Difference between revisions of "Timeline of waste management"

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This is a '''timeline of {{w|waste management}}''', focusing mainly on {{w|municipal solid waste}} and {{w|commercial waste}}. {{w|Human waste}} is treated on the [[timeline of sanitation]]. {{w|Radioactive waste}} is not covered on this timeline. {{w|Recycling}} is covered on the [[timeline of recycling]]. Rise of common items in waste, such as {{w|beverage can}}s, plastics, and paper, are described.
 
This is a '''timeline of {{w|waste management}}''', focusing mainly on {{w|municipal solid waste}} and {{w|commercial waste}}. {{w|Human waste}} is treated on the [[timeline of sanitation]]. {{w|Radioactive waste}} is not covered on this timeline. {{w|Recycling}} is covered on the [[timeline of recycling]]. Rise of common items in waste, such as {{w|beverage can}}s, plastics, and paper, are described.
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== Sample questions ==
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The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:
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* What are some important policies of historic value released by authorities throughout history?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Policy".
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** You will see early policies related to waste management, first involving solid waste and evolving later to include air pollution.
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** You will also see different policies released by several countries across the world.
  
 
==Big picture==
 
==Big picture==
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| 1970s || Smaller {{w|dumpster}}s are introduced, often known as wheelie bins which are also emptied mechanically. In the mid-1970s Petersen Industries introduce the first grapple truck for {{w|municipal waste}} collection.
 
| 1970s || Smaller {{w|dumpster}}s are introduced, often known as wheelie bins which are also emptied mechanically. In the mid-1970s Petersen Industries introduce the first grapple truck for {{w|municipal waste}} collection.
 
|-
 
|-
| 1990s || Garbage trucks technology changes dramatically.<ref name="History of the Garbage Man"/> Societies start wasting food more than ever in the developed world.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/>
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| 1990s || Garbage trucks technology changes dramatically.<ref name="History of the Garbage Man"/> Societies start wasting food more than ever in the developed world.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/>  
 
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{| class="sortable wikitable"
 
{| class="sortable wikitable"
! Year !! Waste type !! Event type !! Details !!
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! Year !! Type of waste !! Event type !! Details !!
 
|-
 
|-
| 3000 BC || || || A {{w|landfill}} is developed in {{w|Knossos}}, {{w|Crete}}, with large holes dug for refuse. Garbage is dumped and filled with dirt at various levels.<ref name="History of the Garbage Man">{{cite web|title=History of the Garbage Man|url=http://www.garbagemanday.org/history-of-the-garbage-man/|website=garbagemanday.org|accessdate=14 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Greece}}
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| 3000 BC || {{w|Solid waste}} || || A {{w|landfill}} is developed in {{w|Knossos}}, {{w|Crete}}, with large holes dug for refuse. Garbage is dumped and filled with dirt at various levels.<ref name="History of the Garbage Man">{{cite web|title=History of the Garbage Man|url=http://www.garbagemanday.org/history-of-the-garbage-man/|website=garbagemanday.org|accessdate=14 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Greece}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2100 BC || || System || The elite section in the city of {{w|Heraclopolis}} maintains a waste collection and disposal system.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|Egypt}}
 
| 2100 BC || || System || The elite section in the city of {{w|Heraclopolis}} maintains a waste collection and disposal system.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|Egypt}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 500 BC || || Policy || A municipal dump is organized in {{w|Athens}}. Regulations require waste to be dumped at least a mile from the city limits.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice">{{cite book|last1=Chandrappa|first1=Ramesha|last2=Bhusan Das|first2=Diganta|title=Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=8c4h3qshpJYC&pg=PA10&lpg=PA10&dq=%22500+BC+%22+%22+municipal+dump%22+%22greece%22&source=bl&ots=r8nfQY1DuD&sig=_01OsTMVBtNdE5_eP9SykeXKtb0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjFoObqydDVAhVGg5AKHQf5Bi0Q6AEIKTAB#v=onepage&q=%22500%20BC%20%22%20%22%20municipal%20dump%22%20%22greece%22&f=false|accessdate=12 August 2017}}</ref><ref name="paprec.comvv">{{cite web |title=THE HISTORY OF RECYCLING AROUND THE WORLD |url=https://www.paprec.com/en/understanding-recycling/recycling/history-recycling-around-world |website=paprec.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Greece}}
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| 500 BC || {{w|Solid waste}} || Policy || A municipal dump is organized in {{w|Athens}}. Regulations require waste to be dumped at least a mile from the city limits.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice">{{cite book|last1=Chandrappa|first1=Ramesha|last2=Bhusan Das|first2=Diganta|title=Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=8c4h3qshpJYC&pg=PA10&lpg=PA10&dq=%22500+BC+%22+%22+municipal+dump%22+%22greece%22&source=bl&ots=r8nfQY1DuD&sig=_01OsTMVBtNdE5_eP9SykeXKtb0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjFoObqydDVAhVGg5AKHQf5Bi0Q6AEIKTAB#v=onepage&q=%22500%20BC%20%22%20%22%20municipal%20dump%22%20%22greece%22&f=false|accessdate=12 August 2017}}</ref><ref name="paprec.comvv">{{cite web |title=THE HISTORY OF RECYCLING AROUND THE WORLD |url=https://www.paprec.com/en/understanding-recycling/recycling/history-recycling-around-world |website=paprec.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Greece}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1350 || || Policy || Britain makes a law mandating clean front yards. However, the law is not taken too seriously.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
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| 1350 || {{w|Solid waste}} || Policy || Britain makes a law mandating clean front yards. However, the law is not taken too seriously.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1357 || || Policy || The city authorities of {{w|London}} forbid throwing rubbish, earth, gravel or dung into the {{w|Thames}}.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
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| 1357 || {{w|Solid waste}} || Policy || The city authorities of {{w|London}} forbid throwing rubbish, earth, gravel or dung into the {{w|Thames}}.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1407 || || Policy || Britain passes a law declaring waste should be stored inside till rakers to remove it.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
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| 1407 || {{w|Solid waste}} || Policy || Britain passes a law declaring waste should be stored inside till rakers to remove it.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1551 || || || German papermaker {{w|Andreas Bernhart}} begins placing his paper in wrappers labeled with his name and address. This is the first recorded use of packaging.<ref name="Plastics in Food Packaging Conference">{{cite book|title=Plastics in Food Packaging Conference|publisher=Plastics Instit|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=_9BPbvE1QQ4C&pg=PA181&lpg=PA181&dq=%221551%22+%22andreas+Bernhart%22+%22packaging%22&source=bl&ots=YHqh8T0MQV&sig=Y-F2TRabnWNCOsgp4EYl0sy5xyo&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjT34Dj7dfVAhULgZAKHdr6BQgQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=%221551%22%20%22andreas%20Bernhart%22%20%22packaging%22&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
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| 1551 || Paper waste || || German papermaker {{w|Andreas Bernhart}} begins placing his paper in wrappers labeled with his name and address. This is the first recorded use of packaging.<ref name="Plastics in Food Packaging Conference">{{cite book|title=Plastics in Food Packaging Conference|publisher=Plastics Instit|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=_9BPbvE1QQ4C&pg=PA181&lpg=PA181&dq=%221551%22+%22andreas+Bernhart%22+%22packaging%22&source=bl&ots=YHqh8T0MQV&sig=Y-F2TRabnWNCOsgp4EYl0sy5xyo&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjT34Dj7dfVAhULgZAKHdr6BQgQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=%221551%22%20%22andreas%20Bernhart%22%20%22packaging%22&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1714 || || Policy || Every city in {{w|England}} is required to have an official scavenger.<ref name="Solid-waste management">{{cite web|title=Solid-waste management|url=https://www.britannica.com/technology/solid-waste-management|website=britannica.com|accessdate=14 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
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| 1714 || {{w|Carrion}}, {{w|biological waste}} || Policy || Every city in {{w|England}} is required to have an official scavenger.<ref name="Solid-waste management">{{cite web|title=Solid-waste management|url=https://www.britannica.com/technology/solid-waste-management|website=britannica.com|accessdate=14 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1751 || || || English official {{w|Corbyn Morris}} in {{w|London}} proposes a uniform public management for cleaning the city in order to preserve the health of the people.<ref name="Lewis">{{cite web|title=Centenary History of Waste and Waste Managers in London and South East England|first=Lewis|last=Herbert|publisher=Chartered Institution of Wastes Management|year=2007|url=http://ciwm.activedition.com/nmsruntime/saveasdialog.aspx?lID=1094&sID=469}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
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| 1751 || General || || English official {{w|Corbyn Morris}} in {{w|London}} proposes a uniform public management for cleaning the city in order to preserve the health of the people.<ref name="Lewis">{{cite web|title=Centenary History of Waste and Waste Managers in London and South East England|first=Lewis|last=Herbert|publisher=Chartered Institution of Wastes Management|year=2007|url=http://ciwm.activedition.com/nmsruntime/saveasdialog.aspx?lID=1094&sID=469}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1757 || || Service || The first municipal street–cleaning service in the United States is started in {{w|Philadelphia}} by {{w|Benjamin Franklin}}. During the same time period, American homes begin digging solid waste pits instead of throwing it out of doors and windows.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1757 || General || Service || The first municipal street–cleaning service in the United States is started in {{w|Philadelphia}} by {{w|Benjamin Franklin}}. During the same time period, American homes begin digging solid waste pits instead of throwing it out of doors and windows.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1786 || || Service || A proper waste collection service is first instigated in the {{w|Cape Colony}}.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|South Africa}}
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| 1786 || General || Service || A proper waste collection service is first instigated in the {{w|Cape Colony}}.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|South Africa}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1842 || || Publication || British {{w|Social reform}}er, {{w|Edwin Chadwick}} publishes report ''The Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population'' in which he argues for the importance of adequate waste removal and management facilities to improve the health and wellbeing of the city's population.<ref>{{cite book |title=Report...from the Poor Law Commissioners on an Inquiry into the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population of Great Britain  |location=London |year=1842 |pages=369-372 |url=http://www.victorianweb.org/history/chadwick2.html |last=Chadwick |first=Edwin}} via {{cite web |author=Laura Del Col |publisher=The Victorian Web |title=Chadwick's Report on Sanitary Conditions |date=11 October 2002 |accessdate=11 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
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| 1842 || General || Publication || British {{w|Social reformer}}, {{w|Edwin Chadwick}} publishes report ''The Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population'' in which he argues for the importance of adequate waste removal and management facilities to improve the health and wellbeing of the city's population.<ref>{{cite book |title=Report...from the Poor Law Commissioners on an Inquiry into the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population of Great Britain  |location=London |year=1842 |pages=369-372 |url=http://www.victorianweb.org/history/chadwick2.html |last=Chadwick |first=Edwin}} via {{cite web |author=Laura Del Col |publisher=The Victorian Web |title=Chadwick's Report on Sanitary Conditions |date=11 October 2002 |accessdate=11 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1853 || || || {{w|Veolia}}<ref>{{cite web |title=The history of Veolia: 1853-1900 |url=https://www.veolia.com/en/veolia-group/profile/history/1853-1900 |website=veolia.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Strauss |first1=Michael J. |title=Hostile Business and the Sovereign State: Privatized Governance, State Security and International Law |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=fnx_DwAAQBAJ&pg=PT342&lpg=PT342&dq=1853+Veolia&source=bl&ots=Oa4S1yQzZU&sig=ACfU3U0n2Kh-MFYXIkplKQhYtkCJLnyI7Q&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiUsP38xMznAhWzK7kGHRKNAUsQ6AEwDHoECAsQAQ#v=onepage&q=1853%20Veolia&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
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| 1853 || General || Organization (for-profit) || {{w|Veolia}} is founded in {{w|France}}. It operates [[w:water resource management|water management]], {{w|waste management}} and energy services.<ref>{{cite web |title=The history of Veolia: 1853-1900 |url=https://www.veolia.com/en/veolia-group/profile/history/1853-1900 |website=veolia.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Strauss |first1=Michael J. |title=Hostile Business and the Sovereign State: Privatized Governance, State Security and International Law |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=fnx_DwAAQBAJ&pg=PT342&lpg=PT342&dq=1853+Veolia&source=bl&ots=Oa4S1yQzZU&sig=ACfU3U0n2Kh-MFYXIkplKQhYtkCJLnyI7Q&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiUsP38xMznAhWzK7kGHRKNAUsQ6AEwDHoECAsQAQ#v=onepage&q=1853%20Veolia&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1855 || || Background || The first human–made {{w|plastic}} is invented.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> ||
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| 1855 || Plastic waste || Background || The first human–made {{w|plastic}} is invented.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> A year layer, the plastic material is patented by {{w|Alexander Parkes}}, in {{w|Birmingham}}, {{w|England}}.<ref>{{cite book|last=UK Patent office|title=Patents for inventions|year=1857|publisher=UK Patent office|page=255|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=0nCoU-2tAx8C&pg=PA255}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1869 || || Background || American John Hyatt starts producing "celluloid", thus giving birth to the plastics industry.<ref name="Plastics in Food Packaging Conference"/> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1869 || Plastic waste || Background || American John Hyatt starts producing "celluloid", thus giving birth to the plastics industry.<ref name="Plastics in Food Packaging Conference"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1874 || || Publication || Edwin Chadwick writes his ''Report of an Inquiry into the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain'', linking disease to filthy environmental conditions.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> ||
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| 1874 || General || Publication || Edwin Chadwick writes his ''Report of an Inquiry into the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain'', linking disease to filthy environmental conditions.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> ||
 
