Difference between revisions of "Timeline of vegetarianism and veganism"

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This is a '''timeline of {{w|veganism}} and {{w|vegetarianism}}'''.
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This is a '''timeline {{w|vegetarianism}} and {{w|veganism}}''', both practices of abstaining from the consumption of {{w|meat}}.
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== Sample questions ==
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The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:
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* What are some significant events related to the development of the concepts of vegetarianism and veganism?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Concept development".
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* What are some notable historical personalities advocating vegetarianism and veganism?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "advocacy".
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** You will see mostly ancient historical personalities advocating meat abstention.
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* What are some notable publications on the topics of vegetarianism and veganism?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Literature".
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** You will see some notable book (Literature (book)) and magazine releases (Literature (magazine)).
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* What are some notable organizations promoting vegetarianism and veganism?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Organization".
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** You will read some notable names, like pioneering organizations ({{w|Vegetarian Society}} and {{w|The Vegan Society}}), as well as others.
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* What are some indicators of trend growth in vegetarianism and veganism?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Trend growth".
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** You will see numbers indicating the evolution of both vegetarianism and veganism in popularity.
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* What are some notable vegan and vegetarian festivals?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Festival".
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** You will read names like {{w|Veggie Pride}} and Vegfest, among other festivals.
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* What are some significant studies concerning the effect of vegetarianism and veganism?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Study (nutrition)".
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** You will see a number of studies addressing the nutritional effect of the practice of vegetarianism and veganism.
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Study (environment)".
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** You will see a number of studies addressing the noticeable environmental effect produced by massive meat abstention.
  
 
==Big picture==
 
==Big picture==
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! Time period !! Development summary !! More details
 
! Time period !! Development summary !! More details
 
|-
 
|-
| 1944 || Veganism ||
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| 3300 BCE onward || Earliest historical record || | The earliest recorded practice of vegetarianism is identified in the {{w|Indus Valley Civilization}}. Early vegetarians include Indian philosophers, as well as Greek and Roman intellectuals.
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|-
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| 1840s onward || Modern vegetarian organizations || This period begins with the establishment of the {{w|Vegetarian Society}} in Britain. A number of vegetarian oganizations follows, especially in Europe. The word 'vegetarian' is also first known to have been used in print in 1842.<ref name="The Origins of the 'Vegetarians'">{{cite web |last1=Davis |first1=John |title=The Origins of the 'Vegetarians' |url=https://ivu.org/history/societies/vegsoc-origins.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=18 April 2020}}</ref>
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|-
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| 1944 onward || Vegan movement || This period encompasses the new concept of {{w|veganism}}, as well as the emergence of the first vegan organization, both created in 1944.
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
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=== Summary by century ===
  
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
! Time period !! Development summary   
 
! Time period !! Development summary   
 
|-
 
|-
| 18th century || "Historian Dr Catherine Oliver suggests that 18th Century philosopher Jeremy Bentham is the earliest notable proponent of likening animal suffering to that of humans: “The question is not ‘can they reason?’ Nor, ‘can they talk?’ But, ‘can they suffer?’ Dr Oliver told The Independent that veganism today is being increasingly situated “not as a diet but as a social justice issue”."<ref name="WHO WERE"/>  
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| 19th century || {{w|Vegetarianism}} establishes itself as a movement in {{w|Europe}} and the {{w|United States}}.<ref>James Gregory, ''Of Victorians and Vegetarians'', I. B. Tauris, 2007.</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| 19th century || {{w|Vegetarianism}} establishes itself as a significant movement in {{w|England}} and the {{w|United States}}.<ref>James Gregory, ''Of Victorians and Vegetarians'', I. B. Tauris, 2007.</ref>
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| 20th century || Vegetarianism becomes a forceful movement. In this century, there is an increased awareness of the relationship between animals and humans.<ref>{{cite web |title=No Missed Steak: Meat-free diets are taking over |url=http://georgiapoliticalreview.com/no-missed-steak-meat-free-diets-are-taking-over/ |website=georgiapoliticalreview.com |accessdate=18 April 2020}}</ref> The vegan movement is born.
 
|-
 
|-
| 20th century ||
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| 21st century || The vegan diet becomes increasingly mainstream,<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.cbsnews.com/news/vegan-diets-become-more-popular-more-mainstream/|title=Vegan Diets Become More Popular, More Mainstream|date=5 January 2011|publisher={{w|CBS News}}|agency={{w|Associated Press}}|access-date=9 April 2020}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/from-pro-athletes-to-ceos-and-doughnut-cravers-the-rise-of-the-vegan-diet-1.1049116|title=From pro athletes to CEOs and doughnut cravers, the rise of the vegan diet|last=Nijjar|first=Raman|date=4 June 2011|publisher={{w|CBC News}}|access-date=9 April 2020}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/food-and-drink/features/no-meat-no-dairy-no-problem-is-2014-the-year-vegans-become-mainstream-9032064.html|title=No meat, no dairy, no problem: is 2014 the year vegans become mainstream?|last=Molloy|first=Antonia|date=31 December 2013|website={{w|The Independent}}|access-date=9 April 2020}}</ref><ref name="Late2010sMainstreaming">{{Cite news|url=https://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/food-and-wine/food-trends/vegan-cuisine-moves-into-the-mainstream/article22430440/|title=Vegan cuisine moves into the mainstream&nbsp;– and it's actually delicious|last=Tancock|first=Kat|date=13 January 2015|website={{w|The Globe and Mail}}|access-date=9 April 2020}}</ref><ref name=Pendergrast>Nick Pendergrast, "Environmental Concerns and the Mainstreaming of Veganism", in T. Raphaely (ed.), ''Impact of Meat Consumption on Health and Environmental Sustainability'', IGI Global, 2015, [https://books.google.com/books?id=Gkz-CgAAQBAJ&pg=PA106 106].</ref> especially in the last years.<ref name="Late2010sMainstreaming"/><ref name="Hancox2018">{{Cite news|last=Hancox|first=Dan|date=1 April 2018|title=The unstoppable rise of veganism: how a fringe movement went mainstream|access-date=2 April 2018|url=https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2018/apr/01/vegans-are-coming-millennials-health-climate-change-animal-welfare}}</ref>  
|-
 
| 21st century || The vegan diet becomes increasingly mainstream in the 2010s.<ref name="Early2010sMainstreaming">{{Cite web|url=https://www.cbsnews.com/news/vegan-diets-become-more-popular-more-mainstream/|title=Vegan Diets Become More Popular, More Mainstream|date=5 January 2011|publisher=[[CBS News]]|agency=[[Associated Press]]|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180301171201/https://www.cbsnews.com/news/vegan-diets-become-more-popular-more-mainstream/|archive-date=1 March 2018|url-status=live|access-date=1 March 2018}}{{pb}}{{Cite web|url=http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/from-pro-athletes-to-ceos-and-doughnut-cravers-the-rise-of-the-vegan-diet-1.1049116|title=From pro athletes to CEOs and doughnut cravers, the rise of the vegan diet|last=Nijjar|first=Raman|date=4 June 2011|publisher=[[CBC News]]|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180301170652/http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/from-pro-athletes-to-ceos-and-doughnut-cravers-the-rise-of-the-vegan-diet-1.1049116|archive-date=1 March 2018|url-status=live|access-date=1 March 2018}}{{pb}}{{Cite web|url=https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/food-and-drink/features/no-meat-no-dairy-no-problem-is-2014-the-year-vegans-become-mainstream-9032064.html|title=No meat, no dairy, no problem: is 2014 the year vegans become mainstream?|last=Molloy|first=Antonia|date=31 December 2013|website=[[The Independent]]|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180322231210/https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/food-and-drink/features/no-meat-no-dairy-no-problem-is-2014-the-year-vegans-become-mainstream-9032064.html|archive-date=22 March 2018|url-status=live|access-date=22 March 2018}}</ref><ref name="Late2010sMainstreaming">{{Cite news|url=https://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/food-and-wine/food-trends/vegan-cuisine-moves-into-the-mainstream/article22430440/|title=Vegan cuisine moves into the mainstream&nbsp;– and it's actually delicious|last=Tancock|first=Kat|date=13 January 2015|website=[[The Globe and Mail]]|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180301165409/https://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/food-and-wine/food-trends/vegan-cuisine-moves-into-the-mainstream/article22430440/|archive-date=1 March 2018|url-status=live|access-date=1 March 2018}}{{pb}}{{Cite news|last=Crawford|first=Elizabeth|date=17 March 2015|title=Vegan is going mainstream, trend data suggests|url=https://www.foodnavigator-usa.com/Article/2015/03/17/Vegan-is-going-mainstream-trend-data-suggests|url-status=live|website=FoodNavigator-USA|publisher=[[William Reed Business Media]]|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180414003926/https://www.foodnavigator-usa.com/Article/2015/03/17/Vegan-is-going-mainstream-trend-data-suggests|archive-date=14 April 2018|access-date=13 April 2018}}{{pb}}{{Cite news|last=Oberst|first=Lindsay|date=18 January 2018|title=Why the Global Rise in Vegan and Plant-Based Eating Isn't A Fad (600% Increase in U.S. Vegans + Other Astounding Stats)|url=https://foodrevolution.org/blog/vegan-statistics-global/|url-status=live|department=Future of Food|website=Food Revolution Network|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180414003918/https://foodrevolution.org/blog/vegan-statistics-global/|archive-date=14 April 2018|access-date=13 April 2018}}{{pb}}{{Cite news|last=Jones-Evans|first=Dylan|date=24 January 2018|title=The rise and rise of veganism and a global market worth billions|url=https://www.walesonline.co.uk/business/business-opinion/rise-rise-veganism-global-market-14199168|url-status=live|website=WalesOnline|publisher=[[Media Wales]]|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180414005141/https://www.walesonline.co.uk/business/business-opinion/rise-rise-veganism-global-market-14199168|archive-date=14 April 2018|access-date=13 April 2018}}</ref><ref name=Pendergrast>Nick Pendergrast, "Environmental Concerns and the Mainstreaming of Veganism", in T. Raphaely (ed.), ''Impact of Meat Consumption on Health and Environmental Sustainability'', IGI Global, 2015, [https://books.google.com/books?id=Gkz-CgAAQBAJ&pg=PA106 106].</ref> especially in the latter half.<ref name="Late2010sMainstreaming"/><ref name="Hancox2018">{{Cite news|last=Hancox|first=Dan|date=1 April 2018|title=The unstoppable rise of veganism: how a fringe movement went mainstream|access-date=2 April 2018|url=https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2018/apr/01/vegans-are-coming-millennials-health-climate-change-animal-welfare}}</ref>
 
 
|-
 
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|}
 
|}
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== Visual data ==
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=== Google Trends ===
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The image below shows Google Trends data for vegetarianism and veganism (topic), from January 2004 to April 2020, when the screenshot was taken.<ref>{{cite web |title=Google Trends |url=https://trends.google.com/trends/explore?date=all&q=%2Fm%2F07_hy,%2Fm%2F07_jd |website=trends.google.com |accessdate=18 April 2020}}</ref> 
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[[File:Google trend vegetarianism and veganism topic.png|thumb|center|700px]]
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The image below shows Google Trends data for vegetarianism and veganism (search term), from January 2004 to April 2020, when the screenshot was taken.<ref>{{cite web |title=Google Trends |url=https://trends.google.com/trends/explore?date=all&q=veganism,vegetarianism |website=trends.google.com |accessdate=18 April 2020}}</ref>
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[[File:Googhle trends veganism and vegetarianism search term.png|thumb|center|700px]]
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=== Wikipedia views ===
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The image below shows Wikipedia Views from July 2015 to March 2020 for {{w|veganism}} for mobile-web, desktop, desktop-spider, mobile-app, and mobile-web-spider.<ref>{{cite web |title=Wikipedia Views veganism |url=https://wikipediaviews.org/displayviewsformultiplemonths.php?page=Veganism&allmonths=allmonths-api&language=en&drilldown=all |website=wikipediaviews.org |accessdate=14 April 2020}}</ref>
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[[File:Wikipedia views veganism.png|500px|thumb|center]]
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The image below shows Wikipedia Views from July 2015 to March 2020 for {{w|vegetarianism}} for mobile-web, desktop, desktop-spider, mobile-app, and mobile-web-spider.<ref>{{cite web |title=Wikipedia Views Vegetarianism |url=https://wikipediaviews.org/displayviewsformultiplemonths.php?page=Vegetarianism&allmonths=allmonths-api&language=en&drilldown=all |website=wikipediaviews.org |accessdate=14 April 2020}}</ref>
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[[File:Wkipedia views vegetarianism.png|500px|thumb|center]]
  
 
==Full timeline==
 
==Full timeline==
Line 28: Line 81:
 
! Year !! Category !! Event type !! Details !! Location
 
! Year !! Category !! Event type !! Details !! Location
 
|-
 
|-
| 3300 BC–1300 BC || || || The practice of veganism is already identified in the {{w|Indus Valley Civilization}} in the {{w|Indian subcontinent}}<ref>{{cite book|last1=Bajpai|first1=Shiva|title=The History of India – From Ancient to Modern Times|date=2011|publisher=Himalayan Academy Publications (Hawaii, USA)|isbn=978-1-934145-38-8}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Spencer|first=Colin|authorlink=Colin Spencer|title=The Heretic's Feast: A History of Vegetarianism|publisher=Fourth Estate Classic House|pages=33–68, 69–84|isbn=978-0874517606|year=1996}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last=Tähtinen|first=Unto|title=Ahimsa: Non-violence in Indian tradition|publisher=London: [1976], Rider and Company (1976)}}</ref> particularly in northern and western {{w|ancient India}}.<ref name="Singh2008">{{cite book|last=Singh|first=Upinder|title=A History of Ancient and Early medieval India : from the Stone Age to the 12th century|year=2008|publisher=Pearson Education|location=New Delhi|isbn=9788131711200|page=137|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=H3lUIIYxWkEC}}</ref> || {{w|India}}
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| 3300 BC–1300 BC || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || || The practice of vegetarianism is already identified in the {{w|Indus Valley Civilization}} in the {{w|Indian subcontinent}}<ref>{{cite book|last1=Bajpai|first1=Shiva|title=The History of India – From Ancient to Modern Times|date=2011|publisher=Himalayan Academy Publications (Hawaii, USA)|isbn=978-1-934145-38-8}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Spencer|first=Colin|title=The Heretic's Feast: A History of Vegetarianism|publisher=Fourth Estate Classic House|pages=33–68, 69–84|isbn=978-0874517606|year=1996}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last=Tähtinen|first=Unto|title=Ahimsa: Non-violence in Indian tradition|publisher=London: [1976], Rider and Company (1976)}}</ref> particularly in northern and western {{w|ancient India}}.<ref name="Singh2008">{{cite book|last=Singh|first=Upinder|title=A History of Ancient and Early medieval India : from the Stone Age to the 12th century|year=2008|publisher=Pearson Education|location=New Delhi|isbn=9788131711200|page=137|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=H3lUIIYxWkEC}}</ref> || {{w|India}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 877 BC–777 BC || || || Early Jain called {{w|Parshvanatha}} teaches followers about ''ahimsa'' (non-violence), one of the cornerstone beliefs meaning non-violence to living forms.<ref name="WHO WERE">{{cite web |title=WHO WERE THE WORLD’S VERY EARLIEST VEGANS? |url=https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/who-were-the-world-s-very-earliest-vegans-a7668831.html |website=independent.co.uk |accessdate=30 September 2019}}</ref> || {{w|India}}
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| 877 BC–777 BC || || Activism || Early Jain called {{w|Parshvanatha}} teaches followers about ''ahimsa'' (non-violence), one of the cornerstone beliefs meaning non-violence to living forms.<ref name="WHO WERE">{{cite web |title=WHO WERE THE WORLD’S VERY EARLIEST VEGANS? |url=https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/who-were-the-world-s-very-earliest-vegans-a7668831.html |website=independent.co.uk |accessdate=30 September 2019}}</ref> || {{w|India}}
 
