Timeline of vaccines
|Time period||Development summary|
|Ancient times||Inoculation against smallpox is practiced at least since the beginning of the Common era in China and India.|
|<18th century||Variolation is likely practiced in Africa, India, and China.|
|18th century||The history of vaccines starts late in the century. The first smallpox vaccine is achieved.|
|19th century||Late in the century, vaccines start being developed in the laboratory. Another important discovery is that immunogenicity can be retained if bacteria are carefully killed by heat or chemical treatment.|
|20th century||In the 20th century, it becomes possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. Chemical inactivation is also applied to viruses, with the influenza vaccine becoming the first successful inactivated virus vaccine.|
|1890–1950||Bacterial vaccine development proliferates, including the Bacillis-Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination, which is still in use today. By 1900, there are already two human virus vaccines, against smallpox and rabies, and three bacterial vaccines against typhoid, cholera, and plague. By the end of the 1920s, vaccines for diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough and tuberculosis are all available. By the 1940s, virologists understand that attenuation can be achieved by passage in abnormal hosts.|
|1950–1985||Viral tissue culture methods develop, leading to the advent of the Salk (inactivated) polio vaccine and the Sabin (live attenuated oral) polio vaccine. Vaccine development starts being based on rational choices since the mid century, when immunology advances to the point of distinguishing protection mediated by antibody and that mediated by lymphocytes, and when passage in cell culture permits the selection of attenuated mutants.|
|Late 1970s–1980s||Period of increasing litigation and decreased profitability for vaccine manufacture, leading to a decline in the number of companies producing vaccines.|
|21th century||In the current century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before. Historically deemed to be “only for children”, vaccines for adults are becoming increasingly common and necessary.|
Vaccines for children
Vaccines for adolescents
|Time period||Recommended Vaccines||Catch-up||Sub-groups|
|2000||Tetanus, Diphtheria (Td) vaccine||MMR, hepatitis B, varicella||hepatitis A|
|2005||Td||MMR, hepatitis B, varicella||hepatitis A, pneumococcus, influenza|
|2010||Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, HPV, meningococcus, influenza||MMR, hepatitis B, varicella, polio||hepatitis A, pneumococcus|
|Year||Month and date||Disease||Event type||Details||Country/location|
|1670||Immunization||Circassian traders introduce variolation to the Ottoman Empire.|
|1714||Immunization||The Royal Society of London receives a letter from Emanuel Timoni describing the technique of variolation, which he witnessed in Istanbul.|
|1721||Immunization||The regular practice of variolation reaches the New World.|
|1796||Vaccine||English physician Edward Jenner tests vaccination inoculating a 13 year-old-boy with vaccinia virus (cowpox), and demonstrates immunity to smallpox. Jenner is considered the founder of vaccinology in the Western World.|
|1798||Vaccine||The first smallpox vaccine is developed.|
|1803||Organization||The Royal Jennerian Society for the Extermination of the Smallpox founded in London.|
|1877||Scientific development||Louis Pasteur propounds germ theory of disease and develops techniques to create vaccines.|
|1879||Vaccine||Louis Pasteur creates the first live attenuated bacterial vaccine (chicken cholera).|
|1884||Vaccine||Louis Pasteur develops the first live attenuated viral vaccine (rabies), using dessicated brain tissue inactivated with formaldehyde.|
|1885||Vaccine||Louis Pasteur first uses the rabies vaccine in humans.|
|1890||Vaccine||German bacteriologist Emil von Behring, working in the laboratory of Robert Koch, discovers the tetanus vaccine.|
|1896||Vaccine||The typhoid fever vaccine is introduced.|
|1897||Vaccine||The plague vaccine is introduced by Russian bacteriologist Waldemar Haffkine.|
|1901||Award||Emil von Behring is awarded the first Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine, for his work on the development of a diphtheria antitoxin.|
|1907||Vaccine||Several cities in Europe and the United States begin immunization programs to administer the toxin–antitoxin (TAT) complex against diphtheria.|