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| 1874 || || Facility || The first incinerator is built in {{w|Nottingham}} by {{w|Manlove, Alliott & Co. Ltd.}}.<ref>{{cite web|title=Centenary History of Waste and Waste Managers in London and South East England|first=Lewis|last=Herbert|publisher={{w|Chartered Institution of Wastes Management}}|year=2007|url=http://ciwm.activedition.com/nmsruntime/saveasdialog.aspx?lID=1094&sID=469|format=PDF}}</ref> This would mark a significant development in solid-waste treatment and disposal practices in the country.<ref name="Solid-waste management"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
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| 1874 || {{w|Solid waste}} || Facility || The first incinerator is built in {{w|Nottingham}} by {{w|Manlove, Alliott & Co. Ltd.}}.<ref>{{cite web|title=Centenary History of Waste and Waste Managers in London and South East England|first=Lewis|last=Herbert|publisher={{w|Chartered Institution of Wastes Management}}|year=2007|url=http://ciwm.activedition.com/nmsruntime/saveasdialog.aspx?lID=1094&sID=469|format=PDF}}</ref> This would mark a significant development in solid-waste treatment and disposal practices in the country.<ref name="Solid-waste management"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
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|-
| 1884 || || System || {{w|Eugène Poubelle}} introduces the first integrated {{w|kerbside collection}} and recycling system, requiring residents to separate their waste into perishable items, paper and cloth, and crockery and shells. "He also established rules for how private collectors and city workers should cooperate and he developed standard dimensions for refuse containers: his name in {{w|France}} is now synonymous with the garbage can. Under Poubelle, food waste and other organics collected in Paris were transported to nearby [[w:Saint-Ouen, Seine-Saint-Denis|Saint Ouen]] where they were composted. This continued well into the 20th century when plastics began to contaminate the waste stream."<ref>Frederique Krupa, [http://www.translucency.com/frede/parisproject/garbage1789_1900.html Parisian Garbage from 1789-1900], ''Paris: Urban Sanitation Before the 20th Century: A History of Invisible Infrastructure''</ref><ref name="paprec.comvv"/> || {{w|France}}
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| 1884 || {{w|Solid waste}} || System || {{w|Eugène Poubelle}} introduces the first integrated {{w|kerbside collection}} and recycling system, requiring residents to separate their waste into perishable items, paper and cloth, and crockery and shells. "He also established rules for how private collectors and city workers should cooperate and he developed standard dimensions for refuse containers: his name in {{w|France}} is now synonymous with the garbage can. Under Poubelle, food waste and other organics collected in Paris were transported to nearby [[w:Saint-Ouen, Seine-Saint-Denis|Saint Ouen]] where they were composted. This continued well into the 20th century when plastics began to contaminate the waste stream."<ref>Frederique Krupa, [http://www.translucency.com/frede/parisproject/garbage1789_1900.html Parisian Garbage from 1789-1900], ''Paris: Urban Sanitation Before the 20th Century: A History of Invisible Infrastructure''</ref><ref name="paprec.comvv"/> || {{w|France}}
 
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| 1885 || || Facility || A waste incinerator is built in {{w|Governors Island}}, New York.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1885 || {{w|Solid waste}} || Facility || A waste incinerator is built in {{w|Governors Island}}, New York.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
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| 1895 || || System || {{w|New York City}} becomes the first U.S. city with public-sector garbage management.<ref name="NWRA">{{cite web|last=National Waste & Recycling Association |url=http://www.environmentalistseveryday.org/publications-solid-waste-industry-research/information/history-of-solid-waste-management/early-america-industrial-revolution.php |title=History of Solid Waste Management |location= Washington, D.C. |accessdate=11 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1895 || General || System || {{w|New York City}} becomes the first U.S. city with public-sector garbage management.<ref name="NWRA">{{cite web|last=National Waste & Recycling Association |url=http://www.environmentalistseveryday.org/publications-solid-waste-industry-research/information/history-of-solid-waste-management/early-america-industrial-revolution.php |title=History of Solid Waste Management |location= Washington, D.C. |accessdate=11 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
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| 1896 || || || {{w|Cory Environmental}}<ref>{{cite web |title=The history of Cory |url=https://www.coryenergy.com/about-us/our-history/ |website=coryenergy.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Plunkett's Renewable, Alternative & Hydrogen Energy Industry Almanac 2008 |edition=Jack W. Plunkett |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=yNXShPFh2I4C&pg=PT214&dq=1896+Cory+Environmental&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjep435ysznAhVpG7kGHbV-Ca8Q6AEIKTAA#v=onepage&q=1896%20Cory%20Environmental&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
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| 1896 || General || Organization || {{w|Cory Environmental}} is founded in {{w|England}}. It provides services in the collection, recycling and disposal of waste.<ref>{{cite web |title=The history of Cory |url=https://www.coryenergy.com/about-us/our-history/ |website=coryenergy.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Plunkett's Renewable, Alternative & Hydrogen Energy Industry Almanac 2008 |edition=Jack W. Plunkett |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=yNXShPFh2I4C&pg=PT214&dq=1896+Cory+Environmental&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjep435ysznAhVpG7kGHbV-Ca8Q6AEIKTAA#v=onepage&q=1896%20Cory%20Environmental&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
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| 1898 || || Organization || {{w|Chartered Institution of Wastes Management}}<ref>{{cite web |title=CIWM History |url=https://www.ciwm.co.uk/ciwm/about-us/ciwm-history/ciwm/about/ciwm-history.aspx?hkey=b626e07d-e626-4886-ac7f-669dfaeb1551 |website=ciwm.co.uk |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
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| 1898 || General || Organization (non-profit) || The {{w|Chartered Institution of Wastes Management}} is founded. It is a {{w|professional body}} for the {{w|waste management industry}} in the {{w|United Kingdom}} and other countries.<ref>{{cite web |title=CIWM History |url=https://www.ciwm.co.uk/ciwm/about-us/ciwm-history/ciwm/about/ciwm-history.aspx?hkey=b626e07d-e626-4886-ac7f-669dfaeb1551 |website=ciwm.co.uk |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
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| 1907 || || || The {{w|plastic}} is invented.<ref name="forbes.coms">{{cite web |title=These Five Companies Are Leading The Charge On Recycling |url=https://www.forbes.com/sites/justcapital/2018/04/20/these-5-companies-are-leading-the-charge-on-recycling/#2fac89f623ec |website=forbes.com |accessdate=9 February 2020}}</ref> "The first synthetic plastic — Bakelite  — was produced in 1907, marking the beginning of the global plastics industry."<ref name="Plastic Pollution">{{cite web |title=Plastic Pollution |url=https://ourworldindata.org/plastic-pollution |website=ourworldindata.org |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref> ||
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| 1907 || Plastic waste || Background || {{w|Bakelite}} is invented as the first synthetic plastic.<ref name="forbes.coms">{{cite web |title=These Five Companies Are Leading The Charge On Recycling |url=https://www.forbes.com/sites/justcapital/2018/04/20/these-5-companies-are-leading-the-charge-on-recycling/#2fac89f623ec |website=forbes.com |accessdate=9 February 2020}}</ref> "The first synthetic plastic — Bakelite  — was produced in 1907, marking the beginning of the global plastics industry."<ref name="Plastic Pollution">{{cite web |title=Plastic Pollution |url=https://ourworldindata.org/plastic-pollution |website=ourworldindata.org |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref> ||
 
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| 1912 || || || British {{w|waste management}} {{w|Biffa}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Biffa |url=https://www.biffa.co.uk/careers/about-us |website=biffa.co.uk |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Biffa Waste |url=https://www.cv-library.co.uk/list-jobs/257955/Biffa-Waste |website=cv-library.co.uk |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Biffa |url=https://customers.microsoft.com/en-SG/story/biffa-moves-300-servers-to-azure |website=customers.microsoft.com |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
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| 1912 || General || Organization (for-profit) || British {{w|waste management}} {{w|Biffa}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Biffa |url=https://www.biffa.co.uk/careers/about-us |website=biffa.co.uk |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Biffa Waste |url=https://www.cv-library.co.uk/list-jobs/257955/Biffa-Waste |website=cv-library.co.uk |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Biffa |url=https://customers.microsoft.com/en-SG/story/biffa-moves-300-servers-to-azure |website=customers.microsoft.com |accessdate=13 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
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| 1916 || || Technology || Cities in the United States begin switching from horse–drawn to motorized {{w|waste collection}} equipment.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|United States}}
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| 1916 || General || Technology || Cities in the United States begin switching from horse–drawn to motorized {{w|waste collection}} equipment.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1920s || || Technology || A dumping lever mechanism is introduced for {{w|garbage removal truck}}s.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.hardrawgathering.co.uk/covered-bodies/|archive-url=https://archive.is/20150106135610/http://www.hardrawgathering.co.uk/covered-bodies/|dead-url=yes|archive-date=2015-01-06|title=Covered Bodies}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
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| 1920s || {{w|Solid waste}} || Technology || A dumping lever mechanism is introduced for {{w|garbage removal truck}}s.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.hardrawgathering.co.uk/covered-bodies/|archive-url=https://archive.is/20150106135610/http://www.hardrawgathering.co.uk/covered-bodies/|dead-url=yes|archive-date=2015-01-06|title=Covered Bodies}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1920s || || || Using wetlands for disposal of waste become popular in the {{w|United States}}.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1920s || General || Infrastructure || Using wetlands for disposal of waste becomes popular in the {{w|United States}}.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1920s || || Technology || Mechanical transport for solid waste management is introduced in {{w|South Africa}}.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|South Africa}}
+
| 1920s || {{w|Solid waste}} || Technology || Mechanical transport for solid waste management is introduced in {{w|South Africa}}.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|South Africa}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1930 || || Policy || The king of Patiala in India converts cars into garbage vehicles.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|India}}
+
| 1930 || {{w|Solid waste}} || Policy || The king of Patiala in India converts cars into garbage vehicles.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|India}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1934 || || Policy || The United States supreme court bans municipal waste dumping into oceans.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1934 || General || Policy || The United States supreme court bans municipal waste dumping into oceans.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1934 || || || German Recycling and waste management company {{w|Remondis}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Learning from the Rethmann way |url=https://www.letsrecycle.com/news/latest-news/learning-from-the-rethmann-way/ |website=letsrecycle.com |accessdate=9 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
+
| 1934 || General || Organization (for-profit) || German Recycling and waste management company {{w|Remondis}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Learning from the Rethmann way |url=https://www.letsrecycle.com/news/latest-news/learning-from-the-rethmann-way/ |website=letsrecycle.com |accessdate=9 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Germany}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1935 || || Background || The [[w:Beverage can|can of bear]] is first commercialized.<ref name="Plastics in Food Packaging Conference"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1935 || {{w|Scrap}} || Background || The [[w:Beverage can|can of bear]] is first commercialized.<ref name="Plastics in Food Packaging Conference"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1937 || || Technology || American businessman [[w:George Roby Dempster|George Dempster]] invents the ''Dempster-Dumpster'' system in which wheeled waste containers are mechanically tipped into the truck. His containers become known as {{w|Dumpster}}s, entering the word to the language.<ref>{{cite web |title=Waste Connections |url=https://www.wasteconnections.com/management |website=wasteconnections.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Waste Connections, Inc. |url=https://www.referenceforbusiness.com/history2/17/Waste-Connections-Inc.html |website=referenceforbusiness.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1937 || {{w|Solid waste}} || Technology || American businessman [[w:George Roby Dempster|George Dempster]] invents the ''Dempster-Dumpster'' system in which wheeled waste containers are mechanically tipped into the truck. His containers become known as {{w|Dumpster}}s, entering the word to the language.<ref>{{cite web |title=Waste Connections |url=https://www.wasteconnections.com/management |website=wasteconnections.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Waste Connections, Inc. |url=https://www.referenceforbusiness.com/history2/17/Waste-Connections-Inc.html |website=referenceforbusiness.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1938 || || Technology || The {{w|Garwood Load Packer}} becomes the first truck to incorporate a hydraulic compactor.<ref name="garwood"/> "In 1938, the {{w|Garwood Load Packer}} revolutionized the industry when the notion of including a compactor in the truck was implemented. The first primitive compactor could double a truck's capacity. This was made possible by use of a {{w|hydraulic press}} which compacted the contents of the truck periodically." ||
+
| 1938 || {{w|Solid waste}} || Technology || The {{w|Garwood Load Packer}} becomes the first truck to incorporate a hydraulic compactor.<ref name="garwood"/> "In 1938, the {{w|Garwood Load Packer}} revolutionized the industry when the notion of including a compactor in the truck was implemented. The first primitive compactor could double a truck's capacity. This was made possible by use of a {{w|hydraulic press}} which compacted the contents of the truck periodically." ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1938 || || Background || American phycisist {{w|Chester Carlson}} develops the {{w|Xerography}} process.<ref name="Plastics in Food Packaging Conference"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1938 || {{w|Solid waste}} || {{w|Waste sorting}} || American phycisist {{w|Chester Carlson}} develops the {{w|Xerography}} process.<ref name="Plastics in Food Packaging Conference"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1942 || || Technology || Low density polyethylene is invented.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> ||
 
