Timeline of transfusion medicine
This is a timeline of transfusion medicine, listing significant events in the development of the field.
|Time period||Development summary|
|18th century||The first known human blood transfusion is performed in the century.|
|19th century||The hypodermic syringe is invented as a device to carry out transfusions. However, despite the large breakthrough, obstacles make very difficult for 19th century surgeons to overcome the problem of coagulation of transfused blood, therefore transfusion can't be completed.|
|20th century||In the early 1900s, transfusions are not yet routine procedures and are performed directly from donor to recipient. A major milestone early in the century is the deffinition by Karl Landsteiner of the different blood groups: A, B, AB, and O. Around 1940 a second major system, called the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, is identified. As for transfusions, no anticoagulants are found to be effective until World War I. In the 1970s it is discovered that blood transfusions present a significant risk for the transmission of life-threatening viruses. During the 1980s, a major development in transfusion medicine is the widespread adoption of autologous blood techniques as routine transfusion modalities.|
|Year||Month and date||Event type||Details|
|1628||Field development||English physician William Harvey demonstrates that blood circulates from the heart to the arteries and then back through the veins.||United Kingdom|
|1665||Field development||English physician Richard Lower performs the first documented blood transfusionusing dogs and notes a color difference between veins and arteries.||United Kingdom|
|1667||Field development||French physician Jean Baptiste Denis performs analogous experiments to those of Richard Lower but later extending them to humans. Denis is credited to have performed the first lamb to man blood transfusion with success.||France|
|1795||Field development||American physician Philip Sying Physik performs the first known human blood transfusion.|
|1816||Field development||Scottish physician John Henry Leacock establishes the principle that donor and recipient must be of the same species.||United Kingdom|
|1818||Field development||English obstetrician James Blundell completes the first successful human blood transfusion in a series of eight women to manage postpartum hemorrhage. Between 1825 and 1830, Blundell performs ten transfusions, five of which prove beneficial to his patients, and publishes these results. He also devises various instruments for performing transfusions and proposes rational indications.||United Kingdom|
|1831||Field development||Transfusion of physiologic solutions is performed independently by O'Shaughnessy and Lewins in Great Britain.||United Kingdom|
|1853||Instrumental||Scottish physician Alexander Wood invents the hypodermic syringe, leading to the development of new devices to carry out transfusions.||United Kingdom|
|1857||Instrumental||Alfred Higginson from Liverpool invents a rubber injection syringe with ball valves, inserted between the receptacle and the recipient’s vein.||United Kingdom|
|1860||Field development||Ignaz Josef Neudörfer uses sodium bicarbonate to counteract coagulation, with unsuccessful results.|
|1865||Field development||Swiss physician Joseph-Antoine Roussel from Geneva first employs a direct arm-to-arm transfusion method.||Switzerland|
|1870s||Field development||A period of enthusiasm for transfusion of blood substitutes (milk, ect. …) is experienced, particularly in the United States|
|1870 – 1871||Blood transfusions are performed on the battlefield in the Franco-Prussian War.|
|1870||Organization||The British Red Cross is founded.||United Kingdom|
|1878||Field development||French haematologist Georges Hayem perfects a saline solution, which can serve as a substitute of blood.||France|
|1901||Field development||Austrian biologist Karl Landsteiner and his associates define the different blood groups: A, B, AB, and O.|
|1902||Field development||Alfred Decastello and Adriano Sturli add bloodtype AB to the classification system.|
|1907||Field development||American pathologist Ludvig Hektoen from Chicago is the first to suggest that donors and patients should be screened for compatibility (now known as Cross-matching).||United States|
|1907||Field development||American haematologist Reuben Ottenberg performs the first blood transfusion using blood typing and cross-matching.||United States|
|1908||Field development||French surgeon Alexis Carrel successfully transfuses blood directly from the artery of a donor to the recipient's vein, thus avoiding the problem of clotting.|
|1908||Field development||Italian physician Carlo Moreschi describes the principle of antiglobulin test.||Italy|
|1912||Field development||Roger Lee shows that O blood can be transfused to a person with any blood type (universal donor) and that a person with AB blood can receive blood from any blood group (universal recipient).|
|1913||Instrumental||The Kimpton-Brown apparatus starts being used to improve veno-venous transfusion.|
|1914||Field development||Belgian medical doctor Albert Hustin in Brussels and Argentine physician Luis Agote in Buenos Aires discover that blood clotting could be stopped by the addition of the calcium chelator sodium citrate.||Argentina, Belgium|
|1916||Field development||American virologist Francis Peyton Rous and J.R. Turner at the Rockefeller Institute in New York produce a solution of glucose and citrate which stops blood from clotting and allow the red cells to stay alive for a few weeks.||United States|