|-
 
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| 520BC || || || "CYRUS THE GREAT (520 B.C. born) Emperor of Persia, who conquered many lands and raised Persia from an obscure country into a great Empire was not only vegetarian himself but ordered his soldiers also strictly to adhere to this diet. His army conquered wherever it went, Xenophen says that Cyrus was brought up upon a diet of bread, cresses, and water till the age of fifteen, when honey and raisins were added."<ref name="5th CENTURY A.D"/> ||
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| 520 BC || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Policy || Persian emperor {{w|Cyrus the Great}} is born. A vegetarian himself, Cyrus would order his soldiers also strictly to adhere to this diet.<ref name="5th CENTURY A.D"/> ||
 
|-
 
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| 500 BC || || || Greek philosopher {{w|Pythagoras}} promotes benevolence among all species and follows what could be described as a vegetarian diet.<ref name="The Vegan Society">{{cite web |title=The Vegan Society |url=https://www.vegansociety.com/about-us/history |website=vegansociety.com |accessdate=30 September 2019}}</ref> " In 500 BCE, the Greek mathematician Pythagoras advocated the idea that all animals had immortal souls which would be reincarnated after death. He shunned harming animals and along with the mythical poet Orpheus, also abstained from eggs. "<ref name="WHO WERE"/> || {{w|Greece}}
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| 500 BC || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Advocacy || Greek philosopher {{w|Pythagoras}} advocates the idea that all animals have immortal souls which would be reincarnated after death. Pythagoras promotes benevolence among all species and follows what could be described as a vegetarian diet.<ref name="The Vegan Society">{{cite web |title=The Vegan Society |url=https://www.vegansociety.com/about-us/history |website=vegansociety.com |accessdate=30 September 2019}}</ref><ref name="WHO WERE"/> || {{w|Greece}}
 
|-  
 
|-  
| 484BC–425BC || || || "HERODOTUS (484-425 B.C.) - the Father of History; a very abstemious vegetarian, often partaking of but one meal per day and that of parched wheat and fruit. He abhorred the killing of the innocent grazing herds, still more the bloody sacrifices seen about the Temples, and still more the eating of the flesh sacrificed to the Gods."<ref name="5th CENTURY A.D">{{cite web |title=VEGETARIANISM 8th CENTURY b.c. TO 5th CENTURY A.D. |url=https://ivu.org/congress/wvc57/souvenir/yesterday.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=7 October 2019}}</ref> ||
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| 484BC–425BC || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Advocacy || Greek historian {{w|Herodotus}} lives. He condemns the killing and eating of animals.<ref name="5th CENTURY A.D">{{cite web |title=VEGETARIANISM 8th CENTURY b.c. TO 5th CENTURY A.D. |url=https://ivu.org/congress/wvc57/souvenir/yesterday.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=7 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Greece}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 221BC–206BC || || || "Chin Dynasty was very short (221 BC -206 BC). A general killed the emperor and the other general built Han Dynasty replaced Chin Dynasty. During Han Dynasty (206 BC until 221), vegetarianism was back. It was because the Buddhism Missionaries started to come to China from India (68)."<ref name="China & Vegetarianism"/> || {{w|China}}
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| 206 BC–220 AD || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Advocacy || {{w|Han Dynasty}}. Vegetarianism is introduced by buddhist missionaries from {{w|India}}.<ref name="China & Vegetarianism"/> || {{w|China}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 106BC–423BC || || || Roman statesman {{w|Cicero}} states:"Man is destined to a better occupation than that of pursuing and cutting the throat of dumb creatures." And, " Nothing cruel is useful or expedient."<ref name="5th CENTURY A.D"/> ||
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| 106BC–423BC || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Advocacy || Roman statesman {{w|Cicero}} states:"Man is destined to a better occupation than that of pursuing and cutting the throat of dumb creatures." And, " Nothing cruel is useful or expedient."<ref name="5th CENTURY A.D"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 43BC–18AD || || || "OVID (43 B.C. to 18 A.D.) - a popular Roman poet, wrote in a day when it was considered a fine spectacle for men and animals to fight together till the death. Of Pythagoras he said:"<ref name="5th CENTURY A.D"/> ||
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| 5 BC–65 AD || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Advocacy || Roman Stoic philosopher {{w|Seneca}} lives. An ardent vegetarian, Seneca creates a vegetarian cult in the Court.<ref name="5th CENTURY A.D"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 5BC–65AD || || || "SENECA [5 B.C.- 65 A.D.] One of the most eminent of the Roman Stoics, Tutor of young Nero and his chief advisor, an ardent vegetarian, created a vegetarian cult in the Court at the time of the most voluptuous period in history. But since the early Christians mere vegetarian, the Emperor's suspicions were aroused that Seneca also was a Christian, and so Seneca returned to flesh-eating. Later still Nero condemned him to death through jealousy of his musical performances in which Nero alone wished to excel, so his martyrdom might have come the sooner and in a better cause. However, some of the finest passages written on this subject have been by Seneca"<ref name="5th CENTURY A.D"/> ||
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| 40 AD–120 AD || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Advocacy || Greek philosopher {{w|Plutarch}} lives. His essay on flesh eating contains ethical arguments for vegetarianism.<ref name="5th CENTURY A.D"/> ||
 
|-
 
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| 40AD–120AD || || || "PLUTARCH (40 to 120 A.D. approx.) Prince of Biographers and Historians. His essay on flesh eating contains arguments for vegetarianism not superseded. A few excerpts follow :"   ""Alas for our savage inhumanity! It is a terrible thing to see the table of rich men decked out by those layers-out of corpses: the butchers and cooks; a still more terrible sight is the same table after the feast - for the wasted relics are even more than the consumption. These victims, then, have given us their lives uselessly. As other times, from mere niggardliness, the host will grudge to distribute his dishes, and yet he grudged not to deprive innocent beings of their existence!"<ref name="5th CENTURY A.D"/>
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| 520 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Advocacy || Buddhist monk {{w|Boddhidharma}} introduces {{w|Zen}} in {{w|China}}. Boddhidharma teaches vegetarianism.<ref name="China & Vegetarianism">{{cite web |title=China & Vegetarianism |url=https://ivu.org/history/east/china.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=7 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|India}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 160AD–230AD || || || "TERTULLIAN (160-230 A.D.) of the Early Christian Fathers." ""It is in the cooking-pots that your love is inflamed - it is in the kitchen that your faith grows fervid - it is in the flesh dishes that all your hope lies hid... who is held in so much esteem with you as the frequent giver of dinners, as the sumtuous entertainer, as the practised toaster of healths?"<ref name="5th CENTURY A.D"/> ||
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| 973–1057 || {{w|Veganism}} || Adoption || Arab poet {{w|al-Maʿarri}} is recognized as one of the earliest known vegans.<ref>D. S. Margoliouth, "Abu‘l-'Alā al-Ma‘arrī's Correspondence on Vegetarianism", ''The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland''</ref> ||
 
