Timeline of vegetarianism and veganism

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This is a timeline of veganism and vegetarianism.

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Time period Development summary More details
1944 Veganism
Time period Development summary
18th century "Historian Dr Catherine Oliver suggests that 18th Century philosopher Jeremy Bentham is the earliest notable proponent of likening animal suffering to that of humans: “The question is not ‘can they reason?’ Nor, ‘can they talk?’ But, ‘can they suffer?’ Dr Oliver told The Independent that veganism today is being increasingly situated “not as a diet but as a social justice issue”."[1]
19th century Vegetarianism establishes itself as a significant movement in England and the United States.[2]
20th century
21st century The vegan diet becomes increasingly mainstream in the 2010s.[3][4][5] especially in the latter half.[4][6]

Full timeline

Year Category Event type Details Location
3300 BC–1300 BC The practice of veganism is already identified in the Indus Valley Civilization in the Indian subcontinent[7][8][9] particularly in northern and western ancient India.[10] India
877 BC–777 BC Early Jain called Parshvanatha teaches followers about ahimsa (non-violence), one of the cornerstone beliefs meaning non-violence to living forms.[1] India
520 BC Vegetarianism Policy Persian emperor Cyrus the Great is born. A vegetarian himself, Cyrus would order his soldiers also strictly to adhere to this diet.[11]
500 BC Vegetarianism Advocacy Greek philosopher Pythagoras advocates the idea that all animals have immortal souls which would be reincarnated after death. Pythagoras promotes benevolence among all species and follows what could be described as a vegetarian diet.[12][1] Greece
484BC–425BC Vegetarianism Advocacy Greek historian Herodotus lives. He condemns the killing and eating of animals.[11] Greece
206 BC–220 AD Vegetarianism Custom Han Dynasty. Vegetarianism is introduced by buddhist missionaries from India.[13] China
106BC–423BC Vegetarianism Advocacy Roman statesman Cicero states:"Man is destined to a better occupation than that of pursuing and cutting the throat of dumb creatures." And, " Nothing cruel is useful or expedient."[11]
5 BC–65 AD Vegetarianism Advocacy Roman Stoic philosopher Seneca lives. An ardent vegetarian, Seneca creates a vegetarian cult in the Court.[11]
40 AD–120 AD Vegetarianism Advocacy Greek philosopher Plutarch lives. His essay on flesh eating contains ethical arguments for vegetarianism.[11]
160AD–230AD "TERTULLIAN (160-230 A.D.) of the Early Christian Fathers." ""It is in the cooking-pots that your love is inflamed - it is in the kitchen that your faith grows fervid - it is in the flesh dishes that all your hope lies hid... who is held in so much esteem with you as the frequent giver of dinners, as the sumtuous entertainer, as the practised toaster of healths?"[11]
233AD–304AD "PORPHYRY (233-304 A.D.) a great Greek Philosopher: "It is not from those who hare lived on innocent foods that murderers, tyrants, robbers, and sycophants have come, but from eaters of flesh. The necessaries of life are few and easily procured, without violation of justice, liberty, or peace of mind ; whereas luxury obliges these ordinary souls who take delight in it to covet riches, to give up their liberty, to sell justice, to misspend their time, to ruin their health, and to renounce the satisfaction of an upright conscience."[11]
329AD–379AD SAINT BASILE THE GREAT, (320-79 A.D.) Bishop of Cesarea, adjures : "If one lives soberly. "The animals will be secure; they will never pour forth their blood; men will never cause beasts to die; the knives of cooks will be useless; and the table will be loaded with the fruits given us by nature, and we will be content."

