Difference between revisions of "Timeline of tuberculosis"

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|Middle Ages and Renaissance||The incidence of tuberculosis grows progressively in these times, displacing [[wikipedia:leprosy|leprosy]], peaking between the 18th and 19th century as field workers move to the cities looking for work.<ref>Aufderheide 1998:129</ref> In parts of Europe, tuberculosis is known as the “king’s evil” and is widely believed that the kings of England and France can cure ''[[wikipedia:Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis|scrofula]]'' simply by touching those affected.<ref name="news-medical.net">{{cite web|title=History of Tuberculosis|url=http://www.news-medical.net/health/History-of-Tuberculosis.aspx|accessdate=2 September 2016}}</ref>
 
|Middle Ages and Renaissance||The incidence of tuberculosis grows progressively in these times, displacing [[wikipedia:leprosy|leprosy]], peaking between the 18th and 19th century as field workers move to the cities looking for work.<ref>Aufderheide 1998:129</ref> In parts of Europe, tuberculosis is known as the “king’s evil” and is widely believed that the kings of England and France can cure ''[[wikipedia:Tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis|scrofula]]'' simply by touching those affected.<ref name="news-medical.net">{{cite web|title=History of Tuberculosis|url=http://www.news-medical.net/health/History-of-Tuberculosis.aspx|accessdate=2 September 2016}}</ref>
 
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|1700s–1800s||Description of tuberculosis is developed in medical literature. Toward 1800s [[wikipedia:sanatoria|sanatoria]] start to open for treating patients, with often successful outcomes. Understanding of the [[wikipedia:pathogenesis|pathogenesis]] of tuberculosis begins with the works of [[wikipedia:René Laennec|Laennec]], [[wikipedia:Jean Antoine Villemin|Villemin]] and the identification of the tubercle bacillus as the [[wikipedia:etiology|etiologic]] agent by [[wikipedia:Robert Koch|Robert Koch]].
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|1700s–1800s || Description of tuberculosis is developed in medical literature. TB is identified as a single disease in the 1820s.<ref name="Tuberculosis: Current Situation, Challenges and Overview of its Control Programs in India">{{cite journal|last1=K Sandhu|first1=Gursimrat|title=Tuberculosis: Current Situation, Challenges and Overview of its Control Programs in India|doi=10.4103/0974-777X.81691|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3125027/|accessdate=20 November 2017|pmc=3125027}}</ref> [[wikipedia:sanatoria|sanatoria]] start to open for treating patients, with often successful outcomes. Understanding of the [[wikipedia:pathogenesis|pathogenesis]] of tuberculosis begins with the works of [[wikipedia:René Laennec|Laennec]], [[wikipedia:Jean Antoine Villemin|Villemin]] and the identification of the tubercle bacillus as the [[wikipedia:etiology|etiologic]] agent by [[wikipedia:Robert Koch|Robert Koch]].
 
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|1920s–1930s||The [[wikipedia:International Union Against Tuberculosis|International Union Against Tuberculosis]] (IUAT) is founded. [[wikipedia:BCG vaccine|BCG vaccine]] against tuberculosis is developed. Several international conferences are held, focusing on the fundamental, biological, clinical and social aspects of tuberculosis.<ref name="theunion">{{cite web|title=History of Tuberculosis|url=http://www.theunion.org/who-we-are/history|accessdate=3 September 2016}}</ref>
 
|1920s–1930s||The [[wikipedia:International Union Against Tuberculosis|International Union Against Tuberculosis]] (IUAT) is founded. [[wikipedia:BCG vaccine|BCG vaccine]] against tuberculosis is developed. Several international conferences are held, focusing on the fundamental, biological, clinical and social aspects of tuberculosis.<ref name="theunion">{{cite web|title=History of Tuberculosis|url=http://www.theunion.org/who-we-are/history|accessdate=3 September 2016}}</ref>
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! Year/period !! Type of event !! Event !!Location
 
! Year/period !! Type of event !! Event !!Location
 
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|1689||Development||English physician [[wikipedia:Richard Morton (physician)|Richard Morton]] first states that tubercles are always present in the tuberculosis disease of the [[wikipedia:lungs|lungs]].<ref>{{cite journal|title=Richard Morton (1637-1698)--the distinguished physician of the 17th century|pmid=20069934 | volume=137 | journal=Srp Arh Celok Lek|pages=706–9 | last1 = Kontić | first1 = O | last2 = Vasiljević | first2 = N | last3 = Jorga | first3 = J | last4 = Lakić | first4 = A | last5 = Jasović-Gasić | first5 = M}}</ref>||England
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| 1689 || Scientific development || English physician [[wikipedia:Richard Morton (physician)|Richard Morton]] first states that tubercles are always present in the tuberculosis disease of the [[wikipedia:lungs|lungs]].<ref>{{cite journal|title=Richard Morton (1637-1698)--the distinguished physician of the 17th century|pmid=20069934 | volume=137 | journal=Srp Arh Celok Lek|pages=706–9 | last1 = Kontić | first1 = O | last2 = Vasiljević | first2 = N | last3 = Jorga | first3 = J | last4 = Lakić | first4 = A | last5 = Jasović-Gasić | first5 = M}}</ref>||England
 
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|1761||Development||Austrian physician [[wikipedia:Leopold Auenbrugger|Leopold Auenbrugger]] develops a percussion method for  diagnosing tuberculosis.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Walker|first1=Kenneth|title=The Origins of the History and Physical Examination|pmid=21250276|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK458/#A25}}</ref>||
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| 1761 || Medical development (diagnosis) ||Austrian physician [[wikipedia:Leopold Auenbrugger|Leopold Auenbrugger]] develops a percussion method for  diagnosing tuberculosis.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Walker|first1=Kenneth|title=The Origins of the History and Physical Examination|pmid=21250276|url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK458/#A25}}</ref>||
 
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|1768||Development||Scottish physician [[wikipedia:Robert Whytt|Robert Whytt]] gives the first clinical description of [[wikipedia:tuberculous meningitis|tuberculous meningitis]].<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Breathnach|first1=CS|title=Robert Whytt (1714-1766): from dropsy in the brain to tuberculous meningitis.|doi=10.1007/s11845-014-1106-3|pmid=24682631|volume=183|journal=Ir J Med Sci|pages=493–9}}</ref>||
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| 1768 || Scientific development || Scottish physician [[wikipedia:Robert Whytt|Robert Whytt]] gives the first clinical description of [[wikipedia:tuberculous meningitis|tuberculous meningitis]].<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Breathnach|first1=CS|title=Robert Whytt (1714-1766): from dropsy in the brain to tuberculous meningitis.|doi=10.1007/s11845-014-1106-3|pmid=24682631|volume=183|journal=Ir J Med Sci|pages=493–9}}</ref>||
 
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|1779||Development||English surgeon [[wikipedia:Percivall Pott|Percivall Pott]] first describes the arthritic tuberculosis of the spine (today known as [[wikipedia:Pott disease|Pott disease]]).<ref>{{cite web|title=Pott disease|url=http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/226141-overview|accessdate=5 September 2016}}</ref>||
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| 1779 || Scientific development || English surgeon [[wikipedia:Percivall Pott|Percivall Pott]] first describes the arthritic tuberculosis of the spine (today known as [[wikipedia:Pott disease|Pott disease]]).<ref>{{cite web|title=Pott disease|url=http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/226141-overview|accessdate=5 September 2016}}</ref>||
 
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|1810||Development||French physician [[wikipedia:Gaspard Laurent Bayle|Gaspard Laurent Bayle]] publishes his article ''Recherches sur la Pthisie Pulmonaire'', in which he divides [[wikipedia:Phthisis pulmonalis|phthisis]] into six types: tubercular phthisis, glandular phthisis, ulcerous phthisis, phthisis with melanosis, calculous phthisis, and cancerous phthisis, basing his findings on more than 900 autopsies.<ref>{{cite web|title=Complete Record - Heirs of Hippocrates No. 1291|url=http://fm.iowa.uiowa.edu/fmi/xsl/hardin/heirs/record_detail.xsl?-db=heirs&-lay=WebLayout&-recid=1483&-find=|accessdate=5 September 2016}}</ref>||
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| 1810 || Scientific development || French physician [[wikipedia:Gaspard Laurent Bayle|Gaspard Laurent Bayle]] publishes his article ''Recherches sur la Pthisie Pulmonaire'', in which he divides [[wikipedia:Phthisis pulmonalis|phthisis]] into six types: tubercular phthisis, glandular phthisis, ulcerous phthisis, phthisis with melanosis, calculous phthisis, and cancerous phthisis, basing his findings on more than 900 autopsies.<ref>{{cite web|title=Complete Record - Heirs of Hippocrates No. 1291|url=http://fm.iowa.uiowa.edu/fmi/xsl/hardin/heirs/record_detail.xsl?-db=heirs&-lay=WebLayout&-recid=1483&-find=|accessdate=5 September 2016}}</ref>||
 
