering the genetic code.<ref>{{cite web|title=The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968|url=https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1968/|website=nobelprize.org|accessdate=22 March 2017}}</ref><ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
+
| 1968 (October) || || Dr. [[wikipedia:Marshall Warren Nirenberg|Marshall Warren Nirenberg]], chief of NIH's Laboratory of Biochemical Genetics, is awarded a [[wikipedia:Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine]], for discovering the key to deciphering the genetic code.<ref>{{cite web|title=The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968|url=https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1968/|website=nobelprize.org|accessdate=22 March 2017}}</ref><ref name="Chronology of Events"/> || [[wikipedia:Sweden|Sweden]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1968 || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:Fogarty International Center|Fogarty International Center]] (FIC) is established as an institute of the NIH.<ref name="List of NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices"/> Starting with a budget of $500,000 the first year, today the center's research, training and capacity-building enterprise extends to over 100 countries and involves some 5,000 scientists in the U.S. and abroad.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.fic.nih.gov/About/Pages/History.aspx|title= History of the Fogarty International Center|website=nih.gov|accessdate=21 March 2017}}</ref>  ||  
 
| 1968 || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:Fogarty International Center|Fogarty International Center]] (FIC) is established as an institute of the NIH.<ref name="List of NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices"/> Starting with a budget of $500,000 the first year, today the center's research, training and capacity-building enterprise extends to over 100 countries and involves some 5,000 scientists in the U.S. and abroad.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.fic.nih.gov/About/Pages/History.aspx|title= History of the Fogarty International Center|website=nih.gov|accessdate=21 March 2017}}</ref>  ||  
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| 1972 (May) || || The National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases (NIAMD) is renamed the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases (NIAMDD).<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
 
| 1972 (May) || || The National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases (NIAMD) is renamed the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases (NIAMDD).<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1972 || || Dr. Christian B. Anfinsen, researcher at NIAMDD, is awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation".<ref>{{cite web|title=The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972|url=http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1972/|website=nobelprize.org|accessdate=22 March 2017}}</ref> ||  
+
| 1972 || || Dr. Christian B. Anfinsen, researcher at the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases (NIAMDD), is awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation".<ref>{{cite web|title=The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972|url=http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1972/|website=nobelprize.org|accessdate=22 March 2017}}</ref> || [[wikipedia:Sweden|Sweden]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1973 (May) || Administration || Robert S. Stone, M.D. succeeds Robert Marston as director of the National Institute of Health. In office until January 1975.<ref name="NIH Directors"/> ||
 
| 1973 (May) || Administration || Robert S. Stone, M.D. succeeds Robert Marston as director of the National Institute of Health. In office until January 1975.<ref name="NIH Directors"/> ||
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| 1975 (July) || Administration || Donald S. Fredrickson, M.D. succeeds  Robert Stone as director of the National Institute of Health. In office until June 1981.<ref name="NIH Directors"/> ||
 
| 1975 (July) || Administration || Donald S. Fredrickson, M.D. succeeds  Robert Stone as director of the National Institute of Health. In office until June 1981.<ref name="NIH Directors"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1976 (June) || || The National Heart and Lung Institute is renamed the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
+
| 1976 (June) || || The National Heart and Lung Institute is renamed [[wikipedia:National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute|National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute]] (NHLBI).<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1981 (June) || || The National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolic, and Digestive Diseases is renamed the National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney diseases.<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||  
+
| 1981 (June) || || The National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolic, and Digestive Diseases is renamed the National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney diseases (NIADDK).<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1982 (April) || Administration || James B. Wyngaarden, M.D. becomes the 12th director of the National Institute of Health, appointed by President Ronald Reagan. In office until July 1989.<ref name="NIH Directors"/> ||
 
| 1982 (April) || Administration || James B. Wyngaarden, M.D. becomes the 12th director of the National Institute of Health, appointed by President Ronald Reagan. In office until July 1989.<ref name="NIH Directors"/> ||
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|-
 
|-
 
| 1990 || Program launch || The [[wikipedia:Human Genome Project|Human Genome Project]] officially launches.<ref name="National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)">{{cite web|url=https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/what-we-do/nih-almanac/national-human-genome-research-institute-nhgri|title=National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)|website=nih.gov|accessdate=21 March 2017}}</ref> The National Center for Human Genome Research is established in January.<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
 