| 1942 || || Technology || Low density polyethylene is invented.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> ||
Line 116: Line 125:
 
| 1952 || || Technology || American body builder Vincen Bowles, develops and sells a fixed-bucket front loader. The device would be subsequently modified to service detachable containers.<ref name="The Early Dumpmaster"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 1952 || || Technology || American body builder Vincen Bowles, develops and sells a fixed-bucket front loader. The device would be subsequently modified to service detachable containers.<ref name="The Early Dumpmaster"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1953 || || || {{w|Keep America Beautiful}}<ref>{{cite web |title=MISSION & HISTORY |url=https://kab.org/about/approach/mission-history/ |website=kab.org |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Simply Recycling Won't Keep America Beautiful |url=https://www.plasticpollutioncoalition.org/blog/2015/11/15/simply-recycling-wont-keep-america-beautiful |website=plasticpollutioncoalition.org |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Melillo |first1=Wendy |title=How McGruff and the Crying Indian Changed America: A History of Iconic Ad Council Campaigns |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=b6VqBgAAQBAJ&pg=PT144&dq=1953+Keep+America+Beautiful&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjGlsnszMznAhX7HLkGHZDiCHsQ6AEIMjAB#v=onepage&q=1953%20Keep%20America%20Beautiful&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1953 || || Organization || {{w|Keep America Beautiful}} is formed in {{w|New York City}} with the purpose to bring public and private sectors together to develop and promote a national cleanliness ethic.<ref>{{cite web |title=MISSION & HISTORY |url=https://kab.org/about/approach/mission-history/ |website=kab.org |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Simply Recycling Won't Keep America Beautiful |url=https://www.plasticpollutioncoalition.org/blog/2015/11/15/simply-recycling-wont-keep-america-beautiful |website=plasticpollutioncoalition.org |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Melillo |first1=Wendy |title=How McGruff and the Crying Indian Changed America: A History of Iconic Ad Council Campaigns |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=b6VqBgAAQBAJ&pg=PT144&dq=1953+Keep+America+Beautiful&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjGlsnszMznAhX7HLkGHZDiCHsQ6AEIMjAB#v=onepage&q=1953%20Keep%20America%20Beautiful&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1955 || || Technology || The {{w|Dempster Dumpmaster}} is introduced as the first front loader.<ref name="The Early Dumpmaster">{{cite web|title=The Early Dumpmaster|url=http://www.classicrefusetrucks.com/albums/DE/DE03.html|website=classicrefusetrucks.com|accessdate=11 August 2017}}</ref> ||
 
| 1955 || || Technology || The {{w|Dempster Dumpmaster}} is introduced as the first front loader.<ref name="The Early Dumpmaster">{{cite web|title=The Early Dumpmaster|url=http://www.classicrefusetrucks.com/albums/DE/DE03.html|website=classicrefusetrucks.com|accessdate=11 August 2017}}</ref> ||
Line 122: Line 131:
 
| 1956 || || Policy || The Clean Air Act is passed in Britain, replacing solid fuel for heating house by with gas and electricity.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
| 1956 || || Policy || The Clean Air Act is passed in Britain, replacing solid fuel for heating house by with gas and electricity.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1960 || || || {{w|Covanta Energy}}<ref>{{cite web |title=Covanta Holding Corporation |url=https://www.zoominfo.com/c/covanta-holding-corporation/30150250 |website=zoominfo.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Covanta Holding Corporation |url=https://finance.yahoo.com/quote/CVA?p=CVA |website=finance.yahoo.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1960 || || Organization || Waste management company {{w|Covanta Energy}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Covanta Holding Corporation |url=https://www.zoominfo.com/c/covanta-holding-corporation/30150250 |website=zoominfo.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Covanta Holding Corporation |url=https://finance.yahoo.com/quote/CVA?p=CVA |website=finance.yahoo.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1960s || || Technology || The first patents for residential garbage compactors are filed in the United States.<ref name="SNAPSHOTS OF PUBLIC SANITATION">{{cite web|title=SNAPSHOTS OF PUBLIC SANITATION|url=http://www.hygieneforhealth.org.au/public_sanitation.php|website=hygieneforhealth.org.au|accessdate=27 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 1960s || || Technology || The first patents for residential garbage compactors are filed in the United States.<ref name="SNAPSHOTS OF PUBLIC SANITATION">{{cite web|title=SNAPSHOTS OF PUBLIC SANITATION|url=http://www.hygieneforhealth.org.au/public_sanitation.php|website=hygieneforhealth.org.au|accessdate=27 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
Line 129: Line 138:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1961 || || Technology || The first [[w:Automated vacuum collection|vacuum waste system]] in the world is installed at {{w|Sollefteå Hospital}} in {{w|Sollefteå}}, {{w|Sweden}}.<ref name="swe">{{cite web|url=http://www.envacgroup.com/web/Vacuum-system_history.aspx |title=Archived copy |accessdate=2010-11-25 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110710194217/http://www.envacgroup.com/web/Vacuum-system_history.aspx |archivedate=2011-07-10 }}</ref> || Sweden
 
| 1961 || || Technology || The first [[w:Automated vacuum collection|vacuum waste system]] in the world is installed at {{w|Sollefteå Hospital}} in {{w|Sollefteå}}, {{w|Sweden}}.<ref name="swe">{{cite web|url=http://www.envacgroup.com/web/Vacuum-system_history.aspx |title=Archived copy |accessdate=2010-11-25 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110710194217/http://www.envacgroup.com/web/Vacuum-system_history.aspx |archivedate=2011-07-10 }}</ref> || Sweden
 +
|-
 +
| 1962 || General || Organization (non-profit) || The United States {{w|National Waste & Recycling Association}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=National Waste & Recycling Association |url=https://wasterecycling.org/page/AboutUs |website=wasterecycling.org |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Descripción general de National Waste & Recycling Association |url=https://www.glassdoor.com.ar/Descripci%C3%B3n-general/Trabajar-en-National-Waste-and-Recycling-Association-EI_IE825838.12,52.htm?countryRedirect=true |website=glassdoor.com.ar |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=National Waste and Recycling Association (NWRA) |url=https://nerc.org/advisory-members/member-spotlight/2015/06/national-waste-and-recycling-association-(nwra) |website=nerc.org |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1965 || || Technology || The first [[w:Automated vacuum collection|vacuum system]] for household waste is installed in the new residential district of Ör-Hallonbergen, {{w|Sweden}}.<ref name="swe"/> || Sweden
 
| 1965 || || Technology || The first [[w:Automated vacuum collection|vacuum system]] for household waste is installed in the new residential district of Ör-Hallonbergen, {{w|Sweden}}.<ref name="swe"/> || Sweden
 
|-
 
|-
| 1968 || || || [[w:Waste Management (corporation)|Waste Management]] <ref>{{cite web |title=Waste Management Inc. |url=http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/2898.html |website=encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=WASTE GIANT TOSSING OUT ITS NAME |url=https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-1993-01-19-9303163644-story.html |website=chicagotribune.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1968 || || Organization (for-profit) || American company [[w:Waste Management (corporation)|Waste Management]] is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Waste Management Inc. |url=http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/2898.html |website=encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=WASTE GIANT TOSSING OUT ITS NAME |url=https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-1993-01-19-9303163644-story.html |website=chicagotribune.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1968 || || || {{w|Browning-Ferris Industries}}<ref>{{cite book |title=National Priorities List Sites: Vermont |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=nMu_zxEd_wAC&pg=PA25&lpg=PA25&dq=1968+Browning-Ferris+Industries&source=bl&ots=TWeN5NKxcU&sig=ACfU3U1JcgMN14rZzh-7E2WdDhPQk3if_w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwievuTN1cznAhVpIbkGHeLyC-YQ6AEwFnoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=1968%20Browning-Ferris%20Industries&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1968 || || Organization (for-profit) || American waste management company {{w|Browning-Ferris Industries}} is founded. It would go bankrupt in 1999.<ref>{{cite book |title=National Priorities List Sites: Vermont |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=nMu_zxEd_wAC&pg=PA25&lpg=PA25&dq=1968+Browning-Ferris+Industries&source=bl&ots=TWeN5NKxcU&sig=ACfU3U1JcgMN14rZzh-7E2WdDhPQk3if_w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwievuTN1cznAhVpIbkGHeLyC-YQ6AEwFnoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=1968%20Browning-Ferris%20Industries&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1970 || || Organization || The {{w|International Solid Waste Association}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web|title=The World’s Leading Network Promoting Professional and Sustainable Waste Management|url=http://www.iswa.org/iswa/organisation/|website=iswa.org|accessdate=14 August 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=A Brief History of the International Solid Waste Association’s World Congress |url=https://waste-management-world.com/a/a-brief-history-of-the-international-solid-waste-association-s-world-congress |website=waste-management-world.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=National Priorities List Sites: Vermont |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=nMu_zxEd_wAC&pg=PA25&lpg=PA25&dq=1968+Browning-Ferris+Industries&source=bl&ots=TWeN5NKxcU&sig=ACfU3U1JcgMN14rZzh-7E2WdDhPQk3if_w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwievuTN1cznAhVpIbkGHeLyC-YQ6AEwFnoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=1968%20Browning-Ferris%20Industries&f=false}}</ref> ||  
+
| 1970 || || Organization (non-profit) || The {{w|International Solid Waste Association}} is founded. It is a global association, "working in the public interest and is the only worldwide association promoting sustainable, comprehensive and professional waste management".<ref>{{cite web|title=The World’s Leading Network Promoting Professional and Sustainable Waste Management|url=http://www.iswa.org/iswa/organisation/|website=iswa.org|accessdate=14 August 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=A Brief History of the International Solid Waste Association’s World Congress |url=https://waste-management-world.com/a/a-brief-history-of-the-international-solid-waste-association-s-world-congress |website=waste-management-world.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=National Priorities List Sites: Vermont |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=nMu_zxEd_wAC&pg=PA25&lpg=PA25&dq=1968+Browning-Ferris+Industries&source=bl&ots=TWeN5NKxcU&sig=ACfU3U1JcgMN14rZzh-7E2WdDhPQk3if_w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwievuTN1cznAhVpIbkGHeLyC-YQ6AEwFnoECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=1968%20Browning-Ferris%20Industries&f=false}}</ref> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1970 || || Organization || {{w|Waste Industries}}<ref>{{cite web |title=Waste Industries USA, Inc |url=https://northcarolinahistory.org/encyclopedia/waste-industries-usa-inc/ |website=northcarolinahistory.org |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1970 || || Organization (for-profit) || American company {{w|Waste Industries}} is founded. It provides non-hazardous {{w|solid waste}} and {{w|recycling}} collection, transfer, and disposal.<ref>{{cite web |title=Waste Industries USA, Inc |url=https://northcarolinahistory.org/encyclopedia/waste-industries-usa-inc/ |website=northcarolinahistory.org |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1972 || || Organization || The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment is held in {{w|Stockholm}}, {{w|Sweden}}. This event is considered to mark a turning point in {{w|waste management}}.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|Sweden}}
 
| 1972 || || Organization || The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment is held in {{w|Stockholm}}, {{w|Sweden}}. This event is considered to mark a turning point in {{w|waste management}}.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|Sweden}}
Line 146: Line 157:
 
| 1975 || || Policy || The {{w|waste hierarchy}} concept is introduced for the first time as a waste policy by The European Union’s {{w|Waste Framework Directive}}, emphasizing the importance of {{w|waste minimization}}, and the [[w:Environmental protection|protection of the environment]] and {{w|human health}}, as a priority. Following the this Directive, the European Union policy and legislation would further adapt to the principles of the waste hierarchy.<ref name=ECWaste>{{cite web|author=European Commission |date=2014 |title=EU Waste Legislation |url=http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/legislation/a.htm |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140312223737/http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/legislation/a.htm |archivedate=17 August 2017 }}</ref> ||
 