"There never was wine in the Terrestrial Paradise ; they never sacrificed animals ; they never ate meat ; wine was only invented after the Deluge,"[11] ||

340AD–420AD "SAINT JEROME (340-420 A.D.) Author of the Vulgate. "The use of the flesh of animals was unknown up to the Deluge; but after the Deluge, men put between their teeth the sinews and stinking juices of flesh. Jesus Christ.. . today does not permit us to eat flesh according to the Apostle (Rom XIV. 21). It is good never to drink wine, and never to eat flesh, for the use of wine has commenced with that of flesh after the Deluge." - Letter from St. Jerome to Eustoquie."[11]
347–407 "CHRYSOSTUM (347-407 A.D.) Archbishop of Constantinople; whose attacks on sin in high places made him enemies at court and among the wealthy classes. Scourging the customs of his time, he said : "No streams of blood are among them (the ascetics); no butchering and cutting up of flesh; no dainty cookery; no heaviness of head. Nor are there the horrible smells of flesh meats atmong them, or disagreeable fumes from the kitchen. No tumult and disturbance and wearisome clamours, but bread and water - the latter from a pure fountain, the former from honest labour. If at any time, however, they wish to feast more sumptuously, the sumptuousness consists in fruits, and their pleasure in these is greater than at royal tables. No master and servant are there. All are servants - all are free men."[11]
354–430 "ST. AUGUSTIN, (354-430 A. D.), Bishop of Hippo in Africa, calls attention to the abstinence of the Anchorites who "not only abstain from flesh and wine, but also from other viands. ..which flatter taste," He also quotes from St. Paul in I Corinthians VIII. 8 and also Rom. XIV 21 "that it is good never to eat meat and drink wine when by so doing we scandalize our brothers.""[11]
520 "In 520, Boddhidharma, the 28th Master after Buddha, came from India and gave back The Way of Prophet. He taught Chan (or Zen in Japanese). Zen is the Real Teaching of Buddha, the Lost Teaching of Tao. Boddhidharma not only taught vegetarianism but also taught Zen monks the martial arts in Shao Lin temple for defense."[13] India
973–1057 Veganism Arab poet al-Maʿarri is recognized as one of the earliest known vegans.[14]
1398 Indian mystic poet Kabir calls to compassion, condemning meat-eating and killing of animals no matter if it is permitted in the "Koran" or any other Scripture for "sacrificial" purposes.[15][16] India
1806 "Fast forward to 1806 CE and the earliest concepts of veganism are just starting to take shape, with Dr William Lambe and Percy Bysshe Shelley amongst the first Europeans to publicly object to eggs and dairy on ethical grounds."[12]
1809 Vegetarianism Organization The Bible Christian Church, a Christian vegetarian sect, is founded by William Cowherd.[17] United Kingdom
1813 Literature English poet Percy Bysshe Shelley publishes A Vindication of Natural Diet, advocating "abstinence from animal food and spirituous liquors".
1815 " in 1815, William Lambe, a London physician, claimed that his "water and vegetable diet" could cure anything from tuberculosis to acne."[18] United Kingdom
1839 "The term "vegetarian" has been in use since around 1839 to refer to what was previously described as a vegetable regimen or diet."[19]
1847 Vegetarianism Organization Vegetarian Society United Kingdom
1850 Organization The American Vegetarian Association in founded in New York.[20] United States
1882 Organization The French Vegetarian Society is founded.[21] France
1883 Literature English humanitarian Howard Williams published The Ethics of Diet, which is considered the first book on vegetarian history.[22]
1884 Organization The Hungarian Vegetarian Society is founded.[23] Hungary
1892 Organization ProVeg Germany is founded.[24] Germany
1894 Organization The Dutch Vegetarian League is founded.[25] Netherlands
1896 Organization A vegetarian society is formed in Stockholm.[26] Sweden
1899 Organization A Vegetarian Society is established at Milan.[27] Italy
1901 Organization The Russian Vegetarian Society is formed.[28] Russia
1905 Organization The Spanish Vegetarian Society is formed.[29] Spain
1906 Organization The Greek Vegetarian Society is formed.[30] Greece
1908 Organization The International Vegetarian Union is launched at an International Vegetarian Congress in Dresden, Germany.[31][32] Germany
1908 Organization The World Esperantist Vegetarian Association is founded.[33]
1918 Veganism The world's first raw vegan restaurant is opened in Los Angeles, California by John and Vera Richter.[34] United States
1925 Veganism Literature (book) Vera Richter publishes Mrs. Richter's Cook-Less Book, the first raw vegan cookbook.[34] United States