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|1816||Development||French physician [[wikipedia:René Laennec|René Laennec]], working at the [[wikipedia:Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital|Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital]], develops the [[wikipedia:stethoscope|stethoscope]], which proves to be a breakthrough. The stethoscope marks a major step in the redefinition of disease from being a bundle of symptoms, to the current sense of a disease as a problem with an anatomical system even if there are no noticeable symptoms. The work of Laennec is considered to have clearly elucidated the pathogenesis of tuberculosis and unified the concept of the disease, whether pulmonary or extrapulmonary.<ref>{{cite web|last=Duffin|first=Jacalyn|title=Big Ideas: Jacalyn Duffin on the History of the Stethoscope|url=http://ww3.tvo.org/video/182217/jacalyn-duffin-history-stethoscope|publisher=TVO|accessdate=9 September 2016}}</ref><ref name="The history of tuberculosis">{{cite journal|title=The history of tuberculosis|url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S095461110600401X|accessdate=9 September 2016 | doi=10.1016/j.rmed.2006.08.006|volume=100|journal=Respiratory Medicine|pages=1862–1870}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Paris|Paris]], France
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| 1816 || Scientific development || French physician [[wikipedia:René Laennec|René Laennec]], working at the [[wikipedia:Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital|Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital]], develops the [[wikipedia:stethoscope|stethoscope]], which proves to be a breakthrough. The stethoscope marks a major step in the redefinition of disease from being a bundle of symptoms, to the current sense of a disease as a problem with an anatomical system even if there are no noticeable symptoms. The work of Laennec is considered to have clearly elucidated the pathogenesis of tuberculosis and unified the concept of the disease, whether pulmonary or extrapulmonary.<ref>{{cite web|last=Duffin|first=Jacalyn|title=Big Ideas: Jacalyn Duffin on the History of the Stethoscope|url=http://ww3.tvo.org/video/182217/jacalyn-duffin-history-stethoscope|publisher=TVO|accessdate=9 September 2016}}</ref><ref name="The history of tuberculosis">{{cite journal|title=The history of tuberculosis|url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S095461110600401X|accessdate=9 September 2016 | doi=10.1016/j.rmed.2006.08.006|volume=100|journal=Respiratory Medicine|pages=1862–1870}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Paris|Paris]], France
 
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|1839||Development||German [[wikipedia:naturalist|naturalist]] [[wikipedia:Johann Lukas Schönlein|Johann Lukas Schönlein]] is attributed with naming the disease ''[[wikipedia:tuberculosis|tuberculosis]]''.<ref>''Zur Pathogenie der Impetigines. Auszug aus einer brieflichen Mitteilung an den Herausgeber''. [Müller's] ''Archiv für Anatomie, Physiologie und wissenschaftliche Medicin''. 1839, page 82.</ref>||
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| 1839 || Scientific development ||German [[wikipedia:naturalist|naturalist]] [[wikipedia:Johann Lukas Schönlein|Johann Lukas Schönlein]] is attributed with naming the disease ''[[wikipedia:tuberculosis|tuberculosis]]''.<ref>''Zur Pathogenie der Impetigines. Auszug aus einer brieflichen Mitteilung an den Herausgeber''. [Müller's] ''Archiv für Anatomie, Physiologie und wissenschaftliche Medicin''. 1839, page 82.</ref>||
 
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|1854||Organization||[[wikipedia:Hermann Brehmer|Hermann Brehmer]] establishes the first German [[wikipedia:sanatorium|sanatorium]] for the systematic open-air treatment of tuberculosis, with treatment including adjusting lifestyle at high altitude, abundant diet with some alcohol, and exercise in the open air under strict medical supervision. The results are eventually regarded as highly successful, surpassing any previous treatment.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=McCarthy|first1=O R|title=The key to the sanatoria|pmc=1281640|pmid=11461990|volume=94|date=August 2001|journal=J R Soc Med|pages=413–7}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Strzelin|Strehlen]], [[wikipedia:Prussia|Prussia]]
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| 1854 || Organization || [[wikipedia:Hermann Brehmer|Hermann Brehmer]] establishes the first German [[wikipedia:sanatorium|sanatorium]] for the systematic open-air treatment of tuberculosis, with treatment including adjusting lifestyle at high altitude, abundant diet with some alcohol, and exercise in the open air under strict medical supervision. The results are eventually regarded as highly successful, surpassing any previous treatment.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=McCarthy|first1=O R|title=The key to the sanatoria|pmc=1281640|pmid=11461990|volume=94|date=August 2001|journal=J R Soc Med|pages=413–7}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Strzelin|Strehlen]], [[wikipedia:Prussia|Prussia]]
 
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|1865||Development||French physician [[wikipedia:Jean Antoine Villemin|Jean Antoine Villemin]] demonstrates of the transmissibility of ''[[wikipedia:mycobacterium tuberculosis|mycobacterium tuberculosis]]''.<ref name="resmedjournal.com">{{cite journal|title=The history of tuberculosis|journal=Respiratory Medicine|doi=10.1016/j.rmed.2006.08.006|url=http://www.resmedjournal.com/article/S0954-6111%2806%2900401-X/fulltext|accessdate=2 September 2016|volume=100|pages=1862–1870}}</ref>||France
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| 1865 || Scientific development || French physician [[wikipedia:Jean Antoine Villemin|Jean Antoine Villemin]] demonstrates of the transmissibility of ''[[wikipedia:mycobacterium tuberculosis|mycobacterium tuberculosis]]''.<ref name="resmedjournal.com">{{cite journal|title=The history of tuberculosis|journal=Respiratory Medicine|doi=10.1016/j.rmed.2006.08.006|url=http://www.resmedjournal.com/article/S0954-6111%2806%2900401-X/fulltext|accessdate=2 September 2016|volume=100|pages=1862–1870}}</ref>||France
 
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|1882||Discovery|| German physician [[wikipedia:Robert Koch|Robert Koch]], the founder of modern [[wikipedia:bacteriology|bacteriology]], identifies the tubercle bacillus as the [[wikipedia:etiology|etiologic]] agent that causes tuberculosis. Some years later, Koch develops what today is known as [[wikipedia:Koch's postulates|Koch's postulates]], which he applies to describe the [[wikipedia:etiology|etiology]] of [[wikipedia:cholera|cholera]] and [[wikipedia:tuberculosis|tuberculosis]]. Koch is also attributed for having created and improved laboratory technologies and techniques in the field of [[wikipedia:microbiology|microbiology]], and making key discoveries in [[wikipedia:public health|public health]]. Koch receives the [[wikipedia:Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine]] in 1905.<ref name="resmedjournal.com" />||  
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| 1882|| Scientific development || German physician [[wikipedia:Robert Koch|Robert Koch]], the founder of modern [[wikipedia:bacteriology|bacteriology]], identifies the tubercle bacillus as the [[wikipedia:etiology|etiologic]] agent that causes tuberculosis. Some years later, Koch develops what today is known as [[wikipedia:Koch's postulates|Koch's postulates]], which he applies to describe the [[wikipedia:etiology|etiology]] of [[wikipedia:cholera|cholera]] and [[wikipedia:tuberculosis|tuberculosis]]. Koch is also attributed for having created and improved laboratory technologies and techniques in the field of [[wikipedia:microbiology|microbiology]], and making key discoveries in [[wikipedia:public health|public health]]. Koch receives the [[wikipedia:Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine|Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine]] in 1905.<ref name="resmedjournal.com" />||  
 