| 1975 || || Policy || The {{w|waste hierarchy}} concept is introduced for the first time as a waste policy by The European Union’s {{w|Waste Framework Directive}}, emphasizing the importance of {{w|waste minimization}}, and the [[w:Environmental protection|protection of the environment]] and {{w|human health}}, as a priority. Following the this Directive, the European Union policy and legislation would further adapt to the principles of the waste hierarchy.<ref name=ECWaste>{{cite web|author=European Commission |date=2014 |title=EU Waste Legislation |url=http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/legislation/a.htm |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140312223737/http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/legislation/a.htm |archivedate=17 August 2017 }}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1975 || || || Australian waste management company {{w|Cleanaway}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Who We Are |url=https://www.blackburnok.com/about/ |website=blackburnok.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Casella's Competitors, Revenue, Number of Employees, Funding and Acquisitions |url=https://www.owler.com/company/casella |website=owler.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Australia}}
+
| 1975 || || Organization (for-profit)|| Australian waste management company {{w|Cleanaway}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Who We Are |url=https://www.blackburnok.com/about/ |website=blackburnok.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Casella's Competitors, Revenue, Number of Employees, Funding and Acquisitions |url=https://www.owler.com/company/casella |website=owler.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Australia}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1975 || || || American waste management company {{w|Casella Waste Systems}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Casella Waste Systems |url=https://www.casella.com/history |website=casella.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Casella Waste Systems |url=https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/casella-waste-systems |website=crunchbase.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}  
+
| 1975 || || Organization (for-profit) || American waste management company {{w|Casella Waste Systems}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Casella Waste Systems |url=https://www.casella.com/history |website=casella.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Casella Waste Systems |url=https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/casella-waste-systems |website=crunchbase.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1976 || || Policy || The {{w|Resource Conservation and Recovery Act}} is enacted in the United States to close open dumps, create standards for landfills, incinerators and the disposal of hazardous waste. It is the principal {{w|federal law}} in the country governing the disposal of {{w|solid waste}} and {{w|hazardous waste}}.<ref name="RCRA statute">Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, P.L. 94-580, {{USStat|90|2795}}, {{USC|42|6901}} ''et seq.,'' October 21, 1976. [http://epw.senate.gov/rcra.pdf RCRA Full text.]</ref><ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling">{{cite web|last1=Bradbury|first1=Matt|title=A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling|url=https://www.buschsystems.com/resource-center/page/a-brief-timeline-of-the-history-of-recycling|website=buschsystems.com|accessdate=15 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 1976 || || Policy || The {{w|Resource Conservation and Recovery Act}} is enacted in the United States to close open dumps, create standards for landfills, incinerators and the disposal of hazardous waste. It is the principal {{w|federal law}} in the country governing the disposal of {{w|solid waste}} and {{w|hazardous waste}}.<ref name="RCRA statute">Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, P.L. 94-580, {{USStat|90|2795}}, {{USC|42|6901}} ''et seq.,'' October 21, 1976. [http://epw.senate.gov/rcra.pdf RCRA Full text.]</ref><ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling">{{cite web|last1=Bradbury|first1=Matt|title=A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling|url=https://www.buschsystems.com/resource-center/page/a-brief-timeline-of-the-history-of-recycling|website=buschsystems.com|accessdate=15 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1976 || || || Canadian {{w|waste-to-energy}} technology and engineering services company {{w|Himark BioGas}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Himark BioGas |url=https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/himark-biogas-inc |website=crunchbase.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Canada}}
+
| 1976 || || Organization || Canadian {{w|waste-to-energy}} technology and engineering services company {{w|Himark BioGas}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Himark BioGas |url=https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/himark-biogas-inc |website=crunchbase.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Canada}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1977 || Environmentalism || Organization || American environmental advocacy organization {{w|Californians Against Waste}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Californians Against Waste |url=https://ballotpedia.org/Californians_Against_Waste |website=ballotpedia.org |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Californians Against Waste |url=https://www.cawrecycles.org/ |website=cawrecycles.org |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1977 || || Organization (non-profit) || American environmental advocacy organization {{w|Californians Against Waste}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Californians Against Waste |url=https://ballotpedia.org/Californians_Against_Waste |website=ballotpedia.org |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Californians Against Waste |url=https://www.cawrecycles.org/ |website=cawrecycles.org |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1980 || {{w|Hazardous waste}} || Organization || {{w|Clean Harbors}} is founded. It provides hazardous waste disposal for companies.<ref>{{cite web |title=Project Spotlight: Clean Harbors |url=https://www.shanahansound.com/newsletter/Clean-Harbors-Spotlight |website=shanahansound.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Clean Harbors to Present at Baird’s 49th Annual Industrial Conference |url=https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20191023005429/en/Clean-Harbors-Present-Baird%E2%80%99s-49th-Annual-Industrial |website=businesswire.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1980 || || Organization (for-profit) || {{w|Clean Harbors}} is founded. It provides hazardous waste disposal for companies.<ref>{{cite web |title=Project Spotlight: Clean Harbors |url=https://www.shanahansound.com/newsletter/Clean-Harbors-Spotlight |website=shanahansound.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Clean Harbors to Present at Baird’s 49th Annual Industrial Conference |url=https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20191023005429/en/Clean-Harbors-Present-Baird%E2%80%99s-49th-Annual-Industrial |website=businesswire.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1988 || {{w|Waste collection}} || Organization || {{w|Allied Waste Industries}} is founded. Its major business is waste collection and recycling.<ref>{{cite web |title=Where Is Allied Waste Industries Inc Corporate Office Headquarters |url=https://corporateofficeheadquarters.org/allied-waste-industries-inc/ |website=corporateofficeheadquarters.org |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1988 || || Organization (for-profit) || {{w|Allied Waste Industries}} is founded. Its major business is waste collection and recycling.<ref>{{cite web |title=Where Is Allied Waste Industries Inc Corporate Office Headquarters |url=https://corporateofficeheadquarters.org/allied-waste-industries-inc/ |website=corporateofficeheadquarters.org |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1989 (22 March) || || Organization || The {{w|Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal}} is adopted to stop movement of hazardous waste from one country to other country. 105 states sign the Final Act of the convention. <ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|Switzerland}}
+
| 1989 (March 22) || || Policy || The {{w|Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal}} is adopted to stop movement of hazardous waste from one country to other country. 105 states sign the Final Act of the convention. <ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|Switzerland}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1989 || || Organization || Non-profit Australian environmental conservation organization {{w|Clean Up Australia}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Celebrating National Volunteer Week: Clean Up Australia |url=https://www.xero.com/blog/2019/05/celebrating-national-volunteer-week-clean-up-australia/ |website=xero.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Australia}}
+
| 1989 || || Organization (non-profit) || Non-profit Australian environmental conservation organization {{w|Clean Up Australia}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Celebrating National Volunteer Week: Clean Up Australia |url=https://www.xero.com/blog/2019/05/celebrating-national-volunteer-week-clean-up-australia/ |website=xero.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Australia}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1990 || || Statistics || Global {{w|municipal solid waste}} touches 1.3 billion metric tons.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> ||
 
| 1990 || || Statistics || Global {{w|municipal solid waste}} touches 1.3 billion metric tons.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1990 || || || South African waste management company {{w|SA Waste Holdings}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=SA Waste Holdings |url=https://alchetron.com/SA-Waste-Holdings |website=alchetron.com |accessdate=17 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|South Africa}}
+
| 1990 || || Organization (for-profit) || South African waste management company {{w|SA Waste Holdings}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=SA Waste Holdings |url=https://alchetron.com/SA-Waste-Holdings |website=alchetron.com |accessdate=17 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|South Africa}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1991 || || || "In {{w|Switzerland}}, the first {{w|electronic waste}} recycling system was implemented in 1991, beginning with collection of old refrigerators; over the years, all other electric and electronic devices were gradually added to the system. The established producer responsibility organization is SWICO, mainly handling information, communication, and organization technology."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bafu.admin.ch/abfall/01472/01478/?lang=en|title=Umwelt Schweiz, Electrical and electronic equipment|accessdate=2006-11-24}}</ref> The [[European Union]] implemented a similar system in February 2003, under the [[Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive]] (WEEE Directive, 2002/96/EC).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2003:037:0024:0038:EN:PDF|title=Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment}}</ref> || {{w|Switzerland}}
+
| 1991 || {{w|Electronic waste}} || Program launch || The first {{w|electronic waste}} recycling system in {{w|Switzerland}} is implemented, beginning with collection of old refrigerators. Over the years, all other electric and electronic devices would be gradually added to the system.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bafu.admin.ch/abfall/01472/01478/?lang=en|title=Umwelt Schweiz, Electrical and electronic equipment|accessdate=2006-11-24}}</ref> || {{w|Switzerland}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1992 (5 May) || || Policy || The {{w|Basel Convention}} enters into force. Many countries pass legislations enlisting waste that cannot be imported into their territory.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> ||  
 
| 1992 (5 May) || || Policy || The {{w|Basel Convention}} enters into force. Many countries pass legislations enlisting waste that cannot be imported into their territory.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1993 || || Organization || British waste management and recycling company {{w|Environmental Waste Controls}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Environmental Waste Controls |url=https://www.fasttrack.co.uk/company_profile/environmental-waste-controls/ |website=fasttrack.co.uk |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 1993 || || Organization (for-profit) || British waste management and recycling company {{w|Environmental Waste Controls}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Environmental Waste Controls |url=https://www.fasttrack.co.uk/company_profile/environmental-waste-controls/ |website=fasttrack.co.uk |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1996 || || Organization || Bangladeshi waste management and recycling company {{w|Waste Concern}} is founded.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Harrebye |first1=S. |title=Social Change and Creative Activism in the 21st Century: The Mirror Effect |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=pp8qDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA175&lpg=PA175&dq=%22in+1996%22+%22Waste+Concern%22&source=bl&ots=wMRPL_LgEp&sig=ACfU3U1bLZsV-t-VHVeKoS8rBgpJo-5m7A&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjV1tmF_8znAhVYHrkGHaEGD2gQ6AEwA3oECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22in%201996%22%20%22Waste%20Concern%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Project References |url=http://wasteconcern.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Project-list-of-WC_-April_2018.pdf |website=wasteconcern.org/ |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Bangladesh}}
+
| 1996 || || Organization (for-profit) || Bangladeshi waste management and recycling company {{w|Waste Concern}} is founded.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Harrebye |first1=S. |title=Social Change and Creative Activism in the 21st Century: The Mirror Effect |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=pp8qDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA175&lpg=PA175&dq=%22in+1996%22+%22Waste+Concern%22&source=bl&ots=wMRPL_LgEp&sig=ACfU3U1bLZsV-t-VHVeKoS8rBgpJo-5m7A&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjV1tmF_8znAhVYHrkGHaEGD2gQ6AEwA3oECAgQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22in%201996%22%20%22Waste%20Concern%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Project References |url=http://wasteconcern.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Project-list-of-WC_-April_2018.pdf |website=wasteconcern.org/ |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Bangladesh}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1997 || || Technology || {{w|Lee Rathbun}} introduces the ''Lightning Rear Steer System'', which includes an elevated, rear-facing cab for both driving the truck and operating the loader. This configuration allows the operator to follow behind haul trucks and load continuously. ||
 
| 1997 || || Technology || {{w|Lee Rathbun}} introduces the ''Lightning Rear Steer System'', which includes an elevated, rear-facing cab for both driving the truck and operating the loader. This configuration allows the operator to follow behind haul trucks and load continuously. ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 1997 || || Organization || American integrated waste services company {{w|Waste Connections}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Waste Connections Inc.: Connecting the county to recycling, composting |url=https://www.spokanejournal.com/up-close/waste-connections-inc-connecting-the-county-to-recycling-composting/ |website=spokanejournal.com |accessdate=17 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1997 || || Organization (for-profit) || American integrated waste services company {{w|Waste Connections}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Waste Connections Inc.: Connecting the county to recycling, composting |url=https://www.spokanejournal.com/up-close/waste-connections-inc-connecting-the-county-to-recycling-composting/ |website=spokanejournal.com |accessdate=17 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 1998 || || || {{w|Republic Services}} || {{w|United States}}
+
| 1998 || || Organization (for-profit) || American waste management company {{w|Republic Services}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=HOUSTON REPUBLIC SERVICES ACCIDENT LAWYERS |url=https://www.whlaw.com/truck-accidents/republic-services/ |website=whlaw.com |accessdate=17 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2000 || || Statistics || Over 5,000 cities in the United States use {{w|Pay as you throw}} programs, which charge residents based on amounts of garbage they throw away.<ref name="History of the Garbage Man"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
| 2000 || || Statistics || Over 5,000 cities in the United States use {{w|Pay as you throw}} programs, which charge residents based on amounts of garbage they throw away.<ref name="History of the Garbage Man"/> || {{w|United States}}
Line 188: Line 199:
 