|1918||Facility||English-born medical researcher Oswald Hope Robertson establishes the first blood depot while serving during World War I.|
|1921||Field development||Red Cross secretary Percy Lane Oliver, following a request from the Red Cross service, pioneers the voluntary blood donor scheme in London.||United Kingdom|
|1925||Organization||Russian physician Alexander Bogdanov founds the first academic institution devoted to the science of blood transfusion in Moscow.||Russia|
|1926||Field development||The British Red Cross starts the world's first formal transfusion service.||United Kingdom|
|1930||Field development||American medical researcher Charles R. Drew discovers that blood could be separated into plasma and red blood cells.|
|1932||Facility||Russian surgeon Serge Yudin establishes the first blood bank in Leningrad.||Russia|
|1935||Field development||Earl W.Flosdorf and Stuart Mudd develop the process of lyophilisation that facilitates the long-term storage of plasma.|
|1935||Organization||The International Society of Blood Transfusion is founded.|
|1936||Facility||During the Spanish Civil War, the development of electrical refrigeration results in the first blood banks set up by Frederic Durán-Jordà in Barcelona and Norman Bethune in Madrid.||Spain|
|1936||Instrumental||The first vacuum blood collection bottle is marketed.|
|1937||Facility||Hungarian Jewish-American physician Bernard Fantus establishes the first hospital blood bank of the United States, in Chicago.||United States|
|1939||Field development||The Rh blood group system is developed by Karl Landsteiner, Alexander S. Wiener, Philip Levine, and R.E. Stetson.|
|1941||Field development||American surgeon Isidor Ravdin successfully uses albumin in transfusions in victims of the attack on Pearl Harbor.||United States|
|1943||Field development||Australian haematologist John Freeman Loutit and British haematologist Patrick Mollison develop a solution of acid-citrate-dextrose, allowing greater volumes of blood to be transfused and making longer-term storage possible.|
|1944||Field development||Dried plasma is used in the treatment of wounded soldiers during World War II.|
|1944||Field development||American protein scientist Edwin Joseph Cohn develops cold ethanol fractionation, a process to break down plasma into its different fractions.||United States|
|1945||Field development||British immunologist Robin Coombs, British hematologist Arthur Mourant and Robert Race describe the use of antihuman globulin to identify “incomplete” antibodies.|
|1946||Field development||R. A. Kekwick, Margaret E. Mackay, and B. R. Record produce fibrinogen and prothrombin from plasma separated by precipitation with ether.|
|1950||Field development||British cryobiologist Audrey Smith discovers the use of glycerol to protect human red blood cells during freezing.||United Kingdom|
|1950||Instrumental||Carl Walter and William P. Murphy Jr. develop the plastic bag for blood collection.||United States|
|1952||Field development||Gibson et al. demonstrate that plastic systems allow removal of plasma after sedimentation and centrifugation.|
|1958||Field development||French immunologist Jean Dausset describes the first leukocyte antigen MAC (which is today HA-A2) on the surface of blood cells. This whould determine whether blood from one person might be successfully transfused into another individual.||France|
|1960||Field development||Alan Solomon and John L. Fahey develop plasmapheresis, a procedure for separating whole blood into plasma and red blood cells.|
|1961||Field development||Citrate-phosphate-dextrose solution becomes the anticoagulant of choice after studies show its efficacy in blood stored up to 28 days.|
|1964||Field development||American scientist Judith Graham Pool discovers a method of concentrating clotting factors from fresh frozen plasma, allowing patients with hemophilia to receive transfusions outside of the hospital.||United States|
|1969||Field development||S. Murphy and F. Gardner publish paper demonstrating the feasibility of storing platelets at room temperature, thus revolutionizing platelet transfusion therapy.|
|1970||Field development||Monoclonal antibodies come into use.|
|1970||Field development||Automated systems are introduced at the immunohematology laboratory.|
|1971||Field development||Testing blood for Hepatitis B is first conducted in the United States.||United States|
|1972||Instrumental||American medical technologist Herb Cullis invents the apheresis machine, which is used to extract one cellular component, returning the rest of the blood to the donor.||United States|
|1979||Field development||CPDA-1 is introduced as a new anticoagulant preservative, which increases the blood supply and facilitates resource-sharing among blood banks.|
|1980s||Field development||Additive solutions extend the shelf-life of red blood cells to 49 days.|
|Mid-1980s||Field development||Donated blood begins to be tested for HIV.|
|1998||Field development||It becomes possible to screen for the presence of HCV nucleic acids using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. This molecular detection system can identify HCV in donors before they have produced antibodies.|
|1999||Field development||Nucleic acid amplification testing is introduced for active viruses in donated blood.|
|2005||Field development||The United States Food and Drug Administration approves the first West Nile virus blood test to screen blood donors.||United States|
|2008||Organization||The International Council for Commonality in Blood Banking Automation is incorporated.||United States|
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