Timeline of waste management

From Timelines
Revision as of 18:43, 27 May 2020 by Sebastian (talk | contribs)
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a timeline of waste management, focusing mainly on municipal solid waste and commercial waste. Human waste and sewage are covered on the timeline of sanitation. Radioactive waste is not covered on this timeline. Recycling is covered on the timeline of recycling. Rise of common items in waste, such as beverage cans, plastics, and paper, are described.

Sample questions

The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:

  • What are some important policies of historic value released by authorities throughout history?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Policy".
    • You will see early policies related to waste management, first involving solid waste and evolving later to include air pollution.
    • You will also see different policies released by several countries across the world.
  • What are some significant events related to the introduction of waste collection and management?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "System".
    • You will see the introduction of systems like kerbside collection, and other mostly municipal initiatives.
  • What are some milestone techonolgies and notable device introductions and improvements in the waste management industry?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Technology".
    • You will see inventions like the garbage disposal unit in the United States, as well as others like the first garbage trucks, etc.
  • What are some notable materials most contributing to the global production of waste?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Waste source emergence".
    • You will see the emergence of several plastic products, as well as other highly wasted materials like packaging.
  • What are some notable companies operating in the waste management industry?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Organization (for-profit)".
  • What are some notable non-profit organizations concerning waste management?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Organization (non-profit)".
  • You will see some important organizations, like the International Solid Waste Association.
  • What are some notable events related to waste picking?.
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Waste picking".
    • You will see statistics, organizations, publications, conferences and research on this practice, mainly in the developing world.
  • What are some notable incidents involving waste disposal.
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Waste disposal incident".
    • You will see some notable controversial events as well as some tragic events involving waste disposal.
  • What are some significant numbers reflecting the importance of waste management industry and the weight of waste production?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Statistics".

Big picture

Summary by waste source

Time period Development summary
100 AD–onward Large scale manufacturing of glass begins.
1551–onward Paper packaging is introduced as a waste source.
1835–onward Electronic devices are introduced. Adding electronic waste as a waste source.
1855–onward Plastic is introduced as a waste source.
1957–onward Space debris accumulate in Earth orbit since the first launch of an artificial satellite.

Summary by century/era

Time period Development summary
Middle Ages After the fall of Rome, waste collection and municipal sanitation begins a decline that would last throughout this era.[1]
18th century The First Industrial revolution starts in this century. During this period, products develop a linear lifecycle (raw materials are transformed them and then discarded).[2]
19th century The Second Industrial Revolution starts in this century. Petroleum refining begins, with emergence of its derivatives, including plastic. The first integrated kerbside collection and recycling system is introduced in 1884 in France. Industrialization along sustained urban growth in Western Europe causes a rapid deterioration in levels of sanitation and the general quality of urban life.[3] Late in the century, a technological approach to solid-waste management begins to develop.[1]
20th century Municipal systems of waste disposal spring up at the turn of the century in large cities of Europe and North America. Technological advances continue during the first half of the century. Garbage grinders, compaction trucks, and pneumatic collection systems develop.[1] The Third Industrial Revolution brings a shift from mechanical and analogue electronic technology to digital electronics. This marks the beginning of the history of electronic waste disposal.[4]

Summary by decade

Time period Development summary
1900s The first synthetic plastic is introduced, marking the beginning of the global plastics industry.
1910s Cities in the United States begin switching from horse–drawn to motorized waste collection equipment.
1920s A dumping lever mechanism is introduced for garbage removal trucks. The garbage disposal unit is invented in the United States.
1930s The Dumpster is introduced in the United States.
1940s Disposal of packaging material increases by 67% after World War II as consumerism and obsolescence become entrenched in emerging developed countries.[5]
1950s Dempster develops as a refuse handling system.[6] Rapid growth in global plastic production begins.[7]
1960s The first garbage bags meant for usage at homes appear during the decade.[8] Also, the first automated vacuum collection system is created in Sweden.[9]
1970s Smaller dumpsters are introduced, often known as wheelie bins which are also emptied mechanically. In the mid-1970s Petersen Industries introduce the first grapple truck for municipal waste collection.
1990s Garbage trucks technology changes dramatically.[10] Societies start wasting food more than ever in the developed world.[5]

Visual data

Municipal waste landfilled, incinerated, recycled and composted in the European Union. In milions of tons.
Municipal waste landfilled, incinerated, recycled and composted in the European Union. In kg per capita.

