Difference between revisions of "Timeline of vegetarianism and veganism"

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=== Google Trends ===
=== Google Trends ===
The image below shows Google Trends data for vegetarianism and veganism (topic), from January 2004 to April 2020, when the screenshot was taken.<ref>{{cite web |title=Google Trends |url=https://trends.google.com/trends/explore?date=all&q=%2Fm%2F07_hy,%2Fm%2F07_jd |website=trends.google.com |accessdate=18 April 2020}}</ref>
The comparative chart below shows {{w|Google Trends}} data for Vegetarianism (Topic) and Veganism (Topic), from January 2004 to April 2021, when the screenshot was taken. Interest is also ranked by country and displayed on world map.<ref>{{cite web |title=Vegetarianism and Veganism |url=https://trends.google.com/trends/explore?date=all&q=%2Fm%2F07_jd,%2Fm%2F07_hy |website=Google Trends |access-date=22 April 2021}}</ref>
[[File:Google trend vegetarianism and veganism topic.png|thumb|center|700px]]
[[File:Vegetarianism and Veganism gt.png|thumb|center|600px]]
The image below shows Google Trends data for vegetarianism and veganism (search term), from January 2004 to April 2020, when the screenshot was taken.<ref>{{cite web |title=Google Trends |url=https://trends.google.com/trends/explore?date=all&q=veganism,vegetarianism |website=trends.google.com |accessdate=18 April 2020}}</ref>
=== Google Ngram Viewer ===
[[File:Googhle trends veganism and vegetarianism search term.png|thumb|center|700px]]
The comparative chart below shows {{w|Google Ngram Viewer}} data for Vegetarianism and Veganism, from 1800 to 2019.<ref>{{cite web |title=Vegetarianism and Veganism |url=https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=vegetarianism%2Cveganism&year_start=1800&year_end=2019&corpus=26&smoothing=3&direct_url=t1%3B%2Cvegetarianism%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cveganism%3B%2Cc0#t1%3B%2Cvegetarianism%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2Cveganism%3B%2Cc0 |website=books.google.com |access-date=22 April 2021 |language=en}}</ref>
[[File:Vegetarianism and Veganism ngram.png|thumb|center|700px]]
=== Wikipedia views ===
=== Wikipedia views ===
The image below shows Wikipedia Views from July 2015 to March 2020 for {{w|veganism}} for mobile-web, desktop, desktop-spider, mobile-app, and mobile-web-spider.<ref>{{cite web |title=Wikipedia Views veganism |url=https://wikipediaviews.org/displayviewsformultiplemonths.php?page=Veganism&allmonths=allmonths-api&language=en&drilldown=all |website=wikipediaviews.org |accessdate=14 April 2020}}</ref>
The chart below shows pageviews of the English Wikipedia article {{w|Vegetarianism}}, on desktop from December 2007, and on mobile-web, desktop-spider, mobile-web-spider and mobile app, from July 2015; to Mach 2021.<ref>{{cite web |title=Vegetarianism |url=https://wikipediaviews.org/displayviewsformultiplemonths.php?page=Vegetarianism&allmonths=allmonths&language=en&drilldown=all |website=wikipediaviews.org |access-date=22 April 2021}}</ref>
[[File:Wikipedia views veganism.png|500px|thumb|center]]
[[File:Vegetarianism wv.png|thumb|center|450px]]
The image below shows Wikipedia Views from July 2015 to March 2020 for {{w|vegetarianism}} for mobile-web, desktop, desktop-spider, mobile-app, and mobile-web-spider.<ref>{{cite web |title=Wikipedia Views Vegetarianism |url=https://wikipediaviews.org/displayviewsformultiplemonths.php?page=Vegetarianism&allmonths=allmonths-api&language=en&drilldown=all |website=wikipediaviews.org |accessdate=14 April 2020}}</ref>
The chart below shows pageviews of the English Wikipedia article {{w|Veganism}}, on desktop from December 2007, and on mobile-web, desktop-spider, mobile-web-spider and mobile app, from July 2015; to Mach 2021.<ref>{{cite web |title=Veganism |url=https://wikipediaviews.org/displayviewsformultiplemonths.php?page=Veganism&allmonths=allmonths&language=en&drilldown=all |website=wikipediaviews.org |access-date=22 April 2021}}</ref>
[[File:Wkipedia views vegetarianism.png|500px|thumb|center]]
[[File:Veganism wv.png|thumb|center|450px]]
==Full timeline==
==Full timeline==
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* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/236619620289936/permalink/686962938588933/ Vegan Awakening] Facebook group
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/236619620289936/permalink/686962938588933/ Vegan Awakening] Facebook group
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/626829110835395/permalink/1513635705488060 Vegan Planet For The Animals 🐮🐷] Facebook group
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/626829110835395/permalink/1513635705488060 Vegan Planet For The Animals 🐮🐷] Facebook group
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/1666185410316545/permalink/2763301837271558/ Vegan, Vegetarian, Whole Foods Plant-Based Lifestyle] Facebook group
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/1421498348114674/permalink/2770996046498224 Austin Vegans] Facebook group
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/1421498348114674/permalink/2770996046498224 Austin Vegans] Facebook group
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/VeganandvegetarianPuertoVallarta/permalink/3686046831461173 Vegetarian and Vegan Puerto Vallarta] Facebook group
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/VeganandvegetarianPuertoVallarta/permalink/3686046831461173 Vegetarian and Vegan Puerto Vallarta] Facebook group
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/arzone/permalink/10158965328626457 Animal Rights Zone] Facebook group
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/arzone/permalink/10158965328626457 Animal Rights Zone] Facebook group
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/1965736330419146/permalink/2775531252772979 Vegan group] Facebook group
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/1965736330419146/permalink/2775531252772979 Vegan group] Facebook group
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/VeganBuddhism/permalink/978912515911802/ Vegan Buddhism] Facebook group
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/430954957008526/permalink/2977978818972781/ Vegan Copenhagen] Facebook group
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/139883229505889/permalink/1609757585851772 Intermittent Fasting for Vegans] Facebook group
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/1912042562215479/permalink/3492916274128092 Positive Vegan Vibes] Facebook group
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/2562498527300216/permalink/2675649742651760 Muslim Vegans] Facebook group
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/mariave.4.9.17.groups.gr/permalink/1870836179741965/ WORLDWIDE VEGANS AND ANIMAL-HUMAN RIGHTS GROUP] Facebook group
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/VeganColorado/permalink/3441996409177149/ Vegan Colorado] Facebook group
===What the timeline is still missing===
===What the timeline is still missing===
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* [[Timeline of Vegan Outreach]]
* [[Timeline of Vegan Outreach]]
* [[Timeline of animal welfare and rights]]
* [[Timeline of animal welfare and rights]]
* [[Timeline of calorie restriction]]
* [[Timeline of food and nutrition in India]]
* [[Timeline of food and nutrition in India]]
* [[Timeline of food and nutrition in China]]
==External links==
==External links==