|1921||Vaccine||The tuberculosis vaccine is first used in humans, offering only hit-or-miss protection, ranging from 14 percent to 80 percent effectiveness in preventing tuberculosis.|
|1923||Vaccine||French veterinarian Gaston Ramon, at the Pasteur Institute in France, develops the diphtheria toxoid vaccine.|
|1923||Scientific development||British immunologist Alexander Glenny perfects a method to inactivate tetanus toxin with formaldehyde.|
|1926||Vaccine||The whole cell killed pertussis vaccine becomes available.|
|1929||Scientific development||The utility of protein conjugation of polysaccharides is shown by Avery and Goebel. This discovery would prove useful later when Schneerson, Robbins, and coworkers make a conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine.|
|1932||Vaccine||Andrew Sellards, from Harvard University, and Jean Laigret, from the Pasteur Institute, develop the so called French vaccine against yellow fever.|
|1936||Vaccine||South African virologist Max Theiler develops his vaccine against yellow fever.|
|1937||Vaccine||Tetanus toxoid is first licensed as a vaccine.|
|1938||Vaccine||Herld Cox develops the first successful typhus vaccine, using the yolk sac of the chick embryo to grow Rickettsia rickettsii.|
|1941||Vaccine||The first vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis is prepared in the brains of mice.|
|1942||Vaccine||Bivalent vaccine is produced after the discovery of influenza B.|
|1945||Vaccine||The first influenza vaccine is approved for military use in the United States.|
|1948||Vaccine||A whole cell vaccine against pertussis is first licensed for use in the United States.|
|1948||Vaccine||An inactivated mumps vaccine is developed. However, this vaccine would produce only short-lasting immunity.|
|1951||Award||Max Theiler is awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for developing a vaccine against yellow fever.|
|1953 (March 26)||Vaccine||American medical researcher Jonas Salk announces on a national radio show that he has successfully tested a vaccine against poliomyelitis.|
|1954||Vaccine||A mouse brain derived inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine is first licensed in Japan.|
|1954||Vaccine||The first anthrax vaccine is developed, derived from an alum-precipitated cell-free filtrate of an aerobic culture of B antliracis.|
|1956||Program||The World Health Organization (WHO) decides to try to eradicate smallpox across the world. This is the first attempt to use the smallpox vaccine on a global scale.|
|1957||Vaccine||The first adenovirus vaccine is commercially available. It is used primarily in the United States military.|
|1962||Vaccine||Albert Sabin develops an oral polio vaccine that cost less, is easier to administer, and reduces the multiplication of the virus in the intestine.|
|1963||Vaccine||The measles vaccine is first introduced.|
|1963||Organization||The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) is established as an independent expert advisory committee.|
|1964||Publication||World Health Organization recommendations for the production and quality control of diphtheria vaccines are first formulated.|
|1965||Program||United States President Lyndon B Johnson establishes the CDC Smallpox Eradication program, establishing a legacy of US leadership in global immunization.|
|1968||Vaccine||American microbiologist Maurice Hilleman develops a weak measles vaccine. This vaccine is estimated to prevent 1 million deaths worldwide every year.|
|1969||Vaccine||The first rubella vaccines are licensed.|
|1971||Vaccine||The Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine is introduced, resulting from the combination of the three vaccines (for mumps , measles, and rubella).|
|1973||Program||The World Health Organization starts issuing annual recommendations for the composition of the influenza vaccine based on results from surveillance systems that would identify currently circulating strains.|
|1974||Program||The World Health Organization launches the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), with the initial goals to ensure that every child receive protection against six childhood diseases (i.e. tuberculosis, polio, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and measles) by the time they were one year of age, and to give tetanus toxoid vaccinations to women to protect them and their newborns against tetanus.|
|1977||Vaccine||The first pneumococcal vaccine is licensed in the United States.|