Full timeline

Year Type of waste Event type Details
3000 BC Solid waste A landfill is developed in Knossos, Crete, with large holes dug for refuse. Garbage is dumped and filled with dirt at various levels.[10] Greece
2100 BC System The elite section in the city of Heraclopolis maintains a waste collection and disposal system.[5] Egypt
500 BC Solid waste Policy A municipal dump is organized in Athens. Regulations require waste to be dumped at least a mile from the city limits.[5][11] Greece
100 AD Glass waste Waste source emergence Glass cost rapidly declines. Large scale manufacturing, primarily in Alexandria, results in the establishment of glass as a commonly available material in the Roman world.[12][13] Roman Empire region
1350 Solid waste Policy Britain makes a law mandating clean front yards. However, the law is not taken too seriously.[5] United Kingdom
1357 Solid waste Policy The city authorities of London forbid throwing rubbish, earth, gravel or dung into the Thames.[5] United Kingdom
1407 Solid waste Policy Britain passes a law declaring waste should be stored inside till rakers to remove it.[5] United Kingdom
1551 Paper waste Waste source emergence German papermaker Andreas Bernhart begins placing his paper in wrappers labeled with his name and address. This is the first recorded use of packaging.[14] Germany
1714 Carrion, biological waste Policy Every city in England is required to have an official scavenger.[1] United Kingdom
1751 Municipal solid waste System English official Corbyn Morris in London proposes a uniform public management for cleaning the city in order to preserve the health of the people.[15] United Kingdom
1757 Municipal solid waste Service The first municipal street–cleaning service in the United States is started in Philadelphia by Benjamin Franklin. During the same time period, American homes begin digging solid waste pits instead of throwing it out of doors and windows.[5] United States
1786 Municipal solid waste Service A proper waste collection service is first instigated in the Cape Colony.[5] South Africa
1835 Electronic waste Waste source emergence American scientist Joseph Henry invents the relay, which is considered the first electronic device ever invented.[16] United States
1842 General Publication British Social reformer, Edwin Chadwick publishes report The Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population in which he argues for the importance of adequate waste removal and management facilities to improve the health and wellbeing of the city's population.[17] United Kingdom
1848 Petroleum industry waste Waste source emergence The petroleum industry, both production and refining, begins with the first oil works in Scotland, when chemist James Young sets up a tiny business refining the crude oil. This marks the beginning of petroleum derivatives.[18] United Kingdom
1853 General Organization (for-profit) Veolia is founded in France. It operates water management, waste management and energy services.[19][20] France
1855 Plastic waste Waste source emergence The first human–made plastic is invented.[5] A year layer, the plastic material is patented by Alexander Parkes, in Birmingham, England.[21] United Kingdom
1869 Plastic waste Waste source emergence American John Hyatt starts producing "celluloid", thus giving birth to the plastics industry.[14] United States
1874 General Publication Edwin Chadwick writes his Report of an Inquiry into the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain, linking disease to filthy environmental conditions.[5]
1874 Solid waste Facility Waste-to-energy. The first incinerator is built in Nottingham by Manlove, Alliott & Co. Ltd.[22] This would mark a significant development in solid-waste treatment and disposal practices in the country.[1] United Kingdom
1875 Municipal solid waste System The first household rubbish bins are introduced in Britain to create a regulated system of collection.[23] United Kingdom
1884 Municipal solid waste System Eugène Poubelle introduces the first integrated kerbside collection and recycling system, requiring residents to separate their waste into perishable items, paper and cloth, and crockery and shells. Poubelle also establishes rules for how private collectors and city workers should cooperate and develops standard dimensions for refuse containers. His name in France is now synonymous with the garbage can.[24][11] France
1885 Solid waste Facility The first waste incinerator in the United States is built in Governors Island, New York.[5][25] United States
1895 Municipal solid waste System New York City becomes the first U.S. city with public-sector garbage management.[26] United States
1896 Solid waste Organization Cory Environmental is founded in England. It provides services in the collection, recycling and disposal of waste.[27][28] United Kingdom