Latest revision as of 19:40, 7 July 2021

This is a timeline vegetarianism and veganism, both practices of abstaining from the consumption of meat.

Sample questions

The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:

  • What are some significant events related to the development of the concepts of vegetarianism and veganism?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Concept development".
  • What are some notable historical personalities advocating vegetarianism and veganism?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "advocacy".
    • You will see mostly ancient historical personalities advocating meat abstention.
  • What are some notable publications on the topics of vegetarianism and veganism?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Literature".
    • You will see some notable book (Literature (book)) and magazine releases (Literature (magazine)).
  • What are some notable organizations promoting vegetarianism and veganism?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Organization".
    • You will read some notable names, like pioneering organizations (Vegetarian Society and The Vegan Society), as well as others.
  • What are some indicators of trend growth in vegetarianism and veganism?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Trend growth".
    • You will see numbers indicating the evolution of both vegetarianism and veganism in popularity.
  • What are some notable vegan and vegetarian festivals?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Festival".
    • You will read names like Veggie Pride and Vegfest, among other festivals.
  • What are some significant studies concerning the effect of vegetarianism and veganism?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Study (nutrition)".
    • You will see a number of studies addressing the nutritional effect of the practice of vegetarianism and veganism.
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Study (environment)".
    • You will see a number of studies addressing the noticeable environmental effect produced by massive meat abstention.