|1978||Vaccine||The United States become the first to license a vaccine to help protect against 4 of the 5 major serogroups of meningococcal bacteria.|
|1978||Vaccine||The first trivalent influenza vaccine is introduced. It includes two influenza A strains and one influenza B strain.|
|1979||Eradication||The World Health Assembly officially declares smallpox eradicated.|
|1980||Vaccine||United States FDA approves influenza vaccine Fluzone (Sanofi Pasteur), developed for A subtype viruses and type B virus contained in the vaccine.|
|1981||Vaccine||The first hepatitis B vaccine is approved in the United States.|
|1984||Vaccine||A varicella vaccine is first licensed in several countries in Europe.|
|1985||Vaccine||The first vaccine to protect against Hib diseases is introduced in the United States.|
|1985||Program||Rotary Club International launches PolioPlus, a campaign with the purpose of getting rid the world of poliomielitis. Since then, the organization and its partners would help reduce the number of cases from 350,000 annually to fewer than 400 in 2014, remaining committed until the disease is eradicated.|
|1987||Vaccine||The hepatitis B Vax II (recombinant) vaccine is introduced.|
|1989||Vaccine||Q-Vax is licensed in Australia, for Q fever.|
|1989||Vaccine||Hepatitis B vaccine, Engerix-B, is approved.|
|1990||Coverage||By this time, vaccination protects over 80% of the world's children from the six main EPI diseases (tuberculosis, polio, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and measles), and other new vaccines are continually being added to the EPI programmes in many countries.|
|1990||Vaccine||Ipol, an enhanced-potency inactivated poliovirus vaccine, by Pasteur Méérieux Vaccins et Serums, is licensed.|
|1991||Vaccine||The world's first hepatitis A vacine is approved in Switzerland and Belgium.|
|1991||Organization||Every Child By Two is founded in the United States as a non-profit health advocacy organization, which advocates for vaccinations.|
|1993||Organization||The Sabin Vaccine Institute is founded in the United States as a non-profit organization promoting global vaccine development, availability, and use.|
|1996||Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B.||A branded formulation of the DTP-HepB vaccine, Tritanrix-HepB manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline, is granted marketing approval in the United States.||United States|
|1997||Organization||The International Vaccine Institute (IVI) is founded as an international nonprofit organization on the belief that the health of children in developing countries can be dramatically improved by the use of new and improved vaccines. IVI is involved in all areas of the vaccine spectrum, working in collaboration with the international scientific community, public health organizations, governments, and industry.|
|1998||Vaccine||The United States Food and Drug Administration approves Lymerix, the world's first Lyme vaccine.|
|1998||Vaccine||The first rotavirus vaccine, RotaShield, is licensed and recommended for routine childhood immunization. However, it would be witdrawn in 1999 due to safety concerns.|
|1999||Organization||The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) is created to extend the reach of the Expanded Program on Immunization and to help the poorest countries introduce new and under-used life-saving vaccines into their national programs.|
|2000||Organization||The Brighton Collaboration launches as an international voluntary collaboration of scientific experts, launched. It facilitates the development, evaluation and dissemination of high-quality information about the safety of human vaccines.|
|2000||Organization||Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance launches as a public–private global health partnership committed to increasing access to immunization in poor countries.|
|2001||Program||The Meningitis Vaccine Project launches with the task to develop, test, license, and introduce a group A meningococcal (MenA) conjugate vaccine for sub-Saharan Africa.|
|2003||Vaccine||The United States FDA first licenses FluMist –an intranasally administered influenza vaccine, for healthy, nonpregnant persons aged 5–49 years.|
|2004||Vaccine||Flumist is approved as an intranasal flu vaccine.|
|2006||Vaccine||A new rotavirus vaccine becomes available.|
|2006||Vaccine||A shingles vaccine is first licensed under generic name Zoster Vaccine (tradename Zostavax).|