1935 Vegetarianism The Vegetarian Society states: "The lacto-vegetarians, on the whole, do not defend the practice of consuming the dairy products except on the ground of expediency."[35]
1943 Organization The New Zealand Vegetarian Society is founded.[36] New Zeland
1944 "Donald Watson coined the term vegan in 1944 when he co-founded the Vegan Society" in England. At first he used it to mean "non-dairy vegetarian",[37][38] "The term “veganism” itself however, was coined much more recently. In 1944, carpenter Donald Watson and his wife Dot invented the word to mark the “beginning and end of vegetarianism”. Watson decided to become a vegan after he saw and heard the death of a pig on his uncle’s farm."[1][39]
1944 Veganism Organization The Vegan Society is founded.[40]
1944 Veganism The Vegan Society co-founder Donald Watson coins the term "vegan" using it to mean"non-dairy vegetarian".[41]
1945 Vegetarianism Organization Toronto Vegetarian Association (TVA) Canada
1945 Veganism Vegans explicitly abstain from "eggs, honey; and animals' milk, butter and cheese".[41]
1951 Veganism The Vegan Society defines veganism as "the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals".[42] Interest in veganism increased in the 2010s,"[3][4][4]
1952 Organization The Italian Vegetarian Association is founded.[43] Italy
1957 World Vegetarian Congress 1957
1960 Organization The American Vegan Society is founded.[44] United States
1974 Organization Hare Krishna Food for Life is founded as a nonprofit with the purpose "to bring peace and prosperity to the world through the liberal distribution of sanctified vegetarian meals".[45] India
1974 Vegetarianism Literature (magazine) American magazine Vegetarian Times launches. United States
1975 Organization The Jewish Vegetarian Society of America is founded.[46]
1975 Veganism Literature Peter Singer publishes Animal Liberation.
1978 Veganism Organization The Dutch Society for Veganism is founded.[47] Netherlands
1980 Organization People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA)
1984 Veganism Organization Movement for Compassionate Living (MCL) is founded. It promotes veganism. United Kingdom
1984 Vegetarianism Literature Daniel Dombrowski publishes The Philosophy of Vegetarianism.
1984 Organization Movement for Compassionate Living is founded.[48]
1984 Veganism Literature Brenda Davis publishes diet book Becoming Vegan.
1987 Vegetarianism Literature Rudolph Ballentine publishes Transition to Vegetarianism: An Evolutionary Step.
1988 Organization European Vegetarian Union is founded. Netherlands
1989 Veganism Literature (magazine) Arkangel is first published. It promotes vegan lifestyle. United Kingdom
1989 No Compromise launches as a bi-annual animal rights magazine. It promotes a venag lifestyle. United States
1993 Veganism Organization Vegan Outreach is founded.[49] United States
1993 Vegetarianism and veganism Organization Swissveg is founded.[50] Switzerland
1994 Organization Vegan Prisoners Support Group is founded. United Kingdom
1994 Organization Association Végétarienne de France France
1994 The World Vegan Day is first celebrated.[51]
1994 Vegetarianism Organization Association Végétarienne de France (AVF) France
1995 Veganism Organization Vegan Awareness Foundation is founded.[52] United States
1998 Veganism Literature Erik Marcus publishes Vegan: The New Ethics of Eating
1998 Vegetarianism A Vegetarian Diet Pyramid is created by Oldways Preservation Trust with scientific research from Cornell and Harvard University and specific reference to the healthy patterns of eating demonstrated by the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid.[53] United States
1999 Vegetarianism Organization The Vegetarian Society (Singapore) is established.[54] Singapore
1999 Vegetarianism Organization Christian Vegetarian Association (CVA)
1999 Vegetarianism Literature Richard A. Young publishes Is God a Vegetarian? Christianity, Vegetarianism, and Animal Rights.
1999 Literature Lisa Portmess and Kerry S. Walters publish Ethical Vegetarianism: From Pythagoras to Peter Singer
1999 Vegetarianism, veganism HappyCow launches as an online service that lists sources of vegan, vegetarian and healthy food. United States
2000 Organization Ethical Vegetarian Alternative is founded to raise awareness about the benefits of eating less or no meat.[55] Belgium
2000 Organization Tibetan Volunteers for Animals
2000 Vegetarianism Literature Colin Spencer publishes Vegetarianism: A History
2000 Veganism Literature (magazine) American magazine VegNews launches. It publishes content about and relating to veganism United States