Big picture

Time period Development summary More details
3300 BCE onward Earliest historical record The earliest recorded practice of vegetarianism is identified in the Indus Valley Civilization. Early vegetarians include Indian philosophers, as well as Greek and Roman intellectuals.
1840s onward Modern vegetarian organizations This period begins with the establishment of the Vegetarian Society in Britain. A number of vegetarian oganizations follows, especially in Europe. The word 'vegetarian' is also first known to have been used in print in 1842.[1]
1944 onward Vegan movement This period encompasses the new concept of veganism, as well as the emergence of the first vegan organization, both created in 1944.

Summary by century

Time period Development summary
19th century Vegetarianism establishes itself as a movement in Europe and the United States.[2]
20th century Vegetarianism becomes a forceful movement. In this century, there is an increased awareness of the relationship between animals and humans.[3] The vegan movement is born.
21st century The vegan diet becomes increasingly mainstream,[4][5][6][7][8] especially in the last years.[7][9]

Visual data

Google Trends

The comparative chart below shows Google Trends data for Vegetarianism (Topic) and Veganism (Topic), from January 2004 to April 2021, when the screenshot was taken. Interest is also ranked by country and displayed on world map.[10]

Vegetarianism and Veganism gt.png

Google Ngram Viewer

The comparative chart below shows Google Ngram Viewer data for Vegetarianism and Veganism, from 1800 to 2019.[11]

Vegetarianism and Veganism ngram.png

Wikipedia views

The chart below shows pageviews of the English Wikipedia article Vegetarianism, on desktop from December 2007, and on mobile-web, desktop-spider, mobile-web-spider and mobile app, from July 2015; to Mach 2021.[12]

Vegetarianism wv.png

The chart below shows pageviews of the English Wikipedia article Veganism, on desktop from December 2007, and on mobile-web, desktop-spider, mobile-web-spider and mobile app, from July 2015; to Mach 2021.[13]