|2006||Organization||The Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery is founded when the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation donates US$287 million to promote HIV vaccine research. The organization is an international network of scientists, research organizations, and promoters of HIV vaccine research.|
|2006||Organization||The Global action plan for influenza vaccines is launched as a 10-year initiative by the World Health Organization, with the purpose to reduce the global shortage and inequitable access to influenza vaccines in the event of an influenza pandemic.|
|2007 (February 9)||Program||Five countries (Canada, Italy, Norway, Russia, the United Kingdom), and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation commit US$1.5 billion to launch the first Advance Market Commitment (AMC) with the purpose of accelerating access to vaccines against pneumococcal disease.|
|2007 (September 1)||"On September 1, 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensed a new vaccine ACAM2000 against smallpox which can be produced quickly upon need. Manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stockpiled 192.5 million doses of the new vaccine (see list of common strains below)."||United States|
|2009||September 15||Influenza||Vaccine approval||The United States FDA approves four vaccines against the Influenza A virus subtype H1N1.|
|2009||October 16||"FDA approved new indication for gardasil to prevent genital warts in men and boys."|
|2009||October 16||Vaccine||The United States FDA approves Cervarix, by GlaxoSmithKline, for the prevention of cervical cancer.|
|2009||General||Research||The journal Pediatrics concludes that the largest risk among unvaccinated children is not the contraction of side effects, but rather the disease that the vaccination aims to protect against.|
|2009||December 23||"FDA approved high-dose inactivated influenza vaccine (Fluzone High-Dose) for people ages 65 years and older."|
|2010||January 29||"January 29, 2010 WHO hailed new Gates Foundation support ($10 billion) as the "Decade of Vaccines.""|
|2010||February 19||Vaccine approval||"FDA approved licensure of Menveo (Novartis), meningococcal conjugate vaccine for people ages 11 through 55 years."|
|2010||February 24||Streptococcus pneumoniae||" FDA approved licensure of Pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13), which offers broader protections against Steptococcus pneumoniae infections."|
|2010||July||Smallpox||"First smallpox vaccine for certain immune-compromised populations delivered under Project BioShield."|
|2010||December 22||Human papillomavirus infection||"FDA approved Gardasil HPV vaccine to include the indication for the prevention of anal cancer."|
|2011||April 22||Meningococcal disease||Vaccine approval||"FDA approved the first vaccine (Menactra, meningococcal conjugate vaccine, Sanofi Pasteur) to prevent meningococcal disease in infants and toddlers."|
|2011||July 8||"FDA approved Boostrix (Tdap, GlaxoSmithKline) to prevent tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis in older people."|
|2012||June 5||"U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office of the Inspector General (OIG) released a report titled "Vaccines for Children (VFC) Program: Vulnerabilities in Vaccine Management."|
|2012||June||Meningococcal disease||Vaccine approval||"FDA approved HibMenCY (Menhibrix, GlaxoSmithKline), a new combination (meningococcal and Hib) vaccine for infants."|
|2012||April 1||"United Nations Foundation launched Shot@Life campaign."|
|2012||Vaccine approval||A quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine is licensed in the United States.|
|2012||November 20||Influenza||Vaccine approval||"FDA approved first seasonal influenza vaccine manufactured using cell culture technology (Flucelvax, Novartis)."|
|2012||December 12||Influenza||Vaccine approval||"FDA approved quadrivalent formulation of Fluarix (inactivated influenza vaccine; GlaxoSmithKline)."|
|2012||December 12||"On December 11, 2012, the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) issued a press release announcing the launch of its new Vaccine Error Reporting Program. The program allows healthcare professionals to confidentially report vaccine administration errors and near misses. According to the press release, the program's goal is to better quantify sources of errors and advocate for product changes (such as changes to the vaccine name or label) that will ensure patient safety."|
|2013||January 25||Pneumococcal disease||Vaccine approval||"FDA approved use of Prevnar 13 vaccine in older children and teens (6-17 years)."|