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|1890||Discovery||Hungarian [[wikipedia:physiologist|physiologist]] [[wikipedia:Franz Tangl|Franz Tangl]] publishes what later becomes known as [[wikipedia:Baumgarten-Tangl law|Baumgarten-Tangl law]], stating that the location where the bacteria intrudes is the one where the inflammation can be observed first.<ref>{{cite web|title=Baumgarten-Tangl law|url=http://www.whonamedit.com/synd.cfm/846.html|accessdate=4 September 2016}}</ref>||
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| 1890 ||Scientific development || Hungarian [[wikipedia:physiologist|physiologist]] [[wikipedia:Franz Tangl|Franz Tangl]] publishes what later becomes known as [[wikipedia:Baumgarten-Tangl law|Baumgarten-Tangl law]], stating that the location where the bacteria intrudes is the one where the inflammation can be observed first.<ref>{{cite web|title=Baumgarten-Tangl law|url=http://www.whonamedit.com/synd.cfm/846.html|accessdate=4 September 2016}}</ref>||
 
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|1900||Study||French bacteriologists [[wikipedia:Albert Calmette|Albert Calmette]] and [[wikipedia:Camille Guérin|Camille Guérin]] begin research for an antituberculosis vaccine at the Pasteur Institute.<ref name="History of BCG Vaccine" />||[[wikipedia:Lille|Lille]], France
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| 1900 || Scientific development || French bacteriologists [[wikipedia:Albert Calmette|Albert Calmette]] and [[wikipedia:Camille Guérin|Camille Guérin]] begin research for an antituberculosis vaccine at the Pasteur Institute.<ref name="History of BCG Vaccine" />||[[wikipedia:Lille|Lille]], France
 
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|1903||Organization||American entrepreneur [[wikipedia:Henry Phipps, Jr.|Henry Phipps, Jr.]] founds the [[wikipedia:Phipps Institute for the Study, Treatment and Prevention of Tuberculosis|Phipps Institute for the Study, Treatment and Prevention of Tuberculosis]] at the [[wikipedia:University of Pennsylvania|University of Pennsylvania]].<ref>{{cite web|title=HENRY PHIPPS INSTITUTE|url=https://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9800E7DA1030E733A25753C1A9679C946297D6CF&legacy=true|accessdate=5 September 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Philadelphia|Philadelphia]], [[wikipedia:US|US]]
 
|1903||Organization||American entrepreneur [[wikipedia:Henry Phipps, Jr.|Henry Phipps, Jr.]] founds the [[wikipedia:Phipps Institute for the Study, Treatment and Prevention of Tuberculosis|Phipps Institute for the Study, Treatment and Prevention of Tuberculosis]] at the [[wikipedia:University of Pennsylvania|University of Pennsylvania]].<ref>{{cite web|title=HENRY PHIPPS INSTITUTE|url=https://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9800E7DA1030E733A25753C1A9679C946297D6CF&legacy=true|accessdate=5 September 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Philadelphia|Philadelphia]], [[wikipedia:US|US]]
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|1904||Organization||The [[wikipedia:National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis|National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis]] (NASPT) is founded.<ref>{{cite web|title=Introduction to the American Lung Association and the Fight against Tuberculosis|url=http://exhibits.hsl.virginia.edu/alav/|accessdate=2 September 2016}}</ref>||
 
|1904||Organization||The [[wikipedia:National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis|National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis]] (NASPT) is founded.<ref>{{cite web|title=Introduction to the American Lung Association and the Fight against Tuberculosis|url=http://exhibits.hsl.virginia.edu/alav/|accessdate=2 September 2016}}</ref>||
 
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|1907||Development||French physician [[wikipedia:Charles Mantoux|Charles Mantoux]] introduces his eponymous [[wikipedia:Mantoux test|Mantoux test]] as a [[wikipedia:serology|serological]] skin test to determine whether a person is infected with tuberculosis.<ref name="Gamma Interferon Assays Used in the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis">{{cite journal|title=Gamma Interferon Assays Used in the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis|doi=10.1128/CVI.00199-15|pmc=4519719 | pmid=26018533|volume=22|journal=Clin Vaccine Immunol|pages=845–9 | last1 = Horvat | first1 = RT}}</ref>||
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| 1907 || Medical development (diagnosis) ||French physician [[wikipedia:Charles Mantoux|Charles Mantoux]] introduces his eponymous [[wikipedia:Mantoux test|Mantoux test]] as a [[wikipedia:serology|serological]] skin test to determine whether a person is infected with tuberculosis.<ref name="Gamma Interferon Assays Used in the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis">{{cite journal|title=Gamma Interferon Assays Used in the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis|doi=10.1128/CVI.00199-15|pmc=4519719 | pmid=26018533|volume=22|journal=Clin Vaccine Immunol|pages=845–9 | last1 = Horvat | first1 = RT}}</ref>||
 
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|1908||Development||French physician [[wikipedia:Charles Mantoux|Charles Mantoux]], perfects test for diagnosis of tuberculosis contact (latent tuberculosis).<ref>{{cite journal|title=Tuberculosis and its eponyms: Charles Mantoux (1877-1947)|doi=10.4321/S1575-06202009000100004|pmid=23128409 | volume=11|journal=Rev Esp Sanid Penit|pages=17–23 | last1 = Mazana | first1 = JS}}</ref>||
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| 1908 || Medical development (diagnosis) || French physician [[wikipedia:Charles Mantoux|Charles Mantoux]], perfects test for diagnosis of tuberculosis contact (latent tuberculosis).<ref>{{cite journal|title=Tuberculosis and its eponyms: Charles Mantoux (1877-1947)|doi=10.4321/S1575-06202009000100004|pmid=23128409 | volume=11|journal=Rev Esp Sanid Penit|pages=17–23 | last1 = Mazana | first1 = JS}}</ref>||
 
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|1909||Organization||American philanthropist [[wikipedia:Nathan Straus|Nathan Straus]] opens the first [[wikipedia:preventorium|preventorium]] for patients infected with tuberculosis.<ref>{{cite web|title=The Garrett Building: An Architectural Record of the Children’s Preventorium Movement|url=http://www.faculty.virginia.edu/blueridgesanatorium/preventorium.html|accessdate=4 September 2016}}</ref>||
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| 1909 || Organization || American philanthropist [[wikipedia:Nathan Straus|Nathan Straus]] opens the first [[wikipedia:preventorium|preventorium]] for patients infected with tuberculosis.<ref>{{cite web|title=The Garrett Building: An Architectural Record of the Children’s Preventorium Movement|url=http://www.faculty.virginia.edu/blueridgesanatorium/preventorium.html|accessdate=4 September 2016}}</ref>||
 
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|1921||Development||[[wikipedia:BCG vaccine|Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine]] is first administered. It is still the only vaccine available today against tuberculosis.<ref name="History of BCG Vaccine">{{cite journal|title=History of BCG Vaccine|journal=Maedica|pmc=3749764 | pmid=24023600|volume=8|pages=53–8 | last1 = Luca | first1 = S | last2 = Mihaescu | first2 = T}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Paris|Paris]], France
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| 1921 || Development || [[wikipedia:BCG vaccine|Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine]] is first administered. It is still the only vaccine available today against tuberculosis.<ref name="History of BCG Vaccine">{{cite journal|title=History of BCG Vaccine|journal=Maedica|pmc=3749764 | pmid=24023600|volume=8|pages=53–8 | last1 = Luca | first1 = S | last2 = Mihaescu | first2 = T}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Paris|Paris]], France
 
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|1930||Crisis||Lübeck disaster. 250 newborn babies are given doses of [[wikipedia:BCG vaccine|BCG]] contaminated by virulent tubercle bacilli. After four to six weeks a large number of the infants develop tuberculosis. 73 babies die in the first year and another 135 are infected but finally recover.<ref name="History of BCG Vaccine" />||[[wikipedia:Lübeck|Lübeck]], Germany
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| 1925 || Medical development (diagnosis) || Chest radiology starts playing diagnostic role in detecting deep-seated areas of tuberculosis consolidation.<ref name="Tuberculosis: Current Situation, Challenges and Overview of its Control Programs in India"/> ||
 