Veganism wv.png

Full timeline

Year Category Event type Details Location
3300 BC–1300 BC Vegetarianism The practice of vegetarianism is already identified in the Indus Valley Civilization in the Indian subcontinent[14][15][16] particularly in northern and western ancient India.[17] India
877 BC–777 BC Activism Early Jain called Parshvanatha teaches followers about ahimsa (non-violence), one of the cornerstone beliefs meaning non-violence to living forms.[18] India
520 BC Vegetarianism Policy Persian emperor Cyrus the Great is born. A vegetarian himself, Cyrus would order his soldiers also strictly to adhere to this diet.[19]
500 BC Vegetarianism Advocacy Greek philosopher Pythagoras advocates the idea that all animals have immortal souls which would be reincarnated after death. Pythagoras promotes benevolence among all species and follows what could be described as a vegetarian diet.[20][18] Greece
484BC–425BC Vegetarianism Advocacy Greek historian Herodotus lives. He condemns the killing and eating of animals.[19] Greece
206 BC–220 AD Vegetarianism Advocacy Han Dynasty. Vegetarianism is introduced by buddhist missionaries from India.[21] China
106BC–423BC Vegetarianism Advocacy Roman statesman Cicero states:"Man is destined to a better occupation than that of pursuing and cutting the throat of dumb creatures." And, " Nothing cruel is useful or expedient."[19]
5 BC–65 AD Vegetarianism Advocacy Roman Stoic philosopher Seneca lives. An ardent vegetarian, Seneca creates a vegetarian cult in the Court.[19]
40 AD–120 AD Vegetarianism Advocacy Greek philosopher Plutarch lives. His essay on flesh eating contains ethical arguments for vegetarianism.[19]
520 Vegetarianism Advocacy Buddhist monk Boddhidharma introduces Zen in China. Boddhidharma teaches vegetarianism.[21] India
973–1057 Veganism Adoption Arab poet al-Maʿarri is recognized as one of the earliest known vegans.[22]
1398 Vegetarianism Advocacy Indian mystic poet Kabir calls to compassion, condemning meat-eating and killing of animals no matter if it is permitted in the "Koran" or any other Scripture for "sacrificial" purposes.[23][24] India
1806 Veganism Concept development The earliest concepts of veganism start to take shape, with Dr William Lambe and Percy Bysshe Shelley amongst the first Europeans to publicly object to eggs and dairy on ethical grounds.[20]
1809 Vegetarianism Organization The Bible Christian Church, a Christian vegetarian sect, is founded by William Cowherd.[25] United Kingdom
1813 Vegetarianism Literature (book) English poet Percy Bysshe Shelley publishes A Vindication of Natural Diet, advocating "abstinence from animal food and spirituous liquors".[26] United Kingdom
1815 Vegetarianism Advocacy London physician William Lambe claims that his "water and vegetable diet" could cure anything from tuberculosis to acne.[27] United Kingdom
1839 Vegetarianism Concept development The term "vegetarian" at this time refers to what is described as a vegetable regimen or diet.[28]
1847 Vegetarianism Organization The UK Vegetarian Society is founded.[29] United Kingdom
1850 Vegetarianism Organization The American Vegetarian Association in founded in New York.[30] United States
1882 Vegetarianism Organization The French Vegetarian Society is founded.[31] Its aim is to "propagate vegetarianism and assert the benefits of any order it presents."[32] France
1883 Vegetarianism Literature (book) English humanitarian Howard Williams publishes The Ethics of Diet, which is considered the first book on vegetarian history.[33]
1884 Vegetarianism Organization The Hungarian Vegetarian Society is founded.[34] Hungary
1894 Vegetarianism Organization The Dutch Vegetarian League is founded.[35] Netherlands
1896 Vegetarianism Organization A Vegetarian Society is formed in Stockholm.[36] Sweden
1899 Vegetarianism Organization A Vegetarian Society is established in Milan.[37] Italy
1901 Vegetarianism Organization The Russian Vegetarian Society is formed.[38] Russia
1905 Vegetarianism Organization The Spanish Vegetarian Society is formed.[39] Spain
1906 Vegetarianism Organization The Greek Vegetarian Society is formed.[40] Greece
1908 Vegetarianism Organization The International Vegetarian Union is launched at the first International Vegetarian Congress in Dresden, Germany.[41][42][43] Germany
1908 Vegetarianism Organization The World Esperantist Vegetarian Association is founded.[44]
1918 Veganism Trend growth The world's first raw vegan restaurant is opened in Los Angeles, California by John and Vera Richter.[45] United States
1925 Veganism Literature (book) Vera Richter publishes Mrs. Richter's Cook-Less Book, the first raw vegan cookbook.[45] United States
1935 Vegetarianism Concept development The Vegetarian Society states: "The lacto-vegetarians, on the whole, do not defend the practice of consuming the dairy products except on the ground of expediency."[46]