|-
 
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| 233AD–304AD || || || "PORPHYRY (233-304 A.D.) a great Greek Philosopher: "It is not from those who hare lived on innocent foods that murderers, tyrants, robbers, and sycophants have come, but from eaters of flesh. The necessaries of life are few and easily procured, without violation of justice, liberty, or peace of mind ; whereas luxury obliges these ordinary souls who take delight in it to covet riches, to give up their liberty, to sell justice, to misspend their time, to ruin their health, and to renounce the satisfaction of an upright conscience."<ref name="5th CENTURY A.D"/> ||
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| 1398 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Advocacy || Indian mystic poet {{w|Kabir}} calls to compassion, condemning meat-eating and killing of animals no matter if it is permitted in the "Koran" or any other Scripture for "sacrificial" purposes.<ref name="from 1400 to 1800">{{cite web |title=Timeline of Vegetarian History - from 1400 to 1800 |url=https://ivu.org/history2/timeline/pre-1800.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=KABIR'S CALL TO COMPASSION |url=https://ivu.org/congress/wvc57/souvenir/kabir.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|India}}
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|-
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| 1806 || {{w|Veganism}} || Concept development || The earliest concepts of {{w|veganism}} start to take shape, with Dr William Lambe and Percy Bysshe Shelley amongst the first Europeans to publicly object to eggs and dairy on ethical grounds.<ref name="The Vegan Society"/> ||
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|-
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| 1809 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || The [[w:Bible Christian Church (vegetarian)|Bible Christian Church]], a [[w:Christian vegetarianism|Christian vegetarian]] sect, is founded by {{w|William Cowherd}}.<ref name=desc>{{cite web|author=Julia Twigg|year=1981|url=http://www.ivu.org/history/thesis/bible-christian.html|title=The Bible Christian Church|publisher=International Vegetarian Union|accessdate=}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
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|-
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| 1813 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Literature (book) || English poet {{w|Percy Bysshe Shelley}} publishes ''{{w|A Vindication of Natural Diet}}'', advocating "abstinence from animal food and spirituous liquors".<ref>{{cite web |title=P B Shelley's A Vindication of the Natural Diet |url=https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/p-b-shelleys-a-vindication-of-the-natural-diet |website=bl.uk |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1815 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Advocacy || London physician {{w|William Lambe}} claims that his "water and vegetable diet" could cure anything from {{w|tuberculosis}} to {{w|acne}}.<ref>James C. Whorton, ''Crusaders for Fitness: The History of American Health Reformers'', Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014, 69–70: "Word of these cures of pimples, consumption, and virtually all ailments in between was widely distributed by his several publications&nbsp;..."[https://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/38727 ''A Vindication of Natural Diet''], London: F. Pitman, 1884 [1813]; William Lambe, Joel Shew, [https://books.google.com/books?id=E9anzEClAaYC ''Water and Vegetable Diet''], New York: Fowler's and Wells, 1854 [London, 1815].</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
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|-
 +
| 1839 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Concept development || The term "vegetarian" at this time refers to what is described as a vegetable regimen or diet.<ref>Rod Preece, ''Sins of the Flesh: A History of Ethical Vegetarian Thought'', Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2008, [https://books.google.com/books?id=uMnubkF5HjAC&pg=PA12 12].</ref> ||
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|-
 +
| 1847 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || The UK {{w|Vegetarian Society}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=The Vegetarian Society of the UK: |url=https://ivu.org/news/3-98/vegsocuk.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=9 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
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|-
 +
| 1850 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || The {{w|American Vegetarian Association}} in founded in {{w|New York}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Life on the Veg: Early Vegetarianism in America |url=http://blog.nyhistory.org/life-on-the-veg-early-vegetarianism-in-america/ |website=blog.nyhistory.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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|-
 +
| 1882 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || The {{w|French Vegetarian Society}} is founded.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Lummel |first1=Peter |title=Food and the City in Europe since 1800 |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=OPYFDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA222&lpg=PA222&dq=1882+French+Vegetarian+Society&source=bl&ots=LkxZyDQD3v&sig=ACfU3U0-ettrUD9LiAZD1FHzExF5dzO22Q&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjAt5X8sY3lAhU3HbkGHSWVBMcQ6AEwDnoECAgQAg#v=onepage&q=1882%20French%20Vegetarian%20Society&f=false}}</ref> Its aim is to "propagate vegetarianism and assert the benefits of any order it presents."<ref>{{cite web |title=Société végétarienne de France |url=https://data.bnf.fr/10752202/societe_vegetarienne_de_france/ |website=data.bnf.fr |accessdate=15 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
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|-
 +
| 1883 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Literature (book) || English humanitarian [[w:Howard Williams (humanitarian)|Howard Williams]] publishes ''The Ethics of Diet'', which is considered the first book on vegetarian history.<ref name="=History of the International Vegetarian Union">{{cite web |title=History of the International Vegetarian Union |url=https://ivu.org/history-legacy-pages.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1884 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || The Hungarian Vegetarian Society is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=History of the HungarianVegetarian Societies |url=https://ivu.org/history2/societies/hungary.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Hungary}}
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|-
 +
| 1894 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || The Dutch Vegetarian League is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=History of Netherlands Vegetarian Societies |url=https://ivu.org/history2/societies/netherlandsvb.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Netherlands}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1896 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || A Vegetarian Society is formed in {{w|Stockholm}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=History of the Swedish Vegetarian Societies |url=https://ivu.org/history2/societies/swedishvf.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Sweden}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1899 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || A Vegetarian Society is established in {{w|Milan}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=History of Italian Vegetarian Societies |url=https://ivu.org/history2/societies/italy.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Italy}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1901 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || The Russian Vegetarian Society is formed.<ref>{{cite web |title=History of the Russian Vegetarian Societies |url=https://ivu.org/history2/societies/russia.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Russia}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1905 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || The Spanish Vegetarian Society is formed.<ref>{{cite web |title=History of Spanish Vegetarian Societies |url=https://ivu.org/history2/societies/spain.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Spain}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1906 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || The Greek Vegetarian Society is formed.<ref>{{cite web |title=History of the Greek Vegetarian Societies |url=https://ivu.org/history2/societies/greek.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Greece}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1908 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || The {{w|International Vegetarian Union}} is launched at the first International Vegetarian Congress in {{w|Dresden}}, {{w|Germany}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=History of the International Vegetarian Union |url=https://ivu.org/history-legacy-pages.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=7 October 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=All the IVU World Vegfests - past and future |url=https://ivu.org/world-vegfest/ivu-world-vegfest-schedule.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Welcome from World Vegetarian Leaders |url=https://ivu.org/congress/2008/welcome.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1908 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || The {{w|World Esperantist Vegetarian Association}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=World Esperantist Vegetarian Association |url=https://uia.org/s/or/en/1100041607 |website=uia.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1918 || {{w|Veganism}} || Trend growth || The world's first raw vegan restaurant is opened in {{w|Los Angeles}}, {{w|California}} by {{w|John and Vera Richter}}.<ref name="mearesLAW1mar2017">{{cite web |last1=Meares |first1=Hadley |title=L.A. Has Been Eating Raw Vegan Food Since 1918, Thanks to This Communist, Feminist Angeleno |url=https://www.laweekly.com/restaurants/la-has-been-eating-raw-vegan-food-since-1918-thanks-to-this-communist-feminist-angeleno-7981800 |accessdate=19 February 2019}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1925 || {{w|Veganism}} || Literature (book) || Vera Richter publishes ''Mrs. Richter's Cook-Less Book,'' the first raw vegan cookbook.<ref name="mearesLAW1mar2017" /> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1935 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Concept development || The Vegetarian Society states: "The {{w|lacto-vegetarian}}s, on the whole, do not defend the practice of consuming the dairy products except on the ground of expediency."<ref>[https://web.archive.org/web/20141019084456/http://ethik.univie.ac.at/fileadmin/user_upload/inst_ethik_wiss_dialog/Leneman__L._1999._No_Animal_Food__The_Road_to_Veganism_in_Britain__1909-1944..pdf Leneman 1999], 226.</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1938 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Literature (book)|| {{w|Jewish vegetarianism}}. The first Jewish-vegetarian cookbook is compiled by {{w|Fania Lewando}} and is first published in {{w|Vilnius}}.<ref>Lithuanian Jewish Community: ''[https://www.lzb.lt/en/2016/08/08/a-jewish-culinary-legend-reborn-fania-lewandos-vilnius/ A Jewish Culinary Legend Reborn: Fania Lewando’s Vilnius]'', consulted 14. July 2018</ref> || {{w|Lithuania}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1943 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || The New Zealand Vegetarian Society is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=New Zealand Vegetarian Society |url=https://www.worldmeatfreeweek.com/partner/new-zealand-vegetarian-society |website=worldmeatfreeweek.com |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|New Zeland}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1944 || {{w|Veganism}} || Organization || {{w|The Vegan Society}} is founded. It is the oldest vegan society in the world.<ref>{{cite web |title=UK Vegan Society formed |url=http://vegansociety.today/elsie_shrigley_errors.html |website=vegansociety.today |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1944 || {{w|Veganism}} || Concept development || {{w|The Vegan Society}} co-founder Donald Watson coins the term "vegan" using it to mean "non-dairy vegetarian".<ref>{{cite web |title=DONALD WATSON CREATED THE WORD "VEGAN" AND LATER FOUNDED THE UK VEGAN SOCIETY |url=http://vegansociety.today/ |website=vegansociety.today |accessdate=14 April 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=We’ve come a long way! |url=https://www.vegansociety.com/about-us/history |website=vegansociety.com |accessdate=14 April 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1945 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || The {{w|Toronto Vegetarian Association}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Toronto Vegetarian Association |url=https://www.eventbrite.ca/o/toronto-vegetarian-association-15473972856 |website=eventbrite.ca |accessdate=9 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Canada}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1945 || {{w|Veganism}} || Concept development || Vegans explicitly abstain from "eggs, honey; and animals' milk, butter and cheese".<ref name="Stefano">{{cite book |last1=Stefano |first1=Fabio |title=get fed at home |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=hT_BDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA10&lpg=PA10&dq=May+1945+vegans+explicitly+abstained+from+%22eggs,+honey;+and+animals%27+milk,+butter+and+cheese&source=bl&ots=-LaroIvOTp&sig=ACfU3U08fQAmz4axyJZGvEFF4IyiRscZbQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj_4JfxmNroAhXeIbkGHSywCRMQ6AEwBHoECA4QKQ#v=onepage&q=May%201945%20vegans%20explicitly%20abstained%20from%20%22eggs%2C%20honey%3B%20and%20animals'%20milk%2C%20butter%20and%20cheese&f=false}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1951 || {{w|Veganism}} || Concept development || The {{w|Vegan Society}} defines veganism as "the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals".<ref>Leslie Cross, [https://www.ivu.org/history/world-forum/1951vegan.html "Veganism Defined"], ''The Vegetarian World Forum'', 5(1), Spring 1951.</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1952 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || The Italian Vegetarian Association is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Italian Vegetarian Society |url=https://ivu.org/congress/wvc57/souvenir/italy.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref>|| {{w|Italy}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1960 || {{w|Veganism}} || Organization || The {{w|American Vegan Society}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=American Vegan Society |url=https://americanvegan.org/about-avs/ |website=americanvegan.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1974 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || {{w|Hare Krishna Food for Life}} is founded as a nonprofit with the purpose "to bring peace and prosperity to the world through the liberal distribution of sanctified vegetarian meals".<ref>{{cite web |title=ART-0703 Charity, Food for Life |url=https://iskconeducationalservices.org/HoH/further-information-and-teaching-resources-secondary/articles/art-0703-charity-food-for-life/ |website=iskconeducationalservices.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|India}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1974 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Literature (magazine) || American magazine {{w|Vegetarian Times}} launches.<ref>{{cite web |title=Paul Obis Gave Up Meat, Founded Vegetarian Times and Later Had Second Thoughts |url=https://www.wsj.com/articles/paul-obis-gave-up-meat-founded-vegetarian-times-and-later-had-second-thoughts-1530888748 |website=wsj.com |accessdate=9 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1975 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || The [[w:Jewish Veg|Jewish Vegetarian Society of America]] is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Bring a Jewish Veg Speaker to Your Jewish Institution |url=https://www.jewishveg.org/speakers-bureau |website=jewishveg.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1978 || {{w|Veganism}} || Organization || The {{w|Dutch Society for Veganism}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Groningen home to first Vegan Student Association in the Netherlands |url=https://northerntimes.nl/groningen-home-to-first-vegan-student-association-in-the-netherlands/ |website=northerntimes.nl |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Netherlands}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1982 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Meat substitute || The veggie burger may have been created in London in this year by {{w|Gregory Sams}}, who calls it the 'VegeBurger'.<ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.chaos-works.com/vegeburger1.html | title = The Vegeburger story | accessdate = 2006-11-11 | publisher=Chaos Works}}</ref> A {{w|Carrefour}} {{w|hypermarket}} in {{w|Southampton}} sells 2000 packets in three weeks after its launch.<ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.chaos-works.com/vegeburger4.html | title = And Here Comes the VegeBurger | accessdate = 2006-11-11 |work=The Observer |location=UK}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1984 || {{w|Veganism}} || Organization || The {{w|Movement for Compassionate Living}} (MCL) is founded. It promotes veganism.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Miller |first1=Ann |title=Life's Lessons: Working Together to Transform Education, Business and Government |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=QypSJi4GPswC&pg=PA98&lpg=PA98&dq=%22in+1984%22+Compassionate+Living&source=bl&ots=8JEUTA3cvU&sig=ACfU3U2LbKAKWdwKnLxE_Dgc5MmFaqbv1Q&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj7o93I3eXoAhUtEbkGHSmiBvAQ6AEwAXoECAcQKQ#v=onepage&q=%22in%201984%22%20Compassionate%20Living&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Movement for Compassionate Living |url=https://www.bookdepository.com/Movement-for-Compassionate-Living-Adam-Cornelius-Bert/9786136603780 |website=bookdepository.com |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1984 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Literature (book) || Daniel Dombrowski publishes ''The Philosophy of Vegetarianism''.<ref>{{cite web |title=The philosophy of vegetarianism / Daniel A. Dombrowski. |url=https://trove.nla.gov.au/work/21737467?q&versionId=26129543 |website=trove.nla.gov.au |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1984 || {{w|Veganism}} || Literature (book) || Brenda Davis publishes diet book ''Vegetariana''. It is considered a classic in its field.<ref>{{cite web |title=The 6 Top Myths About Plant-Based Diets by Nava Atlas |url=https://mainstreetvegan.net/the-6-top-myths-about-plant-based-diets-by-nava-atlas/ |website=mainstreetvegan.net |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1986 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || The {{w|Boston Vegetarian Society}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Boston Vegetarian Society |url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303859975_Boston_Vegetarian_Society |website=researchgate.net |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1987 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Literature (book) || Rudolph Ballentine publishes ''Transition to Vegetarianism: An Evolutionary Step''.<ref>{{cite web |title=Transition to Vegetarianism; An Evolutionary Step |url=https://www.abebooks.com/first-edition/Transition-Vegetarianism-Evolutionary-Step-Rudolph-Ballentine/17352746217/bd |website=abebooks.com |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1988 || {{w|Veganism}} || Study (nutrition) || Study concludes that vegans tend to have less {{w|taurine}} in their bodies.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Laidlaw |first1=S A |last2=Shultz |first2=T D |last3=Cecchino |first3=J T |last4=Kopple |first4=J D |title=Plasma and urine taurine levels in vegans |journal=The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition |doi=10.1093/ajcn/47.4.660 |url=https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-abstract/47/4/660/4694739}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1988 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || The {{w|European Vegetarian Union}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |last1= |first1= |title=EVU |url=https://www.euroveg.eu/about-evu/our-history/ |website=euroveg.eu |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Netherlands}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1989 || {{w|Veganism}} || Literature (magazine) || ''[[w:Arkangel (magazine)|Arkangel]]'' is first published. It promotes vegan lifestyle.<ref>{{cite web |title=Arkangel |url=http://thetalonconspiracy.com/2011/03/arkangel-1-3/ |website=thetalonconspiracy.com |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1989 || {{w|Veganism}} || Literature (magazine) || [[w:No Compromise (magazine)|No Compromise]] launches as a bi-annual animal rights magazine. It promotes a vegan lifestyle.<ref>{{cite web |title=No Compromise (magazine) |url=https://plantbaseddiet4u.com/no-compromise-magazine-2/ |website=plantbaseddiet4u.com |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1990 || {{w|Veganism}} || Trend growth || The Vegan Trademark scheme is launched.<ref name="Statistics">{{cite web |title=Statistics |url=https://www.vegansociety.com/news/media/statistics |website=vegansociety.com |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> It is used on labels worldwide as the authentic standard for products free from animal ingredients and animal testing.<ref>{{cite web |title=What is the Vegan Trademark? |url=https://www.vegansociety.com/your-business/about-vegan-trademark |website=vegansociety.com |accessdate=18 April 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 1993 || {{w|Veganism}} || Organization || {{w|Vegan Outreach}} is founded. It is a 501c3 nonprofit organization working to end violence towards animals.<ref>{{cite web |title=What are they all about? |url=https://veganactivism.org/pages/vegan-outreach |website=veganactivism.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1993 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || {{w|Swissveg}} is founded. It is the biggest community in Switzerland for vegetarians and vegans.<ref>{{cite web |title=Swissveg-Team |url=https://www.swissveg.ch/team?language=en |website=swissveg.ch |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Switzerland}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1994 || {{w|Veganism}} || Organization || {{w|Vegan Prisoners Support Group}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=What We Do |url=http://vpsg.org/ |website=vpsg.org |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 +
| 1994 || {{w|Veganism}} || Study (nutrition) || Study concludes that vegans are particularly prone to iron deficiency, because the form that’s most readily absorbed by the body is “haem iron”, which is only found in animal proteins.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Alexander |first1=D |last2=Ball |first2=MJ |last3=Mann |first3=J |title=Nutrient intake and haematological status of vegetarians and age-sex matched omnivores. |pmid=7956998 |url=https://europepmc.org/article/med/7956998}}</ref> ||
 
|-  
 
|-  
| 329AD–379AD || || || SAINT BASILE THE GREAT, (320-79 A.D.) Bishop of Cesarea, adjures : "If one lives soberly. "The animals will be secure; they will never pour forth their blood; men will never cause beasts to die; the knives of cooks will be useless; and the table will be loaded with the fruits given us by nature, and we will be content."
+
| 1994 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || The {{w|Association Végétarienne de France}} is founded.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Hughes |first1=Jane |title=The Adventurous Vegetarian: Around the World in 30 Meals |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=1Nn0AgAAQBAJ&pg=PA126&lpg=PA126&dq=1994++Association+V%C3%A9g%C3%A9tarienne+de+France&source=bl&ots=AevtcA-NBH&sig=ACfU3U368O8Lb6jv7QfN5MiaO2PLIFcgeQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjxpr2m2tvoAhWaH7kGHQ3zArgQ6AEwDHoECAkQKQ#v=onepage&q=1994%20%20Association%20V%C3%A9g%C3%A9tarienne%20de%20France&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
"There never was wine in the Terrestrial Paradise ; they never sacrificed animals ; they never ate meat ; wine was only invented after the Deluge,"<ref name="5th CENTURY A.D"/> ||
 
 
|-
 
|-
| 340AD–420AD || || || "SAINT JEROME (340-420 A.D.) Author of the Vulgate. "The use of the flesh of animals was unknown up to the Deluge; but after the Deluge, men put between their teeth the sinews and stinking juices of flesh. Jesus Christ.. . today does not permit us to eat flesh according to the Apostle (Rom XIV. 21). It is good never to drink wine, and never to eat flesh, for the use of wine has commenced with that of flesh after the Deluge." - Letter from St. Jerome to Eustoquie."<ref name="5th CENTURY A.D"/> ||
+
| 1994 || {{w|Veganism}} || Advocacy || The {{w|World Vegan Day}} is first celebrated on November 1st. It would evolve into World Vegan Week and later World Vegan Month; where vegans and veganism is celebrated in workplaces, shops, restaurants and in homes all over the world.<ref>{{cite web |title=World Vegan Month |url=https://www.vegansociety.com/take-action/campaigns/world-vegan-month |website=vegansociety.com |accessdate=17 October 2019}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 347–407 || || || "CHRYSOSTUM (347-407 A.D.) Archbishop of Constantinople; whose attacks on sin in high places made him enemies at court and among the wealthy classes. Scourging the customs of his time, he said : "No streams of blood are among them (the ascetics); no butchering and cutting up of flesh; no dainty cookery; no heaviness of head. Nor are there the horrible smells of flesh meats atmong them, or disagreeable fumes from the kitchen. No tumult and disturbance and wearisome clamours, but bread and water - the latter from a pure fountain, the former from honest labour. If at any time, however, they wish to feast more sumptuously, the sumptuousness consists in fruits, and their pleasure in these is greater than at royal tables. No master and servant are there. All are servants - all are free men."<ref name="5th CENTURY A.D"/> ||
+
| 1995 || {{w|Veganism}} || Organization || <code>vegan.org</code> is created. It is one of the oldest and most visited vegan websites in the world.<ref>{{cite web |title=Certified Vegan |url=https://animista.org/certification/certified-vegan/ |website=animista.org |accessdate=9 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 354–430 || || || "ST. AUGUSTIN, (354-430 A. D.), Bishop of Hippo in Africa, calls attention to the abstinence of the Anchorites who "not only abstain from flesh and wine, but also from other viands. ..which flatter taste," He also quotes from St. Paul in I Corinthians VIII. 8 and also Rom. XIV 21 "that it is good never to eat meat and drink wine when by so doing we scandalize our brothers.""<ref name="5th CENTURY A.D"/> ||
+
| 1995 || {{w|Veganism}} || Organization || {{w|Vegan Awareness Foundation}} is founded. It works "to eliminate animal suffering, reduce environmental impacts, and improve human health through a vegan diet".<ref>{{cite web |title=Vegan Awareness Foundation |url=https://www.connectva.org/groups/vegan-awareness-foundation/ |website=connectva.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 520 || || || "In 520, Boddhidharma, the 28th Master after Buddha, came from India and gave back The Way of Prophet. He taught Chan (or Zen in Japanese). Zen is the Real Teaching of Buddha, the Lost Teaching of Tao. Boddhidharma not only taught vegetarianism but also taught Zen monks the martial arts in Shao Lin temple for defense."<ref name="China & Vegetarianism">{{cite web |title=China & Vegetarianism |url=https://ivu.org/history/east/china.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=7 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|India}}
+
| 1998 || {{w|Veganism}} || Literature (book) || Erik Marcus publishes ''Vegan: The New Ethics of Eating''.<ref>{{cite web |title=Vegan: The New Ethics of Eating |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books/about/Vegan.html?id=tRGXDwAAQBAJ&source=kp_book_description&redir_esc=y |website=books.google.com |accessdate=9 April 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 973–1057 || || || Arab poet {{w|al-Maʿarri}} is recognized as one of the earliest known vegans.<ref>D. S. Margoliouth, "Abu‘l-'Alā al-Ma‘arrī's Correspondence on Vegetarianism", ''The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland'', 34(02), 1902 (289–332), 290. {{doi|10.1017/s0035869x0002921x}} {{jstor|25208409}}</ref> ||
+
| 1998 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Concept development || A {{w|Vegetarian Diet Pyramid}} is created by Oldways Preservation Trust with scientific research from {{w|Cornell}} and {{w|Harvard University}} and specific reference to the healthy patterns of eating demonstrated by the {{w|Mediterranean Diet Pyramid}}.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.oldwayspt.org/vegetarian-diet-pyramid|title=Oldways|website=oldwayspt.org}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1398 || || || Indian mystic poet {{w|Kabir}} calls to compassion, condemning meat-eating and killing of animals no matter if it is permitted in the "Koran" or any other Scripture for "sacrificial" purposes.<ref name="from 1400 to 1800">{{cite web |title=Timeline of Vegetarian History - from 1400 to 1800 |url=https://ivu.org/history2/timeline/pre-1800.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=KABIR'S CALL TO COMPASSION |url=https://ivu.org/congress/wvc57/souvenir/kabir.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|India}}
+
| 1999 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || The {{w|Vegetarian Society (Singapore)}} is established.<ref>{{cite web |title=Vegetarian Society (Singapore) |url=http://vegetarian-society.org/about-vss/ |website=vegetarian-society.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Singapore}}
 