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|1932||Development||The [[wikipedia:Löwenstein–Jensen medium|Löwenstein–Jensen medium]] is developed as diagnosis for tuberculosis. It is used for culture of ''[[wikipedia:Mycobacterium|Mycobacterium]]'' species, notably ''[[wikipedia:Mycobacterium tuberculosis|Mycobacterium tuberculosis]]''.<ref name="teachepi">{{cite web|title=Does TB culture impact on clinical  decision - making?|url=http://www.teachepi.org/documents/courses/tbdiagrx/day2/Hepple_Does%20TB%20culture%20impact%20on%20clinical%20decision-making%2005.07.2011.pdf|accessdate=3 September 2016}}</ref>||
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| 1930 || Crisis || Lübeck disaster. 250 newborn babies are given doses of [[wikipedia:BCG vaccine|BCG]] contaminated by virulent tubercle bacilli. After four to six weeks a large number of the infants develop tuberculosis. 73 babies die in the first year and another 135 are infected but finally recover.<ref name="History of BCG Vaccine" />||[[wikipedia:Lübeck|Lübeck]], Germany
 
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|1936||Development||Brazilian physician [[wikipedia:Manuel de Abreu|Manuel de Abreu]] develops [[wikipedia:chest photofluorography|chest photofluorography]], a technique for mass [[wikipedia:screening (medicine)|screening]] for tuberculosis.<ref>{{cite web|title=Portraits of our lungs|url=http://revistapesquisa.fapesp.br/en/2015/02/28/portraits-of-our-lungs/|accessdate=3 September 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Rio de Janeiro|Rio de Janeiro]], Brazil
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| 1932 || Medical development (diagnosis) || The [[wikipedia:Löwenstein–Jensen medium|Löwenstein–Jensen medium]] is developed as diagnosis for tuberculosis. It is used for culture of ''[[wikipedia:Mycobacterium|Mycobacterium]]'' species, notably ''[[wikipedia:Mycobacterium tuberculosis|Mycobacterium tuberculosis]]''.<ref name="teachepi">{{cite web|title=Does TB culture impact on clinical  decision - making?|url=http://www.teachepi.org/documents/courses/tbdiagrx/day2/Hepple_Does%20TB%20culture%20impact%20on%20clinical%20decision-making%2005.07.2011.pdf|accessdate=3 September 2016}}</ref>||
 
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|1944||Development||Swedish chemist [[wikipedia:Jörgen Lehmann|Jörgen Lehmann]] develops antibiotic [[wikipedia:4-Aminosalicylic acid|4-Aminosalicylic acid]] for treating tuberculosis.<ref>{{Cite journal | last1 = Lehmann | first1 = J. | title = Para-aminosalicylic acid in the treatment of tuberculosis | journal = Lancet | volume = 1 | issue = 6384 | pages = 15–16 | year = 1946 | pmid = 21008766 | doi=10.1016/s0140-6736(46)91185-3}}</ref>||  
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| 1936 || Medical development (diagnosis) || Brazilian physician [[wikipedia:Manuel de Abreu|Manuel de Abreu]] develops [[wikipedia:chest photofluorography|chest photofluorography]], a technique for mass [[wikipedia:screening (medicine)|screening]] for tuberculosis.<ref>{{cite web|title=Portraits of our lungs|url=http://revistapesquisa.fapesp.br/en/2015/02/28/portraits-of-our-lungs/|accessdate=3 September 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Rio de Janeiro|Rio de Janeiro]], Brazil
 
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|1944||Development||Albert Schatz, Elizabeth Bugie, and Selman Waksman at [[wikipedia:Rutgers University|Rutgers University]] isolate [[wikipedia:streptomycin|streptomycin]], the first [[wikipedia:antibiotic|antibiotic]] and first [[wikipedia:biological agent|bacterial agent]] effective against tuberculosis.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Boyd Woodruff|first1=H.|title=Selman A. Waksman, Winner of the 1952 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine|doi=10.1128/AEM.01143-13|pmc=3911012|pmid=24162573|volume=80|journal=Appl Environ Microbiol|pages=2–8}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:New Jersey|New Jersey]], [[wikipedia:US|US]]
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| 1944 || Medical development (treatment) || Swedish chemist [[wikipedia:Jörgen Lehmann|Jörgen Lehmann]] develops antibiotic [[wikipedia:4-Aminosalicylic acid|4-Aminosalicylic acid]] for treating tuberculosis.<ref>{{Cite journal | last1 = Lehmann | first1 = J. | title = Para-aminosalicylic acid in the treatment of tuberculosis | journal = Lancet | volume = 1 | issue = 6384 | pages = 15–16 | year = 1946 | pmid = 21008766 | doi=10.1016/s0140-6736(46)91185-3}}</ref>||  
 
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|1946–1948||Treatment||The first randomized trial of [[wikipedia:streptomycin|streptomycin]] against pulmonary tuberculosis is carried out.<ref>{{cite journal| author = Comroe JH Jr| title = Pay dirt: the story of streptomycin. Part I: from Waksman to Waksman| journal = [[wikipedia:American Review of Respiratory Disease|American Review of Respiratory Disease]]| year = 1978| volume = 117| issue = 4| pages = 773–781| pmid = 417651}}
+
| 1944 || Medical development (drug) ||Albert Schatz, Elizabeth Bugie, and Selman Waksman at [[wikipedia:Rutgers University|Rutgers University]] isolate [[wikipedia:streptomycin|streptomycin]], the first [[wikipedia:antibiotic|antibiotic]] and first [[wikipedia:biological agent|bacterial agent]] effective against tuberculosis.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Boyd Woodruff|first1=H.|title=Selman A. Waksman, Winner of the 1952 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine|doi=10.1128/AEM.01143-13|pmc=3911012|pmid=24162573|volume=80|journal=Appl Environ Microbiol|pages=2–8}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:New Jersey|New Jersey]], [[wikipedia:US|US]]
</ref><ref>{{cite journal |author=Kingston W |title=Streptomycin, Schatz v. Waksman, and the balance of credit for discovery |journal=J Hist Med Allied Sci |volume=59 |issue=3 |pages=441–62 | date=July  2004 |pmid=15270337 |doi= 10.1093/jhmas/jrh091|url=}}</ref>||United States
 
 
|-
 
|-
|1948||Treatment||Researchers at Britain's [[wikipedia:Medical Research Council (UK)|Medical Research Council]] demonstrate that combined treatment with [[wikipedia:streptomycin|streptomycin]] and [[wikipedia:4-Aminosalicylic acid|4-Aminosalicylic acid]] is superior to either drug alone.<ref name="long">{{Cite journal | last1 = Fox | first1 = W. | last2 = Ellard | first2 = G. A. | last3 = Mitchison | first3 = D. A. | title = Studies on the treatment of tuberculosis undertaken by the British Medical Research Council tuberculosis units, 1946-1986, with relevant subsequent publications | journal = The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | volume = 3 | issue = 10 Suppl 2 | pages = S231–S279 | year = 1999 | pmid = 10529902}}</ref>||UK
+
| 1945 || Medical development (diagnosis) || The capability of chest radiology is enhanced to embody the MMR (mass miniature radiography) version.<ref name="Tuberculosis: Current Situation, Challenges and Overview of its Control Programs in India"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1950 ||Campaign|| Mass tuberculosis immunization is under way with the [[wikipedia:BCG vaccine|BCG vaccine]]. This vaccine is recommended to be given intradermally, immediately after birth. This vaccine is mandatory to attend school in France between 1950 and 2007, introduced in Brazil in 1967, and to the Philippines in 1979.<ref name="who_60th">{{cite web |url=http://www.who.int/features/history/WHO_60th_anniversary_chronology.pdf |title=WHO in 60 years: a chronology of public health milestones |publisher=World Health Organization |accessdate=April 2, 2016}}</ref><ref>Loi n° 50-7 du 5 janvier 1950</ref><ref>décret n° 2007-1111 du 17 juillet 2007</ref> ||
+
| 1946–1948 || Medical development (treatment) || The first randomized trial of [[wikipedia:streptomycin|streptomycin]] against pulmonary tuberculosis is carried out.<ref>{{cite journal| author = Comroe JH Jr| title = Pay dirt: the story of streptomycin. Part I: from Waksman to Waksman| journal = [[wikipedia:American Review of Respiratory Disease|American Review of Respiratory Disease]]| year = 1978| volume = 117| issue = 4| pages = 773–781| pmid = 417651}}
 +
</ref><ref>{{cite journal |author=Kingston W |title=Streptomycin, Schatz v. Waksman, and the balance of credit for discovery |journal=J Hist Med Allied Sci |volume=59 |issue=3 |pages=441–62 | date=July  2004 |pmid=15270337 |doi= 10.1093/jhmas/jrh091|url=}}</ref> || United States
 