| 2000 || || Policy || The Waste-Management Law is promulgated in {{w|Japan}}, requiring 3R components (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) measured in 10 industries and 69 product items, covering about 50% of the waste generated in the country.<ref name="Assessing Extended Producer  Responsibility  LAWS in JAPAN">{{cite web|title=Assessing Extended Producer  Responsibility  LAWS in JAPAN|url=http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/es072561x|website=acs.org|accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Japan}}
 
| 2000 || || Policy || The Waste-Management Law is promulgated in {{w|Japan}}, requiring 3R components (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) measured in 10 industries and 69 product items, covering about 50% of the waste generated in the country.<ref name="Assessing Extended Producer  Responsibility  LAWS in JAPAN">{{cite web|title=Assessing Extended Producer  Responsibility  LAWS in JAPAN|url=http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/es072561x|website=acs.org|accessdate=17 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Japan}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2000 || || || {{w|Waste & Resources Action Programme}}<ref>{{cite web |title=WRAP (Waste and Resources Action Programme) |url=https://www.nacro.org.au/wrap-waste-and-resources-action-programme/ |website=nacro.org.au |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 2000 || || Organization || The {{w|Waste & Resources Action Programme}} launches as a British charity. It works with businesses, individuals and communities to achieve a {{w|circular economy}}.<ref>{{cite web |title=WRAP (Waste and Resources Action Programme) |url=https://www.nacro.org.au/wrap-waste-and-resources-action-programme/ |website=nacro.org.au |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2000 || || || Advanced Disposal Services || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2000 || || Organization || American solid waste collection company Advanced Disposal Services is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=Advanced Disposal Services |url=https://finance.yahoo.com/quote/ADSW/profile/ |website=finance.yahoo.com |accessdate=17 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2001 || || Policy || The Ecological Solid Waste Management Act is enacted by the Government of the Philippines, after collapse of dumpsite during the {{w|Payatas landslide}} resulted in over 200 deaths in 2000.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|Philippines}}
 
| 2001 || || Policy || The Ecological Solid Waste Management Act is enacted by the Government of the Philippines, after collapse of dumpsite during the {{w|Payatas landslide}} resulted in over 200 deaths in 2000.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|Philippines}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2001 || || Organization || {{w|TerraCycle}} || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2001 || || Organization || Canadian waste management company {{w|Waste Services Inc.}} is founded.<ref>{{cite web |title=National Waste Services Inc |url=https://www.bloomberg.com/profile/company/0450194D:US |website=bloomberg.com |accessdate=19 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|Canada}}
|-
 
| 2001 || || || {{w|Waste Services Inc.}}
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2002 || || Statistics || Total global solid waste touches nearly 12 billion tons, out of which 11 billion tons are from industrial wastes and 1.6 billion tons are municipal solid wastes.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> ||   
 
| 2002 || || Statistics || Total global solid waste touches nearly 12 billion tons, out of which 11 billion tons are from industrial wastes and 1.6 billion tons are municipal solid wastes.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> ||   
 
|-
 
|-
| 2002 || || Organization || {{w|International Waste Working Group – IWWG}} ||
+
| 2002 || || Organization || The {{w|International Waste Working Group – IWWG}} is established "to serve as a forum for the scientific and professional community and to respond to a need for the international promotion and dissemination of new developments in the waste management industry."<ref>{{cite web |title=IWWG – International Waste Working Group |url=https://detritusjournal.com/iwwg-international-waste-working-group/ |website=detritusjournal.com |accessdate=19 February 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2003 || || || {{w|Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive}} ||
+
| 2003 || {{w|Electronic waste}} || Policy || Under the {{w|Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive}} (WEEE Directive, 2002/96/EC), the {{w|European Union}} implements a system symilar to the {{w|electronic waste}} recycling system implemented in 1991 in {{w|Switzerland}}.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2003:037:0024:0038:EN:PDF|title=Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment}}</ref> The {{w|Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive}} is put in effect as a {{w|European Community}} Directive 2002/96/EC on [[w:electronic waste|waste electrical and electronic equipment]] (WEEE). Its principal purposes are to prevent WEEE generation and, in addition, to improve the reuse, recycling, and recovery, in place of disposal, to reduce the environmental and health impacts of WEEE.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Poikela |first1=Kari |last2=Lehtinen |first2=Ulla |last3=Tanskanen |first3=Pia |last4=Román |first4=Elisabeth |last5=Keiski |first5=Riitta L. |last6=Pongrácz |first6=Eva |title=Overview of the WEEE Directive and Its Implementation in the Nordic Countries: National Realisations and Best Practices |doi=10.1155/2014/457372}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive |url=https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/partnership/?p=2078 |website=sustainabledevelopment.un.org |accessdate=22 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|European Union}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2004 || || || Study conducted at the {{w|University of Arizona}} indicates that 14 to 15% of {{w|United States}} edible food is untouched or unopened, amounting to $43 billion worth of discarded, but edible, food.<ref name="half">{{cite news | first= | last= | title=US wastes half its food | publisher= | url =http://www.foodnavigator-usa.com/news/ng.asp?id=56376-us-wastes-half | work = | pages = | accessdate = 15 August 2017 | language = }}</ref>
+
| 2004 || || Research || Study conducted at the {{w|University of Arizona}} indicates that 14 to 15% of {{w|United States}} edible food is untouched or unopened, amounting to US$43 billion worth of discarded, but edible, food.<ref name="half">{{cite news | first= | last= | title=US wastes half its food | publisher= | url =http://www.foodnavigator-usa.com/news/ng.asp?id=56376-us-wastes-half | work = | pages = | accessdate = 15 August 2017 | language = }}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2006 || || Statistics || {{w|Electronic waste}} makes up 5% of the total solid waste stream.<ref name="Solid-waste management"/> ||
+
| 2006 || {{w|Electronic waste}} || Statistics || {{w|Electronic waste}} makes up 5% of the total solid waste stream.<ref name="Solid-waste management"/> ||
 
|-  
 
|-  
 
| 2007 || || Policy || The Solid Waste Management (SWM) and Public Cleansing Act is enacted by the Government of Malaysia in order to federalize SWM and progress the nation to status of a developed country by 2020.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|Malaysia}}  
 
| 2007 || || Policy || The Solid Waste Management (SWM) and Public Cleansing Act is enacted by the Government of Malaysia in order to federalize SWM and progress the nation to status of a developed country by 2020.<ref name="Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice"/> || {{w|Malaysia}}  
 
|-
 
|-
| 2007 || || || {{w|Love Food, Hate Waste}} || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 2007 || {{w|Food waste}} || Campaign || {{w|Love Food, Hate Waste}} launches. It is the first major campaign to tackle food waste.<ref>{{cite web |title=THE GLOBAL ISSUE OF FOOD WASTE |url=https://lovefoodhatewaste.co.nz/food-waste/the-global-issue/ |website=lovefoodhatewaste.co.nz |accessdate=19 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2007 || || Policy || {{w|San Francisco}} becomes the first city in the {{w|United States}} to prohibit the distribution of plastic bags by grocery stores."<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2007 || || Policy || {{w|San Francisco}} becomes the first city in the {{w|United States}} to prohibit the distribution of plastic bags by grocery stores.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2008 || || Technology || French company Pellenc ST develops MIR (mid infrared) {{w|waste sorting}} technology, as a more efficient way to separate {{w|paper}} and {{w|cardboard}}.<ref>{{cite web|title=Waste sorting - A look at the separation and sorting techniques in today’s European marke|url=https://waste-management-world.com/a/waste-sorting-a-look-at-the-separation-and-sorting-techniques-in-todayrsquos-european-market|website=waste-management-world.com|accessdate=11 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
+
| 2008 || || {{w|Waste sorting}} || French company Pellenc ST develops MIR (mid infrared) {{w|waste sorting}} technology, as a more efficient way to separate {{w|paper}} and {{w|cardboard}}.<ref>{{cite web|title=Waste sorting - A look at the separation and sorting techniques in today’s European marke|url=https://waste-management-world.com/a/waste-sorting-a-look-at-the-separation-and-sorting-techniques-in-todayrsquos-european-market|website=waste-management-world.com|accessdate=11 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2008 || || Statistics || 389 million tonnes of {{w|municipal solid waste}} are generated in the {{w|United States}} during the year.<ref name="Waste Management and Sustainable Consumption: Reflections on Consumer Waste">{{cite book|last1=Ekström|first1=Karin M.|title=Waste Management and Sustainable Consumption: Reflections on Consumer Waste|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=GXLfBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA71&lpg=PA71&dq=%22+%09Extended+producer+responsibility%22+%22in+1999%22+%22denmark%22&source=bl&ots=ozTLeH5KZ8&sig=xZC5y1hD5Ft7XHDzKv9hrTr2hbU&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjUy4Ccm9zVAhWKjpAKHclGDmwQ6AEIRDAG#v=onepage&q=%22%20%09Extended%20producer%20responsibility%22%20%22in%201999%22%20%22denmark%22&f=false|accessdate=16 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2008 || {{w|Solid waste}} || Statistics || 389 million tons of {{w|municipal solid waste}} are generated in the {{w|United States}} during the year.<ref name="Waste Management and Sustainable Consumption: Reflections on Consumer Waste">{{cite book|last1=Ekström|first1=Karin M.|title=Waste Management and Sustainable Consumption: Reflections on Consumer Waste|url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=GXLfBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA71&lpg=PA71&dq=%22+%09Extended+producer+responsibility%22+%22in+1999%22+%22denmark%22&source=bl&ots=ozTLeH5KZ8&sig=xZC5y1hD5Ft7XHDzKv9hrTr2hbU&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjUy4Ccm9zVAhWKjpAKHclGDmwQ6AEIRDAG#v=onepage&q=%22%20%09Extended%20producer%20responsibility%22%20%22in%201999%22%20%22denmark%22&f=false|accessdate=16 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2008 || || || {{w|Waste Minimisation Act 2008}} || {{w|New Zealand}}
+
| 2008 || General || Policy || The {{w|Waste Minimisation Act 2008}} is passed in New Zealand. It encourages a reduction in the amount of waste consumers generate and dispose of in New Zealand and aims to lessen the environmental harm of waste.<ref>{{cite web |title=Waste Minimisation Act 2008 |url=https://www.mfe.govt.nz/more/acts-and-regulations/waste-minimisation-act-2008 |website=mfe.govt.nz |accessdate=17 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|New Zealand}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2008 || || || {{w|Suez Environnement}}<ref>{{cite web |title=GDF Suez merger achieved amidst controversy |url=https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/article/2008/gdf-suez-merger-achieved-amidst-controversy |website=eurofound.europa.eu |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Suez, Suez Environnement and GDF Suez |url=https://www.polarisinstitute.org/suez_article |website=polarisinstitute.org |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Suez Environnement Profile |url=https://www.psiru.org/companies/profile/suez-environnement-2008.html |website=psiru.org |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
 
| 2008 || || || {{w|Suez Environnement}}<ref>{{cite web |title=GDF Suez merger achieved amidst controversy |url=https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/article/2008/gdf-suez-merger-achieved-amidst-controversy |website=eurofound.europa.eu |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Suez, Suez Environnement and GDF Suez |url=https://www.polarisinstitute.org/suez_article |website=polarisinstitute.org |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Suez Environnement Profile |url=https://www.psiru.org/companies/profile/suez-environnement-2008.html |website=psiru.org |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|France}}
Line 228: Line 237:
 
| 2009 || || Policy || A broad waste management act is introduced in {{w|South Africa}}, empowering the environment minister to require [[w:Extended producer responsibility|EPR]] measures on a product–by–product basis.<ref name="The S tate of P lay on Extende d Producer Responsibility (EPR):  Opportunities and C hallenges">{{cite web|title=The S tate of P lay on Extende d Producer Responsibility (EPR):  Opportunities and C hallenges|url=https://www.oecd.org/environment/waste/Global%20Forum%20Tokyo%20Issues%20Paper%2030-5-2014.pdf|website=oecd.org|accessdate=16 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|South Africa}}
 