1897 Municipal solid waste Technology The Chiswick District Council from the Thornycroft Stea Wagon and Carriage Company orders some of the first self-propelled garbage trucks, described as a steam motor tip-car, a new design of body specific for "the collection of dust and house refuse".[29] United Kingdom
1898 General Organization (non-profit) The Chartered Institution of Wastes Management is founded. It is a professional body for the waste management industry in the United Kingdom and other countries.[30] United Kingdom
1907 Plastic waste Waste source emergence Bakelite is invented as the first synthetic plastic.[31] This marks the beginning of the global plastics industry.[7]
1912 General Organization (for-profit) British waste management company Biffa is founded.[32][33][34] United Kingdom
1916 General Technology Cities in the United States begin switching from horse–drawn to motorized waste collection equipment.[5] United States
1927 Solid waste Technology The garbage disposal unit is invented by John W. Hammes, an architect in Wisconsin.[35] United States
1920s Municipal solid waste Technology A dumping lever mechanism is introduced for garbage removal trucks.[36] United Kingdom
1920s General Infrastructure Using wetlands for disposal of waste becomes popular in the United States.[5] United States
1920s Solid waste Technology Mechanical transport for solid waste management is introduced in South Africa.[5] South Africa
1930 Solid waste Policy The king of Patiala in India converts cars into garbage vehicles.[5] India
1934 General Policy The United States supreme court bans municipal waste dumping into oceans.[5] United States
1934 General Organization (for-profit) German Recycling and waste management company Remondis is founded.[37] Germany
1935 Scrap Waste source emergence The can of bear is first commercialized.[14] United States
1937 Solid waste Technology American businessman George Dempster invents the Dempster-Dumpster system in which wheeled waste containers are mechanically tipped into the truck. His containers become known as Dumpsters, entering the word to the language.[38][39] United States
1938 Solid waste Technology The Garwood Load Packer becomes the first truck to incorporate a hydraulic compactor.[40] "In 1938, the Garwood Load Packer revolutionized the industry when the notion of including a compactor in the truck was implemented. The first primitive compactor could double a truck's capacity. This was made possible by use of a hydraulic press which compacted the contents of the truck periodically."
1938 Solid waste Waste sorting American phycisist Chester Carlson develops the Xerography process.[14] United States
1942 Solid waste Waste source emergence Low-density polyethylene is invented.[5]
1944 Solid waste Waste source emergence Dow Chemical Company develops styrophoam.[14] United States
1949 Municipal solid waste Statistics Over 2500 Garwood Load Packers are in use across the United States and Canada.[40] United States, Canada
1950 Solid waste Technology Canadian inventor Harry Wasylyk from Winnipeg invents the first garbage bag.[8][5] Canada
1952 Solid waste Technology American body builder Vincen Bowles, develops and sells a fixed-bucket front loader. The device would be subsequently modified to service detachable containers.[6] United States
1953 General Organization (non-profit) Keep America Beautiful is formed in New York City with the purpose to bring public and private sectors together to develop and promote a national cleanliness ethic.[41][42][43] United States
1955 Solid waste Technology The Dempster Dumpmaster is introduced as the first front loader.[6]
1956 Solid waste Policy The Clean Air Act is passed in Britain, replacing solid fuel for heating house by with gas and electricity.[5] United Kingdom
1956 General Publication The Journal of Environmental Engineering launches. Papers focus on engineering methods, impacts of wastewater collection and treatment; watershed contamination; environmental biology; nonpoint-source pollution on watersheds; air pollution and acid deposition; solid waste management.[44] United States
1957 Space debris Waste source emergence Space debris begin to accumulate in Earth orbit immediately with the first launch of an artificial satellite into orbit in 1957.[45]
1957 Hazardous waste Policy (international law) The European Agreement Concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road i done at Geneva. The key article of the agreement, which say that apart from some excessively dangerous goods, other dangerous goods may be carried internationally in road vehicles subject to compliance with: (i) the conditions laid down in Annex A for the goods in question, in particular as regards their packaging and labelling; and (II) the conditions laid down in Annex B, in particular as regards the construction, equipment and operation of the vehicle carrying the goods in question.[46] Switzerland