|-
 
|-
|1952||Discovery||[[wikipedia:Isoniazid|Isoniazid]] is first introduced in clinical treatment for tuberculosis.<ref name="resmedjournal.com" /><ref>{{cite web|title=Isoniazid Induces Its Own Resistance in Nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis|url=http://aac.asm.org/content/51/6/2100.full|accessdate=3 September 2016}}</ref>||
+
| 1948 || Medical development (treatment) ||Researchers at Britain's [[wikipedia:Medical Research Council (UK)|Medical Research Council]] demonstrate that combined treatment with [[wikipedia:streptomycin|streptomycin]] and [[wikipedia:4-Aminosalicylic acid|4-Aminosalicylic acid]] is superior to either drug alone.<ref name="long">{{Cite journal | last1 = Fox | first1 = W. | last2 = Ellard | first2 = G. A. | last3 = Mitchison | first3 = D. A. | title = Studies on the treatment of tuberculosis undertaken by the British Medical Research Council tuberculosis units, 1946-1986, with relevant subsequent publications | journal = The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | volume = 3 | issue = 10 Suppl 2 | pages = S231–S279 | year = 1999 | pmid = 10529902}}</ref>||UK
 
|-
 
|-
|1952||Treatment||[[wikipedia:Amino acid|Amino acid]] derivative [[wikipedia:cycloserine|cycloserine]] is first isolated. Cycloserine is found to be effective against ''[[wikipedia:mycobacterium tuberculosis|mycobacterium tuberculosis]]''.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Donald|first1=P.R.|title=Antituberculosis Chemotherapy|page=88|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=aZc7AQAAQBAJ&pg=PA88&lpg=PA88&dq=%22Cycloserine%22+%22isolated+in%22&source=bl&ots=lvSQMsB9Ck&sig=UOKGrWaJIu3pkA6SOcqPDIW7HvE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj6-9vy5vPOAhVCIZAKHcFMCD4Q6AEIKTAB#v=onepage&q=%22Cycloserine%22%20%22isolated%20in%22&f=false}}</ref>||
+
| 1950 || Campaign || Mass tuberculosis immunization is under way with the [[wikipedia:BCG vaccine|BCG vaccine]]. This vaccine is recommended to be given intradermally, immediately after birth. This vaccine is mandatory to attend school in France between 1950 and 2007, introduced in Brazil in 1967, and to the Philippines in 1979.<ref name="who_60th">{{cite web |url=http://www.who.int/features/history/WHO_60th_anniversary_chronology.pdf |title=WHO in 60 years: a chronology of public health milestones |publisher=World Health Organization |accessdate=April 2, 2016}}</ref><ref>Loi n° 50-7 du 5 janvier 1950</ref><ref>décret n° 2007-1111 du 17 juillet 2007</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
|1962||Treatment||Bacteriostatic drug [[wikipedia:ethambutol|ethambutol]] is developed as a medication primarily used to treat tuberculosis.<ref>{{cite journal|title=A prospective study of ocular toxicity in patients receiving ethambutol as a part of directly observed treatment strategy therapy|pmc=4298911 | pmid=25624590 | doi=10.4103/0970-2113.148428|volume=32|journal=Lung India|pages=16–9 | last1 = Garg | first1 = P | last2 = Garg | first2 = R | last3 = Prasad | first3 = R | last4 = Mishra | first4 = AK}}</ref>||
+
| 1952 || Medical development (drug) || [[wikipedia:Isoniazid|Isoniazid]] is first introduced in clinical treatment for tuberculosis.<ref name="resmedjournal.com" /><ref>{{cite web|title=Isoniazid Induces Its Own Resistance in Nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis|url=http://aac.asm.org/content/51/6/2100.full|accessdate=3 September 2016}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
|1971||Treatment||[[wikipedia:Antibiotic|Antibiotic]] [[wikipedia:rifampicin|rifampicin]] is first sold as a medication to treat several types of [[wikipedia:bacterial infections|bacterial infections]], including tuberculosis.<ref name=Ox2009>{{cite book|title=Oxford Handbook of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology|date=2009|publisher=OUP Oxford|isbn=978-0-19-103962-1|page=56|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=5W-WBQAAQBAJ&pg=PT56}}</ref>||
+
| 1952 || Medical development (treatment) || [[wikipedia:Amino acid|Amino acid]] derivative [[wikipedia:cycloserine|cycloserine]] is first isolated. Cycloserine is found to be effective against ''[[wikipedia:mycobacterium tuberculosis|mycobacterium tuberculosis]]''.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Donald|first1=P.R.|title=Antituberculosis Chemotherapy|page=88|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=aZc7AQAAQBAJ&pg=PA88&lpg=PA88&dq=%22Cycloserine%22+%22isolated+in%22&source=bl&ots=lvSQMsB9Ck&sig=UOKGrWaJIu3pkA6SOcqPDIW7HvE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj6-9vy5vPOAhVCIZAKHcFMCD4Q6AEIKTAB#v=onepage&q=%22Cycloserine%22%20%22isolated%20in%22&f=false}}</ref>||
 +
|-
 +
| 1962 || Medical development (treatment) || Bacteriostatic drug [[wikipedia:ethambutol|ethambutol]] is developed as a medication primarily used to treat tuberculosis.<ref>{{cite journal|title=A prospective study of ocular toxicity in patients receiving ethambutol as a part of directly observed treatment strategy therapy|pmc=4298911 | pmid=25624590 | doi=10.4103/0970-2113.148428|volume=32|journal=Lung India|pages=16–9 | last1 = Garg | first1 = P | last2 = Garg | first2 = R | last3 = Prasad | first3 = R | last4 = Mishra | first4 = AK}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1971 || Medical development (treatment) || [[wikipedia:Antibiotic|Antibiotic]] [[wikipedia:rifampicin|rifampicin]] is first sold as a medication to treat several types of [[wikipedia:bacterial infections|bacterial infections]], including tuberculosis.<ref name=Ox2009>{{cite book|title=Oxford Handbook of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology|date=2009|publisher=OUP Oxford|isbn=978-0-19-103962-1|page=56|url=https://books.google.ca/books?id=5W-WBQAAQBAJ&pg=PT56}}</ref>||
 
|-
 
|-
 
|1976||Organization||The Seattle Biomedical Research Institute (today known as [[wikipedia:Center for Infectious Disease Research|Center for Infectious Disease Research]]) is founded as a non-profit organization focused solely on infectious disease discovery research, including tuberculosis.<ref>{{cite web|title=Seattle Biomedical Research Institute|url=http://startupgenome.com/organizations/acquisitions/seattle-biomedical-research-institute|accessdate=21 November 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Center for Infectious Disease Research|url=http://www.cidresearch.org/|accessdate=4 September 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Issaquah, Washington|Issaquah, Washington]], [[wikipedia:US|US]]
 
|1976||Organization||The Seattle Biomedical Research Institute (today known as [[wikipedia:Center for Infectious Disease Research|Center for Infectious Disease Research]]) is founded as a non-profit organization focused solely on infectious disease discovery research, including tuberculosis.<ref>{{cite web|title=Seattle Biomedical Research Institute|url=http://startupgenome.com/organizations/acquisitions/seattle-biomedical-research-institute|accessdate=21 November 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Center for Infectious Disease Research|url=http://www.cidresearch.org/|accessdate=4 September 2016}}</ref>||[[wikipedia:Issaquah, Washington|Issaquah, Washington]], [[wikipedia:US|US]]
Line 95: Line 99:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1992 || Medical development (drug) || Bactericidal antibiotic drug Mycobutin ([[wikipedia:Ribafutin|Rifabutin]]) is first registered for treatment against tuberculosis.<ref name="THE NEW LANDSCAPE OF NEGLECTED DISEASE DRUG DEVELOPMENT">{{cite web|title=THE NEW LANDSCAPE OF NEGLECTED DISEASE DRUG DEVELOPMENT|url=http://www.lse.ac.uk/intranet/LSEServices/communications/pressAndInformationOffice/PDF/Neglected_Diseases_05.pdf|website=lse.ac.uk|accessdate=26 April 2017}}</ref> ||
 