| 1990 || Program launch || The [[wikipedia:Human Genome Project|Human Genome Project]] officially launches.<ref name="National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)">{{cite web|url=https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/what-we-do/nih-almanac/national-human-genome-research-institute-nhgri|title=National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)|website=nih.gov|accessdate=21 March 2017}}</ref> The National Center for Human Genome Research is established in January.<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1990 || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:Foundation for the National Institutes of Health|Foundation for the National Institutes of Health]] (FNIH) is established by the United States Congress  as a not-for-profit charitable organization, with aims at facilitating research at the NIH and worldwide.<ref>{{cite web|title=FNIH|url=https://fnih.org/about|website=fnih.org|accessdate=3 April 2017}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1991 || Scientific development || Scientists at NIH treate the first cancer patients with human gene therapy.<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1991 (April) || Administration || [[wikipedia:Bernadine Healy|Bernadine Healy]], M.D. becomes the 13th director of the NIH. Shortly after her appointment, Healy would launch the NIH Women's Health Initiative, a $500 million effort to study the causes, prevention, and cures of diseases that affect women. In office until June 1993.<ref>{{cite web|title=Bernadine Healy, M.D.|url=https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/what-we-do/nih-almanac/bernadine-healy-md|website=nih.gov|accessdate=22 March 2017}}</ref> ||
 
| 1991 (April) || Administration || [[wikipedia:Bernadine Healy|Bernadine Healy]], M.D. becomes the 13th director of the NIH. Shortly after her appointment, Healy would launch the NIH Women's Health Initiative, a $500 million effort to study the causes, prevention, and cures of diseases that affect women. In office until June 1993.<ref>{{cite web|title=Bernadine Healy, M.D.|url=https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/what-we-do/nih-almanac/bernadine-healy-md|website=nih.gov|accessdate=22 March 2017}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1992 || || [[wikipedia:The National Institute on Drug Abuse|The National Institute on Drug Abuse]] (NIDA), the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) become part of the National Institutes of Health.<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1993 (November) || Administration || Harold E. Varmus, M.D. succeeds Bernadine Healy as director of the National Institute of Health. In office until December 1999.<ref name="NIH Directors"/> ||
 
| 1993 (November) || Administration || Harold E. Varmus, M.D. succeeds Bernadine Healy as director of the National Institute of Health. In office until December 1999.<ref name="NIH Directors"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1997 || || DRG is renamed the [[wikipedia:Center for Scientific Review|Center for Scientific Review]] and the Division of Computer Research and Technology becomes the [[wikipedia:Center for Information Technology|Center for Information Technology]].<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
+
| 1997 || || The Division of Research Grants (DRG) is renamed the [[wikipedia:Center for Scientific Review|Center for Scientific Review]] and the Division of Computer Research and Technology becomes the [[wikipedia:Center for Information Technology|Center for Information Technology]].<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1999 || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:|National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health]] (NCCIH) is established as a center of the NIH.<ref name="List of NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices"/> Its funding ranges from $50 million in 1999 to $128.8 million in 2010.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://nccih.nih.gov/about/budget/appropriations.htm#note1|title=NCCIH Funding: Appropriations History|website=nih.gov|accessdate=21 March 2017}}</ref> ||
 
| 1999 || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:|National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health]] (NCCIH) is established as a center of the NIH.<ref name="List of NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices"/> Its funding ranges from $50 million in 1999 to $128.8 million in 2010.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://nccih.nih.gov/about/budget/appropriations.htm#note1|title=NCCIH Funding: Appropriations History|website=nih.gov|accessdate=21 March 2017}}</ref> ||
Line 156: Line 170:
 
| 2005 || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:Division of Program Coordination, Planning, and Strategic Initiatives|Division of Program Coordination, Planning, and Strategic Initiatives]] (DPCPSI) is founded as a new office within the Office of the NIH Director with the purpose of transforming the way NIH finds and funds cutting-edge research, improving the ability to identify public health challenges, and increasing trans-NIH dialogue, decision-making and priority-setting.<ref name="Elias A. Zerhouni"/> ||   
 