1960 Solid waste Organization (for-profit) Waste management company Covanta Energy is founded.[47][48] United States
1960s Municipal solid waste Technology The first patents for residential garbage compactors are filed in the United States.[49] United States
1960–1965 Solid waste Waste source emergence The modern lightweight shopping bag is invented by Swedish engineer Sten Gustaf Thulin. This simple, strong bag with a high load carrying capacity is patented in 1965 by Celloplast, a producer of cellulose film based in Norrkoping.[50] Sweden
1961 Solid waste Organization (non-profit) The Solid Waste Association of North America is founded.[51] It is a professional association in the solid waste field with a "mission to advance the industry and professional practice from solid waste management to resource management through a shared emphasis on education, advocacy, and research".[52] United States
1961 Solid waste Technology The first vacuum waste system in the world is installed at Sollefteå Hospital in Sollefteå, Sweden.[53] Sweden
1962 General Organization (non-profit) The United States National Waste & Recycling Association is founded.[54][55][56] United States
1965 Solid waste Technology The first vacuum system for household waste is installed in the new residential district of Ör-Hallonbergen, Sweden.[53] Sweden
1966 Coal waste Waste disposal incident The Aberfan disaster occurs in Aberfan, Wales, when 300,000 cubic yards of coal sludge buries a primary school, and 19 houses. Hundreds of people try to dig the school children, teachers, and people who lived nearby, from out of the wreckage, but 144 people die.[57] United Kingdom
1968 General Organization (for-profit) American company Waste Management is founded.[58][59] United States
1968 Organization (for-profit) American waste management company Browning-Ferris Industries is founded. It would go bankrupt in 1999.[60] United States
1969 Municipal solid waste Technology Garbage truck. The city of Scottsdale, Arizona introduces the world's first automated side loader. The new truck can collect 300 gallon containers in 30 second cycles, without the driver exiting the cab.[61] United States
1970 Solid waste Organization (non-profit) The International Solid Waste Association is founded. It is a global association, "working in the public interest and is the only worldwide association promoting sustainable, comprehensive and professional waste management".[62][63][64]
1970 Solid waste Organization (for-profit) American company Waste Industries is founded. It provides non-hazardous solid waste and recycling collection, transfer, and disposal.[65] United States
1972 Conference The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment is held in Stockholm, Sweden. Focused on international environmental issues, this event is considered to mark a turning point in waste management.[5][66] Sweden
1972 General Policy Ocean Dumping Act is passed by the United States Congress. The Act has two essential aims: to regulate intentional ocean disposal of materials, and to authorize any related research.[67] United States
1972 (February 15) Marine debris Policy The Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft is signed in Oslo as an international agreement designed to control the dumping of harmful substances from ships and aircraft into the sea.[68] Norway
1972 (February 26) Coal waste Waste disposal incident The Buffalo Creek Flood disaster occurs when a coal slurry impoundment dam, located on a hillside in Logan County, West Virginia, bursts and results in a flood unleashing approximately 500,000 cubic meters of black waste water upon the residents of sixteen coal towns along Buffalo Creek Hollow. Out of a population of 5,000 people, 125 are killed, 1,121 are injured, and over 4,000 are left homeless. Five hundred and seven houses were destroyed, in addition to forty-four mobile homes and 30 businesses.[69][70][71] United States
1973 General Research (discipline) Garbology, the study of modern refuse and trash as well as the use of trash cans, compactors and various types of trash can liners, is started as an academic discipline at the University of Arizona, originating from an idea of two students for a class project.[72] United States
1973 Solid waste Illegal dumping A 7-million-tire fire in Virginia burns in an unregulated tire dump for almost 9 months, polluting nearby water sources.[73] United States