| 2009 || || Policy || A broad waste management act is introduced in {{w|South Africa}}, empowering the environment minister to require [[w:Extended producer responsibility|EPR]] measures on a product–by–product basis.<ref name="The S tate of P lay on Extende d Producer Responsibility (EPR):  Opportunities and C hallenges">{{cite web|title=The S tate of P lay on Extende d Producer Responsibility (EPR):  Opportunities and C hallenges|url=https://www.oecd.org/environment/waste/Global%20Forum%20Tokyo%20Issues%20Paper%2030-5-2014.pdf|website=oecd.org|accessdate=16 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|South Africa}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2009 || || || {{w|Freegle}}<ref>{{cite book |last1=Upham |first1=Paul |last2=Bögel |first2=Paula |last3=Johansen |first3=Katinka |title=Energy Transitions and Social Psychology: A Sociotechnical Perspective |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=MRaGDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT179&lpg=PT179&dq=2009+Freegle&source=bl&ots=of-Vk9DJTy&sig=ACfU3U3WG2SWk6JFl4q0OO8tHUx0XRTv_g&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjGioDA7MznAhU0FLkGHco8AM4Q6AEwEHoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=2009%20Freegle&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
+
| 2009 || || Organization || Online free group {{w|Freegle}} launches with aims to increase {{w|reuse}} and reduce {{w|landfill}} by offering a free {{w|Internet}}-based service where people can give away and ask for things that would otherwise be thrown away.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Upham |first1=Paul |last2=Bögel |first2=Paula |last3=Johansen |first3=Katinka |title=Energy Transitions and Social Psychology: A Sociotechnical Perspective |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=MRaGDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT179&lpg=PT179&dq=2009+Freegle&source=bl&ots=of-Vk9DJTy&sig=ACfU3U3WG2SWk6JFl4q0OO8tHUx0XRTv_g&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjGioDA7MznAhU0FLkGHco8AM4Q6AEwEHoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=2009%20Freegle&f=false}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2010 || || Program launch || {{w|Miniwaste}}<ref>{{cite web |title=MINIWASTE |url=http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/project/Projects/index.cfm?fuseaction=search.dspPage&n_proj_id=3409&docType=pdf |website=ec.europa.eu/ |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> ||
+
| 2010 || || Program launch || {{w|Miniwaste}} launches as an European project with the purpose to reduce the amount of organic waste from households in a manageable and sustainable way.<ref>{{cite web |title=MINIWASTE |url=http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/project/Projects/index.cfm?fuseaction=search.dspPage&n_proj_id=3409&docType=pdf |website=ec.europa.eu/ |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2010 || || || "plastic waste generated in coastal regions is most at risk of entering the oceans; in 2010 coastal plastic waste – generated within 50 kilometres of the coastline – amounted to 99.5 million tonnes"<ref name="Plastic Pollution"/> ||
+
| 2010 || || Statistics || Coastal plastic waste generated within 50 kilometers of the coastline amounts to 99.5 million tons.<ref name="Plastic Pollution"/> || {{w|Worldwide}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2011 || || Technology || A RESEM {{w|pyrolysis}} plant becomes operational in {{w|Texas}}, processing up to 60 tons per day. || {{w|United States}}
 
| 2011 || || Technology || A RESEM {{w|pyrolysis}} plant becomes operational in {{w|Texas}}, processing up to 60 tons per day. || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2011 || || Study || Study estimates the total of global food loss and waste to around one third of the edible parts of food produced for human consumption, amounting to about 1.3 billion tonnes per year.<ref name="Gustavson et al., p. v">Gustavsson, J, Cederberg, C & Sonesson, U, 2011, Global Food Losses and Food Waste, ''Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations''<nowiki>, Gothenburg Sweden, available at: http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2012/ph240/briggs1/docs/mb060e00.pdf</nowiki></ref> ||
+
| 2011 || || Study || Study estimates the total of global food loss and waste to around one third of the edible parts of food produced for human consumption, amounting to about 1.3 billion tons per year.<ref name="Gustavson et al., p. v">Gustavsson, J, Cederberg, C & Sonesson, U, 2011, Global Food Losses and Food Waste, ''Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations''<nowiki>, Gothenburg Sweden, available at: http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2012/ph240/briggs1/docs/mb060e00.pdf</nowiki></ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2011 || || Policy || The government of Zanzibar prohibits the use of plastic bags.<ref name="Recycling municipal waste">{{cite web|title=Recycling municipal waste|url=https://www.coursera.org/learn/solid-waste-management/lecture/CyQPX/1-7-recycling-municipal-waste|website=coursera.org|accessdate=16 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Tanzania}}
 
| 2011 || || Policy || The government of Zanzibar prohibits the use of plastic bags.<ref name="Recycling municipal waste">{{cite web|title=Recycling municipal waste|url=https://www.coursera.org/learn/solid-waste-management/lecture/CyQPX/1-7-recycling-municipal-waste|website=coursera.org|accessdate=16 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|Tanzania}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2012 || || || {{w|European Week for Waste Reduction}}<ref>{{cite web |title=European Week for Waste Reduction |url=https://www.certh.gr/2CA20C44.el.aspx |website=certh.gr |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=European Week for Waste Reduction |url=https://www.ewwr.eu/docs/press/EWWR%202012-11-15%20Press_Release_EN.pdf |website=ewwr.eu |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> ||
+
| 2012 || || Program launch || The {{w|European Week for Waste Reduction}} launches as a 3-year project supported by the LIFE+ Programme of the {{w|European Commission}} until July 2012.<ref>[http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/08/1588&format=PDF&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en European Commission - Environment Policy & Governance, LIFE + Projects 2007], 2009</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=European Week for Waste Reduction |url=https://www.certh.gr/2CA20C44.el.aspx |website=certh.gr |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=European Week for Waste Reduction |url=https://www.ewwr.eu/docs/press/EWWR%202012-11-15%20Press_Release_EN.pdf |website=ewwr.eu |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2013 || || Publication || Global initiative D-Waste publishes the first {{w|Waste Atlas}} Report. Through this report the concept of the Waste Atlas and its main features are presented to the public.<ref name="SWEEP-Net contribution to Waste Atlas">{{cite web|title=SWEEP-Net contribution to Waste Atlas|url=http://www.sweep-net.org/activities/sweep-net-contribution-waste|website=sweep-net.org|accessdate=14 August 2017}}</ref> ||
 
| 2013 || || Publication || Global initiative D-Waste publishes the first {{w|Waste Atlas}} Report. Through this report the concept of the Waste Atlas and its main features are presented to the public.<ref name="SWEEP-Net contribution to Waste Atlas">{{cite web|title=SWEEP-Net contribution to Waste Atlas|url=http://www.sweep-net.org/activities/sweep-net-contribution-waste|website=sweep-net.org|accessdate=14 August 2017}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2013 || || Organization || {{w|Composting Association}} ||
+
| 2013 || {{w|Biodegradable waste}} || Organization || The {{w|Composting Association}} is founded as a [[w:trade association|trade organization]] for the biodegradable waste management industry in the {{w|United Kingdom}}.<ref name="MAINTAINING HIGH STANDARDS">{{cite web |title=MAINTAINING HIGH STANDARDS |url=https://wrm-ltd.co.uk/about-us/accreditations/ |website=wrm-ltd.co.uk |accessdate=19 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United Kingdom}}
|-
 
| 2014 || || || "More than 15 million tons of used textile waste is generated each year in the United States, and the amount has doubled over the last 20 years. In 2014, over 16 million tons of textile waste was generated, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. Of this amount, 2.62 million tons were recycled, 3.14 million tons were combusted for energy recovery, and 10.46 million tons were sent to the landfill. An average American throws away approximately 80 pounds of used clothing per person per year. On average, nationally, it costs cities $45 per ton to dispose of old clothing. Synthetic clothing may take hundreds of years to decompose."<ref name="Textile and Garment Recycling Facts and Figures">{{cite web |title=Textile and Garment Recycling Facts and Figures |url=https://www.thebalancesmb.com/textile-recycling-facts-and-figures-2878122 |website=thebalancesmb.comd |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
| 2014 || || Statistics || A {{w|National Geographic}} study indicates that more than 30% of the {{w|food}} in the United States, valued at $162 billion annually, isn't eaten.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/10/141013-food-waste-national-security-environment-science-ngfood/|title=One-Third of Food Is Lost or Wasted: What Can Be Done|date=2014-10-13|website=news.nationalgeographic.com|accessdate=13 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
 
|-
 
|-
| 2014 || || Background || The plastic global production reaches 300 million tons. 40% by weight of world production takes place in {{w|Asia}}. {{w|North America}} and {{w|Europe}} cover each 20%.<ref name="Recycling municipal waste"/> ||
+
| 2014 || || Statistics || In the United States, an average person throws away approximately 80 pounds of used clothing per person per year. On average it costs cities US$45 per ton to dispose of old clothing.<ref name="Textile and Garment Recycling Facts and Figures">{{cite web |title=Textile and Garment Recycling Facts and Figures |url=https://www.thebalancesmb.com/textile-recycling-facts-and-figures-2878122 |website=thebalancesmb.comd |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2015 || || Policy || The first state-wide ban on plastic bags in grocery and convenience stores is enacted in {{w|California}}.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
+
| 2014 || {{w|Food waste}} || Statistics || A {{w|National Geographic}} study indicates that more than 30% of the {{w|food}} in the United States, valued at $162 billion annually, isn't eaten.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/10/141013-food-waste-national-security-environment-science-ngfood/|title=One-Third of Food Is Lost or Wasted: What Can Be Done|date=2014-10-13|website=news.nationalgeographic.com|accessdate=13 August 2017}}</ref> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2015 || || || "In 2015, an estimated 55 percent of global plastic waste was discarded, 25 percent was incinerated, and 20 percent recycled."<ref name="Plastic Pollution"/> ||
+
| 2014 || Plastic waste || Background || The plastic global production reaches 300 million tons. 40% by weight of world production takes place in {{w|Asia}}. {{w|North America}} and {{w|Europe}} cover each 20%.<ref name="Recycling municipal waste"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2015 || || Organization || {{w|Tyrelessly}}<ref>{{cite web |title=Ploughing on tyrelessly |url=https://www.thehindu.com/features/kids/Ploughing-on-tyrelessly/article14024617.ece |website=thehindu.com |accessdate=12 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|India}}
+
| 2015 || Plastic waste || Policy || The first state-wide ban on plastic bags in grocery and convenience stores is enacted in {{w|California}}.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United States}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2016 || || || The {{w|Government of India}} launches a web application to track the status of various kinds of wastes generated in the country.<ref>{{citation |title=Government launches web-based integrated waste management system |url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/tech/tech-news/Government-launches-web-based-integrated-waste-management-system/articleshow/52435265.cms |work=The Times of India |date=25 May 2016 }}</ref> || {{w|India}}
+
| 2015 || Plastic waste || Statistics || An estimated 55 percent of global plastic waste is discarded in the year, 25 percent is incinerated, and 20 percent is recycled.<ref name="Plastic Pollution"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2016 || || Study || Japanese scientists discover a species of {{w|bacteria}} called ideonella sakainesis that eats plastics commonly found in water bottles by an enzyme that turns the {{w|Polyethylene terephthalate}} to generate an intermediate chemical which is taken up by the cell, then broken down even further giving the bacteria carbon and energy to grow.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|Japan}}
+
| 2016 || General || Program launch || The {{w|Government of India}} launches a web application to track the status of various kinds of wastes generated in the country.<ref>{{citation |title=Government launches web-based integrated waste management system |url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/tech/tech-news/Government-launches-web-based-integrated-waste-management-system/articleshow/52435265.cms |work=The Times of India |date=25 May 2016 }}</ref> || {{w|India}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2016 || || || " The United Nations University reported that in 2016, the yearly worldwide accumulation of e-waste had reached 49.3 million tons. By 2021 it’s predicted this number reaches 57.5 million tons."<ref name="The Complete Guide to Recycling Electronics">{{cite web |title=The Complete Guide to Recycling Electronics |url=https://www.pandasecurity.com/mediacenter/panda-security/recycling-electronics/ |website=pandasecurity.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> ||
+
| 2016 || Plastic waste || Study || Japanese scientists discover a species of {{w|bacteria}} called ideonella sakainesis that eats plastics commonly found in water bottles by an enzyme that turns the {{w|Polyethylene terephthalate}} to generate an intermediate chemical which is taken up by the cell, then broken down even further giving the bacteria carbon and energy to grow.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|Japan}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2016 || || || "EPA released significant findings on the economic benefits of the recycling industry with an update to the national Recycling Economic Information (REI) Study in 2016. This study analyzes the numbers of jobs, wages and tax revenues attributed to recycling. The study found that in a single year, recycling and reuse activities in the United States accounted for:
+
| 2016 || {{w|Electronic waste}} || Statistics || Yearly worldwide accumulation of e-waste reaches 49.3 million tons.<ref name="The Complete Guide to Recycling Electronics">{{cite web |title=The Complete Guide to Recycling Electronics |url=https://www.pandasecurity.com/mediacenter/panda-security/recycling-electronics/ |website=pandasecurity.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> ||
 
 
757,000 jobs
 
$36.6 billion in wages; and
 
$6.7 billion in tax revenues.
 