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|-
| 1806 || || || "Fast forward to 1806 CE and the earliest concepts of veganism are just starting to take shape, with Dr William Lambe and Percy Bysshe Shelley amongst the first Europeans to publicly object to eggs and dairy on ethical grounds."<ref name="The Vegan Society"/> ||
+
| 1999 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || The {{w|Christian Vegetarian Association}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=CHRISTIAN VEGETARIAN ASSOCIATION (CVA) |url=http://legacy.fore.yale.edu/religion/christianity/projects/christian_veget/ |website=yale.edu |accessdate=9 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1813 || Literature || || English poet {{w|Percy Bysshe Shelley}} publishes ''{{w|A Vindication of Natural Diet}}'', advocating "abstinence from animal food and spirituous liquors". ||
+
| 1999 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Literature (book) || Richard A. Young publishes ''Is God a Vegetarian? Christianity, Vegetarianism, and Animal Rights''.<ref>{{cite web |title=Is God a Vegetarian?: Christianity, Vegetarianism, and Animal Rights |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books/about/Is_God_a_Vegetarian.html?id=MzEuWsWGWKYC&source=kp_book_description&redir_esc=y |website=books.google.com |accessdate=9 April 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1815 || || || " in 1815, [[William Lambe]], a London physician, claimed that his "water and vegetable diet" could cure anything from tuberculosis to acne."<ref>James C. Whorton, ''Crusaders for Fitness: The History of American Health Reformers'', Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014, 69–70: "Word of these cures of pimples, consumption, and virtually all ailments in between was widely distributed by his several publications&nbsp;..."{{pb}} [[Percy Bysshe Shelley]], [https://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/38727 ''A Vindication of Natural Diet''], London: F. Pitman, 1884 [1813]; William Lambe, Joel Shew, [https://books.google.com/books?id=E9anzEClAaYC ''Water and Vegetable Diet''], New York: Fowler's and Wells, 1854 [London, 1815].</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 1999 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Literature (book) || Lisa Portmess and Kerry S. Walters publish ''Ethical Vegetarianism: From Pythagoras to Peter Singer''.<ref>{{cite web |title=Ethical vegetarianism : from Pythagoras to Peter Singer / edited by Kerry S. Walters and Lisa Portmess. |url=https://trove.nla.gov.au/work/7852814?q&versionId=9054442 |website=trove.nla.gov.au |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1839 || || || "The term "vegetarian" has been in use since around 1839 to refer to what was previously described as a vegetable regimen or diet."<ref>Rod Preece, ''Sins of the Flesh: A History of Ethical Vegetarian Thought'', Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2008, [https://books.google.com/books?id=uMnubkF5HjAC&pg=PA12 12].</ref> ||
+
| 1999 || General || Online community || {{w|HappyCow}} launches as an online service that lists sources of vegan, vegetarian and healthy food.<ref>{{cite web |title=Vegetarians in Paradise |url=https://www.vegparadise.com/24carrot911.html |website=vegparadise.com |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1850 || || Organization || The {{w|American Vegetarian Association}} in founded in {{w|New York}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Life on the Veg: Early Vegetarianism in America |url=http://blog.nyhistory.org/life-on-the-veg-early-vegetarianism-in-america/ |website=blog.nyhistory.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2000 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || Ethical Vegetarian Alternative is founded to raise awareness about the benefits of eating less or no meat.<ref>{{cite book |title=Sustainable Food Planning: Evolving Theory and Practice |edition=André Viljoen, Johannes S. C. Wiskerke |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=1zVbsBqrd3cC&pg=PA192&lpg=PA192&dq=2000+Organization+Ethical+Vegetarian+Alternative&source=bl&ots=GC52-D0RX4&sig=ACfU3U0KP_GL1fSp6uD9AMGmvyqAfXUoiw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjqmqiPw43lAhXgILkGHbqpDaoQ6AEwD3oECAgQAg#v=onepage&q=2000%20Organization%20Ethical%20Vegetarian%20Alternative&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|Belgium}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1882 || || Organization || The {{w|French Vegetarian Society}} is founded.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Lummel |first1=Peter |title=Food and the City in Europe since 1800 |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=OPYFDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA222&lpg=PA222&dq=1882+French+Vegetarian+Society&source=bl&ots=LkxZyDQD3v&sig=ACfU3U0-ettrUD9LiAZD1FHzExF5dzO22Q&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjAt5X8sY3lAhU3HbkGHSWVBMcQ6AEwDnoECAgQAg#v=onepage&q=1882%20French%20Vegetarian%20Society&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
+
| 2000 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Literature (book) || Colin Spencer publishes ''Vegetarianism: A History''.<ref>{{cite web |title=Vegetarianism: A History |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books/about/Vegetarianism.html?id=QKBiVemexusC&source=kp_book_description&redir_esc=y |website=books.google.com |accessdate=9 April 2020}}</ref> The book explores the psychology of abstention from flesh.<ref>{{cite web |title=Vegetarianism: A History Paperback |url=https://www.amazon.com/Vegetarianism-History-Colin-Spencer/dp/191069021X |website=amazon.com |accessdate=18 April 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1883 || || Literature || English humanitarian [[w:Howard Williams (humanitarian)|Howard Williams]] published ''The Ethics of Diet'', which is considered the first book on vegetarian history.<ref name="=History of the International Vegetarian Union">{{cite web |title=History of the International Vegetarian Union |url=https://ivu.org/history-legacy-pages.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> ||
+
| 2000 || {{w|Veganism}} || Literature (magazine) || American magazine ''VegNews'' launches. It publishes content about and relating to {{w|veganism}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=V-dog named one of 2020's top plant-based products in VegNews Veggie Awards |url=https://markets.businessinsider.com/news/stocks/v-dog-named-one-of-2020-s-top-plant-based-products-in-vegnews-veggie-awards-1029079339 |website=businessinsider.com |accessdate=9 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1884 || || Organization || The Hungarian Vegetarian Society is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=History of the HungarianVegetarian Societies |url=https://ivu.org/history2/societies/hungary.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Hungary}}
+
| 2000 || General || Online community || {{w|VeggieBoards}} launches. It is one of the largest and most active internet forums for vegetarians and vegans.<ref>{{cite web |title=Fawnapp's Competitors, Revenue, Number of Employees, Funding and Acquisitions |url=https://www.owler.com/company/fawnapp |website=owler.com |accessdate=9 April 2020}}</ref> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1892 || || Organization || ProVeg Germany is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=ProVeg Germany |url=https://www.glassdoor.co.nz/Overview/Working-at-ProVeg-Germany-EI_IE1901945.11,25.htm |website=glassdoor.co.nz |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
+
| 2001 || General  || Festival || {{w|Veggie Pride}} is first held in {{w|Paris}}. It brings together vegetarians and vegans who want "to show their pride at refusing to eat animals, and to denounce the discrimination which they suffer, both personally and in terms of expressing their ideas".<ref>{{cite web |title=Veggie Pride |url=http://www.veggiepride.com/history.htm |website=veggiepride.com |accessdate=9 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2001 || {{w|Veganism}} || Broadcasting || Talk radio program ''Go Vegan'' debuts.<ref>{{cite web |title=GoVegan |url=https://www.goveganradio.com/ |website=goveganradio.com |accessdate=9 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1894 || || Organization || The Dutch Vegetarian League is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=History of Netherlands Vegetarian Societies |url=https://ivu.org/history2/societies/netherlandsvb.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Netherlands}}
+
| 2002 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Activism || [[w:Meet Your Meat (2002)|Meet Your Meat]] is released. This documentary explores the treatment of animals in modern animal agriculture.<ref>{{cite web |title=Meet Your Meat (2002) |url=https://www.themoviedb.org/movie/106065-meet-your-meat?language=en-US |website=themoviedb.org |accessdate=17 October 2019}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1896 || || Organization || A vegetarian society is formed in {{w|Stockholm}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=History of the Swedish Vegetarian Societies |url=https://ivu.org/history2/societies/swedishvf.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Sweden}}
+
| 2003 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Organization || {{w|Meatless Monday}} launches. It is an international campaign that encourages people to not eat meat on {{w|Monday}}s to improve their [[w:Health effects of meat consumption|health]] and address the {{w|Environmental effects of meat production}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Meatless Monday |url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303859875_Meatless_Monday |website=researchgate.net |accessdate=17 October 2019}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1899 || || Organization || A Vegetarian Society is established at {{w|Milan}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=History of Italian Vegetarian Societies |url=https://ivu.org/history2/societies/italy.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Italy}}
+
| 2003 || {{w|Veganism}} || Festival || {{w|Vegfest (UK)}} starts in {{w|Bristol}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=VegfestUK |url=https://www.vegfest.co.uk/about/ |website=vegfest.co.uk |accessdate=18 April 2020}}</ref> Vegfest is one of the biggest [[w:List of vegetarian festivals|Vegan/Vegetarian festivals in the world]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.vegfest.co.uk/our-events/|title=Our events|website=VegfestUK|language=en-GB|access-date=18 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1901 || || Organization || The Russian Vegetarian Society is formed.<ref>{{cite web |title=History of the Russian Vegetarian Societies |url=https://ivu.org/history2/societies/russia.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Russia}}
+
| 2003 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Study (nutrition) || Study conducted on 555 Kenyan schoolchildren, who were fed one of three different types of soup – one with meat, one with milk, and one with oil – or no soup at all, finds that the children who were given the soup containing meat each day outperformed all the other children on a test for non-verbal reasoning by the end of the study.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Whaley |first1=SE |last2=Sigman |first2=M |last3=Neumann |first3=C |last4=Bwibo |first4=N |last5=Guthrie |first5=D |last6=Weiss |first6=RE |last7=Alber |first7=S |last8=Murphy |first8=SP. |title=The impact of dietary intervention on the cognitive development of Kenyan school children |doi=10.1093/jn/133.11.3965S |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14672297}}</ref> || {{w|Kenya}}
 
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|-
| 1905 || || Organization || The Spanish Vegetarian Society is formed.<ref>{{cite web |title=History of Spanish Vegetarian Societies |url=https://ivu.org/history2/societies/spain.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Spain}}
+
| 2004 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Festival || Vegfest Brasil launches.<ref>{{cite web |title=Campos do Jordão – Vegfest Brasil |url=https://www.eventosveganos.com.br/single-post/2017/04/10/Campos-do-Jord%C3%A3o-%E2%80%93-Vegfest-Brasil |website=eventosveganos.com.br |accessdate=9 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Brazil}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1906 || || Organization || The Greek Vegetarian Society is formed.<ref>{{cite web |title=History of the Greek Vegetarian Societies |url=https://ivu.org/history2/societies/greek.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Greece}}
+
| 2004 || {{w|Veganism}} || Study (nutrition) || German study finds that 40% of the vegans they looked at were consuming less than the recommended daily amount of {{w|iron}}.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Waldmann |first1=A. |last2=Koschizke |first2=J.W. |last3=Leitzmann |first3=C. |last4=Hahn |first4=A. |title=Dietary Iron Intake and Iron Status of German Female Vegans: Results of the German Vegan Study |doi=10.1159/000077045 |url=https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/77045}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1908 || || Organization || The {{w|International Vegetarian Union}} is launched at an International Vegetarian Congress in {{w|Dresden}}, {{w|Germany}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=History of the International Vegetarian Union |url=https://ivu.org/history-legacy-pages.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=7 October 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=All the IVU World Vegfests - past and future |url=https://ivu.org/world-vegfest/ivu-world-vegfest-schedule.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
+
| 2004–2018 || {{w|Veganism}} || Trend growth || Search data from {{w|Google Trends}} shows a profound worldwide increase in the interest in {{w|veganism}} in this period. Top regions include {{w|Israel}}, {{w|Australia}}, {{w|Canada}}, {{w|Austria}}, and {{w|New Zealand}}.<ref name="Why the Global Rise in Vegan">{{cite web |title=Why the Global Rise in Vegan and Plant-Based Eating Isn’t A Fad (600% Increase in U.S. Vegans + Other Astounding Stats) |url=https://foodrevolution.org/blog/vegan-statistics-global/ |website=foodrevolution.org |accessdate=30 September 2019}}</ref> || Worldwide
 
|-
 
|-
| 1908 || || Organization || The {{w|World Esperantist Vegetarian Association}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=World Esperantist Vegetarian Association |url=https://uia.org/s/or/en/1100041607 |website=uia.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> ||
+
| 2005 || {{w|Veganism}} || Literature (book) || {{w|The China Study}} is published by {{w|T. Colin Campbell}}. It examines the link between the consumption of {{w|animal product}}s (including dairy) and chronic illnesses such as [[w:Coronary artery disease|coronary heart disease]], {{w|diabetes}}, {{w|breast cancer}}, {{w|prostate cancer}}, and {{w|bowel cancer}}.<ref name="Sherwell">{{cite news |last1=Sherwell |first1=Philip |title=Bill Clinton's new diet: nothing but beans, vegetables and fruit to combat heart disease |url=https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/8038801/Bill-Clintons-new-diet-nothing-but-beans-vegetables-and-fruit-to-combat-heart-disease.html |date=3 October 2010 }}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1935 || || || The Vegetarian Society states: "The {{w|lacto-vegetarian}}s, on the whole, do not defend the practice of consuming the dairy products except on the ground of expediency."<ref>[https://web.archive.org/web/20141019084456/http://ethik.univie.ac.at/fileadmin/user_upload/inst_ethik_wiss_dialog/Leneman__L._1999._No_Animal_Food__The_Road_to_Veganism_in_Britain__1909-1944..pdf Leneman 1999], 226.</ref> ||
+
| 2005 || {{w|Veganism}} || Study (nutrition) || Study correlates the amount of {{w|Vitamin B12}} in blood with {{w|IQ}}, implying that vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with cognitive impairment.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Starr |first1=J M |last2=Pattie |first2=A |last3=Whiteman |first3=M C |last4=Deary |first4=I J |last5=Whalley |first5=L J |title=Vitamin B-12, serum folate, and cognitive change between 11 and 79 years |doi=10.1136/jnnp.2004.046219 |url=https://jnnp.bmj.com/content/76/2/291}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1943 || || Organization || The New Zealand Vegetarian Society is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=New Zealand Vegetarian Society |url=https://www.worldmeatfreeweek.com/partner/new-zealand-vegetarian-society |website=worldmeatfreeweek.com |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|New Zeland}}
+
| 2005–2018 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Trend growth || The number of vegetarians grows from 1% of the population in Germany to 7% in this period.<ref>{{cite web |title=YOUNG CONSUMERS ARE HUNGRY FOR MEAT ALTERNATIVES IN GERMANY |url=https://www.mintel.com/press-centre/food-and-drink/young-consumers-are-hungry-for-meat-alternatives-in-germany |website=mintel.com |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
 