1975 General Policy The Waste Framework Directive is adopted by the European Union with the purpose to lay the basis to turn the EU into a recycling society.[74] The Waste Framework Directive introduces for the first time the elements of the waste hierarchy concept into European waste policy.[75] The waste hierarchy concept is introduced for the first time as a waste policy by the WFD, emphasizing the importance of waste minimization, and the protection of the environment and human health, as a priority. Following the this Directive, the European Union policy and legislation would further adapt to the principles of the waste hierarchy.[75] European Union
1975 General Organization (for-profit) Australian waste management company Cleanaway is founded.[76][77] Australia
1975 Solid waste Organization (for-profit) American waste management company Casella Waste Systems is founded.[78][79] United States
1976 Hazardous waste Policy The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is enacted in the United States to close open dumps, create standards for landfills, incinerators and the disposal of hazardous waste. It is the principal federal law in the country governing the disposal of solid waste and hazardous waste.[80][81] United States
1976 General Organization (for profit) Canadian waste-to-energy technology and engineering services company Himark BioGas is founded.[82] Canada
1977 General Organization (non-profit) American environmental advocacy organization Californians Against Waste is founded.[83][84] United States
1979 Biological waste Publication Bioresource Technology launches as a scientific journal. It covers all areas concerning biomass, biological waste treatment, bioenergy, biotransformations and bioresource systems analysis, and technologies associated with conversion or production.[85]
1980 Hazardous waste Organization (for-profit) Clean Harbors is founded in the United States. It provides hazardous waste disposal for companies.[86][87][88] United States
1981 Solid waste Waste picking In Port Said, Egypt, a 1981 study shows an infant mortality rate of 1/3 among waste pickers (one out of three babies dies before reaching age one).[89] Egypt
1982 General Organization (for-profit) Waste Management inc becomes the world’s largest waste disposal company, with more than US$1 billion in sales.[90] United States
1983 Electronic waste Waste disposal incident The Atari video game burial is undertaken as a mass burial of unsold video game cartridges, consoles, and computers in a New Mexico landfill site.[91][92] United States
1983 General Publication Waste Management & Research launches as a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of waste management.[93] United States
1986–1988 Ash from waste incinerators Waste disposal incident The Khian Sea waste disposal incident occurs. The cargo ship Khian Sea leaves Philadelphia with 14,855 tons of ash in its hold. The company handling the waste subcontracted shipment to a company intended to dump the ash in the Bahamas. However, the Bahamian government turns the ship away, and Philadelphia withholds payment to the companies because the waste was not disposed of.[94]. The ship would be labeled a pariah by environmental groups and over the next two years would be spurned by at least 11 countries on four continents. Late in 1987, armed with a signed contract for the ash to be used as fertilizer, the crew manages to offload an estimated 4,000 tons of the ash on a dockside beach in Haiti, but is forced to leave with its remaining cargo after public protests. Finally, in November 1988, the ship arrives in Singapore, without its ash. Along the way, the ship has been sold, twice renamed and twice turned away from ports at gunpoint. The crew was nearly mutinied, and the engineer, who threatened to sink the vessel, was thrown in jail in Yugoslavia.[95][96][97]
1987 General Organization (for-profit) Eltex Recycling is founded in Romania. It operates intergrated waste management, among other specialties.[98] Romania
1987–1988 Biomedical waste Waste disposal incident The Syringe Tide environmental disaster ossurs in Connecticut, New Jersey and New York where significant amounts of medical waste, including hypodermic syringes, and raw garbage washes up onto beaches on the Jersey Shore, in New York City, and on Long Island. This forces the closing of beaches on the Atlantic coast.[99] United States
1988 Solid waste Organization (for-profit) Allied Waste Industries is founded. Its major business is waste collection and recycling.[100] United States
1988 Solid waste Waste picking (statistics) The World Bank estimates that 1–2% of the global population subsists by waste picking.[101] Worldwide
1988 Sewage sludge Policy United States President Ronald Regan signs the law that prohibits ocean dumping as a means of disposal of sewage sludge.[102] United States
1988 Biomedical waste Policy The United States federal government passes The Medical Waste Tracking Act which allows the Environmental Protection Agency to establish rules for management of medical waste in some parts of the country. United States