1938 Vegetarianism Literature (book) Jewish vegetarianism. The first Jewish-vegetarian cookbook is compiled by Fania Lewando and is first published in Vilnius.[47] Lithuania
1943 Vegetarianism Organization The New Zealand Vegetarian Society is founded.[48] New Zeland
1944 Veganism Organization The Vegan Society is founded. It is the oldest vegan society in the world.[49] United Kingdom
1944 Veganism Concept development The Vegan Society co-founder Donald Watson coins the term "vegan" using it to mean "non-dairy vegetarian".[50][51]
1945 Vegetarianism Organization The Toronto Vegetarian Association is founded.[52] Canada
1945 Veganism Concept development Vegans explicitly abstain from "eggs, honey; and animals' milk, butter and cheese".[53]
1951 Veganism Concept development The Vegan Society defines veganism as "the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals".[54]
1952 Vegetarianism Organization The Italian Vegetarian Association is founded.[55] Italy
1960 Veganism Organization The American Vegan Society is founded.[56] United States
1974 Vegetarianism Organization Hare Krishna Food for Life is founded as a nonprofit with the purpose "to bring peace and prosperity to the world through the liberal distribution of sanctified vegetarian meals".[57] India
1974 Vegetarianism Literature (magazine) American magazine Vegetarian Times launches.[58] United States
1975 Vegetarianism Organization The Jewish Vegetarian Society of America is founded.[59]
1978 Veganism Organization The Dutch Society for Veganism is founded.[60] Netherlands
1982 Vegetarianism Meat substitute The veggie burger may have been created in London in this year by Gregory Sams, who calls it the 'VegeBurger'.[61] A Carrefour hypermarket in Southampton sells 2000 packets in three weeks after its launch.[62] United Kingdom
1984 Veganism Organization The Movement for Compassionate Living (MCL) is founded. It promotes veganism.[63][64] United Kingdom
1984 Vegetarianism Literature (book) Daniel Dombrowski publishes The Philosophy of Vegetarianism.[65]
1984 Veganism Literature (book) Brenda Davis publishes diet book Vegetariana. It is considered a classic in its field.[66]
1986 Vegetarianism Organization The Boston Vegetarian Society is founded.[67] United States
1987 Vegetarianism Literature (book) Rudolph Ballentine publishes Transition to Vegetarianism: An Evolutionary Step.[68]
1988 Veganism Study (nutrition) Study concludes that vegans tend to have less taurine in their bodies.[69]
1988 Vegetarianism Organization The European Vegetarian Union is founded.[70] Netherlands
1989 Veganism Literature (magazine) Arkangel is first published. It promotes vegan lifestyle.[71] United Kingdom
1989 Veganism Literature (magazine) No Compromise launches as a bi-annual animal rights magazine. It promotes a vegan lifestyle.[72] United States
1990 Veganism Trend growth The Vegan Trademark scheme is launched.[73] It is used on labels worldwide as the authentic standard for products free from animal ingredients and animal testing.[74]
1993 Veganism Organization Vegan Outreach is founded. It is a 501c3 nonprofit organization working to end violence towards animals.[75] United States
1993 Vegetarianism Organization Swissveg is founded. It is the biggest community in Switzerland for vegetarians and vegans.[76] Switzerland
1994 Veganism Organization Vegan Prisoners Support Group is founded.[77] United Kingdom
1994 Veganism Study (nutrition) Study concludes that vegans are particularly prone to iron deficiency, because the form that’s most readily absorbed by the body is “haem iron”, which is only found in animal proteins.[78]
1994 Vegetarianism Organization The Association Végétarienne de France is founded.[79] France
1994 Veganism Advocacy The World Vegan Day is first celebrated on November 1st. It would evolve into World Vegan Week and later World Vegan Month; where vegans and veganism is celebrated in workplaces, shops, restaurants and in homes all over the world.[80]
1995 Veganism Organization vegan.org is created. It is one of the oldest and most visited vegan websites in the world.[81] United States
1995 Veganism Organization Vegan Awareness Foundation is founded. It works "to eliminate animal suffering, reduce environmental impacts, and improve human health through a vegan diet".[82] United States
1998 Veganism Literature (book) Erik Marcus publishes Vegan: The New Ethics of Eating.[83]
1998 Vegetarianism Concept development A Vegetarian Diet Pyramid is created by Oldways Preservation Trust with scientific research from Cornell and Harvard University and specific reference to the healthy patterns of eating demonstrated by the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid.[84] United States