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|-
| 1944 || || || "{{w|Donald Watson}} coined the term ''vegan'' in 1944 when he co-founded the {{w|Vegan Society}}" in England. At first he used it to mean "non-dairy vegetarian",<ref name=VeganNews_no.1>{{cite journal |last= Watson |first= Donald |authorlink= Donald Watson |title= The Vegan News, Issue No. 1 |date= November 1944 |accessdate= 13 June 2019 |url= http://ukveggie.com/vegan_news/}}</ref><ref name=VeganNews_no.2>{{cite journal |last= Watson |first= Donald |authorlink= Donald Watson |title= The Vegan News, Issue No. 2 |date= February 1945 |accessdate= 13 June 2019 |url= https://issuu.com/vegan_society/docs/the-vegan-news-no.-2-february-1945}}</ref> "The term “veganism” itself however, was coined much more recently. In 1944, carpenter Donald Watson and his wife Dot invented the word to mark the “beginning and end of vegetarianism”. Watson decided to become a vegan after he saw and heard the death of a pig on his uncle’s farm."<ref name="WHO WERE"/><ref>{{cite web |title=World Veganism - past, present and future |url=https://ivu.org/history-legacy-pages/world-veganism-past-present-and-future.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> ||
+
| 2006 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Festival || The Vegetarian Festival in Tokyo starts.<ref>{{cite web|title=Tokyo Vegefood Fiesta|website=Tokyo-vegefest.com|accessdate=14 April 2020|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151015041509/http://tokyo-vegefest.com/english/}}</ref> || {{w|Japan}}
 
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|-
| 1944 || Veganism || Organization || {{w|The Vegan Society}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=UK Vegan Society formed |url=http://vegansociety.today/elsie_shrigley_errors.html |website=vegansociety.today |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> ||
+
| 2007–2014 || General || Statistics || An estimated 400 million fewer animals are killed in the United States in 2014 compared to 2007 because of decreased consumption of animal products.<ref>{{cite web |title=400 Million Fewer Animals Were Killed for Food in 2014 Because People Eat Less Meat |url=https://www.zmescience.com/ecology/animals-ecology/eating-less-animals-30062015/ |website=zmescience.com |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1945 || || || " and by May 1945 vegans explicitly abstained from "eggs, honey; and animals' milk, butter and cheese"." ||
+
| 2008 || {{w|Veganism}} || Study (nutrition) || One study finds that in the elderly the brains of those with lower {{w|vitamin B12}} are six times more likely to be shrinking.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Vogiatzoglou |first1=A |last2=Refsum |first2=H |last3=Johnston |first3=C |last4=Smith |first4=SM |last5=Bradley |first5=KM |last6=de Jager |first6=C |last7=Budge |first7=MM |last8=Smith |first8=AD. |title=Vitamin B12 status and rate of brain volume loss in community-dwelling elderly. |doi=10.1212/01|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18779510 |accessdate=18 April 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1951 || Veganism || || The {{w|Vegan Society}} defines veganism as "the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals".<ref>Leslie Cross, [https://www.ivu.org/history/world-forum/1951vegan.html "Veganism Defined"], ''The Vegetarian World Forum'', 5(1), Spring 1951.</ref> Interest in veganism increased in the 2010s,"<ref name="Early2010sMainstreaming"/><ref name="Late2010sMainstreaming"/><ref name="Late2010sMainstreaming"/> ||
+
| 2009 || {{w|Veganism}} || Organization || {{w|Vegan Ireland: The Vegan Society of Ireland}} is founded as a non-profit. It promotes {{w|veganism}} and {{w|animal rights}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Vegan Ireland |url=http://www.vegan.ie/ |website=vegan.ie |accessdate=7 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Ireland}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1952 || || Organization || The Italian Vegetarian Association is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Italian Vegetarian Society |url=https://ivu.org/congress/wvc57/souvenir/italy.html |website=ivu.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref>|| {{w|Italy}}
+
| 2009 || {{w|Veganism}} || Nutrition || A study of bone density finds the bone density of vegans is 94 percent that of omnivores, but deems the difference clinically insignificant.<ref>{{cite journal |doi=10.3945/ajcn.2009.27521 |title=Effect of vegetarian diets on bone mineral density: A Bayesian meta-analysis |year=2009 |last1=Ho-Pham |first1=L. T |last2=Nguyen |first2=N. D |last3=Nguyen |first3=T. V |journal=American Journal of Clinical Nutrition |volume=90 |issue=4 |pages=943–50 |pmid=19571226}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1957 || || || World Vegetarian Congress 1957 ||
+
| 2009 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Literature (book) || {{w|Lierre Keith}} publishes ''{{w|The Vegetarian Myth}}''. "Part memoir, nutritional primer, and political manifesto, this controversial examination exposes the destructive history of agriculturecausing the devastation of prairies and forests, driving countless species extinct, altering the climate, and destroying the topsoiland asserts that, in order to save the planet, food must come from within living communities"<ref>{{cite web |title=The Vegetarian Myth: Food, Justice, and Sustainability |url=https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/6396542-the-vegetarian-myth |website=goodreads.com |accessdate=9 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1960 || || Organization || The {{w|American Vegan Society}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=American Vegan Society |url=https://americanvegan.org/about-avs/ |website=americanvegan.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2009 || General || Literature (book) || Amy Shand publishes ''That's why We Don't Eat Animals: A Book about Vegans, Vegetarians, and All Living Things'', a non-fiction book for children.<ref>{{cite web |title=That's why We Don't Eat Animals: A Book about Vegans, Vegetarians, and All Living Things |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books/about/That_s_why_We_Don_t_Eat_Animals.html?id=3uLdPqLZtowC&source=kp_book_description&redir_esc=y |website=books.google.com |accessdate=9 April 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1974 || || Organization || {{w|Hare Krishna Food for Life}} is founded as a nonprofit with the purpose "to bring peace and prosperity to the world through the liberal distribution of sanctified vegetarian meals".<ref>{{cite web |title=ART-0703 Charity, Food for Life |url=https://iskconeducationalservices.org/HoH/further-information-and-teaching-resources-secondary/articles/art-0703-charity-food-for-life/ |website=iskconeducationalservices.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|India}}
+
| 2010 || {{w|Veganism}} || Study (nutrition) || British study finds that half of the vegans in their sample are {{w|vitamin B12}} deficient.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Gilsing |first1=A M J |last2=Crowe |first2=F L |last3=Lloyd-Wright |first3=Z |last4=Sanders |first4=T A B |last5=Appleby |first5=P N |last6=Allen |first6=N E |last7=Key |first7=T J |title=Serum concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate in British male omnivores, vegetarians and vegans: results from a cross-sectional analysis of the EPIC-Oxford cohort study |journal=European Journal of Clinical Nutrition |url=https://www.nature.com/articles/ejcn2010142.?mod=article_inline}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1975 || || Organization || {{w|Jewish Veg}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Bring a Jewish Veg Speaker to Your Jewish Institution |url=https://www.jewishveg.org/speakers-bureau |website=jewishveg.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> ||
+
| 2010 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Study (environment) || {{w|Environmental vegetarianism}}. A report from the {{w|United Nations Environment Programme}}'s (UNEP) International Panel of Sustainable Resource Management states:<blockquote>Impacts from agriculture are expected to increase substantially due to population growth and increasing consumption of animal products. Unlike fossil fuels, it is difficult to look for alternatives: people have to eat. A substantial reduction of impacts would only be possible with a substantial worldwide diet change, away from animal products.<ref name="guardian-un">{{cite news|title=UN urges global move to meat and dairy-free diet|last=Carus|first=Felicity|newspaper={{w|The Guardian}}|date=2010-06-02|accessdate=9 April 2020|url=https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2010/jun/02/un-report-meat-free-diet}}</ref></blockquote> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1975 || Veganism || Literature || {{w|Peter Singer}} publishes ''Animal Liberation''. ||
+
| 2010 || {{w|Veganism}} || Study (nutrition) || Study finds that, in the winter months, when the sun is weaker, omnivores living in the United Kingdom have nearly 40% more vitamin D3 in their blood than vegans.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Crowe |first1=Francesca L |last2=Steur |first2=Marinka |last3=Allen |first3=Naomi E |last4=Appleby |first4=Paul N |title=Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans: results from the EPIC–Oxford study |doi=10.1017/S1368980010002454 |url=https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/public-health-nutrition/article/plasma-concentrations-of-25hydroxyvitamin-d-in-meat-eaters-fish-eaters-vegetarians-and-vegans-results-from-the-epicoxford-study/13C1A2796ADA3A318D4F3B7C105D9D9C}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1978 || || Organization || The {{w|Dutch Society for Veganism}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Groningen home to first Vegan Student Association in the Netherlands |url=https://northerntimes.nl/groningen-home-to-first-vegan-student-association-in-the-netherlands/ |website=northerntimes.nl |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Netherlands}}
+
| 2011 || {{w|Veganism}} || Organization || {{w|Veganz}} is founded. It is the first vegan supermarket chain in Europe.<ref>{{cite web |title=Compassionate Consumption: How Veganism is Taking Over Mainstream Europe |url=http://counterpoint.uk.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Compassionate-Consumption-Report.pdf |website=counterpoint.uk.com |accessdate=9 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1980 || || Organization || {{w|People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals}} (PETA) ||
+
| 2011 || {{w|Veganism}} || Documentary film || {{w|Vegucated}} is released. It explores the challenges of converting to a vegan diet.<ref>{{cite web |title=Vegucated |url=https://www.imdb.com/title/tt1814930/ |website=imdb.com |accessdate=9 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2012 || {{w|Veganism}} || Literature (maganize) || ''{{w|Naked Food}}'' launches. It is a quarterly magazine focusing on whole-food [[w:Plant-based diet|plant-based nutrition]].<ref>{{cite web |title=NAKED FOOD MAGAZINE |url=https://issuu.com/nakedfoodmag/docs/nfm_summer_2015_sp |website=issuu.com |accessdate=18 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1984 || Vegetarianism || Literature || Daniel Dombrowski publishes ''The Philosophy of Vegetarianism''. ||
+
| 2012 || {{w|Veganism}} || Organization || {{w|Vegan Australia}} is founded. It campaigns nationally for veganism.<ref>{{cite web |title=Vegan Australia |url=https://www.veganaustralia.org.au/about |website=veganaustralia.org.au |accessdate=7 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Australia}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1984 || || Organization || {{w|Movement for Compassionate Living}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Movement for Compassionate Living |url=https://www.bookdepository.com/Movement-for-Compassionate-Living-Adam-Cornelius-Bert/9786136603780 |website=bookdepository.com |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> ||  
+
| 2013 || {{w|Veganism}} || Festival || Hong Kong Vegfest is held for the first time.<ref>{{cite web |title=Vegfest |url=https://vegfest.hk/ |website=vegfest.hk |accessdate=9 April 2020}}</ref> It is a yearly volunteer-run festival organized by a collaboration of major organizations and institutions with the aim of promoting veganism in Hong Kong.<ref>{{cite web |title=Hong Kong Vegfest |url=https://www.greenqueen.com.hk/green-queen-guide-hong-kong/13684/hong-kong-vegfest/ |website=greenqueen.com.hk |accessdate=14 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Hong Kong}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1984 || Veganism || Literature || Brenda Davis publishes diet book ''Becoming Vegan''. ||
+
| 2013 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Literature (book) || Adam D. Shprintzen publishes ''The Vegetarian Crusade: The Rise of an American Reform Movement, 1817-1921''.<ref>{{cite web |title=The vegetarian crusade: The rise of an American reform movement, 1817-1921 |url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/288237475_The_vegetarian_crusade_The_rise_of_an_American_reform_movement_1817-1921 |website=researchgate.net |accessdate=9 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1987 || Vegetarianism || Literature || Rudolph Ballentine publishes ''Transition to Vegetarianism: An Evolutionary Step''. ||
+
| 2013 || {{w|Veganism}} || Literature (book) || Amy Shand publishes ''V Is for Vegan: The ABCs of Being Kind''.<ref>{{cite web |title=V Is for Vegan: The ABCs of Being Kind |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books/about/V_Is_for_Vegan.html?id=3HXopqhBkVkC&source=kp_book_description&redir_esc=y |website=books.google.com |accessdate=9 April 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1988 || || Organization || {{w|European Vegetarian Union}} is founded. || {{w|Netherlands}}
+
| 2014–2018 || {{w|Veganism}} || Trend growth || Vegan facial skincare launches almost triple in this period, rising from 13% of all launches in 2014 to 28% in 2018.<ref name="Statistics"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1993 || || Organization || {{w|Vegan Outreach}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=What are they all about? |url=https://veganactivism.org/pages/vegan-outreach |website=veganactivism.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2014 || {{w|Veganism}} || Statistics || According to a report by research firm GlobalData, about 1% of consumers in the {{w|United States}} claim to be vegan.<ref name="Why the Global Rise in Vegan"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1993 || || Organization || Swissveg is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Swissveg-Team |url=https://www.swissveg.ch/team?language=en |website=swissveg.ch |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Switzerland}}
+
| 2014 || || Organization || {{w|Peepal Farm}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Meet the people behind Peepal Farm, who tend to injured animals in Dharamshala |url=https://www.indiatoday.in/magazine/leisure/story/20171211-peepal-farm-pet-initiative-tend-to-injured-animals-dharamshala-1097222-2017-12-02 |website=indiatoday.in |accessdate=17 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|India}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1994 || || Organization || {{w|Vegan Prisoners Support Group}} is founded. ||
+
| 2014 || {{w|Veganism}} || Literature (book) || Brenda Davis and {{w|Vesanto Melina}} publish diet book ''Becoming Vegan: The Complete Reference to Plant-Base Nutrition, Comprehensive Edition''.<ref>{{cite web |title=Becoming Vegan: Comprehensive Edition: The Complete Reference on Plant-Based Nutrition |url=https://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/becoming-vegan-brenda-davis/1117262016 |website=barnesandnoble.com |accessdate=9 April 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1994 || || Organization || {{w|Association Végétarienne de France}} || {{w|France}}
+
| 2014 || {{w|Veganism}} || Organization || {{w|Veganuary}} launches. It is a British nonprofit organization that promotes and educates about veganism by encouraging people to follow a vegan lifestyle for the month of {{w|January}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=What is Veganuary? How to go vegan: Campaign asks people to try plant-based diet |url=https://www.today.com/health/what-veganuary-how-go-vegan-campaign-asks-people-try-plant-t170830 |website=today.com |accessdate=9 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1994 || || || The {{w|World Vegan Day}} is first celebrated.<ref>{{cite web |title=World Vegan Month |url=https://www.vegansociety.com/take-action/campaigns/world-vegan-month |website=vegansociety.com |accessdate=17 October 2019}}</ref> ||
+
| 2014–2017 || {{w|Veganism}} || Trend growth || The number of vegans in the {{w|United States}} grows by 600% from nearly 4 million in 2014 to 19.6 million in 2017.<ref>{{cite web |title=Top Trends in Prepared Foods 2017: Exploring trends in meat, fish and seafood; pasta, noodles and rice; prepared meals; savory deli food; soup; and meat substitutes |url=https://www.reportbuyer.com/product/4959853/top-trends-in-prepared-foods-2017-exploring-trends-in-meat-fish-and-seafood-pasta-noodles-and-rice-prepared-meals-savory-deli-food-soup-and-meat-substitutes.html |website=reportbuyer.com |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1995 || || Organization || {{w|Vegan Awareness Foundation}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Vegan Awareness Foundation |url=https://www.connectva.org/groups/vegan-awareness-foundation/ |website=connectva.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2015 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Study (nutrition) || Study finds that the average vegetarian gets well below the adequate amount of {{w|choline}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=CHOLINE IN FOODS, FUNCTIONAL FOODS, AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS |url=https://drtaylorwallace.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Choline-Presentation-IFT-Annual-Meeting.pdf |website=drtaylorwallace.com |accessdate=19 April 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1998 || Veganism || Literature || Erik Marcus publishes ''Vegan: The New Ethics of Eating'' ||
+
| 2016 || {{w|Veganism}} || Statistics || German companies launch more vegan food products than in any other country.<ref name="Why the Global Rise in Vegan"/> || {{w|Germany}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1999 || || Organization || The {{w|Vegetarian Society (Singapore)}} is established.<ref>{{cite web |title=Vegetarian Society (Singapore) |url=http://vegetarian-society.org/about-vss/ |website=vegetarian-society.org |accessdate=8 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Singapore}}
+
| 2016 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Program launch || The Chinese health ministry releases dietary guidelines in that encourage their population of more than 1.3 billion people to reduce their meat consumption by 50%.<ref>{{cite web |title=China's plan to cut meat consumption by 50% cheered by climate campaigners |url=https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jun/20/chinas-meat-consumption-climate-change |website=theguardian.com |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|China}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1999 || Vegetarianism || Literature || Richard A. Young publishes ''Is God a Vegetarian? Christianity, Vegetarianism, and Animal Rights''. ||
+
| 2016 || {{w|Veganism}} || Statistics || The global {{w|plant milk}} market was worth over US$8 billion in the year.<ref name="plantproteins.co"/><ref name="dds">{{cite web |title=Industry Trends |url=https://www.gminsights.com/industry-analysis/plant-milk-market |website=gminsights.com |accessdate=14 April 2020}}</ref> || Worldwide
 