| 2005 || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:Division of Program Coordination, Planning, and Strategic Initiatives|Division of Program Coordination, Planning, and Strategic Initiatives]] (DPCPSI) is founded as a new office within the Office of the NIH Director with the purpose of transforming the way NIH finds and funds cutting-edge research, improving the ability to identify public health challenges, and increasing trans-NIH dialogue, decision-making and priority-setting.<ref name="Elias A. Zerhouni"/> ||   
 
|-
 
|-
| 2008 || Policy || The NIH Public Access policy is enacted. It would require all NIH-funded researchers to deposit electronic copies of their peer-reviewed manuscripts into the National Library of Medicine’s online archive, [[wikipedia:PubMed Central|PubMed Central]] (PMC). Full texts of the articles would be made publicly available and searchable online in PMC no later than 12 months after publication in a journal.<ref>{{cite web|title=The US National Institutes of Health Public Access Policy|url=https://sparcopen.org/our-work/nih-public-access-policy/|website=sparcopen.org|publisher=The Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition|accessdate=21 March 2017}}</ref> ||  
+
| 2008 || Policy || The [[wikipedia:NIH Public Access policy|NIH Public Access policy]] is enacted. It would require all NIH-funded researchers to deposit electronic copies of their peer-reviewed manuscripts into the National Library of Medicine’s online archive, [[wikipedia:PubMed Central|PubMed Central]] (PMC). Full texts of the articles would be made publicly available and searchable online in PMC no later than 12 months after publication in a journal.<ref>{{cite web|title=The US National Institutes of Health Public Access Policy|url=https://sparcopen.org/our-work/nih-public-access-policy/|website=sparcopen.org|publisher=The Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition|accessdate=21 March 2017}}</ref> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2009 (August) || Administration || [[wikipedia:Francis Collins|Francis Collins]], M.D., Ph.D. is appointed the 16th Director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) by President [[wikipedia:Barack Obama|Barack Obama]]. Collins had previously led the international Human Genome Project, which culminated in April 2003 with the completion of a finished sequence of the human DNA instruction book.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/who-we-are/nih-director/biographical-sketch-francis-s-collins-md-phd|title=Biographical Sketch of Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D.|website=nih.gov|accessdate=22 March 2017}}</ref> Still in office.<ref name="List of NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices"/> ||
 
| 2009 (August) || Administration || [[wikipedia:Francis Collins|Francis Collins]], M.D., Ph.D. is appointed the 16th Director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) by President [[wikipedia:Barack Obama|Barack Obama]]. Collins had previously led the international Human Genome Project, which culminated in April 2003 with the completion of a finished sequence of the human DNA instruction book.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.nih.gov/about-nih/who-we-are/nih-director/biographical-sketch-francis-s-collins-md-phd|title=Biographical Sketch of Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D.|website=nih.gov|accessdate=22 March 2017}}</ref> Still in office.<ref name="List of NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2010 || || [[wikipedia:National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke|NINDS]] partners with the University of Virginia to establish a neurosurgical residency program set to last seven years. The program is intended to serve as a model for training neurosurgeon clinician-investigators who are capable of performing translational research.<ref name="Chronology of Events"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2011 || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences|National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences]] (NCATS) is established as a center of the NIH.<ref name="List of NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices"/> ||
 
| 2011 || Foundation || The [[wikipedia:National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences|National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences]] (NCATS) is established as a center of the NIH.<ref name="List of NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2015 || Program launch || United States President Barack Obama launches his Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI) at NIH, with aims at extending precision medicine to all diseases.<ref name="Chronology of Events"/>
 +
|-
 +
| 2015 || Policy || The United States [[wikipedia:National Institutes of Health|National Institutes of Health]] issues a statement indicating that it will not fund any research that uses genome editing tools such as CRISPR in [[wikipedia:human embryos|human embryos]].<ref name="CRISPR whatisbiotechnology.org">{{cite web|title=CRISPR|url=http://www.whatisbiotechnology.org/science/crispr|website=whatisbiotechnology.org|accessdate=7 June 2017}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
== References ==
 
== References ==
 +
{{Reflist|30em}}

Latest revision as of 15:14, 15 October 2017

Visual data

National Institutes of Health (NIH) total congressional appropriations per year. Cumulative, in thousands of dollars. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) both stand out for their larger proportions, with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) in third place.[1]