This equates to 1.57 jobs, $76,000 in wages, and $14,101 in tax revenues for every 1,000 tons of materials recycled."<ref>{{cite web |title=Recycling Basics |url=https://www.epa.gov/recycle/recycling-basics |website=epa.gov |accessdate=9 February 2020}}</ref>
 
 
|-
 
|-
| 2017 || || Study || Research team at {{w|Stanford University}} develops a flexible and biodegradable semiconductor that could help drastically decrease {{w|electronic waste}} in the future.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United states}}
+
| 2017 || {{w|Electronic waste}} || Study || Research team at {{w|Stanford University}} develops a flexible and biodegradable semiconductor that could help drastically decrease {{w|electronic waste}} in the future.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> || {{w|United states}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2017 || || Statistics || Almost 50 million tons of {{w|electronic waste}} are thrown out, a 20% increase from 2015.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> ||
+
| 2017 || {{w|Electronic waste}} || Statistics || Almost 50 million tons of {{w|electronic waste}} are thrown out, a 20% increase from 2015.<ref name="A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2018 || || Facility || A waste-to-energy plant is built in {{w|Addis Ababa}}, Ethiopia. It is Africa’s first energy plant that converts trash into electricity.<ref>{{cite web|title=Ethiopia builds Africa’s first energy plant that converts trash into electricity|url=https://face2faceafrica.com/article/ethiopia-first-african-country-build-waste-energy-plant|website=face2faceafrica.com|accessdate=26 February 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Energy from rubbish to power Addis Ababa|url=http://www.bbc.com/news/av/business-43086997/energy-from-rubbish-to-power-addis-ababa|website=bbc.com|accessdate=26 February 2018}}</ref> || {{w|Ethiopia}}
+
| 2018 || {{w|Solid waste}} || Facility || A {{w|waste-to-energy plant}} is built in {{w|Addis Ababa}}, Ethiopia. It is Africa’s first energy plant that converts trash into electricity.<ref>{{cite web|title=Ethiopia builds Africa’s first energy plant that converts trash into electricity|url=https://face2faceafrica.com/article/ethiopia-first-african-country-build-waste-energy-plant|website=face2faceafrica.com|accessdate=26 February 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Energy from rubbish to power Addis Ababa|url=http://www.bbc.com/news/av/business-43086997/energy-from-rubbish-to-power-addis-ababa|website=bbc.com|accessdate=26 February 2018}}</ref> || {{w|Ethiopia}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2018 || || || "So the Chinese National Sword, which came into effect in February 2018 to ban imports of 24 types of waste material and set a tougher standard for contamination levels in others, has been regarded by many as a “catastrophe” that will have a “devastating impact” on global recycling."<ref>{{cite web |title=COULD THE CHINESE NATIONAL SWORD INSPIRE GLOBAL RECYCLING INNOVATION? |url=https://recycling.tomra.com/blog/chinese-national-sword-inspire-global-recycling-innovation |website=recycling.tomra.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> ". Since early 2018, China has banned many scrap materials and has not accepted others unless they meet an extremely strict contamination rate of 0.5 percent."<ref>{{cite web |title=How American Recycling Is Changing After China’s National Sword |url=https://www.citylab.com/environment/2019/04/recycling-waste-management-us-china-national-sword-change/584665/ |website=citylab.com |accessdate=11 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|China}}
+
| 2018 || General || Policy || The Chinese National Sword comes into effect in February to ban imports of 24 types of waste material and set a tougher standard for contamination levels in others. Many scrap materials are banned and others are not accepted unless they meet an extremely strict contamination rate of 0.5 percent. This policy would be regarded by many as a “catastrophe” that will have a “devastating impact” on global recycling.<ref>{{cite web |title=COULD THE CHINESE NATIONAL SWORD INSPIRE GLOBAL RECYCLING INNOVATION? |url=https://recycling.tomra.com/blog/chinese-national-sword-inspire-global-recycling-innovation |website=recycling.tomra.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=How American Recycling Is Changing After China’s National Sword |url=https://www.citylab.com/environment/2019/04/recycling-waste-management-us-china-national-sword-change/584665/ |website=citylab.com |accessdate=11 February 2020}}</ref> || {{w|China}}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2020 || || || "The amount of worldwide e-waste generation is expected to exceed 50 million tons by 2020, with an annual growth between 4% and 5%."<ref name="E-Waste Recycling Facts and Figures">{{cite web |title=E-Waste Recycling Facts and Figures |url=https://www.thebalancesmb.com/e-waste-recycling-facts-and-figures-2878189 |website=thebalancesmb.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> ||
+
| 2020 || {{w|Electronic waste}} || Statistics || The amount of worldwide e-waste generation is expected to exceed 50 million tons by this year, with an annual growth between 4% and 5%.<ref name="E-Waste Recycling Facts and Figures">{{cite web |title=E-Waste Recycling Facts and Figures |url=https://www.thebalancesmb.com/e-waste-recycling-facts-and-figures-2878189 |website=thebalancesmb.com |accessdate=4 February 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2021 || || || "These short lifespans cause a high amount of e-waste. The United Nations University reported that in 2016, the yearly worldwide accumulation of e-waste had reached 49.3 million tons. By 2021 it’s predicted this number reaches 57.5 million tons."<ref name="The Complete Guide to Recycling Electronics"/> ||
+
| 2021 || {{w|Electronic waste}} || Statistics || The {{w|United Nations University}} predicts that yearly worldwide accumulation of {{w|e-waste}} would reach 57.5 million tons by this year.<ref name="The Complete Guide to Recycling Electronics"/> ||
 
|-
 
|-
| 2025 || || || The global waste management market size is expected to reach US$484.9 billion from US$303.6 billion in 2017, rising at a CAGR of 6.0% from 2018 to 2025.<ref>{{cite web |title=Top 10 Waste Management Companies In The World |url=https://www.pulpandpaper-technology.com/articles/top-10-waste-management-companies-in-the-world |website=pulpandpaper-technology.com |accessdate=9 February 2020}}</ref> ||
+
| 2025 || General || Statistics || The global waste management market size is expected to reach US$484.9 billion from US$303.6 billion in 2017, rising at a CAGR of 6.0% from 2018 to 2025.<ref>{{cite web |title=Top 10 Waste Management Companies In The World |url=https://www.pulpandpaper-technology.com/articles/top-10-waste-management-companies-in-the-world |website=pulpandpaper-technology.com |accessdate=9 February 2020}}</ref> ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}

Latest revision as of 14:01, 22 February 2020

This is a timeline of waste management, focusing mainly on municipal solid waste and commercial waste. Human waste is treated on the timeline of sanitation. Radioactive waste is not covered on this timeline. Recycling is covered on the timeline of recycling. Rise of common items in waste, such as beverage cans, plastics, and paper, are described.

Sample questions

The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:

  • What are some important policies of historic value released by authorities throughout history?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Policy".
    • You will see early policies related to waste management, first involving solid waste and evolving later to include air pollution.
    • You will also see different policies released by several countries across the world.

Big picture

Time period Development summary
Middle Ages After the fall of Rome, waste collection and municipal sanitation begins a decline that would last throughout this era.[1]
18th – 19th centuries Industrial revolution flourishes. Industrialization along sustained urban growth in Western Europe causes a rapid deterioration in levels of sanitation and the general quality of urban life.[2] Late in the 19th century, a technological approach to solid-waste management begins to develop.[1]
20th century Municipal systems of waste disposal spring up at the turn of the century in large cities of Europe and North America. Technological advances continue during the first half of the century. Garbage grinders, compaction trucks, and pneumatic collection systems develop.[1]
1930s The Dumpster is introduced in the United States.
1940s Disposal of packaging material increases by 67% after World War II as consumerism and obsolescence become entrenched in emerging developed countries.[3]
1950s Dempster develops as a refuse handling system.[4] Rapid growth in global plastic production begins.[5]
1960s The first garbage bags meant for usage at homes appear during the decade.[6] Also, the first automated vacuum collection system is created in Sweden.[7]
1970s Smaller dumpsters are introduced, often known as wheelie bins which are also emptied mechanically. In the mid-1970s Petersen Industries introduce the first grapple truck for municipal waste collection.
1990s Garbage trucks technology changes dramatically.[8] Societies start wasting food more than ever in the developed world.[3]

Visual data

Municipal waste landfilled, incinerated, recycled and composted in the European Union. In milions of tons.
Municipal waste landfilled, incinerated, recycled and composted in the European Union. In kg per capita.