|-
 
|-
| 1999 || || Literature || Lisa Portmess and Kerry S. Walters publish ''Ethical Vegetarianism: From Pythagoras to Peter Singer'' ||
+
| 2016–2019 || {{w|Veganism}} || Trend growth || The number of vegan food and drink businesses launched in Europe increases 93%, from 6,041 in 2016 to 11,655 in 2019.<ref>{{cite web |title=Whopping costs: Why are we paying a price for being vegan? |url=https://www.msn.com/en-ie/money/news/whopping-costs-why-are-we-paying-a-price-for-being-vegan/ar-BBZeNhW?li=BBr5KbJ |website=msn.com |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Europe}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2000 || || Organization || Ethical Vegetarian Alternative is founded to raise awareness about the benefits of eating less or no meat.<ref>{{cite book |title=Sustainable Food Planning: Evolving Theory and Practice |edition=André Viljoen, Johannes S. C. Wiskerke |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=1zVbsBqrd3cC&pg=PA192&lpg=PA192&dq=2000+Organization+Ethical+Vegetarian+Alternative&source=bl&ots=GC52-D0RX4&sig=ACfU3U0KP_GL1fSp6uD9AMGmvyqAfXUoiw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjqmqiPw43lAhXgILkGHbqpDaoQ6AEwD3oECAgQAg#v=onepage&q=2000%20Organization%20Ethical%20Vegetarian%20Alternative&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|Belgium}}
+
| 2016 || {{w|Veganism}} || Statistics || Europe stands as the largest market for meat substitutes to date, accounting for 39% of global sales.<ref>{{cite web |title=Europe leads in innovation as meat-free demand grows|url=https://www.foodnavigator.com/Article/2017/08/24/Europe-leads-in-innovation-as-meat-free-demand-grows |website=Europe leads in innovation as meat-free demand grows |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Europe}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2000 || || Organization || {{w|Tibetan Volunteers for Animals}} ||
+
| 2016 || {{w|Veganism}} || Study (nutrition) || The German Society for Nutrition states that – for children, pregnant or nursing women, and adolescents – vegan diets are not recommended.<ref name="bbc.comd">{{cite web |title=How a vegan diet could affect your intelligence |url=https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20200127-how-a-vegan-diet-could-affect-your-intelligence |website=bbc.com |accessdate=18 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2000 || Vegetarianism || Literature || Colin Spencer publishes ''Vegetarianism: A History'' ||
+
| 2017 || {{w|Veganism}} || Trend growth || The percentage of vegans in the United States reaches 6% of consumers.<ref name="Why the Global Rise in Vegan"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2002 || || Activism || [[w:Meet Your Meat (2002)|Meet Your Meat]]. "This documentary explores the treatment of animals in modern animal agriculture (also known as industrial agriculture or factory farming)."<ref>{{cite web |title=Meet Your Meat (2002) |url=https://www.themoviedb.org/movie/106065-meet-your-meat?language=en-US |website=themoviedb.org |accessdate=17 October 2019}}</ref> ||
+
| 2017 || {{w|Veganism}} || Study (nutrition) || Study shows that vegans have extremely low levels of {{w|choline}}, since people who eat eggs tend to have almost double the choline levels of those who don’t.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Wallace |first1=TC |last2=Fulgoni |first2=VL |title=Usual Choline Intakes Are Associated with Egg and Protein Food Consumption in the United States. |doi=10.3390/nu9080839 |url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28783055}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || || Organization || {{w|Meatless Monday}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Meatless Monday |url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303859875_Meatless_Monday |website=researchgate.net |accessdate=17 October 2019}}</ref> ||
+
| 2017 || {{w|Veganism}} || Organization || ProVeg International is founded. Its mission is to help reduce the global consumption of animal products by 50% by the year 2040, by making plant-based lifestyles more attractive and accessible.<ref>{{cite web |title=ProVeg International |url=https://www.glassdoor.com.hk/Overview/Working-at-ProVeg-International-EI_IE1901945.11,31.htm |website=glassdoor.com.hk |accessdate=14 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2004–2018 || || || "Search data from Google Trends shows an impressive worldwide increase in the interest in veganism from 2004 to 2018. Top regions include Israel, Australia, Canada, Austria, and New Zealand."<ref name="Why the Global Rise in Vegan">{{cite web |title=Why the Global Rise in Vegan and Plant-Based Eating Isn’t A Fad (600% Increase in U.S. Vegans + Other Astounding Stats) |url=https://foodrevolution.org/blog/vegan-statistics-global/ |website=foodrevolution.org |accessdate=30 September 2019}}</ref> ||
+
| 2017 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Advocacy || {{w|Environmental vegetarianism}}. 15,364 world scientists sign a [[w:World Scientists' Warning to Humanity|Warning to Humanity]] calling for, among other things, drastically diminishing our per capita consumption of meat.<ref>{{cite journal|vauthors=Ripple WJ, Wolf C, Newsome TM, Galetti M, Alamgir M, Crist E, Mahmoud MI, Laurance WF|title=World Scientists' Warning to Humanity: A Second Notice|journal={{w|BioScience}}|date=13 November 2017|volume=67|issue=12|pages=1026–1028|doi=10.1093/biosci/bix125}}</ref> ||    
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || || Organization || {{w|Vegan Ireland: The Vegan Society of Ireland}} is founded as a non-profit. It promotes {{w|veganism}} and {{w|animal rights}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=Vegan Ireland |url=http://www.vegan.ie/ |website=vegan.ie |accessdate=7 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Ireland}}
+
| 2017 || {{w|Veganism}} || Literature (book) || Tobias Leenaert publishes ''How to Create a Vegan World: A Pragmatic Approach''.<ref>{{cite web |title=How to Create a Vegan World: A Pragmatic Approach |url=https://www.goodreads.com/en/book/show/35468340-how-to-create-a-vegan-world |website=goodreads.com |accessdate=9 April 2020}}</ref> Leenaert follows an utilitarian approach in his advocacy, stating that the vegan movement need be more pragmatic.<ref>{{cite web |title=How to Create a Vegan World: A Pragmatic Approach Paperback – July 5, 2017 |url=https://www.amazon.com/How-Create-Vegan-World-Pragmatic/dp/1590565703 |website=amazon.com |accessdate=18 April 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || Vegetarianism || Literature || {{w|Lierre Keith}} publishes ''{{w|The Vegetarian Myth}}''. || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2017 || {{w|Veganism}} || Trend growth || British food delivery service Just Eat sees a 94% increase in vegan food orders in Ireland in the year.<ref>{{cite web |title=Veganism trend set to grow in popularity in 2018, according to Just Eat |url=https://www.independent.ie/life/food-drink/article36443713.ece |website=independent.ie |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Ireland}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || Vegetarianism and veganism || Literature || Amy Shand publishes ''That's why We Don't Eat Animals: A Book about Vegans, Vegetarians, and All Living Things'', a non-fiction book for children. ||
+
| 2017 || {{w|Veganism}} || Trend growth || Demand for meat-free food in the United Kingdom increases by 987% in the year.<ref name="Statistics"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2012 || || Organization || {{w|Vegan Australia}} is founded. It campaigns nationally for veganism.<ref>{{cite web |title=Vegan Australia |url=https://www.veganaustralia.org.au/about |website=veganaustralia.org.au |accessdate=7 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|Australia}}
+
| 2017 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Trend growth || According to the Swedish Board of Agriculture, Sweden sees its largest decrease in meat consumption for 30 years with a 2.6% drop in people eating meat in the year.<ref>{{cite web |title=Sidan kunde inte hittas |url=http://www.jordbruksverket.se/omjordbruksverket/pressochmedia/nyheter/nyheter2018/tydligutvecklingviatermindrekottochmersvenskt.5.42a946c0161df8b7b8f1958c.html |website=jordbruksverket.se |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Sweden}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2013 || || || [[w:Live and Let Live (2013 film)|Live and Let Live]]. ||
+
| 2017–2018 || {{w|Veganism}} || Statistics || Germany, a global leaders when it comes to vegan product development and launches, accounts for 15% of global vegan introductions between July 2017 and June 2018.<ref>{{cite web |title=Germany Dominates Global Vegan Product Market, Says Report |url=https://www.plantbasednews.org/lifestyle/germany-dominates-global-vegan-product-market-says-report |website=plantbasednews.org |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2013 || Vegetarianism || Literature || Adam D. Shprintzen publishes ''The Vegetarian Crusade: The Rise of an American Reform Movement, 1817-1921''. || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2018 || {{w|Veganism}} || Trend growth || There are as many people searching for vegan {{w|Thanksgiving}} recipes as there are people searching for turkey Thanksgiving recipes in the United States.<ref>{{cite web |title=Vegan and Keto Are This Year’s Top Thanksgiving Trends |url=https://www.chefspencil.com/2018-thanksgiving-dinner-trends/ |website=chefspencil.com |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2014 || || || "There’s been a 600% increase in people identifying as vegans in the U.S in the last three years. According to a report by research firm GlobalData, only 1% of U.S. consumers claimed to be vegan in 2014. And in 2017, that number rose to 6%."<ref name="Why the Global Rise in Vegan"/>
+
| 2018 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Trend growth || Around 60% of Poles say they plan to cut back on their meat consumption at this time.<ref>{{cite web |title=Why people in rich countries are eating more vegan food |url=https://www.economist.com/briefing/2018/10/13/why-people-in-rich-countries-are-eating-more-vegan-food |website=economist.com |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Poland}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2014 || || Organization || {{w|Peepal Farm}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Meet the people behind Peepal Farm, who tend to injured animals in Dharamshala |url=https://www.indiatoday.in/magazine/leisure/story/20171211-peepal-farm-pet-initiative-tend-to-injured-animals-dharamshala-1097222-2017-12-02 |website=indiatoday.in |accessdate=17 October 2019}}</ref> || {{w|India}}
+
| 2018 || {{w|Veganism}} || Trend growth || The size of the global vegan food market is calculated to be worth US$12.69 billion.<ref>{{cite web |title=The Age of Veganism: Vegan Statistics for 2020 (Infographic) |url=https://healthcareers.co/vegan-statistics/ |website=healthcareers.co |accessdate=14 April 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2018 || {{w|Veganism}} || Trend growth || The United Kingdom launches more vegan products than any nation.<ref name="Statistics"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2018 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Trend growth || The total market for plant-based meat alternative products is around US$4.6 billion in the year.<ref name="kearney.com"/> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2018 || {{w|Veganism}} || Study (environment) || A study by {{w|Oxford University}} finds that avoiding meat and dairy is the single biggest way to reduce the impact of an individual on Earth, as animal farming provides just 18% of calories but takes up 83% of our farmland.<ref>{{cite web |title=New estimates of the environmental cost of food |url=http://www.ox.ac.uk/news/2018-06-01-new-estimates-environmental-cost-food |website=ox.ac.uk |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=Poore |first1=J. |last2=Nemecek |first2=T. |title=Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consumers |url=https://josephpoore.com/Science%20360%206392%20987%20-%20Accepted%20Manuscript.pdf |website=josephpoore.com |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2018 || {{w|Veganism}} || Trend growth || The worldwide funding of novel vegan meat replacement companies reaches US$900 million.<ref name="kearney.com"/> || Worldwide
 +
|-
 +
| 2018 || {{w|Veganism}} || Study (environment) || A {{w|Greenpeace}} report finds that “global meat and dairy production and consumption must be cut in half by 2050 to avoid dangerous climate change and keep the {{w|Paris Agreement}} on track. "If left unchecked, agriculture is projected to produce 52% of global {{w|greenhouse gas}} emissions in the coming decades, 70% of which will come from meat and dairy."<ref>{{cite web |title=Greenpeace calls for decrease in meat and dairy production and consumption for a healthier planet |url=https://www.greenpeace.org/international/press-release/15111/greenpeace-calls-for-decrease-in-meat-and-dairy-production-and-consumption-for-a-healthier-planet/ |website=greenpeace.org |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2018–2019 || {{w|Veganism}} || Trend growth || British book retailer {{w|Waterstones}} have 9,030 book titles with the word 'vegan' in them available for sale (as of December 2019) compared to 944 in August 2018.<ref name="Statistics"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2018–2019 || {{w|Veganism}} || Trend growth || Iceland tops the worldwide rankings for popularity of veganism in the period comprised between June 2018 and June 2019.<ref>{{cite web |title=Iceland tops worldwide rankings for veganism popularity |url=https://chefspencil.com/iceland-tops-worldwide-rankings-for-veganism-popularity/ |website=chefspencil.com |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Iceland}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2018–2019 || {{w|Veganism}} || Trend growth || Retail sales of plant-based foods in the United States increase 11 percent from 2018 to 2019, hitting a plant-based market value to US$4.5 billion.<ref name="plantproteins.co">{{cite web |title=Vegan and Plant-Based Diet Statistics |url=https://plantproteins.co/vegan-plant-based-diet-statistics/ |website=plantproteins.co |accessdate=14 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2019 || {{w|Veganism}} || Trend growth || The packaged vegan food market in Australia is worth almost US$200 million.<ref>{{cite web |title=Value of packaged vegan food in Australia from 2016 to 2020 (in million Australian dollars)* |url=https://www.statista.com/statistics/731052/australia-value-packaged-vegan-food/ |website=statista.com |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Australia}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2019 || {{w|Veganism}} || Study (nutrition) || Nutritionist claims that vegan diets can stunt brain development, arguing that animal products are the best sources of {{w|choline}}, an essential nutrient for brain and liver health.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Landsverk |first1=Gabby |title=A nutritionist claims vegan diets can stunt brain development, but other health experts say plant-based eating is perfectly healthy |url=https://www.insider.com/does-a-vegan-diet-stunt-brain-growth-choline-2019-9 |website=insider.com |accessdate=18 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 +
|-
 +
| 2019 || {{w|Veganism}} || Study (nutrition) || Study on risks of ischaemic heart disease and stroke suggests that vegans tend to have healthier hearts.<ref>{{cite journal |title=Risks of ischaemic heart disease and stroke in meat eaters, fish eaters, and vegetarians over 18 years of follow-up: results from the prospective EPIC-Oxford study |doi=10.1136/bmj.l4897 |url=https://www.bmj.com/content/366/bmj.l4897}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2019 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Advocacy || {{w|Environmental vegetarianism}}. A significant reduction in meat consumption is advocated by, among others, the {{w|Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change}} in their special report.<ref>{{cite news |last= Schiermeier|first=Quirin|date=August 8, 2019 |title=Eat less meat: UN climate change report calls for change to human diet|url=https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-02409-7|work=[[w:Nature (journal)|Nature]]|location= |access-date=9 April 2020}}</ref> ||
 +
|-
 +
| 2019 || {{w|Veganism}} || Study (environment) || A {{w|Harvard University}} report proves that if everyone in the United Kingdom went vegan, the population would still have enough food for everyone to eat. If the country returned meat, dairy and egg farms back to forest and grew health-promoting crops for human consumption, it would be able to sustain human calorie and protein needs in place of feed currently grown for animals.<ref>{{cite web |title=Eating away at climate change |url=http://animal.law.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/Eating-Away-at-Climate-Change-with-Negative-Emissions%E2%80%93%E2%80%93Harwatt-Hayek.pdf |website=animal.law.harvard.edu |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2014 || Veganism || Literature || Brenda Davis and Vesanto Melina publish diet book ''Becoming Vegan: The Complete Reference to Plant-Base Nutrition, Comprehensive Edition''.
+
| 2019 || {{w|Veganism}} || Trend growth || According to {{w|Google Trends}}, the United Kingdom is the most popular country for veganism, followed by the Australia and New Zealand.<ref>{{cite web |title=Veganism |url=https://trends.google.com/trends/explore?q=%2Fm%2F07_hy |website=trends.google.com |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2016 || || || "But in 2016, German companies launched more vegan food products than in any other country."<ref name="Why the Global Rise in Vegan"/> ||
+
| 2019 || {{w|Veganism}} || Trend growth || Plant milks make up 13% of the entire milk category in the United States. Their sale grow by 6% in the year, while cow's milk sales decline by 3%.<ref>{{cite web |title=U.S. Plant-Based Retail Market Worth $4.5 Billion, Growing at 5X Total Food Sales |url=https://plantbasedfoods.org/2019-data-plant-based-market/ |website=plantbasedfoods.org |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2017 || || || "There’s been a 600% increase in people identifying as vegans in the U.S in the last three years. According to a report by research firm GlobalData, only 1% of U.S. consumers claimed to be vegan in 2014. And in 2017, that number rose to 6%."<ref name="Why the Global Rise in Vegan"/> ||
+
| 2019 || {{w|Veganism}} || Policy || The {{w|Royal Academy of Medicine of Belgium}} decides a vegan diet is “unsuitable” for children, implying the possibility to imprison parents who enforce a vegan diet on their children.<ref>{{cite web |title=Making your kids go vegan can mean jail time in Belgium |url=https://qz.com/1622642/making-your-kids-go-vegan-can-mean-jail-time-in-belgium/ |website=qz.com |accessdate=18 April 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Belgium}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2017 || Veganism || Literature || Tobias Leenaert publishes ''How to Create a Vegan World: A Pragmatic Approach'' ||
+
| 2040 || {{w|Vegetarianism}} || Prediction || It is predicted that by this year, only 40% of the global population will be consuming meat, with 35% consuming clean (lab) meat and 25% vegan meat replacements.<ref name="kearney.com">{{cite web |last1= |first1= |title=How Will Cultured Meat Alternatives Disrupt the Agricultural and Food Industry |url=https://www.kearney.com/documents/20152/2795757/How+Will+Cultured+Meat+and+Meat+Alternatives+Disrupt+the+Agricultural+and+Food+Industry.pdf/06ec385b-63a1-71d2-c081-51c07ab88ad1?t=1559860712714 |website=kearney.com |accessdate=13 April 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
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|}
 