Full timeline

Year/period Type of event Event Location
1730 Antecedent A federal role in public health begins when Pennsylvania starts collection of money to support medical treatment of sailors in hospitals.[2] Pennsylvania
1797 Antecedent In July, the first medical journal is published in the United States. The Medical Repository is the precursor of 249 private medical journals that would be printed in principal American cities between 1800 and 1850, informing the public on progress in the health field and giving physicians a chance to tell of their own and of European researches and observations.[2]
1798 Antecedent United States president John Adams signs the first Federal public health law, "An act for the relief of sick and disabled Seamen."[2]
1887 Foundation A one-room laboratory is created as an experiment within the Marine Hospital Service (MHS), which is charged with preventing people with cholera, yellow fever, and other diseases from entering the United States.[3][4] Joseph J. Kinyoun, M.D. becomes its director.[5] Staten Island, New York City[3]
1891 Reform The laboratory is renamed Hygienic Laboratory and moves to Washington, D.C.[6] Washington, D.C.
1899 (May) Administration Milton Joseph Rosenau, M.D. succeeds Joseph J. Kinyoun as director of the Hygienic Laboratory. In office until September 1909.[5]
1901 Policy The United States Congress authorizes a $35,000 budget for the laboratory.[3]
1901 Reform The Marine Hospital Service becomes the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service (in 1912 the Public Health Service becomes a separate agency).[6]
1902 Reform The laboratory formalizes its divisions. The Division of Pathology and Bacteriology is joined by the Divisions of Chemistry, Zoology and Pharmacology. In order to emphazise the importance of basic research, the professional staff is filled out with scientists with doctoral degrees rather than physicians.[3]
1906 Scientific development Hygienic Laboratory workers identify the milk supply as the cause in spreading typhoid fever in Washington D.C.[3]
1909 (October) Administration John F. Anderson, M.D. succeeds Milton J. Rosenau as director of the Hygienic Laboratory. In office until November 1915.[5]
1915 (November) Administration George Walter McCoy, M.D. becomes fourth director of the Hygienic Laboratory. In office until January 1937.[5]
1918 Policy The Chamberlain-Kahn Act, passes on July 9, providing for the study of venereal diseases. The Public Health Service would make grants to 25 institutions, establishing a precedent for the Federal Government to seek assistance of scientists through grants.[7]
1930 (April) The Advisory Board for the Hygienic Laboratory becomes the National Advisory Health Council.[7]
1930 (May) Reform The Randsell Act is enacted and redesignates the Laboratory of Hygiene as the National Institute (singular) of Health, with George W. McCoy retaining office.[5] The United States Congress authorizes the payout of fellowship money for basic research, authorizing $750,000 for construction of two buildings and creating a system of fellowships.[7][3][6][8]
1931 Scientific development Research begins at the NIH, discovering fluoride effective enough to prevent tooth decay. From then on, successful scientific investigations at NIH would lead to the discovery and eradication of a number of diseases, including undulant fever, pellagra and psittacosis. Researchers would often contract the diseases they study.[8]
1937 Foundation The National Institute of Health moves to Bethesda, Maryland. Also, the National Cancer Institute is founded (by 1944 it would become part of the National Institute of Health.[6][3] Maryland (Bethesda)
1937 (February) Incorporation The Rocky Mountain Laboratory becomes part of the National Institute of Health, and is administratively made part of the Division of Infectious Diseases.[7]
1937 (February) Administration Lewis Ryers Thompson, M.D. succeeds George W. McCoy as director of the National Institute of Health. In office until January 1942.[5]
1942 (February) Administration Rolla Dyer, M.D. succeeds Lewis R. Thompson as director of the National Institute of Health. In office until September 1950.[5]
1946 Foundation The Center for Scientific Review (CSR) is established as a center of the NIH.[9]
1948 Foundation The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) are established the same year as institutes of the NIH.[9]
1949 (April) Foundation The National Institute of Mental Health is established as an institute of the NIH, with the abolishment of the Division of Mental Hygiene.[7]
1950 Foundation The National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Blindness and the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases are established.[7][9]
1950 (October) Administration William Henry Sebrell, Jr., M.D. succeeds Rolla Eugene Dyer as director of the National Institute of Health. In office until July 1955.[5]
1953 Foundation The NIH Clinical Center (CC) is established as a center of the NIH.[9]
1955 (August) Administration James Augustine Shannon, M.D. succeeds William Sebrell as director of the National Institute of Health. In office until August 1968.[5]
1956 Foundation The National Library of Medicine (NLM) is established as an institute of the NIH.[9]
1961 (December) Foundation The NIH European Office is established in Paris.[7] France
1962 Foundation The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) are established as institutes of the NIH.[9]
1962 (July) Foundation The NIH Latin American Office is established in Rio de Janeiro.[7] Brazil
1963 (January) Foundation The NIH Pacific Office is established in Tokyo.[7] Japan
1963 (January) Foundation The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences are established.[7]
1964 (January) Foundation The Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS) becomes operational at the National Library of Medicine.[7]
1964 (April) Foundation The Division of Computer Research and Technology (DCRT) is established (actual Center for Information Technology).[7][9]
1966 Policy The National Institute of Health budget surpasses one billion dolars.[3]
1968 (September) Administration Robert Q. Marston, M.D. succeeds James Shannon as director of the National Institute of Health. In office until January 1973.[5]
1968 (October) Dr. Marshall Warren Nirenberg, chief of NIH's Laboratory of Biochemical Genetics, is awarded a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for discovering the key to deciphering the genetic code.[10][7] Sweden
1968 Foundation The Fogarty International Center (FIC) is established as an institute of the NIH.[9] Starting with a budget of $500,000 the first year, today the center's research, training and capacity-building enterprise extends to over 100 countries and involves some 5,000 scientists in the U.S. and abroad.[11]
1968 (August) Foundation The National Eye Institute (NEI) is established. It is incorporated as one of the Federal government's National Institutes of Health (NIH).[9][12] The same month, legislation changes the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Blindness (NINDB) name to National Institute of Neurological Diseases (NIND).[7]