1989 (March 22) Hazardous waste Policy The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal is adopted to stop movement of hazardous waste from one country to other country. 105 states sign the Final Act of the convention. [5] Switzerland
1989 General Organization (non-profit) Non-profit Australian environmental conservation organization Clean Up Australia is founded.[103] Australia
1989 Hazardous waste Policy (international law) The Convention on Civil Liability for Damage Caused during Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road, Rail, and Inland Navigation Vessels (CRTD) is signed in Geneva.[104] Switzerland
1990 Municipal solid waste Statistics Global municipal solid waste touches 1.3 billion metric tons.[5]
1990 Solid waste Organization (for-profit) South African waste management company SA Waste Holdings is founded.[105] South Africa
1990 Solid waste Waste picking A study in Mexico City finds the average lifespan of a dumpsite waste collector to be 39 years, compared to the national average of 69 years.[106] Mexico
1990 Biological waste Statistics The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) estimates that occupational exposures to bloodborne pathogens cause more than 200 deaths and 9,000 bloodborne infections every year.[107] United States
1990 Solid waste Publication Biodegradation launches as a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering biotransformation, mineralization, detoxification, recycling, amelioration or treatment of chemicals or waste materials by naturally occurring microbial strains, microbial associations or recombinant organisms.[108]
1991 Biological waste Policy The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration publishes the Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens Standard, with the purpose to protect workers by limiting occupational exposure to blood and other potentially infectious materials.[107] United States
1991 Electronic waste Program launch The first electronic waste recycling system in Switzerland is implemented, beginning with collection of old refrigerators. Over the years, all other electric and electronic devices would be gradually added to the system.[109] Switzerland
1991 Hazardous waste Policy (international law) Multiple developing nations in Africa meet to discuss their dissatisfaction with the Basel Convention in regulating the dumping of hazardous waste into their countries, and design a ban on the import of hazardous wastes into their countries called Bamako Convention. The Bamako Convention is different from the Basel Convention in that Bamako “essentially bans the import of all hazardous waste generated outside of the Organization of African Unity for disposal or recycling and deems any import from a non-Party to be an illegal act.[110] Mali
1991 Packaging waste Policy The German government passes a packaging law (Verpackungsverordnung) that requires manufacturers to take care of the recycling or disposal of any packaging material they sell.[111] Germany
1991 Wastewater Policy The Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive is adopted by the European Union directive concerning urban waste water "collection, treatment and discharge of urban waste water and the treatment and discharge of waste water from certain industrial sectors". It aims "to protect the environment from adverse effects of waste water discharges from cities and "certain industrial sectors".[112] European Union
1991 Electronic waste Policy The European Union adopts the Directive 91/157/EEC which is intended to reduce environmental hazards related to batteries containing dangerous substances by harmonizing Member States' laws on the disposal and recycling of these types of batteries.[113] European Union
1992 (May 5) General Policy The Basel Convention enters into force. Many countries pass legislations enlisting waste that cannot be imported into their territory.[5]
1993 Organization (for-profit) British waste management and recycling company Environmental Waste Controls is founded.[114] United Kingdom
1995 Organization (for-profit) Gient is founded in China. It is a global supplier of medical waste autoclave systems.[115] China
1996 Solid waste Organization (for-profit) Bangladeshi waste management and recycling company Waste Concern is founded.[116][117] Bangladesh
1996 Solid waste Organization (non-profit) Basel Action Network is founded. Named after the Basel Convention, it is a charitable non-governmental organization working to combat the export of toxic waste from technology and other products from industrialized societies to developing countries.[118][119] United States