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===What the timeline is still missing===
 
===What the timeline is still missing===
 
* Google trends
 
* Wikipedia views
 
* Books on vegetarianism
 
* Books on veganism
 
* Statistics
 
  
 
===Timeline update strategy===
 
===Timeline update strategy===
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* [[Timeline of Vegan Outreach]]
 
* [[Timeline of Vegan Outreach]]
 
* [[Timeline of animal welfare and rights]]
 
* [[Timeline of animal welfare and rights]]
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* [[Timeline of food and nutrition in India]]
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* [[Timeline of food and nutrition in China]]
  
 
==External links==
 
==External links==

Latest revision as of 07:37, 19 April 2020

This is a timeline vegetarianism and veganism, both practices of abstaining from the consumption of meat.

Sample questions

The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:

  • What are some significant events related to the development of the concepts of vegetarianism and veganism?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Concept development".
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    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "advocacy".
    • You will see mostly ancient historical personalities advocating meat abstention.
  • What are some notable publications on the topics of vegetarianism and veganism?
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    • You will see some notable book (Literature (book)) and magazine releases (Literature (magazine)).
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    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Organization".
    • You will read some notable names, like pioneering organizations (Vegetarian Society and The Vegan Society), as well as others.
  • What are some indicators of trend growth in vegetarianism and veganism?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Trend growth".
    • You will see numbers indicating the evolution of both vegetarianism and veganism in popularity.
  • What are some notable vegan and vegetarian festivals?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Festival".
    • You will read names like Veggie Pride and Vegfest, among other festivals.
  • What are some significant studies concerning the effect of vegetarianism and veganism?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Study (nutrition)".
    • You will see a number of studies addressing the nutritional effect of the practice of vegetarianism and veganism.
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Study (environment)".
    • You will see a number of studies addressing the noticeable environmental effect produced by massive meat abstention.

Big picture

Time period Development summary More details
3300 BCE onward Earliest historical record The earliest recorded practice of vegetarianism is identified in the Indus Valley Civilization. Early vegetarians include Indian philosophers, as well as Greek and Roman intellectuals.
1840s onward Modern vegetarian organizations This period begins with the establishment of the Vegetarian Society in Britain. A number of vegetarian oganizations follows, especially in Europe. The word 'vegetarian' is also first known to have been used in print in 1842.[1]
1944 onward Vegan movement This period encompasses the new concept of veganism, as well as the emergence of the first vegan organization, both created in 1944.

Summary by century

Time period Development summary
19th century Vegetarianism establishes itself as a movement in Europe and the United States.[2]
20th century Vegetarianism becomes a forceful movement. In this century, there is an increased awareness of the relationship between animals and humans.[3] The vegan movement is born.
21st century The vegan diet becomes increasingly mainstream,[4][5][6][7][8] especially in the last years.[7][9]

Visual data

Google Trends

The image below shows Google Trends data for vegetarianism and veganism (topic), from January 2004 to April 2020, when the screenshot was taken.[10]

Google trend vegetarianism and veganism topic.png

The image below shows Google Trends data for vegetarianism and veganism (search term), from January 2004 to April 2020, when the screenshot was taken.[11]

Google trends veganism and vegetarianism search term.png

Wikipedia views

The image below shows Wikipedia Views from July 2015 to March 2020 for veganism for mobile-web, desktop, desktop-spider, mobile-app, and mobile-web-spider.[12]

Wikipedia views veganism.png

The image below shows Wikipedia Views from July 2015 to March 2020 for vegetarianism for mobile-web, desktop, desktop-spider, mobile-app, and mobile-web-spider.[13]

