Timeline of urology

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This is a timeline of urology, describing significant events in the development of the field. Recognition of urology as a separate specialty or subspecialty of general surgery is relatively recent.[1]

Big picture

Time period Development summary
Ancient history Evidence of many diseases and even some surgical procedures date to ancient times, diseases that later would come under the purview of urology.[1]
17th century “Stone cutters”, or travelling lithotomists, practise bladder stone removal throughout Europe.[2]
19th century The development of the cystoscope contributes to the splitting off of urology from general surgery.[1] In the late century, urology as a specialty in its own right emerges.
20th century The field of urology develops at an astonishing speed.[2] Instrumental develops widely in the first half of the century, while many organizations and journals emerge in the second half.

Full timeline

Year Event type Details Location
4000 BC The rite of circumcision is thought to have been practiced in Egypt around that time.[1] Egypt
<1AC Field development At the end of the pre-Christian era, ancient Hindu surgeons attempt to remove bladder stones through a suprapubic incision.[1] India
1556 Field development Pierre Franco successfully removes bladder stones from a child.[1]
1561 Field development Pierre Franco conducts the first recorded suprapubic lithotomy.[3]
1804 Instrumental German physician Philipp Bozzini develops his lichtleiter or "Light Conductor", a primitive endoscope to allow for inspecting the ear, urethra, rectum, female bladder, cervix, mouth, nasal cavity, or wounds.[4][5] Germany
1806 Field development Endoscopy is first conceived.[6]
1807 Instrumental A number of instruments start being devised to peer into body cavities.[1]
1824 Field development French surgeon Jean Civiale performs the first lithotrity at the Necken Hospital in Paris.[1][7][8][9] France
1877 Instrumental German urologist Maximilian Nitze, in collaboration with an instrument maker in Dresden, fabricates the first cystoscope.[1] Germany
1879 Instrumental American inventor Thomas Edison invents the first practical incandescent lamp, allowing for the development of transurethral resection of bladder tumors.[6] United States
1881 Field development The first bladder tumor is removed with an urethtroscope by Joseph Grunfeld, using an instrument known as the polypenkneipe, which functions as a snare to remove tumors.[4]
1888 Instrumental German physicist Heinrich Hertz devises high frequency electric current.[6] Germany
1890 Field development Urology as a specialty in its own right is instituted with the appointment of Felix Guyon in Paris as the first Professor of Urology.[2] France
1902 Organization The American Urological Association (AUA) is founded.[1] United States
1907 Literature International journal Folia Urologica is founded.[10]
1908 Instrumental Edwin Beer from New York conceives the idea of using high-frequency electric current through a catheterizing-cytoscope to coagulate bladder tumors. Beer is considered to be the founder of electrosurgery of the bladder.[6] United States
1908 Instrumental Lee DeForest introduces the vacuum tube permitting continuous current.[6][11]
1909 Instrumental American urologist Hugh H. Young conceives the fenestrated tube.[6] United States
1910 Instrumental Edwin Beer applies high-frequency electrical current underwater.[6]
1911 Instrumental Hugh H. Young uses a cystoscope with a punch device to perform transurethral prostatectomy.[12] United States
1917 Literature The Journal of Urology is launched by the American Urological Association.[1] United States
1924 Instrumental George Wyeth conceives the first practical cutting current.[6]
1926 Field development New York urologist Maximilian Stern introduces the resectoscope, a type of endoscope used in surgeries of the uterus, prostate, bladder, or urethra.[6][13][4] United States
1929 Literature The British Journal of Urology International is established.[1] United Kingdom
1931 Field development Reinhold Wappler combines cutting and coagulation current into one.[6]
1931 Instrumental Joseph McCarthy from New York makes significant improvements in the resectoscope.[6] United States
1931 Instrumental Ametrcan urologist Theodore Davis, from South Carolina, presents a modified resectoscope, using a larger instrument with a larger viewing window and a wider loop. Davis incorporates both cutting and coagulation current diathermy, inventing a foot pedal allowing him to switch between the two during surgery.[14] United States
1931 Instrumental Joseph McCarthy improves the panendoscope (a foreoblique lens system invented by Frederick Wappler), with improved vision, Theodore Davis's dual current idea and Maximilian Stern's resectoscope.[14] United States
1933 Literature The History of Urology is published by the American Urological Association.[15] United States
1938 Instrumental Reed Nesbit devises a novel one-handed resectoscope.[6]
1945 Organization The British Association of Urological Surgeons is founded.[2] United Kingdom
1955 (circa) Instrumental The Hopkins rod lens system is developed, revolutionizing urology by providing robust, versatile, reliable & sterilizable endoscopic equipment and “cold” light sources which allow high-quality visualization of the interior of the urinary tract.[2]
1962 Literature Peer-reviewed scientific journal Der Urologe is established.[16] Germany
1971 Organization The International Continence Society is formed.[17]
1972 Literature Leonard J.T. Murphy publishes The History of Urology, one of the first complete history of urology texts.[10]
1973 Instrumental The artificial urinary sphincter is first implanted.[18]
1973 Literature Peer-reviewed scientific journal Urology is established.
1973 Literature John R Herman publishes Urology: A View Through the Retrospectroscope, a short text meant to be an introduction to the history of urology.[10]
1973 Organization The Indonesian Urological Association is established.[19] Indonesia
1975 Literature The Turkish Journal of Urology is established.[20] Turkey
1975 Instrumental Jose Iglesias develops the continuous flow resectoscope.[4]
1975 Literature Monthly peer-reviewed medical journal European Urology is established.[1]
1984 Organization The Interstitial Cystitis Association (ICA) is established.[21]
1985 Literature The Indian Journal of Urology is first issued.[22] India
1985 Organization A Section of Urology formally starts at the European Union of Medical Specialists.[23]
1985 Organization The Society for Basic Urologic Research is established.[24] United States
1988 Organization The Urology Center of Westchester is incorporated.[25] United States
1992 Organization The first European Board Examination in Urology is held.[23]
1993 Organization The Prostate Cancer Foundation is established.[26] United States
1995 Literature The African Journal of Urology is first issued.[27]
1999 Field development Scientists announce that a lab-grown bladder has been successfully transplanted into dogs.[28]
2001 Organization The Vattikuti Urology Institute is established in Detroit.[29] United States
2001 Organization The British Society of Urogynaecologists is formed.[30] United Kingdom
2002 Literature Renal & Urology News is first issued.[31] United States
2004 Literature Peer-reviewed medical journal Nature Reviews Urology is first issued.[32]
2011 Literature The American Urological Association first publishes a guideline on interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.[21] United States