1969 Foundation The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is established as an institute of the NIH.[9]
1970 Foundation The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) is established as an institute of the NIH. It conducts research focused on improving the treatment and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems.[9]
1972 (May) The National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases (NIAMD) is renamed the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases (NIAMDD).[7]
1972 Dr. Christian B. Anfinsen, researcher at the National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases (NIAMDD), is awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation".[13] Sweden
1973 (May) Administration Robert S. Stone, M.D. succeeds Robert Marston as director of the National Institute of Health. In office until January 1975.[5]
1973 (July) Incorporation The National Institute of Mental Health rejoins NIH. On September 25, NIMH becomes part of the new Alcoholism, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration.[7]
1974 Foundation The National Institute on Aging (NIA) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) are established as institutes of the NIH. [9]
1975 (July) Administration Donald S. Fredrickson, M.D. succeeds Robert Stone as director of the National Institute of Health. In office until June 1981.[5]
1976 (June) The National Heart and Lung Institute is renamed National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI).[7]
1981 (June) The National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolic, and Digestive Diseases is renamed the National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, and Digestive and Kidney diseases (NIADDK).[7]
1982 (April) Administration James B. Wyngaarden, M.D. becomes the 12th director of the National Institute of Health, appointed by President Ronald Reagan. In office until July 1989.[5]
1986 Foundation The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) and the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) are established institutes of the NIH.[9]
1988 (November) Foundation The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) is established as an institute of the NIH.[9] The same month, the National Institute of Neurological Diseases (NIND) is renamed National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS).[7]
1989 Foundation The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) is established as an institute of the NIH. From its inception, the NHGRI would carry the role of the NIH in the Human Genome Project, having a strong participation. The same year, the NIH-DOE Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) working group is created to examine and put forward options for the development of the ELSI component of the Human Genome Project. [9][14]
1990 Program launch The Human Genome Project officially launches.[15] The National Center for Human Genome Research is established in January.[7]
1990 Foundation The Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) is established by the United States Congress as a not-for-profit charitable organization, with aims at facilitating research at the NIH and worldwide.[16]
1991 Scientific development Scientists at NIH treate the first cancer patients with human gene therapy.[7]
1991 (April) Administration Bernadine Healy, M.D. becomes the 13th director of the NIH. Shortly after her appointment, Healy would launch the NIH Women's Health Initiative, a $500 million effort to study the causes, prevention, and cures of diseases that affect women. In office until June 1993.[17]
1992 The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) become part of the National Institutes of Health.[7]
1993 (November) Administration Harold E. Varmus, M.D. succeeds Bernadine Healy as director of the National Institute of Health. In office until December 1999.[5]
1997 The Division of Research Grants (DRG) is renamed the Center for Scientific Review and the Division of Computer Research and Technology becomes the Center for Information Technology.[7]
1999 Foundation The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) is established as a center of the NIH.[9] Its funding ranges from $50 million in 1999 to $128.8 million in 2010.[18]
2000 Foundation The National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) is established as an institute of the NIH.[9]
2002 (May) Administration Algerian born Elias Zerhouni, M.D., becomes the 15th NIH Director by President George W. Bush in May, leading the nation’s medical research agency until October 2008.[9]
2003 Program launch The NIH Roadmap for Medical Research initiative is launched as a new research vision with aims at accelerating medical discovery, implementing initiatives such as: building blocks, biological pathways and networks, molecular libraries & molecular Imaging, structural biology, bioinformatics and computational biology, and nanomedicine.[19][20]
2005 Foundation The Division of Program Coordination, Planning, and Strategic Initiatives (DPCPSI) is founded as a new office within the Office of the NIH Director with the purpose of transforming the way NIH finds and funds cutting-edge research, improving the ability to identify public health challenges, and increasing trans-NIH dialogue, decision-making and priority-setting.[19]
2008 Policy The NIH Public Access policy is enacted. It would require all NIH-funded researchers to deposit electronic copies of their peer-reviewed manuscripts into the National Library of Medicine’s online archive, PubMed Central (PMC). Full texts of the articles would be made publicly available and searchable online in PMC no later than 12 months after publication in a journal.[21]
2009 (August) Administration Francis Collins, M.D., Ph.D. is appointed the 16th Director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) by President Barack Obama. Collins had previously led the international Human Genome Project, which culminated in April 2003 with the completion of a finished sequence of the human DNA instruction book.[22] Still in office.[9]
2010 NINDS partners with the University of Virginia to establish a neurosurgical residency program set to last seven years. The program is intended to serve as a model for training neurosurgeon clinician-investigators who are capable of performing translational research.[7]
2011 Foundation The National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) is established as a center of the NIH.[9]
2015 Program launch United States President Barack Obama launches his Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI) at NIH, with aims at extending precision medicine to all diseases.[7]
2015 Policy The United States National Institutes of Health issues a statement indicating that it will not fund any research that uses genome editing tools such as CRISPR in human embryos.[23]