Wkipedia views vegetarianism.png

Full timeline

Year Category Event type Details Location
3300 BC–1300 BC Vegetarianism The practice of vegetarianism is already identified in the Indus Valley Civilization in the Indian subcontinent[14][15][16] particularly in northern and western ancient India.[17] India
877 BC–777 BC Activism Early Jain called Parshvanatha teaches followers about ahimsa (non-violence), one of the cornerstone beliefs meaning non-violence to living forms.[18] India
520 BC Vegetarianism Policy Persian emperor Cyrus the Great is born. A vegetarian himself, Cyrus would order his soldiers also strictly to adhere to this diet.[19]
500 BC Vegetarianism Advocacy Greek philosopher Pythagoras advocates the idea that all animals have immortal souls which would be reincarnated after death. Pythagoras promotes benevolence among all species and follows what could be described as a vegetarian diet.[20][18] Greece
484BC–425BC Vegetarianism Advocacy Greek historian Herodotus lives. He condemns the killing and eating of animals.[19] Greece
206 BC–220 AD Vegetarianism Advocacy Han Dynasty. Vegetarianism is introduced by buddhist missionaries from India.[21] China
106BC–423BC Vegetarianism Advocacy Roman statesman Cicero states:"Man is destined to a better occupation than that of pursuing and cutting the throat of dumb creatures." And, " Nothing cruel is useful or expedient."[19]
5 BC–65 AD Vegetarianism Advocacy Roman Stoic philosopher Seneca lives. An ardent vegetarian, Seneca creates a vegetarian cult in the Court.[19]
40 AD–120 AD Vegetarianism Advocacy Greek philosopher Plutarch lives. His essay on flesh eating contains ethical arguments for vegetarianism.[19]
520 Vegetarianism Advocacy Buddhist monk Boddhidharma introduces Zen in China. Boddhidharma teaches vegetarianism.[21] India
973–1057 Veganism Adoption Arab poet al-Maʿarri is recognized as one of the earliest known vegans.[22]
1398 Vegetarianism Advocacy Indian mystic poet Kabir calls to compassion, condemning meat-eating and killing of animals no matter if it is permitted in the "Koran" or any other Scripture for "sacrificial" purposes.[23][24] India
1806 Veganism Concept development The earliest concepts of veganism start to take shape, with Dr William Lambe and Percy Bysshe Shelley amongst the first Europeans to publicly object to eggs and dairy on ethical grounds.[20]
1809 Vegetarianism Organization The Bible Christian Church, a Christian vegetarian sect, is founded by William Cowherd.[25] United Kingdom
1813 Vegetarianism Literature (book) English poet Percy Bysshe Shelley publishes A Vindication of Natural Diet, advocating "abstinence from animal food and spirituous liquors".[26] United Kingdom
1815 Vegetarianism Advocacy London physician William Lambe claims that his "water and vegetable diet" could cure anything from tuberculosis to acne.[27] United Kingdom
1839 Vegetarianism Concept development The term "vegetarian" at this time refers to what is described as a vegetable regimen or diet.[28]
1847 Vegetarianism Organization The UK Vegetarian Society is founded.[29] United Kingdom
1850 Vegetarianism Organization The American Vegetarian Association in founded in New York.[30] United States
1882 Vegetarianism Organization The French Vegetarian Society is founded.[31] Its aim is to "propagate vegetarianism and assert the benefits of any order it presents."[32] France
1883 Vegetarianism Literature (book) English humanitarian Howard Williams publishes The Ethics of Diet, which is considered the first book on vegetarian history.[33]
1884 Vegetarianism Organization The Hungarian Vegetarian Society is founded.[34] Hungary
1894 Vegetarianism Organization The Dutch Vegetarian League is founded.[35] Netherlands
1896 Vegetarianism Organization A Vegetarian Society is formed in Stockholm.[36] Sweden
1899 Vegetarianism Organization A Vegetarian Society is established in Milan.[37] Italy
1901 Vegetarianism Organization The Russian Vegetarian Society is formed.[38] Russia
1905 Vegetarianism Organization The Spanish Vegetarian Society is formed.[39] Spain
1906 Vegetarianism Organization The Greek Vegetarian Society is formed.[40] Greece
1908 Vegetarianism Organization The International Vegetarian Union is launched at the first International Vegetarian Congress in Dresden, Germany.[41][42][43] Germany
1908 Vegetarianism Organization The World Esperantist Vegetarian Association is founded.[44]
1918 Veganism Trend growth The world's first raw vegan restaurant is opened in Los Angeles, California by John and Vera Richter.[45] United States
1925 Veganism Literature (book) Vera Richter publishes Mrs. Richter's Cook-Less Book, the first raw vegan cookbook.[45] United States
1935 Vegetarianism Concept development The Vegetarian Society states: "The lacto-vegetarians, on the whole, do not defend the practice of consuming the dairy products except on the ground of expediency."[46]
1938 Vegetarianism Literature (book) Jewish vegetarianism. The first Jewish-vegetarian cookbook is compiled by Fania Lewando and is first published in Vilnius.[47] Lithuania
1943 Vegetarianism Organization The New Zealand Vegetarian Society is founded.[48] New Zeland
1944 Veganism Organization The Vegan Society is founded. It is the oldest vegan society in the world.[49] United Kingdom
1944 Veganism Concept development The Vegan Society co-founder Donald Watson coins the term "vegan" using it to mean "non-dairy vegetarian".[50][51]
1945 Vegetarianism Organization The Toronto Vegetarian Association is founded.[52] Canada
1945 Veganism Concept development Vegans explicitly abstain from "eggs, honey; and animals' milk, butter and cheese".[53]
1951 Veganism Concept development The Vegan Society defines veganism as "the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals".[54]
1952 Vegetarianism Organization The Italian Vegetarian Association is founded.[55] Italy
1960 Veganism Organization The American Vegan Society is founded.[56] United States
1974 Vegetarianism Organization Hare Krishna Food for Life is founded as a nonprofit with the purpose "to bring peace and prosperity to the world through the liberal distribution of sanctified vegetarian meals".[57] India
1974 Vegetarianism Literature (magazine) American magazine Vegetarian Times launches.[58] United States
1975 Vegetarianism Organization The Jewish Vegetarian Society of America is founded.[59]
1978 Veganism Organization The Dutch Society for Veganism is founded.[60] Netherlands
1982 Vegetarianism Meat substitute The veggie burger may have been created in London in this year by Gregory Sams, who calls it the 'VegeBurger'.[61] A Carrefour hypermarket in Southampton sells 2000 packets in three weeks after its launch.[62] United Kingdom
1984 Veganism Organization The Movement for Compassionate Living (MCL) is founded. It promotes veganism.[63][64] United Kingdom
1984 Vegetarianism Literature (book) Daniel Dombrowski publishes The Philosophy of Vegetarianism.[65]
1984 Veganism Literature (book) Brenda Davis publishes diet book Vegetariana. It is considered a classic in its field.[66]
1986 Vegetarianism Organization The Boston Vegetarian Society is founded.[67] United States
1987 Vegetarianism Literature (book) Rudolph Ballentine publishes Transition to Vegetarianism: An Evolutionary Step.[68]
1988 Veganism Study (nutrition) Study concludes that vegans tend to have less taurine in their bodies.[69]
1988 Vegetarianism Organization The European Vegetarian Union is founded.[70] Netherlands
1989 Veganism Literature (magazine) Arkangel is first published. It promotes vegan lifestyle.[71] United Kingdom
1989 Veganism Literature (magazine) No Compromise launches as a bi-annual animal rights magazine. It promotes a vegan lifestyle.[72] United States
1990 Veganism Trend growth The Vegan Trademark scheme is launched.[73] It is used on labels worldwide as the authentic standard for products free from animal ingredients and animal testing.[74]
1993 Veganism Organization Vegan Outreach is founded. It is a 501c3 nonprofit organization working to end violence towards animals.[75] United States
1993 Vegetarianism Organization Swissveg is founded. It is the biggest community in Switzerland for vegetarians and vegans.[76] Switzerland
1994 Veganism Organization Vegan Prisoners Support Group is founded.[77] United Kingdom
1994 Veganism Study (nutrition) Study concludes that vegans are particularly prone to iron deficiency, because the form that’s most readily absorbed by the body is “haem iron”, which is only found in animal proteins.[78]
1994 Vegetarianism Organization The Association Végétarienne de France is founded.[79] France
1994 Veganism Advocacy The World Vegan Day is first celebrated on November 1st. It would evolve into World Vegan Week and later World Vegan Month; where vegans and veganism is celebrated in workplaces, shops, restaurants and in homes all over the world.[80]
1995 Veganism Organization vegan.org is created. It is one of the oldest and most visited vegan websites in the world.[81] United States
1995 Veganism Organization Vegan Awareness Foundation is founded. It works "to eliminate animal suffering, reduce environmental impacts, and improve human health through a vegan diet".[82] United States
1998 Veganism Literature (book) Erik Marcus publishes Vegan: The New Ethics of Eating.[83]
1998 Vegetarianism Concept development A Vegetarian Diet Pyramid is created by Oldways Preservation Trust with scientific research from Cornell and Harvard University and specific reference to the healthy patterns of eating demonstrated by the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid.[84] United States
1999 Vegetarianism Organization The Vegetarian Society (Singapore) is established.[85] Singapore
1999 Vegetarianism Organization The Christian Vegetarian Association is founded.[86] United States
1999 Vegetarianism Literature (book) Richard A. Young publishes Is God a Vegetarian? Christianity, Vegetarianism, and Animal Rights.[87]
1999 Vegetarianism Literature (book) Lisa Portmess and Kerry S. Walters publish Ethical Vegetarianism: From Pythagoras to Peter Singer.[88]
1999 General Online community HappyCow launches as an online service that lists sources of vegan, vegetarian and healthy food.[89] United States
2000 Vegetarianism Organization Ethical Vegetarian Alternative is founded to raise awareness about the benefits of eating less or no meat.[90] Belgium
2000 Vegetarianism Literature (book) Colin Spencer publishes Vegetarianism: A History.[91] The book explores the psychology of abstention from flesh.[92]
2000 Veganism Literature (magazine) American magazine VegNews launches. It publishes content about and relating to veganism.[93] United States
2000 General Online community VeggieBoards launches. It is one of the largest and most active internet forums for vegetarians and vegans.[94]
2001 General Festival Veggie Pride is first held in Paris. It brings together vegetarians and vegans who want "to show their pride at refusing to eat animals, and to denounce the discrimination which they suffer, both personally and in terms of expressing their ideas".[95] France
2001 Veganism Broadcasting Talk radio program Go Vegan debuts.[96] United States
2002 Vegetarianism Activism Meet Your Meat is released. This documentary explores the treatment of animals in modern animal agriculture.[97]
2003 Vegetarianism Organization Meatless Monday launches. It is an international campaign that encourages people to not eat meat on Mondays to improve their health and address the Environmental effects of meat production.[98]
2003 Veganism Festival Vegfest (UK) starts in Bristol.[99] Vegfest is one of the biggest Vegan/Vegetarian festivals in the world.[100] United Kingdom
2003 Vegetarianism Study (nutrition) Study conducted on 555 Kenyan schoolchildren, who were fed one of three different types of soup – one with meat, one with milk, and one with oil – or no soup at all, finds that the children who were given the soup containing meat each day outperformed all the other children on a test for non-verbal reasoning by the end of the study.[101] Kenya
2004 Vegetarianism Festival Vegfest Brasil launches.[102] Brazil
2004 Veganism Study (nutrition) German study finds that 40% of the vegans they looked at were consuming less than the recommended daily amount of iron.[103]
2004–2018 Veganism Trend growth Search data from Google Trends shows a profound worldwide increase in the interest in veganism in this period. Top regions include Israel, Australia, Canada, Austria, and New Zealand.[104] Worldwide
2005 Veganism Literature (book) The China Study is published by T. Colin Campbell. It examines the link between the consumption of animal products (including dairy) and chronic illnesses such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and bowel cancer.[105] United States
2005 Veganism Study (nutrition) Study correlates the amount of Vitamin B12 in blood with IQ, implying that vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with cognitive impairment.[106]
2005–2018 Vegetarianism Trend growth The number of vegetarians grows from 1% of the population in Germany to 7% in this period.[107] Germany
2006 Vegetarianism Festival The Vegetarian Festival in Tokyo starts.[108] Japan
2007–2014 General Statistics An estimated 400 million fewer animals are killed in the United States in 2014 compared to 2007 because of decreased consumption of animal products.[109] United States
2008 Veganism Study (nutrition) One study finds that in the elderly the brains of those with lower vitamin B12 are six times more likely to be shrinking.[110]
2009 Veganism Organization Vegan Ireland: The Vegan Society of Ireland is founded as a non-profit. It promotes veganism and animal rights.[111] Ireland
2009 Veganism Nutrition A study of bone density finds the bone density of vegans is 94 percent that of omnivores, but deems the difference clinically insignificant.[112]
2009 Vegetarianism Literature (book) Lierre Keith publishes The Vegetarian Myth. "Part memoir, nutritional primer, and political manifesto, this controversial examination exposes the destructive history of agriculturecausing the devastation of prairies and forests, driving countless species extinct, altering the climate, and destroying the topsoiland asserts that, in order to save the planet, food must come from within living communities"[113] United States
2009 General Literature (book) Amy Shand publishes That's why We Don't Eat Animals: A Book about Vegans, Vegetarians, and All Living Things, a non-fiction book for children.[114]
2010 Veganism Study (nutrition) British study finds that half of the vegans in their sample are vitamin B12 deficient.[115]
2010 Vegetarianism Study (environment) Environmental vegetarianism. A report from the United Nations Environment Programme's (UNEP) International Panel of Sustainable Resource Management states:
Impacts from agriculture are expected to increase substantially due to population growth and increasing consumption of animal products. Unlike fossil fuels, it is difficult to look for alternatives: people have to eat. A substantial reduction of impacts would only be possible with a substantial worldwide diet change, away from animal products.[116]
2010 Veganism Study (nutrition) Study finds that, in the winter months, when the sun is weaker, omnivores living in the United Kingdom have nearly 40% more vitamin D3 in their blood than vegans.[117] United Kingdom
2011 Veganism Organization Veganz is founded. It is the first vegan supermarket chain in Europe.[118] Germany
2011 Veganism Documentary film Vegucated is released. It explores the challenges of converting to a vegan diet.[119] United States
2012 Veganism Literature (maganize) Naked Food launches. It is a quarterly magazine focusing on whole-food plant-based nutrition.[120] United States
2012 Veganism Organization Vegan Australia is founded. It campaigns nationally for veganism.[121] Australia
2013 Veganism Festival Hong Kong Vegfest is held for the first time.[122] It is a yearly volunteer-run festival organized by a collaboration of major organizations and institutions with the aim of promoting veganism in Hong Kong.[123] Hong Kong
2013 Vegetarianism Literature (book) Adam D. Shprintzen publishes The Vegetarian Crusade: The Rise of an American Reform Movement, 1817-1921.[124] United States
2013 Veganism Literature (book) Amy Shand publishes V Is for Vegan: The ABCs of Being Kind.[125]
2014–2018 Veganism Trend growth Vegan facial skincare launches almost triple in this period, rising from 13% of all launches in 2014 to 28% in 2018.[73]
2014 Veganism Statistics According to a report by research firm GlobalData, about 1% of consumers in the United States claim to be vegan.[104] United States
2014 Organization Peepal Farm is founded.[126] India
2014 Veganism Literature (book) Brenda Davis and Vesanto Melina publish diet book Becoming Vegan: The Complete Reference to Plant-Base Nutrition, Comprehensive Edition.[127]
2014 Veganism Organization Veganuary launches. It is a British nonprofit organization that promotes and educates about veganism by encouraging people to follow a vegan lifestyle for the month of January.[128] United Kingdom
2014–2017 Veganism Trend growth The number of vegans in the United States grows by 600% from nearly 4 million in 2014 to 19.6 million in 2017.[129] United States
2015 Vegetarianism Study (nutrition) Study finds that the average vegetarian gets well below the adequate amount of choline.[130]
2016 Veganism Statistics German companies launch more vegan food products than in any other country.[104] Germany
2016 Vegetarianism Program launch The Chinese health ministry releases dietary guidelines in that encourage their population of more than 1.3 billion people to reduce their meat consumption by 50%.[131] China
2016 Veganism Statistics The global plant milk market was worth over US$8 billion in the year.[132][133] Worldwide
2016–2019 Veganism Trend growth The number of vegan food and drink businesses launched in Europe increases 93%, from 6,041 in 2016 to 11,655 in 2019.[134] Europe
2016 Veganism Statistics Europe stands as the largest market for meat substitutes to date, accounting for 39% of global sales.[135] Europe
2016 Veganism Study (nutrition) The German Society for Nutrition states that – for children, pregnant or nursing women, and adolescents – vegan diets are not recommended.[136] Germany
2017 Veganism Trend growth The percentage of vegans in the United States reaches 6% of consumers.[104] United States
2017 Veganism Study (nutrition) Study shows that vegans have extremely low levels of choline, since people who eat eggs tend to have almost double the choline levels of those who don’t.[137]
2017 Veganism Organization ProVeg International is founded. Its mission is to help reduce the global consumption of animal products by 50% by the year 2040, by making plant-based lifestyles more attractive and accessible.[138] Germany
2017 Vegetarianism Advocacy Environmental vegetarianism. 15,364 world scientists sign a Warning to Humanity calling for, among other things, drastically diminishing our per capita consumption of meat.[139]
2017 Veganism Literature (book) Tobias Leenaert publishes How to Create a Vegan World: A Pragmatic Approach.[140] Leenaert follows an utilitarian approach in his advocacy, stating that the vegan movement need be more pragmatic.[141]
2017 Veganism Trend growth British food delivery service Just Eat sees a 94% increase in vegan food orders in Ireland in the year.[142] Ireland
2017 Veganism Trend growth Demand for meat-free food in the United Kingdom increases by 987% in the year.[73] United Kingdom
2017 Vegetarianism Trend growth According to the Swedish Board of Agriculture, Sweden sees its largest decrease in meat consumption for 30 years with a 2.6% drop in people eating meat in the year.[143] Sweden
2017–2018 Veganism Statistics Germany, a global leaders when it comes to vegan product development and launches, accounts for 15% of global vegan introductions between July 2017 and June 2018.[144] Germany
2018 Veganism Trend growth There are as many people searching for vegan Thanksgiving recipes as there are people searching for turkey Thanksgiving recipes in the United States.[145] United States
2018 Vegetarianism Trend growth Around 60% of Poles say they plan to cut back on their meat consumption at this time.[146] Poland
2018 Veganism Trend growth The size of the global vegan food market is calculated to be worth US$12.69 billion.[147]
2018 Veganism Trend growth The United Kingdom launches more vegan products than any nation.[73] United Kingdom
2018 Vegetarianism Trend growth The total market for plant-based meat alternative products is around US$4.6 billion in the year.[148]
2018 Veganism Study (environment) A study by Oxford University finds that avoiding meat and dairy is the single biggest way to reduce the impact of an individual on Earth, as animal farming provides just 18% of calories but takes up 83% of our farmland.[149][150] United Kingdom
2018 Veganism Trend growth The worldwide funding of novel vegan meat replacement companies reaches US$900 million.[148] Worldwide
2018 Veganism Study (environment) A Greenpeace report finds that “global meat and dairy production and consumption must be cut in half by 2050 to avoid dangerous climate change and keep the Paris Agreement on track. "If left unchecked, agriculture is projected to produce 52% of global greenhouse gas emissions in the coming decades, 70% of which will come from meat and dairy."[151]
2018–2019 Veganism Trend growth British book retailer Waterstones have 9,030 book titles with the word 'vegan' in them available for sale (as of December 2019) compared to 944 in August 2018.[73] United Kingdom
2018–2019 Veganism Trend growth Iceland tops the worldwide rankings for popularity of veganism in the period comprised between June 2018 and June 2019.[152] Iceland
2018–2019 Veganism Trend growth Retail sales of plant-based foods in the United States increase 11 percent from 2018 to 2019, hitting a plant-based market value to US$4.5 billion.[132] United States
2019 Veganism Trend growth The packaged vegan food market in Australia is worth almost US$200 million.[153] Australia
2019 Veganism Study (nutrition) Nutritionist claims that vegan diets can stunt brain development, arguing that animal products are the best sources of choline, an essential nutrient for brain and liver health.[154] United Kingdom
2019 Veganism Study (nutrition) Study on risks of ischaemic heart disease and stroke suggests that vegans tend to have healthier hearts.[155]
2019 Vegetarianism Advocacy Environmental vegetarianism. A significant reduction in meat consumption is advocated by, among others, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in their special report.[156]
2019 Veganism Study (environment) A Harvard University report proves that if everyone in the United Kingdom went vegan, the population would still have enough food for everyone to eat. If the country returned meat, dairy and egg farms back to forest and grew health-promoting crops for human consumption, it would be able to sustain human calorie and protein needs in place of feed currently grown for animals.[157] United Kingdom
2019 Veganism Trend growth According to Google Trends, the United Kingdom is the most popular country for veganism, followed by the Australia and New Zealand.[158] United Kingdom
2019 Veganism Trend growth Plant milks make up 13% of the entire milk category in the United States. Their sale grow by 6% in the year, while cow's milk sales decline by 3%.[159] United States
2019 Veganism Policy The Royal Academy of Medicine of Belgium decides a vegan diet is “unsuitable” for children, implying the possibility to imprison parents who enforce a vegan diet on their children.[160] Belgium
2040 Vegetarianism Prediction It is predicted that by this year, only 40% of the global population will be consuming meat, with 35% consuming clean (lab) meat and 25% vegan meat replacements.[148]

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External links

References

  1. Davis, John. "The Origins of the 'Vegetarians'". ivu.org. Retrieved 18 April 2020. 
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