1999 Vegetarianism Organization The Vegetarian Society (Singapore) is established.[85] Singapore
1999 Vegetarianism Organization The Christian Vegetarian Association is founded.[86] United States
1999 Vegetarianism Literature (book) Richard A. Young publishes Is God a Vegetarian? Christianity, Vegetarianism, and Animal Rights.[87]
1999 Vegetarianism Literature (book) Lisa Portmess and Kerry S. Walters publish Ethical Vegetarianism: From Pythagoras to Peter Singer.[88]
1999 General Online community HappyCow launches as an online service that lists sources of vegan, vegetarian and healthy food.[89] United States
2000 Vegetarianism Organization Ethical Vegetarian Alternative is founded to raise awareness about the benefits of eating less or no meat.[90] Belgium
2000 Vegetarianism Literature (book) Colin Spencer publishes Vegetarianism: A History.[91] The book explores the psychology of abstention from flesh.[92]
2000 Veganism Literature (magazine) American magazine VegNews launches. It publishes content about and relating to veganism.[93] United States
2000 General Online community VeggieBoards launches. It is one of the largest and most active internet forums for vegetarians and vegans.[94]
2001 General Festival Veggie Pride is first held in Paris. It brings together vegetarians and vegans who want "to show their pride at refusing to eat animals, and to denounce the discrimination which they suffer, both personally and in terms of expressing their ideas".[95] France
2001 Veganism Broadcasting Talk radio program Go Vegan debuts.[96] United States
2002 Vegetarianism Activism Meet Your Meat is released. This documentary explores the treatment of animals in modern animal agriculture.[97]
2003 Vegetarianism Organization Meatless Monday launches. It is an international campaign that encourages people to not eat meat on Mondays to improve their health and address the Environmental effects of meat production.[98]
2003 Veganism Festival Vegfest (UK) starts in Bristol.[99] Vegfest is one of the biggest Vegan/Vegetarian festivals in the world.[100] United Kingdom
2003 Vegetarianism Study (nutrition) Study conducted on 555 Kenyan schoolchildren, who were fed one of three different types of soup – one with meat, one with milk, and one with oil – or no soup at all, finds that the children who were given the soup containing meat each day outperformed all the other children on a test for non-verbal reasoning by the end of the study.[101] Kenya
2004 Vegetarianism Festival Vegfest Brasil launches.[102] Brazil
2004 Veganism Study (nutrition) German study finds that 40% of the vegans they looked at were consuming less than the recommended daily amount of iron.[103]
2004–2018 Veganism Trend growth Search data from Google Trends shows a profound worldwide increase in the interest in veganism in this period. Top regions include Israel, Australia, Canada, Austria, and New Zealand.[104] Worldwide
2005 Veganism Literature (book) The China Study is published by T. Colin Campbell. It examines the link between the consumption of animal products (including dairy) and chronic illnesses such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and bowel cancer.[105] United States
2005 Veganism Study (nutrition) Study correlates the amount of Vitamin B12 in blood with IQ, implying that vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with cognitive impairment.[106]
2005–2018 Vegetarianism Trend growth The number of vegetarians grows from 1% of the population in Germany to 7% in this period.[107] Germany
2006 Vegetarianism Festival The Vegetarian Festival in Tokyo starts.[108] Japan
2007–2014 General Statistics An estimated 400 million fewer animals are killed in the United States in 2014 compared to 2007 because of decreased consumption of animal products.[109] United States
2008 Veganism Study (nutrition) One study finds that in the elderly the brains of those with lower vitamin B12 are six times more likely to be shrinking.[110]
2009 Veganism Organization Vegan Ireland: The Vegan Society of Ireland is founded as a non-profit. It promotes veganism and animal rights.[111] Ireland
2009 Veganism Nutrition A study of bone density finds the bone density of vegans is 94 percent that of omnivores, but deems the difference clinically insignificant.[112]
2009 Vegetarianism Literature (book) Lierre Keith publishes The Vegetarian Myth. "Part memoir, nutritional primer, and political manifesto, this controversial examination exposes the destructive history of agriculturecausing the devastation of prairies and forests, driving countless species extinct, altering the climate, and destroying the topsoiland asserts that, in order to save the planet, food must come from within living communities"[113] United States
2009 General Literature (book) Amy Shand publishes That's why We Don't Eat Animals: A Book about Vegans, Vegetarians, and All Living Things, a non-fiction book for children.[114]