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 "NIH congressional appropriations". nih.gov. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "A federal role begins". nih.gov. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Encyclopedia of Epidemiology (Sarah Boslaugh ed.). Retrieved 22 March 2017. 
  4. "History". nih.gov. Retrieved 20 March 2017. 
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 "NIH Directors". nih.gov. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 History of Ophthalmology: Sub auspiciis Academiae Ophthalmologicae Internationalis (Daniel M. Albert ed.). Retrieved 20 March 2017. 
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 7.18 7.19 7.20 7.21 7.22 7.23 7.24 "Chronology of Events". nih.gov. Retrieved 22 March 2017. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Origin of the National Institutes of Health". nih.gov. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
  9. 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 9.15 9.16 9.17 9.18 9.19 "List of NIH Institutes, Centers, and Offices". nih.gov. Retrieved 20 March 2017. 
  10. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 22 March 2017. 
  11. "History of the Fogarty International Center". nih.gov. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
  12. "National Institutes of Health: National Eye Institute - AFB Directory Profile". American Foundation for the Blind. Retrieved 20 March 2017. 
  13. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 22 March 2017. 
  14. "The Human Genome Project Completion: Frequently Asked Questions". genome.gov. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
  15. "National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)". nih.gov. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
  16. "FNIH". fnih.org. Retrieved 3 April 2017. 
  17. "Bernadine Healy, M.D.". nih.gov. Retrieved 22 March 2017. 
  18. "NCCIH Funding: Appropriations History". nih.gov. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 "Elias A. Zerhouni, M.D.". nih.gov. Retrieved 22 March 2017. 
  20. "NIH Roadmap for Medical Research: Physical Sciences Research". american Institutes of Physics. Retrieved 22 March 2017. 
  21. "The US National Institutes of Health Public Access Policy". sparcopen.org. The Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition. Retrieved 21 March 2017. 
  22. "Biographical Sketch of Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D.". nih.gov. Retrieved 22 March 2017. 
  23. "CRISPR". whatisbiotechnology.org. Retrieved 7 June 2017.