| 1992 || Medical development (drug) || Bactericidal antibiotic drug Mycobutin ([[wikipedia:Ribafutin|Rifabutin]]) is first registered for treatment against tuberculosis.<ref name="THE NEW LANDSCAPE OF NEGLECTED DISEASE DRUG DEVELOPMENT">{{cite web|title=THE NEW LANDSCAPE OF NEGLECTED DISEASE DRUG DEVELOPMENT|url=http://www.lse.ac.uk/intranet/LSEServices/communications/pressAndInformationOffice/PDF/Neglected_Diseases_05.pdf|website=lse.ac.uk|accessdate=26 April 2017}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1993 || || The {{w|World Health Organization}} declares tuberculosis as a global emergency.<ref name="Tuberculosis: Current Situation, Challenges and Overview of its Control Programs in India"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1994 || Medical development (drug) || Antibiotic drug Paser ([[wikipedia:Aminosalicylic acid|Aminosalicylic acid]]) is first registered for the treatment of tuberculosis.<ref name="THE NEW LANDSCAPE OF NEGLECTED DISEASE DRUG DEVELOPMENT"/> ||  
 
| 1994 || Medical development (drug) || Antibiotic drug Paser ([[wikipedia:Aminosalicylic acid|Aminosalicylic acid]]) is first registered for the treatment of tuberculosis.<ref name="THE NEW LANDSCAPE OF NEGLECTED DISEASE DRUG DEVELOPMENT"/> ||  
Line 100: Line 106:
 
| 1995 || Program launch ||The [[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]] launches [[wikipedia:DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment, Short-Course)|DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment, Short-Course)]] program as a control strategy for tuberculosis. DOTS works as an intermittent, supervised system of drug intake by patient, which eliminates drug default. DOTS has been described by WHO as "the most important public health breakthrough of the decade in terms of lives saved".<ref>{{cite web|title=DOTS|url=http://www.wpro.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/20120306_tuberculosis/en/index2.html|accessdate=21 November 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last1=Murali|first1=M S|title=DOTS strategy for control of tuberculosis epidemic.|pmid=12508626|volume=56|journal=Indian J Med Sci|pages=16–8}}</ref>||
 
| 1995 || Program launch ||The [[wikipedia:World Health Organization|World Health Organization]] launches [[wikipedia:DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment, Short-Course)|DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment, Short-Course)]] program as a control strategy for tuberculosis. DOTS works as an intermittent, supervised system of drug intake by patient, which eliminates drug default. DOTS has been described by WHO as "the most important public health breakthrough of the decade in terms of lives saved".<ref>{{cite web|title=DOTS|url=http://www.wpro.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/20120306_tuberculosis/en/index2.html|accessdate=21 November 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last1=Murali|first1=M S|title=DOTS strategy for control of tuberculosis epidemic.|pmid=12508626|volume=56|journal=Indian J Med Sci|pages=16–8}}</ref>||
 
|-
 
|-
|1998||Development||The [[wikipedia:mycobacterium tuberculosis|mycobacterium tuberculosis]] ([[wikipedia:H37Rv|H37Rv]] strain) [[wikipedia:genome|genome]] is sequenced, with aims at helping scientists develop better therapies, ranging from treatments for tuberculosis to vaccines to prevent it.<ref name="1998: M. Tuberculosis Bacterium Sequenced">{{cite web|title=1998: M. Tuberculosis Bacterium Sequenced|url=https://www.genome.gov/25520389/online-education-kit-1998-m-tuberculosis-bacterium-sequenced/|accessdate=9 September 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |vauthors=Cole ST, Brosch R, Parkhill J, Garnier T, Churcher C, Harris D, Gordon SV, Eiglmeier K, Gas S, Barry CE, Tekaia F, Badcock K, Basham D, Brown D, Chillingworth T, Connor R, Davies R, Devlin K, Feltwell T, Gentles S, Hamlin N, Holroyd S, Hornsby T, Jagels K, Krogh A, McLean J, Moule S, Murphy L, Oliver K, Osborne J, Quail MA, Rajandream MA, Rogers J, Rutter S, Seeger K, Skelton J, Squares R, Squares S, Sulston JE, Taylor K, Whitehead S, Barrell BG | title = Deciphering the biology of ''Mycobacterium tuberculosis'' from the complete genome sequence | journal = Nature | volume = 393 | issue = 6685 | pages = 537–44 | date = June 1998 | pmid = 9634230 | doi = 10.1038/31159 }}</ref>||
+
| 1998 || Scientific development || The [[wikipedia:mycobacterium tuberculosis|mycobacterium tuberculosis]] ([[wikipedia:H37Rv|H37Rv]] strain) [[wikipedia:genome|genome]] is sequenced, with aims at helping scientists develop better therapies, ranging from treatments for tuberculosis to vaccines to prevent it.<ref name="1998: M. Tuberculosis Bacterium Sequenced">{{cite web|title=1998: M. Tuberculosis Bacterium Sequenced|url=https://www.genome.gov/25520389/online-education-kit-1998-m-tuberculosis-bacterium-sequenced/|accessdate=9 September 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |vauthors=Cole ST, Brosch R, Parkhill J, Garnier T, Churcher C, Harris D, Gordon SV, Eiglmeier K, Gas S, Barry CE, Tekaia F, Badcock K, Basham D, Brown D, Chillingworth T, Connor R, Davies R, Devlin K, Feltwell T, Gentles S, Hamlin N, Holroyd S, Hornsby T, Jagels K, Krogh A, McLean J, Moule S, Murphy L, Oliver K, Osborne J, Quail MA, Rajandream MA, Rogers J, Rutter S, Seeger K, Skelton J, Squares R, Squares S, Sulston JE, Taylor K, Whitehead S, Barrell BG | title = Deciphering the biology of ''Mycobacterium tuberculosis'' from the complete genome sequence | journal = Nature | volume = 393 | issue = 6685 | pages = 537–44 | date = June 1998 | pmid = 9634230 | doi = 10.1038/31159 }}</ref>||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1998 || Medical development (drug) || Priftin ([[wikipedia:Rifapentine|Rifapentine]]) is first registered for the treatment of tuberculosis.<ref name="THE NEW LANDSCAPE OF NEGLECTED DISEASE DRUG DEVELOPMENT"/> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]], [[wikipedia:Puerto Rico|Puerto Rico]]
 
| 1998 || Medical development (drug) || Priftin ([[wikipedia:Rifapentine|Rifapentine]]) is first registered for the treatment of tuberculosis.<ref name="THE NEW LANDSCAPE OF NEGLECTED DISEASE DRUG DEVELOPMENT"/> || [[wikipedia:United States|United States]], [[wikipedia:Puerto Rico|Puerto Rico]]
Line 120: Line 126:
 
|2009|| ||[[wikipedia:WHO|WHO]] calls for universal access to [[wikipedia:Tuberculosis diagnosis|tuberculosis culture]] by 2015.<ref name="teachepi" />||
 
|2009|| ||[[wikipedia:WHO|WHO]] calls for universal access to [[wikipedia:Tuberculosis diagnosis|tuberculosis culture]] by 2015.<ref name="teachepi" />||
 
|-
 
|-
|2012||Treatment||[[wikipedia:FDA|FDA]] approves [[wikipedia:bedaquiline|bedaquiline]] for treating [[wikipedia:multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis|multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis]]. It is the first new medicine for tuberculosis in more than forty years.<ref>{{cite web|title=FDA Approves 1st New Tuberculosis Drug in 40 Years|url=http://abcnews.go.com/Health/wireStory/fda-approves-tuberculosis-40-years-18100650#.UOIPT-RQWe0|publisher=ABC News|accessdate=3 September 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=F.D.A. Approves New Tuberculosis Drug|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/01/business/fda-approves-new-tuberculosis-drug.html?_r=0|publisher=New York Times|accessdate=3 September 2016}}</ref>|| United States
+
| 2012 || Medical development (treatment)||[[wikipedia:FDA|FDA]] approves [[wikipedia:bedaquiline|bedaquiline]] for treating [[wikipedia:multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis|multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis]]. It is the first new medicine for tuberculosis in more than forty years.<ref>{{cite web|title=FDA Approves 1st New Tuberculosis Drug in 40 Years|url=http://abcnews.go.com/Health/wireStory/fda-approves-tuberculosis-40-years-18100650#.UOIPT-RQWe0|publisher=ABC News|accessdate=3 September 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=F.D.A. Approves New Tuberculosis Drug|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/01/business/fda-approves-new-tuberculosis-drug.html?_r=0|publisher=New York Times|accessdate=3 September 2016}}</ref>|| United States
 