Full timeline

Year Type of waste Event type Details
3000 BC Solid waste A landfill is developed in Knossos, Crete, with large holes dug for refuse. Garbage is dumped and filled with dirt at various levels.[8] Greece
2100 BC System The elite section in the city of Heraclopolis maintains a waste collection and disposal system.[3] Egypt
500 BC Solid waste Policy A municipal dump is organized in Athens. Regulations require waste to be dumped at least a mile from the city limits.[3][9] Greece
1350 Solid waste Policy Britain makes a law mandating clean front yards. However, the law is not taken too seriously.[3] United Kingdom
1357 Solid waste Policy The city authorities of London forbid throwing rubbish, earth, gravel or dung into the Thames.[3] United Kingdom
1407 Solid waste Policy Britain passes a law declaring waste should be stored inside till rakers to remove it.[3] United Kingdom
1551 Paper waste German papermaker Andreas Bernhart begins placing his paper in wrappers labeled with his name and address. This is the first recorded use of packaging.[10] Germany
1714 Carrion, biological waste Policy Every city in England is required to have an official scavenger.[1] United Kingdom
1751 General English official Corbyn Morris in London proposes a uniform public management for cleaning the city in order to preserve the health of the people.[11] United Kingdom
1757 General Service The first municipal street–cleaning service in the United States is started in Philadelphia by Benjamin Franklin. During the same time period, American homes begin digging solid waste pits instead of throwing it out of doors and windows.[3] United States
1786 General Service A proper waste collection service is first instigated in the Cape Colony.[3] South Africa
1842 General Publication British Social reformer, Edwin Chadwick publishes report The Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population in which he argues for the importance of adequate waste removal and management facilities to improve the health and wellbeing of the city's population.[12] United Kingdom
1853 General Organization (for-profit) Veolia is founded in France. It operates water management, waste management and energy services.[13][14] France
1855 Plastic waste Background The first human–made plastic is invented.[3] A year layer, the plastic material is patented by Alexander Parkes, in Birmingham, England.[15] United Kingdom
1869 Plastic waste Background American John Hyatt starts producing "celluloid", thus giving birth to the plastics industry.[10] United States
1874 General Publication Edwin Chadwick writes his Report of an Inquiry into the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain, linking disease to filthy environmental conditions.[3]
1874 Solid waste Facility The first incinerator is built in Nottingham by Manlove, Alliott & Co. Ltd..[16] This would mark a significant development in solid-waste treatment and disposal practices in the country.[1] United Kingdom
1884 Solid waste System Eugène Poubelle introduces the first integrated kerbside collection and recycling system, requiring residents to separate their waste into perishable items, paper and cloth, and crockery and shells. "He also established rules for how private collectors and city workers should cooperate and he developed standard dimensions for refuse containers: his name in France is now synonymous with the garbage can. Under Poubelle, food waste and other organics collected in Paris were transported to nearby Saint Ouen where they were composted. This continued well into the 20th century when plastics began to contaminate the waste stream."[17][9] France
1885 Solid waste Facility A waste incinerator is built in Governors Island, New York.[3] United States
1895 General System New York City becomes the first U.S. city with public-sector garbage management.[18] United States
1896 General Organization Cory Environmental is founded in England. It provides services in the collection, recycling and disposal of waste.[19][20] United Kingdom
1898 General Organization (non-profit) The Chartered Institution of Wastes Management is founded. It is a professional body for the waste management industry in the United Kingdom and other countries.[21] United Kingdom
1907 Plastic waste Background Bakelite is invented as the first synthetic plastic.[22] "The first synthetic plastic — Bakelite — was produced in 1907, marking the beginning of the global plastics industry."[5]
1912 General Organization (for-profit) British waste management Biffa is founded.[23][24][25] United Kingdom
1916 General Technology Cities in the United States begin switching from horse–drawn to motorized waste collection equipment.[3] United States
1920s Solid waste Technology A dumping lever mechanism is introduced for garbage removal trucks.[26] United Kingdom
1920s General Infrastructure Using wetlands for disposal of waste becomes popular in the United States.[3] United States
1920s Solid waste Technology Mechanical transport for solid waste management is introduced in South Africa.[3] South Africa
1930 Solid waste Policy The king of Patiala in India converts cars into garbage vehicles.[3] India
1934 General Policy The United States supreme court bans municipal waste dumping into oceans.[3] United States
1934 General Organization (for-profit) German Recycling and waste management company Remondis is founded.[27] Germany
1935 Scrap Background The can of bear is first commercialized.[10] United States
1937 Solid waste Technology American businessman George Dempster invents the Dempster-Dumpster system in which wheeled waste containers are mechanically tipped into the truck. His containers become known as Dumpsters, entering the word to the language.[28][29] United States
1938 Solid waste Technology The Garwood Load Packer becomes the first truck to incorporate a hydraulic compactor.[30] "In 1938, the Garwood Load Packer revolutionized the industry when the notion of including a compactor in the truck was implemented. The first primitive compactor could double a truck's capacity. This was made possible by use of a hydraulic press which compacted the contents of the truck periodically."
1938 Solid waste Waste sorting American phycisist Chester Carlson develops the Xerography process.[10] United States
1942 Technology Low density polyethylene is invented.[3]
1944 Background Dow Chemical Company develops styrophoam.[10] United States
1949 Statistics Over 2500 Garwood Load Packers are in use across the United States and Canada.[30] United States, Canada
1950 Technology Canadian inventor Harry Wasylyk from Winnipeg invents the first garbage bag.[6][3] Canada
1952 Technology American body builder Vincen Bowles, develops and sells a fixed-bucket front loader. The device would be subsequently modified to service detachable containers.[4] United States
1953 Organization Keep America Beautiful is formed in New York City with the purpose to bring public and private sectors together to develop and promote a national cleanliness ethic.[31][32][33] United States
1955 Technology The Dempster Dumpmaster is introduced as the first front loader.[4]
1956 Policy The Clean Air Act is passed in Britain, replacing solid fuel for heating house by with gas and electricity.[3] United Kingdom
1960 Organization Waste management company Covanta Energy is founded.[34][35] United States
1960s Technology The first patents for residential garbage compactors are filed in the United States.[36] United States
1960–1965 Technology The modern lightweight shopping bag is invented by Swedish engineer Sten Gustaf Thulin. This simple, strong bag with a high load carrying capacity is patented in 1965 by Celloplast, a producer of cellulose film based in Norrkoping.[37] Sweden
1961 Technology The first vacuum waste system in the world is installed at Sollefteå Hospital in Sollefteå, Sweden.[38] Sweden
1962 General Organization (non-profit) The United States National Waste & Recycling Association is founded.[39][40][41] United States
1965 Technology The first vacuum system for household waste is installed in the new residential district of Ör-Hallonbergen, Sweden.[38] Sweden
1968 Organization (for-profit) American company Waste Management is founded.[42][43] United States
1968 Organization (for-profit) American waste management company Browning-Ferris Industries is founded. It would go bankrupt in 1999.[44] United States
1970 Organization (non-profit) The International Solid Waste Association is founded. It is a global association, "working in the public interest and is the only worldwide association promoting sustainable, comprehensive and professional waste management".[45][46][47]
1970 Organization (for-profit) American company Waste Industries is founded. It provides non-hazardous solid waste and recycling collection, transfer, and disposal.[48] United States
1972 Organization The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment is held in Stockholm, Sweden. This event is considered to mark a turning point in waste management.[3] Sweden
1973 Study (discipline) Garbology, the study of modern refuse and trash as well as the use of trash cans, compactors and various types of trash can liners, is started as an academic discipline at the University of Arizona, originating from an idea of two students for a class project.[49] United States
1975 Policy The waste hierarchy concept is introduced for the first time as a waste policy by The European Union’s Waste Framework Directive, emphasizing the importance of waste minimization, and the protection of the environment and human health, as a priority. Following the this Directive, the European Union policy and legislation would further adapt to the principles of the waste hierarchy.[50]
1975 Organization (for-profit) Australian waste management company Cleanaway is founded.[51][52] Australia
1975 Organization (for-profit) American waste management company Casella Waste Systems is founded.[53][54] United States
1976 Policy The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is enacted in the United States to close open dumps, create standards for landfills, incinerators and the disposal of hazardous waste. It is the principal federal law in the country governing the disposal of solid waste and hazardous waste.[55][56] United States
1976 Organization Canadian waste-to-energy technology and engineering services company Himark BioGas is founded.[57] Canada
1977 Organization (non-profit) American environmental advocacy organization Californians Against Waste is founded.[58][59] United States
1980 Organization (for-profit) Clean Harbors is founded. It provides hazardous waste disposal for companies.[60][61] United States
1988 Organization (for-profit) Allied Waste Industries is founded. Its major business is waste collection and recycling.[62] United States
1989 (March 22) Policy The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal is adopted to stop movement of hazardous waste from one country to other country. 105 states sign the Final Act of the convention. [3] Switzerland
1989 Organization (non-profit) Non-profit Australian environmental conservation organization Clean Up Australia is founded.[63] Australia
1990 Statistics Global municipal solid waste touches 1.3 billion metric tons.[3]
1990 Organization (for-profit) South African waste management company SA Waste Holdings is founded.[64] South Africa
1991 Electronic waste Program launch The first electronic waste recycling system in Switzerland is implemented, beginning with collection of old refrigerators. Over the years, all other electric and electronic devices would be gradually added to the system.[65] Switzerland
1992 (5 May) Policy The Basel Convention enters into force. Many countries pass legislations enlisting waste that cannot be imported into their territory.[3]
1993 Organization (for-profit) British waste management and recycling company Environmental Waste Controls is founded.[66] United Kingdom
1996 Organization (for-profit) Bangladeshi waste management and recycling company Waste Concern is founded.[67][68] Bangladesh
1997 Technology Lee Rathbun introduces the Lightning Rear Steer System, which includes an elevated, rear-facing cab for both driving the truck and operating the loader. This configuration allows the operator to follow behind haul trucks and load continuously.
1997 Organization (for-profit) American integrated waste services company Waste Connections is founded.[69] United States
1998 Organization (for-profit) American waste management company Republic Services is founded.[70] United States
2000 Statistics Over 5,000 cities in the United States use Pay as you throw programs, which charge residents based on amounts of garbage they throw away.[8] United States
2000 Study The United States Environmental Protection Agency confirms a link between global warming and waste, showing that reducing garbage and recycling cuts down greenhouse gas emissions.[56] United Sattes
2000 Policy The Waste-Management Law is promulgated in Japan, requiring 3R components (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) measured in 10 industries and 69 product items, covering about 50% of the waste generated in the country.[71] Japan
2000 Organization The Waste & Resources Action Programme launches as a British charity. It works with businesses, individuals and communities to achieve a circular economy.[72] United Kingdom
2000 Organization American solid waste collection company Advanced Disposal Services is founded.[73] United States
2001 Policy The Ecological Solid Waste Management Act is enacted by the Government of the Philippines, after collapse of dumpsite during the Payatas landslide resulted in over 200 deaths in 2000.[3] Philippines
2001 Organization Canadian waste management company Waste Services Inc. is founded.[74] Canada
2002 Statistics Total global solid waste touches nearly 12 billion tons, out of which 11 billion tons are from industrial wastes and 1.6 billion tons are municipal solid wastes.[3]
2002 Organization The International Waste Working Group – IWWG is established "to serve as a forum for the scientific and professional community and to respond to a need for the international promotion and dissemination of new developments in the waste management industry."[75]
2003 Electronic waste Policy Under the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE Directive, 2002/96/EC), the European Union implements a system symilar to the electronic waste recycling system implemented in 1991 in Switzerland.[76] The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive is put in effect as a European Community Directive 2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Its principal purposes are to prevent WEEE generation and, in addition, to improve the reuse, recycling, and recovery, in place of disposal, to reduce the environmental and health impacts of WEEE.[77][78] European Union
2004 Research Study conducted at the University of Arizona indicates that 14 to 15% of United States edible food is untouched or unopened, amounting to US$43 billion worth of discarded, but edible, food.[79] United States
2006 Electronic waste Statistics Electronic waste makes up 5% of the total solid waste stream.[1]
2007 Policy The Solid Waste Management (SWM) and Public Cleansing Act is enacted by the Government of Malaysia in order to federalize SWM and progress the nation to status of a developed country by 2020.[3] Malaysia
2007 Food waste Campaign Love Food, Hate Waste launches. It is the first major campaign to tackle food waste.[80] United Kingdom
2007 Policy San Francisco becomes the first city in the United States to prohibit the distribution of plastic bags by grocery stores.[56] United States
2008 Waste sorting French company Pellenc ST develops MIR (mid infrared) waste sorting technology, as a more efficient way to separate paper and cardboard.[81] France
2008 Solid waste Statistics 389 million tons of municipal solid waste are generated in the United States during the year.[82] United States
2008 General Policy The Waste Minimisation Act 2008 is passed in New Zealand. It encourages a reduction in the amount of waste consumers generate and dispose of in New Zealand and aims to lessen the environmental harm of waste.[83] New Zealand
2008 Suez Environnement[84][85][86] France
2008 Organization Stop Wasting Food (In Danish Stop Spild af Mad) is founded by Russo-Danish activist Selina Juul as a consumer organization that works for the reduction of food waste in society. [87] Due to this movement, Denmark would achieve a national reduction in food waste by 25% in 5 years (2010–2015).[88][89][90][91][92][93] Denmark
2009 Statistics Study estimates that from 20% to 40% of fruit and vegetables in the United Kingdom are rejected before they even reach retailers, as a result of high cosmetic standards.[94] United Kingdom
2009 Policy A broad waste management act is introduced in South Africa, empowering the environment minister to require EPR measures on a product–by–product basis.[95] South Africa
2009 Organization Online free group Freegle launches with aims to increase reuse and reduce landfill by offering a free Internet-based service where people can give away and ask for things that would otherwise be thrown away.[96] United Kingdom
2010 Program launch Miniwaste launches as an European project with the purpose to reduce the amount of organic waste from households in a manageable and sustainable way.[97]
2010 Statistics Coastal plastic waste generated within 50 kilometers of the coastline amounts to 99.5 million tons.[5] Worldwide
2011 Technology A RESEM pyrolysis plant becomes operational in Texas, processing up to 60 tons per day. United States
2011 Study Study estimates the total of global food loss and waste to around one third of the edible parts of food produced for human consumption, amounting to about 1.3 billion tons per year.[98]
2011 Policy The government of Zanzibar prohibits the use of plastic bags.[99] Tanzania
2012 Program launch The European Week for Waste Reduction launches as a 3-year project supported by the LIFE+ Programme of the European Commission until July 2012.[100][101][102]
2013 Publication Global initiative D-Waste publishes the first Waste Atlas Report. Through this report the concept of the Waste Atlas and its main features are presented to the public.[103]
2013 Biodegradable waste Organization The Composting Association is founded as a trade organization for the biodegradable waste management industry in the United Kingdom.[104] United Kingdom
2014 Statistics In the United States, an average person throws away approximately 80 pounds of used clothing per person per year. On average it costs cities US$45 per ton to dispose of old clothing.[105] United States
2014 Food waste Statistics A National Geographic study indicates that more than 30% of the food in the United States, valued at $162 billion annually, isn't eaten.[106] United States
2014 Plastic waste Background The plastic global production reaches 300 million tons. 40% by weight of world production takes place in Asia. North America and Europe cover each 20%.[99]
2015 Plastic waste Policy The first state-wide ban on plastic bags in grocery and convenience stores is enacted in California.[56] United States
2015 Plastic waste Statistics An estimated 55 percent of global plastic waste is discarded in the year, 25 percent is incinerated, and 20 percent is recycled.[5]
2016 General Program launch The Government of India launches a web application to track the status of various kinds of wastes generated in the country.[107] India
2016 Plastic waste Study Japanese scientists discover a species of bacteria called ideonella sakainesis that eats plastics commonly found in water bottles by an enzyme that turns the Polyethylene terephthalate to generate an intermediate chemical which is taken up by the cell, then broken down even further giving the bacteria carbon and energy to grow.[56] Japan
2016 Electronic waste Statistics Yearly worldwide accumulation of e-waste reaches 49.3 million tons.[108]
2017 Electronic waste Study Research team at Stanford University develops a flexible and biodegradable semiconductor that could help drastically decrease electronic waste in the future.[56] United states
2017 Electronic waste Statistics Almost 50 million tons of electronic waste are thrown out, a 20% increase from 2015.[56]
2018 Solid waste Facility A waste-to-energy plant is built in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. It is Africa’s first energy plant that converts trash into electricity.[109][110] Ethiopia
2018 General Policy The Chinese National Sword comes into effect in February to ban imports of 24 types of waste material and set a tougher standard for contamination levels in others. Many scrap materials are banned and others are not accepted unless they meet an extremely strict contamination rate of 0.5 percent. This policy would be regarded by many as a “catastrophe” that will have a “devastating impact” on global recycling.[111][112] China
2020 Electronic waste Statistics The amount of worldwide e-waste generation is expected to exceed 50 million tons by this year, with an annual growth between 4% and 5%.[113]
2021 Electronic waste Statistics The United Nations University predicts that yearly worldwide accumulation of e-waste would reach 57.5 million tons by this year.[108]
2025 General Statistics The global waste management market size is expected to reach US$484.9 billion from US$303.6 billion in 2017, rising at a CAGR of 6.0% from 2018 to 2025.[114]

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See also

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