2010 Veganism Study (nutrition) British study finds that half of the vegans in their sample are vitamin B12 deficient.[115]
2010 Vegetarianism Study (environment) Environmental vegetarianism. A report from the United Nations Environment Programme's (UNEP) International Panel of Sustainable Resource Management states:
Impacts from agriculture are expected to increase substantially due to population growth and increasing consumption of animal products. Unlike fossil fuels, it is difficult to look for alternatives: people have to eat. A substantial reduction of impacts would only be possible with a substantial worldwide diet change, away from animal products.[116]
2010 Veganism Study (nutrition) Study finds that, in the winter months, when the sun is weaker, omnivores living in the United Kingdom have nearly 40% more vitamin D3 in their blood than vegans.[117] United Kingdom
2011 Veganism Organization Veganz is founded. It is the first vegan supermarket chain in Europe.[118] Germany
2011 Veganism Documentary film Vegucated is released. It explores the challenges of converting to a vegan diet.[119] United States
2012 Veganism Literature (maganize) Naked Food launches. It is a quarterly magazine focusing on whole-food plant-based nutrition.[120] United States
2012 Veganism Organization Vegan Australia is founded. It campaigns nationally for veganism.[121] Australia
2013 Veganism Festival Hong Kong Vegfest is held for the first time.[122] It is a yearly volunteer-run festival organized by a collaboration of major organizations and institutions with the aim of promoting veganism in Hong Kong.[123] Hong Kong
2013 Vegetarianism Literature (book) Adam D. Shprintzen publishes The Vegetarian Crusade: The Rise of an American Reform Movement, 1817-1921.[124] United States
2013 Veganism Literature (book) Amy Shand publishes V Is for Vegan: The ABCs of Being Kind.[125]
2014–2018 Veganism Trend growth Vegan facial skincare launches almost triple in this period, rising from 13% of all launches in 2014 to 28% in 2018.[73]
2014 Veganism Statistics According to a report by research firm GlobalData, about 1% of consumers in the United States claim to be vegan.[104] United States
2014 Organization Peepal Farm is founded.[126] India
2014 Veganism Literature (book) Brenda Davis and Vesanto Melina publish diet book Becoming Vegan: The Complete Reference to Plant-Base Nutrition, Comprehensive Edition.[127]
2014 Veganism Organization Veganuary launches. It is a British nonprofit organization that promotes and educates about veganism by encouraging people to follow a vegan lifestyle for the month of January.[128] United Kingdom
2014–2017 Veganism Trend growth The number of vegans in the United States grows by 600% from nearly 4 million in 2014 to 19.6 million in 2017.[129] United States
2015 Vegetarianism Study (nutrition) Study finds that the average vegetarian gets well below the adequate amount of choline.[130]
2016 Veganism Statistics German companies launch more vegan food products than in any other country.[104] Germany
2016 Vegetarianism Program launch The Chinese health ministry releases dietary guidelines in that encourage their population of more than 1.3 billion people to reduce their meat consumption by 50%.[131] China
2016 Veganism Statistics The global plant milk market was worth over US$8 billion in the year.[132][133] Worldwide
2016–2019 Veganism Trend growth The number of vegan food and drink businesses launched in Europe increases 93%, from 6,041 in 2016 to 11,655 in 2019.[134] Europe
2016 Veganism Statistics Europe stands as the largest market for meat substitutes to date, accounting for 39% of global sales.[135] Europe
2016 Veganism Study (nutrition) The German Society for Nutrition states that – for children, pregnant or nursing women, and adolescents – vegan diets are not recommended.[136] Germany
2017 Veganism Trend growth The percentage of vegans in the United States reaches 6% of consumers.[104] United States
2017 Veganism Study (nutrition) Study shows that vegans have extremely low levels of choline, since people who eat eggs tend to have almost double the choline levels of those who don’t.[137]
2017 Veganism Organization ProVeg International is founded. Its mission is to help reduce the global consumption of animal products by 50% by the year 2040, by making plant-based lifestyles more attractive and accessible.[138] Germany
2017 Vegetarianism Advocacy Environmental vegetarianism. 15,364 world scientists sign a Warning to Humanity calling for, among other things, drastically diminishing our per capita consumption of meat.[139]
2017 Veganism Literature (book) Tobias Leenaert publishes How to Create a Vegan World: A Pragmatic Approach.[140] Leenaert follows an utilitarian approach in his advocacy, stating that the vegan movement need be more pragmatic.[141]