1996 Solid waste Policy A Landfill Tax is introduced in the United Kingdom as the first environmental tax. The tax is seen as a key mechanism in enabling the country to meet its targets set out in the Landfill Directive for the landfilling of biodegradable waste. Through increasing the cost of landfill, other advanced waste treatment technologies with higher gate fees are made to become more financially attractive.[120][121] United Kingdom
1997 Municipal solid waste Technology Lee Rathbun introduces the Lightning Rear Steer System, which includes an elevated, rear-facing cab for both driving the truck and operating the loader. This configuration allows the operator to follow behind haul trucks and load continuously.[122]
1997 Organization (for-profit) American integrated waste services company Waste Connections is founded.[123] United States
1997 Solid waste Policy The Netherlands introduces a new regulation banning some recyclable and combustible wastes from being brought to landfill sites.[124] Netherlands
1998 Hazardous waste Policy (international law) Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade is signed in Rotterdam as a multilateral treaty to promote shared responsibilities in relation to importation of hazardous chemicals.[125] Netherlands
1998 Biomedical waste Concept development The Ministry of Environment and Forest in India defines biomedical waste as, “Any waste generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities used in production or testing of biologicals.”[126] India
1998 Solid waste Organization (for-profit) American waste management company Republic Services is founded. It provides non-hazardous solid waste collection, transfer, disposal, recycling, and energy services in the United States.[127] United States
1999 General Policy Cambodia introduces its Sub Decree on Solid Waste Management, which defines solid waste, household waste and hazardous waste.[128] Cambodia
2000 Municipal solid waste Statistics Over 5,000 cities in the United States use Pay as you throw programs, which charge residents based on amounts of garbage they throw away.[10] United States
2000 Hazardous waste Policy (international law) The European Agreement Concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Inland Waterways (AND) is done at Geneva, with aims at: (I) ensuring a high level of safety of international carriage of dangerous goods by inland waterways; (II) contributing effectively to the protection of the environment by preventing any pollution resulting from accidents or incidents during such carriage; and (III) facilitating transport operations and promoting international trade in dangerous goods.[129] Switzerland
2000 Solid waste Policy The Waste Incineration Directive is issued by the European Union. It aims to minimize the impact of negative environmental effects on the environment and human health resulting from emissions to air, soil, surface and ground water from the incineration and co-incineration of waste.[130] European Union
2000 General Research The United States Environmental Protection Agency confirms a link between global warming and waste, showing that reducing garbage and recycling cuts down greenhouse gas emissions.[81] United Sattes
2000 General Policy The Waste-Management Law is promulgated in Japan, requiring 3R components (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) measured in 10 industries and 69 product items, covering about 50% of the waste generated in the country.[131] Japan
2000 General Policy Philippines introduces its “Ecological Solid Waste Management, Act 2000”, which regulates and defines solid waste, municipal waste, hazardous waste, agriculture waste, bulky wastes, special wastes and yard waste.[128] Philippines
2000 General Organization (non-profit) The Waste & Resources Action Programme launches as a British charity. It works with businesses, individuals and communities to achieve a circular economy.[132] United Kingdom
2000 Solid waste Organization (for-profit) American solid waste collection company Advanced Disposal Services is founded.[133] United States
2000 Sharps waste Policy The United States Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act, which regulates occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens, including HIV, the hepatitis B virus, and the hepatitis C virus, is signed into law.[134][135] United States
2001 Solid waste Policy The Ecological Solid Waste Management Act is enacted by the Government of the Philippines, after collapse of dumpsite during the Payatas landslide resulted in over 200 deaths in 2000.[5] Philippines
2001 General Organization (for profit) Canadian waste management company Waste Services Inc. is founded.[136] Canada
2001 General Policy The Landfill Directive is implemented by the European Union, with aim "to prevent or reduce as far as possible negative effects on the environment, in particular the pollution of surface water, groundwater, soil and air, and on the global environment, including the greenhouse effect, as well as any resulting risk to human health, from the landfilling of waste, during the whole life-cycle of the landfill".[137] European Union