|2013||February 22||Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis||Recommendation||"ACIP recommended a dose of Tdap vaccine during each pregnancy."|
|2013||Vaccine approval||The United States FDA approves influenza vaccine Flublok (Protein Sciences), developed through recombinant DNA technology.|
|2013||May 17||Yellow fever||"Booster dose of yellow fever vaccine not needed, according to WHO. A single dose of vaccine is effective in providing long-term protection from yellow fever."|
|2013||June 7||Influenza||Vaccine approval||"FDA approved Fluzone (Sanofi Pasteur) as the third quadrivalent influenza vaccine licensed for U.S. use."|
|2014||October 29||Serogroup B meningococcal disease||Vaccine approval||"FDA approved the use of Trumenba in the U.S. to prevent serogroup B meningococcal disease."|
|2014||December 10||Human papillomavirus infection||Vaccine approval||"FDA approved the use of Gardasil 9 (Merck) 9-valent HPV vaccine in the U.S."|
|2014||December 11||Influenza||Vaccine approval||"FDA approved quadrivalent formulation of Fluzone Intradermal inactivated influenza vaccine."|
|2014||December 19||Influenza||Vaccine approval||"FDA approved Rapivab to treat influenza infection"|
|2015||Vaccine approval||The RTS,S/AS01 (trade name Mosquirix) becomes the world's first licensed malaria vaccine. Approved for use by European regulators.|
|2015||January 23||Serogroup B meningococcal disease||Vaccine approval||" FDA approved the use of Bexsero, the second vaccine licensed in the U.S. to prevent serogroup B meningococcal disease."|
|2015||March 24||Vaccine approval||"FDA approved Quadracel, a new combination DTaP+IPV vaccine for use in children age 4–6 years."|
|2015||April 29||Rubella||"The Pan American Health Organization declared rubella eliminated in the Americas."|
|2015||November 24||Influenza||Vaccine approval||"FDA approved new injectable influenza vaccine, Fluad, for use in people age 65 years and older"|
|2016||January 14||Haemophilus influenzae||Vaccine approval||"FDA approved Hiberix for full Hib vaccine series."|
|2016||Commercial launch||A partially effective dengue vaccine (Dengvaxia) becomes commercially available in 11 countries: Mexico, the Philippines, Indonesia, Brazil, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Paraguay, Guatemala, Peru, Thailand, and Singapore.|
|2016||Diphtheria||Statistics||About 86% of the world population was vaccinated as of year.||Worldwide|
|2016||June 10||Cholera||Vaccine approval||"FDA approved Vaxchora for the prevention of cholera."|
|2016||September 27||Measles||"PAHO/WHO announced measles elimination in the Americas."|
|2016||November 18||Influenza||Vaccine approval||"FDA approved extending the age range for use of FluLaval Quadrivalent to include children 6 to 35 months of age."|
|2016 (December)||Study||A study finds the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine against Ebola virus disease to be 95-100% effective, making it the first proven vaccine against the disease.|
|2017||April 20||Recommendation||"CDC published ACIP recommendations titled "General Best Practice Guidelines for Immunization" to replace the 2011 "General Recommendations on Immunization."|
|2017||August||Hepatitis B||Policy||"AAP issued policy stating that newborns should routinely receive hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth."|
|2017||August 25||Influenza||Recommendation||"CDC published ACIP 2017–18 influenza vaccination recommendations."|
|2017||August 31||Influenza||Vaccine approval||"FDA expanded licensure of Afluria quadrivalent (Seqirus) to include people age 5 years and older."|
|2017||September 15||Hepatitis A||"CDC published updated dosing instructions for hepatitis A prophylaxis with immune globulin."||United States|
|2017||October 20||Shingles||Vaccine approval||"FDA licensed Shingrix, the new shingles vaccine from GlaxoSmithKline, for use in adults age 50 and older."|
|2017||November 9||Hepatitis B||Vaccine approval||"FDA licensed Heplisav-B, the new hepatitis B vaccine from Dynavax, for use in adults age 18 and older."||United States|
|2018||January 11||Influenza||Vaccine approval||"FDA approved expanded pediatric age indication for Fluarix Quadrivalent influenza vaccine."||United States|
|2018||January 12||Hepatitis B||Recommendation||"CDC published updated ACIP recommendations for prevention of hepatitis B virus infection."|