|-
 
|-
 
|2012||Report|||155 000 people fall ill with tuberculosis in low-incidence countries, averaging 10,000 deaths (30 TB deaths a day).<ref>{{cite web|title=TB elimination|url=http://www.who.int/tb/publications/Towards_TB_Eliminationfactsheet.pdf?ua=1|publisher=WHO|accessdate=21 January 2017}}</ref> ||
 
|2012||Report|||155 000 people fall ill with tuberculosis in low-incidence countries, averaging 10,000 deaths (30 TB deaths a day).<ref>{{cite web|title=TB elimination|url=http://www.who.int/tb/publications/Towards_TB_Eliminationfactsheet.pdf?ua=1|publisher=WHO|accessdate=21 January 2017}}</ref> ||
Line 126: Line 132:
 
| 1012 || Report || More than 180 countries sign a pledge, vowing to redouble efforts to stop children from dying of preventable diseases, including tuberculosis.<ref name="ENDING TUBERCULOSIS IN CHILDREN" /> ||  
 
| 1012 || Report || More than 180 countries sign a pledge, vowing to redouble efforts to stop children from dying of preventable diseases, including tuberculosis.<ref name="ENDING TUBERCULOSIS IN CHILDREN" /> ||  
 
|-  
 
|-  
|2014||Report|| The World Health Organization and partners launch first-ever targeted and costed roadmap with key steps to scale up the response to childhood tuberculosis and end childhood tuberculosis-related deaths.<ref name="ENDING TUBERCULOSIS IN CHILDREN" />|| United States (Washington DC)
+
| 2014 || Report || The World Health Organization and partners launch first-ever targeted and costed roadmap with key steps to scale up the response to childhood tuberculosis and end childhood tuberculosis-related deaths.<ref name="ENDING TUBERCULOSIS IN CHILDREN" />|| United States (Washington DC)
 +
|-
 +
| 2014 || Report|| At a global level, 9.6 million people fell ill with tuberculosis and 1.5 million died from the disease in 2014.<ref name="factsheet">{{cite web|title=Tuberculosis|url=http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs104/en/|accessdate=9 September 2016}}</ref>||
 
|-
 
|-
|2014||Report||At a global level, 9.6 million people fell ill with tuberculosis and 1.5 million died from the disease in 2014.<ref name="factsheet">{{cite web|title=Tuberculosis|url=http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs104/en/|accessdate=9 September 2016}}</ref>||
+
| 2016 || Epidemiology || India tops the list of countries accounting for 64% of the 10.4 million new tuberculosis cases worldwide in 2016.<ref>{{cite web|title=India Has Highest Number of New TB Cases Reported in 2016, Says WHO|url=https://thewire.in/192855/india-tuberculosis-who-report/|website=thewire.in|accessdate=20 November 2017}}</ref> || {{w|India}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 +
 +
==Meta information on the timeline==
 +
 +
===How the timeline was built===
 +
 +
The initial version of the timeline was written by [[User:Sebastian]].
 +
 +
{{funding info}} is available.
 +
 +
===What the timeline is still missing===
 +
 +
===Timeline update strategy===
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 +
 
* [[wikipedia:Timeline of cholera|Timeline of cholera]]
 
* [[wikipedia:Timeline of cholera|Timeline of cholera]]
 
* [[wikipedia:Timeline of malaria|Timeline of malaria]]
 
* [[wikipedia:Timeline of malaria|Timeline of malaria]]
 
* [[wikipedia:Timeline of HIV/AIDS|Timeline of HIV/AIDS]]
 
* [[wikipedia:Timeline of HIV/AIDS|Timeline of HIV/AIDS]]
 
* [[wikipedia:Timeline of global health|Timeline of global health]]
 
* [[wikipedia:Timeline of global health|Timeline of global health]]
 +
 +
 +
==External links==
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 +
 
{{Reflist|30em}}
 
{{Reflist|30em}}
 
[[wikipedia:Category:Tuberculosis|Category:Tuberculosis]]
 
[[wikipedia:Category:Global health|Category:Global health]]
 
[[wikipedia:Category:Health-related timelines|Category:Health-related timelines]]
 
[[wikipedia:Category:Medicine timelines|Category:Medicine timelines]]
 

Latest revision as of 10:34, 20 November 2017

The content on this page is forked from the English Wikipedia page entitled "Timeline of tuberculosis". The original page still exists at Timeline of tuberculosis. The original content was released under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License (CC-BY-SA), so this page inherits this license.
For a comprehensive treatment of the subject, see wikipedia:History of tuberculosis.

This is a timeline of tuberculosis, describing especially major discoveries, advances in treatment and major organizations.

Big picture

Year/period Key developments
Ancient times Typical skeletal abnormalities of tuberculosis, including characteristic Pott's deformities, are found in Egyptian mummies and are depicted in early Egyptian art. Tuberculosis is also noted in the Biblical books of Deuteronomy and Leviticus. Written texts describe tuberculosis in India as early as 3300 years ago and in China 2300 years ago. Tuberculosis is well known in classical Greece, where it is called phthisis.[1][2]
Middle Ages and Renaissance The incidence of tuberculosis grows progressively in these times, displacing leprosy, peaking between the 18th and 19th century as field workers move to the cities looking for work.[3] In parts of Europe, tuberculosis is known as the “king’s evil” and is widely believed that the kings of England and France can cure scrofula simply by touching those affected.[4]
1700s–1800s Description of tuberculosis is developed in medical literature. TB is identified as a single disease in the 1820s.[5] sanatoria start to open for treating patients, with often successful outcomes. Understanding of the pathogenesis of tuberculosis begins with the works of Laennec, Villemin and the identification of the tubercle bacillus as the etiologic agent by Robert Koch.
1920s–1930s The International Union Against Tuberculosis (IUAT) is founded. BCG vaccine against tuberculosis is developed. Several international conferences are held, focusing on the fundamental, biological, clinical and social aspects of tuberculosis.[6]
1940s onward The isolation of streptomycin is generally considered the beginning of the modern era of tuberculosis. The revolution continues with the development of isoniazid, the first oral mycobactericidal drug. The advent of rifampin in the 1970s hastens recovery times, and significantly reduces the number of tuberculosis cases in the following years.[7][8]
1980s onward Tuberculosis drug-resistant strains appear, provoking a rise in incidence in countries like Britain. Also, the association with AIDS has contributed to the rise of tuberculosis in some sectors.[9]
Present Today, tuberculosis continues to be a top infectious disease killer worldwide. However, the death rate has dropped 47% since 1990. Over 95% of cases and deaths are in developing countries, with the most severe burden in Africa.[10] At least 1 million children fall ill with tuberculosis each year, represent about 11% of all cases.[11]