2000 Vegetarianism and veganism online community VeggieBoards launches. It is one of the largest and most active internet forums for vegetarians and vegans.
2002 Activism Meet Your Meat. "This documentary explores the treatment of animals in modern animal agriculture (also known as industrial agriculture or factory farming)."[56]
2003 Organization Meatless Monday is founded.[57]
2004 Vegetarianism Festival Vegfest Brasil Brazil
2004–2018 "Search data from Google Trends shows an impressive worldwide increase in the interest in veganism from 2004 to 2018. Top regions include Israel, Australia, Canada, Austria, and New Zealand."[58]
2006 Vegetarianism Festival The Vegetarian Festival in Tokyo starts.[59] Japan
2009 Veganism Organization Vegan Ireland: The Vegan Society of Ireland is founded as a non-profit. It promotes veganism and animal rights.[60] Ireland
2009 Vegetarianism Literature Lierre Keith publishes The Vegetarian Myth. United States
2009 Vegetarianism and veganism Literature Amy Shand publishes That's why We Don't Eat Animals: A Book about Vegans, Vegetarians, and All Living Things, a non-fiction book for children.
2010 Vegetarianism Environmental vegetarianism. A report from the United Nations Environment Programme's (UNEP) International Panel of Sustainable Resource Management states:
Impacts from agriculture are expected to increase substantially due to population growth and increasing consumption of animal products. Unlike fossil fuels, it is difficult to look for alternatives: people have to eat. A substantial reduction of impacts would only be possible with a substantial worldwide diet change, away from animal products.[61]
2012 Organization Vegan Australia is founded. It campaigns nationally for veganism.[62] Australia
2013 Live and Let Live.
2013 Veganism Festival Hong Kong Vegfest starts Hong Kong
2013 Vegetarianism Literature (book) Adam D. Shprintzen publishes The Vegetarian Crusade: The Rise of an American Reform Movement, 1817-1921. United States
2013 Veganism Literature (book) Amy Shand publishes V Is for Vegan: The ABCs of Being Kind.
2014 "There’s been a 600% increase in people identifying as vegans in the U.S in the last three years. According to a report by research firm GlobalData, only 1% of U.S. consumers claimed to be vegan in 2014. And in 2017, that number rose to 6%."[58]
2014 Organization Peepal Farm is founded.[63] India
2014 Veganism Literature (book) Brenda Davis and Vesanto Melina publish diet book Becoming Vegan: The Complete Reference to Plant-Base Nutrition, Comprehensive Edition.
2016 "But in 2016, German companies launched more vegan food products than in any other country."[58]
2017 "There’s been a 600% increase in people identifying as vegans in the U.S in the last three years. According to a report by research firm GlobalData, only 1% of U.S. consumers claimed to be vegan in 2014. And in 2017, that number rose to 6%."[58]
2017 Vegetarianism Advocacy Environmental vegetarianism. 15,364 world scientists sign a Warning to Humanity calling for, among other things, drastically diminishing our per capita consumption of meat.[64]
2017 Veganism Literature Tobias Leenaert publishes How to Create a Vegan World: A Pragmatic Approach
2019 Vegetarianism Advocacy Environmental vegetarianism. A significant reduction in meat consumption is advocated by, among others, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in their special report.[65]

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

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What the timeline is still missing

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Timeline update strategy

See also

External links


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "WHO WERE THE WORLD'S VERY EARLIEST VEGANS?". independent.co.uk. Retrieved 30 September 2019. 
  2. James Gregory, Of Victorians and Vegetarians, I. B. Tauris, 2007.
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  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.Template:PbLua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.Template:PbLua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.Template:PbLua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' not found.
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  9. Tähtinen, Unto. Ahimsa: Non-violence in Indian tradition. London: [1976], Rider and Company (1976). 
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  11. 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 "VEGETARIANISM 8th CENTURY b.c. TO 5th CENTURY A.D.". ivu.org. Retrieved 7 October 2019. 
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