Timeline of urology
This is a timeline of urology, describing significant events in the development of the field. Recognition of urology as a separate specialty or subspecialty of general surgery is relatively recent.
|Time period||Development summary|
|Ancient history||Evidence of many diseases and even some surgical procedures date to ancient times, diseases that later would come under the purview of urology.|
|17th century||“Stone cutters”, or travelling lithotomists, practise bladder stone removal throughout Europe.|
|19th century||The development of the cystoscope contributes to the splitting off of urology from general surgery. In the late century, urology as a specialty in its own right emerges.|
|20th century||The field of urology develops at an astonishing speed. Instrumental develops widely in the first half of the century, while many organizations and journals emerge in the second half.|
|4000 BC||The rite of circumcision is thought to have been practiced in Egypt around that time.||Egypt|
|<1AC||Field development||At the end of the pre-Christian era, ancient Hindu surgeons attempt to remove bladder stones through a suprapubic incision.|
|1556||Field development||Pierre Franco successfully removes bladder stones from a child.|
|1804||Instrumental||German physician Philipp Bozzini develops his lichtleiter or "Light Conductor", a primitive endoscope to allow for inspecting the ear, urethra, rectum, female bladder, cervix, mouth, nasal cavity, or wounds.||Germany|
|1806||Field development||Endoscopy is first conceived.|
|1807||Instrumental||A number of instruments start being devised to peer into body cavities.|
|1824||Field development||French surgeon Jean Civiale performs the first lithotrity at the Necken Hospital in Paris.||France|
|1877||Instrumental||German urologist Maximilian Nitze, in collaboration with an instrument maker in Dresden, fabricates the first cystoscope.||Germany|
|1879||Instrumental||American inventor Thomas Edison invents the first practical incandescent lamp, allowing for the development of transurethral resection of bladder tumors.||United States|
|1881||Field development||The first bladder tumor is removed with an urethtroscope by Joseph Grunfeld, using an instrument known as the polypenkneipe, which functions as a snare to remove tumors.|
|1888||Instrumental||German physicist Heinrich Hertz devises high frequency electric current.||Germany|
|1890||Field development||Urology as a specialty in its own right is instituted with the appointment of Felix Guyon in Paris as the first Professor of Urology.||France|
|1902||Organization||The American Urological Association (AUA) is founded.||United States|
|1907||Literature||International journal Folia Urologica is founded.|
|1908||Instrumental||Edwin Beer from New York conceives the idea of using high-frequency electric current through a catheterizing-cytoscope to coagulate bladder tumors. Beer is considered to be the founder of electrosurgery of the bladder.||United States|
|1908||Instrumental||Lee DeForest introduces the vacuum tube permitting continuous current.|
|1909||Instrumental||American urologist Hugh H. Young conceives the fenestrated tube.||United States|
|1910||Instrumental||Edwin Beer applies high-frequency electrical current underwater.|
|1911||Instrumental||Hugh H. Young uses a cystoscope with a punch device to perform transurethral prostatectomy.||United States|
|1917||Literature||The Journal of Urology is launched by the American Urological Association.||United States|
|1924||Instrumental||George Wyeth conceives the first practical cutting current.|
|1926||Field development||New York urologist Maximilian Stern introduces the resectoscope, a type of endoscope used in surgeries of the uterus, prostate, bladder, or urethra.||United States|
|1929||Literature||The British Journal of Urology International is established.||United Kingdom|
|1931||Field development||Reinhold Wappler combines cutting and coagulation current into one.|
|1931||Instrumental||Joseph McCarthy from New York makes significant improvements in the resectoscope.||United States|
|1931||Instrumental||Ametican urologist Theodore Davis, from South Carolina, presents a modified resectoscope, using a larger instrument with a larger viewing window and a wider loop. Davis incorporates both cutting and coagulation current diathermy, inventing a foot pedal allowing him to switch between the two during surgery.||United States|
|1931||Instrumental||Joseph McCarthy improves the panendoscope (a foreoblique lens system invented by Frederick Wappler), with improved vision, Theodore Davis's dual current idea and Maximilian Stern's resectoscope.||United States|
|1933||Literature||The History of Urology is published by the American Urological Association.||United States|
|1938||Instrumental||Reed Nesbit devises a novel one-handed resectoscope.|
|1945||Organization||The British Association of Urological Surgeons is founded.||United Kingdom|
|1955 (circa)||Instrumental||The Hopkins rod lens system is developed, revolutionizing urology by providing robust, versatile, reliable & sterilizable endoscopic equipment and “cold” light sources which allow high-quality visualization of the interior of the urinary tract.|
|1962||Literature||Peer-reviewed scientific journal Der Urologe is established.||Germany|
|1971||Organization||The International Continence Society is formed.|
|1972||Literature||Leonard J.T. Murphy publishes The History of Urology, one of the first complete history of urology texts.|
|1973||Instrumental||The artificial urinary sphincter is first implanted.|
|1973||Literature||Peer-reviewed scientific journal Urology is established.|
|1973||Literature||John R Herman publishes Urology: A View Through the Retrospectroscope, a short text meant to be an introduction to the history of urology.|
|1973||Organization||The Indonesian Urological Association is established.||Indonesia|
|1975||Literature||The Turkish Journal of Urology is established.||Turkey|
|1975||Instrumental||Jose Iglesias develops the continuous flow resectoscope.|
|1975||Literature||Monthly peer-reviewed medical journal European Urology is established.|
|1984||Organization||The Interstitial Cystitis Association (ICA) is established.|
|1985||Literature||The Indian Journal of Urology is first issued.||India|
|1985||Organization||A Section of Urology formally starts at the European Union of Medical Specialists.|
|1985||Organization||The Society for Basic Urologic Research is established.||United States|
|1988||Organization||The Urology Center of Westchester is incorporated.||United States|
|1992||Organization||The first European Board Examination in Urology is held.|
|1993||Organization||The Prostate Cancer Foundation is established.||United States|
|1995||Literature||The African Journal of Urology is first issued.|
|1999||Field development||Scientists announce that a lab-grown bladder has been successfully transplanted into dogs.|
|2001||Organization||The Vattikuti Urology Institute is established in Detroit.||United States|
|2001||Organization||The British Society of Urogynaecologists is formed.||United Kingdom|
|2002||Literature||Renal & Urology News is first issued.||United States|
|2004||Literature||Peer-reviewed medical journal Nature Reviews Urology is first issued.|
|2011||Literature||The American Urological Association first publishes a guideline on interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.||United States|
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