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How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

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See also

External links


  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 Ware, Elgin W. "A brief history of urology at Baylor University Medical Center". PMC 1214562Freely accessible. PMID 16278760. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 "History of Urology". camurology.org.uk. Retrieved 20 October 2018. 
  3. Tefekli, Ahmet; Cezayirli, Fatin. "The History of Urinary Stones: In Parallel with Civilization". doi:10.1155/2013/423964. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Bladder Cancer: Diagnosis and Clinical Management (Seth P. Lerner, Mark P. Schoenberg, Cora N. Sternberg ed.). 
  5. "Introducing the proto-endoscope". history.uroweb.org. Retrieved 25 October 2018. 
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 Patel, Sutchin R.; Moran, Michael E.; Nakada, Stephen Y. The History of Technologic Advancements in Urology. 
  7. Warner, John Harley. Against the Spirit of System: The French Impulse in Nineteenth-Century American Medicine. 
  8. Steiner, Rudolf W. Laser Lithotripsy: Clinical Use and Technical Aspects. 
  9. Van Reen, R. Idiopathic Urinary Bladder Stone Disease. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 "History of Urology I (Podium)". jurology.com. Retrieved 20 October 2018. 
  11. Talamini, Mark A. Advanced Therapy in Minimally Invasive Surgery. 
  12. H, Ellis. "The Hopkins rod-lens system.". PMID 17598677. doi:10.1177/175045890701700605. 
  13. Petrovich, Zbigniew; Baert, Luc. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Innovations in Management. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 "Stern-McCarthy resectoscope". baus.org.uk. Retrieved 25 October 2018. 
  15. "The History Of Urology.". jamanetwork.com. Retrieved 19 October 2018. 
  16. "DER UROLOGE. AUSGABE A". miar.ub.edu. Retrieved 20 October 2018. 
  17. "ICS 1971". ics.org. Retrieved 20 October 2018. 
  18. Minimally Invasive Therapy for Urinary Incontinence and Pelvic Organ Prolapse (Gopal H. Badlani ed.). 
  19. "Urology in Asia – Indonesia". onlinelibrary.wiley.com. Retrieved 20 October 2018. 
  20. "Turkish Journal of Urology" (PDF). turkishjournalofurology.com. Retrieved 25 October 2018. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 Moldwin, Robert M. Urological and Gynaecological Chronic Pelvic Pain: Current Therapies. 
  22. "Indian Journal of Urology". indianjurol.com. Retrieved 25 October 2018. 
  23. 23.0 23.1 "EBU History". ebu.com. Retrieved 19 October 2018. 
  24. "SBUR/AUA History". sbur.org. Retrieved 20 October 2018. 
  25. "UCW". sozce.com. Retrieved 25 October 2018. 
  26. "Prostate Cancer Foundation". pcf.org. Retrieved 20 October 2018. 
  27. "African Journal of Urology". journals.elsevier.com. Retrieved 20 October 2018. 
  28. Moreno-Borchart, Alexandra. "Building organs piece by piece". PMC 1299182Freely accessible. PMID 15520801. doi:10.1038/sj.embor.7400287. 
  29. "Vattikuti Urology Institute, Henry Ford Health System". vfrsi.vattikutifoundation.com. Retrieved 20 October 2018. 
  30. "British Society of Urogynaecology". rcog.org.uk. Retrieved 20 October 2018. 
  31. "Renal & Urology News". renalandurologynews.com. Retrieved 20 October 2018. 
  32. Albersen, M; Cartwright, R; Choyke, P; Goldenberg, SL; Goldman, H; Lawrentschuk, N; Linehan, WM; Murphy, D; Nagler, H; Scardino, P; Shortliffe, L; Stenzl, A; Theodorescu, D. "Looking forward, looking back-10 years in urology.". PMID 25348169. doi:10.1038/nrurol.2014.263.