2017 Veganism Trend growth British food delivery service Just Eat sees a 94% increase in vegan food orders in Ireland in the year.[142] Ireland
2017 Veganism Trend growth Demand for meat-free food in the United Kingdom increases by 987% in the year.[73] United Kingdom
2017 Vegetarianism Trend growth According to the Swedish Board of Agriculture, Sweden sees its largest decrease in meat consumption for 30 years with a 2.6% drop in people eating meat in the year.[143] Sweden
2017–2018 Veganism Statistics Germany, a global leaders when it comes to vegan product development and launches, accounts for 15% of global vegan introductions between July 2017 and June 2018.[144] Germany
2018 Veganism Trend growth There are as many people searching for vegan Thanksgiving recipes as there are people searching for turkey Thanksgiving recipes in the United States.[145] United States
2018 Vegetarianism Trend growth Around 60% of Poles say they plan to cut back on their meat consumption at this time.[146] Poland
2018 Veganism Trend growth The size of the global vegan food market is calculated to be worth US$12.69 billion.[147]
2018 Veganism Trend growth The United Kingdom launches more vegan products than any nation.[73] United Kingdom
2018 Vegetarianism Trend growth The total market for plant-based meat alternative products is around US$4.6 billion in the year.[148]
2018 Veganism Study (environment) A study by Oxford University finds that avoiding meat and dairy is the single biggest way to reduce the impact of an individual on Earth, as animal farming provides just 18% of calories but takes up 83% of our farmland.[149][150] United Kingdom
2018 Veganism Trend growth The worldwide funding of novel vegan meat replacement companies reaches US$900 million.[148] Worldwide
2018 Veganism Study (environment) A Greenpeace report finds that “global meat and dairy production and consumption must be cut in half by 2050 to avoid dangerous climate change and keep the Paris Agreement on track. "If left unchecked, agriculture is projected to produce 52% of global greenhouse gas emissions in the coming decades, 70% of which will come from meat and dairy."[151]
2018–2019 Veganism Trend growth British book retailer Waterstones have 9,030 book titles with the word 'vegan' in them available for sale (as of December 2019) compared to 944 in August 2018.[73] United Kingdom
2018–2019 Veganism Trend growth Iceland tops the worldwide rankings for popularity of veganism in the period comprised between June 2018 and June 2019.[152] Iceland
2018–2019 Veganism Trend growth Retail sales of plant-based foods in the United States increase 11 percent from 2018 to 2019, hitting a plant-based market value to US$4.5 billion.[132] United States
2019 Veganism Trend growth The packaged vegan food market in Australia is worth almost US$200 million.[153] Australia
2019 Veganism Study (nutrition) Nutritionist claims that vegan diets can stunt brain development, arguing that animal products are the best sources of choline, an essential nutrient for brain and liver health.[154] United Kingdom
2019 Veganism Study (nutrition) Study on risks of ischaemic heart disease and stroke suggests that vegans tend to have healthier hearts.[155]
2019 Vegetarianism Advocacy Environmental vegetarianism. A significant reduction in meat consumption is advocated by, among others, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in their special report.[156]
2019 Veganism Study (environment) A Harvard University report proves that if everyone in the United Kingdom went vegan, the population would still have enough food for everyone to eat. If the country returned meat, dairy and egg farms back to forest and grew health-promoting crops for human consumption, it would be able to sustain human calorie and protein needs in place of feed currently grown for animals.[157] United Kingdom
2019 Veganism Trend growth According to Google Trends, the United Kingdom is the most popular country for veganism, followed by the Australia and New Zealand.[158] United Kingdom
2019 Veganism Trend growth Plant milks make up 13% of the entire milk category in the United States. Their sale grow by 6% in the year, while cow's milk sales decline by 3%.[159] United States
2019 Veganism Policy The Royal Academy of Medicine of Belgium decides a vegan diet is “unsuitable” for children, implying the possibility to imprison parents who enforce a vegan diet on their children.[160] Belgium
2040 Vegetarianism Prediction It is predicted that by this year, only 40% of the global population will be consuming meat, with 35% consuming clean (lab) meat and 25% vegan meat replacements.[148]

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See also

External links


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