Full timeline

Evolution of incidence of tuberculosis cases per WHO region for the period 1990-2014.[12]
Year/period Type of event Event Location
1689 Scientific development English physician Richard Morton first states that tubercles are always present in the tuberculosis disease of the lungs.[13] England
1761 Medical development (diagnosis) Austrian physician Leopold Auenbrugger develops a percussion method for diagnosing tuberculosis.[14]
1768 Scientific development Scottish physician Robert Whytt gives the first clinical description of tuberculous meningitis.[15]
1779 Scientific development English surgeon Percivall Pott first describes the arthritic tuberculosis of the spine (today known as Pott disease).[16]
1810 Scientific development French physician Gaspard Laurent Bayle publishes his article Recherches sur la Pthisie Pulmonaire, in which he divides phthisis into six types: tubercular phthisis, glandular phthisis, ulcerous phthisis, phthisis with melanosis, calculous phthisis, and cancerous phthisis, basing his findings on more than 900 autopsies.[17]
1816 Scientific development French physician René Laennec, working at the Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, develops the stethoscope, which proves to be a breakthrough. The stethoscope marks a major step in the redefinition of disease from being a bundle of symptoms, to the current sense of a disease as a problem with an anatomical system even if there are no noticeable symptoms. The work of Laennec is considered to have clearly elucidated the pathogenesis of tuberculosis and unified the concept of the disease, whether pulmonary or extrapulmonary.[18][19] Paris, France
1839 Scientific development German naturalist Johann Lukas Schönlein is attributed with naming the disease tuberculosis.[20]
1854 Organization Hermann Brehmer establishes the first German sanatorium for the systematic open-air treatment of tuberculosis, with treatment including adjusting lifestyle at high altitude, abundant diet with some alcohol, and exercise in the open air under strict medical supervision. The results are eventually regarded as highly successful, surpassing any previous treatment.[21] Strehlen, Prussia
1865 Scientific development French physician Jean Antoine Villemin demonstrates of the transmissibility of mycobacterium tuberculosis.[2] France
1882 Scientific development German physician Robert Koch, the founder of modern bacteriology, identifies the tubercle bacillus as the etiologic agent that causes tuberculosis. Some years later, Koch develops what today is known as Koch's postulates, which he applies to describe the etiology of cholera and tuberculosis. Koch is also attributed for having created and improved laboratory technologies and techniques in the field of microbiology, and making key discoveries in public health. Koch receives the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1905.[2]
1890 Scientific development Hungarian physiologist Franz Tangl publishes what later becomes known as Baumgarten-Tangl law, stating that the location where the bacteria intrudes is the one where the inflammation can be observed first.[22]
1900 Scientific development French bacteriologists Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin begin research for an antituberculosis vaccine at the Pasteur Institute.[23] Lille, France
1903 Organization American entrepreneur Henry Phipps, Jr. founds the Phipps Institute for the Study, Treatment and Prevention of Tuberculosis at the University of Pennsylvania.[24] Philadelphia, US
1904 Organization The National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis (NASPT) is founded.[25]
1907 Medical development (diagnosis) French physician Charles Mantoux introduces his eponymous Mantoux test as a serological skin test to determine whether a person is infected with tuberculosis.[26]
1908 Medical development (diagnosis) French physician Charles Mantoux, perfects test for diagnosis of tuberculosis contact (latent tuberculosis).[27]
1909 Organization American philanthropist Nathan Straus opens the first preventorium for patients infected with tuberculosis.[28]
1921 Development Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine is first administered. It is still the only vaccine available today against tuberculosis.[23] Paris, France
1925 Medical development (diagnosis) Chest radiology starts playing diagnostic role in detecting deep-seated areas of tuberculosis consolidation.[5]
1930 Crisis Lübeck disaster. 250 newborn babies are given doses of BCG contaminated by virulent tubercle bacilli. After four to six weeks a large number of the infants develop tuberculosis. 73 babies die in the first year and another 135 are infected but finally recover.[23] Lübeck, Germany
1932 Medical development (diagnosis) The Löwenstein–Jensen medium is developed as diagnosis for tuberculosis. It is used for culture of Mycobacterium species, notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis.[29]
1936 Medical development (diagnosis) Brazilian physician Manuel de Abreu develops chest photofluorography, a technique for mass screening for tuberculosis.[30] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
1944 Medical development (treatment) Swedish chemist Jörgen Lehmann develops antibiotic 4-Aminosalicylic acid for treating tuberculosis.[31]
1944 Medical development (drug) Albert Schatz, Elizabeth Bugie, and Selman Waksman at Rutgers University isolate streptomycin, the first antibiotic and first bacterial agent effective against tuberculosis.[32] New Jersey, US
1945 Medical development (diagnosis) The capability of chest radiology is enhanced to embody the MMR (mass miniature radiography) version.[5]
1946–1948 Medical development (treatment) The first randomized trial of streptomycin against pulmonary tuberculosis is carried out.[33][34] United States
1948 Medical development (treatment) Researchers at Britain's Medical Research Council demonstrate that combined treatment with streptomycin and 4-Aminosalicylic acid is superior to either drug alone.[35] UK
1950 Campaign Mass tuberculosis immunization is under way with the BCG vaccine. This vaccine is recommended to be given intradermally, immediately after birth. This vaccine is mandatory to attend school in France between 1950 and 2007, introduced in Brazil in 1967, and to the Philippines in 1979.[36][37][38]
1952 Medical development (drug) Isoniazid is first introduced in clinical treatment for tuberculosis.[2][39]
1952 Medical development (treatment) Amino acid derivative cycloserine is first isolated. Cycloserine is found to be effective against mycobacterium tuberculosis.[40]
1962 Medical development (treatment) Bacteriostatic drug ethambutol is developed as a medication primarily used to treat tuberculosis.[41]
1971 Medical development (treatment) Antibiotic rifampicin is first sold as a medication to treat several types of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis.[42]
1976 Organization The Seattle Biomedical Research Institute (today known as Center for Infectious Disease Research) is founded as a non-profit organization focused solely on infectious disease discovery research, including tuberculosis.[43][44] Issaquah, Washington, US
1989 Medical development (drug) Antibiotic drug Rifadin (Rifampicin) is first registered for treatment of tuberculosis.[45]
1992 Medical development (drug) Bactericidal antibiotic drug Mycobutin (Rifabutin) is first registered for treatment against tuberculosis.[45]
1993 The World Health Organization declares tuberculosis as a global emergency.[5]
1994 Medical development (drug) Antibiotic drug Paser (Aminosalicylic acid) is first registered for the treatment of tuberculosis.[45]
1995 Program launch The World Health Organization launches DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment, Short-Course) program as a control strategy for tuberculosis. DOTS works as an intermittent, supervised system of drug intake by patient, which eliminates drug default. DOTS has been described by WHO as "the most important public health breakthrough of the decade in terms of lives saved".[46][47]
1998 Scientific development The mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv strain) genome is sequenced, with aims at helping scientists develop better therapies, ranging from treatments for tuberculosis to vaccines to prevent it.[48][49]
1998 Medical development (drug) Priftin (Rifapentine) is first registered for the treatment of tuberculosis.[45] United States, Puerto Rico
1999 Campaign Médecins Sans Frontières launch the Campaign for Access to Essential Medicines. It pushes to lower the prices of existing drugs, vaccines and diagnostic tests, to stimulate research and development into new treatments for diseases (tuberculosis among them) that primarily affect the poor.[50]
2000 Organization The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Structural Genomics Consortium is formed as a worldwide consortium of scientists with the goal of providing a structural basis for the development of therapeutics for tuberculosis. The consortium has five core facilities (located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Lab, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Los Angeles and Texas A&M University) that carry out an increasing fraction of routine tasks such as protein production, crystallization and X-ray data collection.[51] United States
2000 Organization The Global Alliance for TB Drug Development (TB Alliance) is established as a nonprofit organization dedicated to the discovery and development of new, faster-acting and affordable tuberculosis medicines.[52] Cape Town, South Africa
2001 Organization The Stop TB Partnership is established with the purpose of eliminating tuberculosis as a public health problem. It has 1000 partner organizations, including international, nongovernmental and governmental organizations and patient groups.[53] Geneva, Switzerland
2002 Organization The The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is founded as an international financing institution dedicated to attract and fund additional resources to stop and treat those diseases.[54] Geneva, Switzerland
2006 Organization Unitaid is launched as a global health initiative. It provides sustainable funding in order to tackle inefficiencies in markets for medicines, diagnostics and prevention for HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis in developing countries. UNITAID finances its project through the international solidarity levy on airline tickets that is currently collected in nine out of 29 UNITAID member countries.[55] France, Brazil, Chile, Norway and United Kingdom
2008 Organization The The Millennium Foundation for Innovative Finance for Health is established. Its project MassiveGood is meant to collect funds for combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis.[56] United States, United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Spain (serves worldwide)
2009 WHO calls for universal access to tuberculosis culture by 2015.[29]
2012 Medical development (treatment) FDA approves bedaquiline for treating multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. It is the first new medicine for tuberculosis in more than forty years.[57][58] United States
2012 Report 155 000 people fall ill with tuberculosis in low-incidence countries, averaging 10,000 deaths (30 TB deaths a day).[59]
1012 Report More than 180 countries sign a pledge, vowing to redouble efforts to stop children from dying of preventable diseases, including tuberculosis.[11]
2014 Report The World Health Organization and partners launch first-ever targeted and costed roadmap with key steps to scale up the response to childhood tuberculosis and end childhood tuberculosis-related deaths.[11] United States (Washington DC)
2014 Report At a global level, 9.6 million people fell ill with tuberculosis and 1.5 million died from the disease in 2014.[10]
2016 Epidemiology India tops the list of countries accounting for 64% of the 10.4 million new tuberculosis cases worldwide in 2016.[60] India


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References

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