|2018||January 26||Herpes zoster||Recommendation||"CDC published ACIP recommendations for use of herpes zoster vaccines."|
|2018||April 20||Hepatitis B||Recommendation||"CDC published ACIP recommendations for use of hepatitis B vaccine with a novel adjuvant [Heplisav-B]."|
|2018||June 8||Influenza||Recommendation||"CDC published ACIP's recommendations for the use of quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) in the 2018–19 influenza season."|
|2018||August 24||Influenza||Recommendation||"CDC published ACIP's 2018–19 influenza vaccination recommendations."|
|2018||October 5||Human papillomavirus infection||Vaccine approval||"FDA announced approval of expanded use of Merck’s Gardasil 9 (HPV9, Human papillomavirus) vaccine to include adults 27 through 45 years old."|
|2018||October||Influenza||Vaccine approval||"FDA approved expanded age indication for Seqirus’s Afluria influenza vaccine to include children age 6 months through 59 months."|
|2018||October 25||Human papillomavirus infection||Recommendation||"The American Dental Association adopted a policy to support the use and administration of HPV vaccine for the prevention of oral HPV infection."||United States|
|2018||November 7||Hepatitis A||Recommendation||" The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) published updated recommendations on use of hepatitis A vaccine for pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis for international travel."|
|2018||December 21||Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis B||Vaccine approval||"FDA approved Vaxelis (MCM Vaccine Co), a new combination DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB vaccine for use in children 6 wks–4 yrs of age."||United States|
|2019||January 14||Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis||Vaccine approval||"FDA approved expanded use of Sanofi's Adacel Tdap vaccine for a second dose in people ages 10 through 64 years of age."|
|2019||January 23||Influenza||Vaccine approval||"FDA approved use of the 0.5 mL dose of Sanofi's Fluzone Quadrivalent influenza vaccine to include children age 6 through 35 months."||United States|
|2019||February 5||"CDC released the 2019 U.S. recommended immunization schedules for children/adolescents as well as for adults on its website."|
|2019||February 15||Hepatitis A||Recommendation||"CDC published ACIP recommendations for use of hepatitis A vaccine for persons experiencing homelessness."|
|2019||July 19||Japanese encephalitis||Recommendation||"CDC published ACIP recommendations on use of Japanese encephalitis vaccine"|
|2019||August 1||Recommendation||"AAFP, AAP, ACHA, ACOG, APhA, SAHM, and IAC released "Dear Colleague" letter stressing importance of 16-year-old immunization visit."|
|2019||August 16||Papillomavirus||Recommendation||"August 16, 2019 CDC published updated ACIP recommendations for human papillomavirus vaccination of adults."||United States|
|2019||August 28||Influenza||Recommendation||"CDC released ACIP recommendations on the use of influenza vaccines for the 2019–20 influenza season."||United States|
|2019||November 4||Influenza||Vaccine approval||"FDA approved Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent (Sanofi Pasteur) for adults 65+ years of age—will be available for 2020–21 flu season."||United States|
|2019||November 22||Pneumococcal disease||Recommendation||"CDC published updated ACIP recommendations for the use of PCV13 and PPSV23 pneumococcal vaccines for adults age 65 and older."||United States|
|2019||December 13||Anthrax||Recommendation||"CDC published ACIP recommendations on the use of BioThrax (anthrax vaccine, adsorbed; Emergent BioSolutions)" ||United States|
|2019||December 19||Ebola||Vaccine approval||"First FDA-approved vaccine for the prevention of Ebola virus"||United States|
|2020||January 24||Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis||Recommendation||"CDC published updated ACIP recommendations on the use of Td and Tdap vaccines."||United States|
|2020||January 30||Background||CDC declares public health emergency regarding 2019 novel coronavirus.||United States|
|2020||February 1||Background||WHO declares public health emergency regarding 2019 novel coronavirus.|
|2020||February 3||Recommendation||The CDC website releases the 2020 recommended immunization schedules for children and adolescents, as well as for adults.||United States|
|2020||February 21||Influenza||Vaccine approval||"FDA Approves 1st Adjuvanted Quadrivalent Flu Shot For Seniors"||United States|
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