2002 Solid waste Statistics Total global solid waste touches nearly 12 billion tons, out of which 11 billion tons are from industrial wastes and 1.6 billion tons are municipal solid wastes.[5]
2002 General Policy Singapore introduces its Environmental Public Health Act, which regulates waste management.[128] Singapore
2002 General Organization (non-profit) The International Waste Working Group – IWWG is established "to serve as a forum for the scientific and professional community and to respond to a need for the international promotion and dissemination of new developments in the waste management industry."[138]
2003 Electronic waste Policy Under the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE Directive, 2002/96/EC), the European Union implements a system symilar to the electronic waste recycling system implemented in 1991 in Switzerland.[139] The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive is put in effect as a European Community Directive 2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Its principal purposes are to prevent WEEE generation and, in addition, to improve the reuse, recycling, and recovery, in place of disposal, to reduce the environmental and health impacts of WEEE.[140][141] European Union
2003 Electronic waste Policy The California Electronic Waste Recycling Act is introduced with the purpose to establish a funding system for the collection and recycling of certain electronic wastes in California.[142] United States
2003 Electronic waste Policy The Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive is adopted by the European Union. It restricts the use of six hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment in the union.[143] European Union
2003 Solid waste Waste picking The Cartonera movement begins as a social, political and artistic publishing movement in Argentina. It would later spread to countries throughout Latin America, Europe and Africa. Cartoneros are known to be people who make their living collecting and selling salvaged materials to recycling plants.[144] Argentina
2004 Food waste Research Study conducted at the University of Arizona indicates that 14 to 15% of United States edible food is untouched or unopened, amounting to US$43 billion worth of discarded, but edible, food.[145] United States
2004 Solid waste Technology New mechanical biological treatment technologies begin to utilize wet materials recovery facilities. These combine a dirty MRF with water, which acts to densify, separate and clean the output streams. It also hydrocrushes and dissolves biodegradable organics in solution to make them suitable for anaerobic digestion.[146]
2005 Hazardous waste Policy England and Wales introduce the Hazardous Waste Regulations, which set out the regime for the control and tracking of hazardous waste in those countries.[147] United Kingdom
2005 Solid waste Waste picking Brazil hosts the first meeting of the Latin American Waste Picker Network (LAWPN), an organization that now represents waste pickers movements from several countries in Latin America. LAWPN facilitates exchanges of knowledge, technology, and strategies between member organizations through regional conventions, country-to-country delegations, telecommunications, and strategic reports.[148][149] Brazil
2006 Electronic waste Statistics Electronic waste makes up 5% of the total solid waste stream.[1]
2006 Toxic waste Waste disposal incident The 2006 Ivory Coast toxic waste dump occurs as a health crisis in Ivory Coast in which a ship registered in Panama, chartered by the Singaporean-based oil and commodity shipping company Trafigura Beheer BV offloads toxic waste to an Ivorian waste handling company which disposes of it at the port of Abidjan. The local contractor, a company called Tommy, dumps at least 540,000 liters of toxic waste at 12 sites in and around Abidjan in August. The dumping allegedly leads to the death of 7 and 20 hospitalized and the other 26000 people are treated for symptoms of poisoning.[150][151] Côte d'Ivoire
2007 Solid waste Policy The Solid Waste Management (SWM) and Public Cleansing Act is enacted by the Government of Malaysia in order to federalize SWM and progress the nation to status of a developed country by 2020.[5] Malaysia
2007 Food waste Campaign Love Food, Hate Waste launches. It is the first major campaign to tackle food waste.[152] United Kingdom
2007 Solid waste Policy San Francisco becomes the first city in the United States to prohibit the distribution of plastic bags by grocery stores.[81] United States
2007 Solid waste Waste picking (literature) Martin Medina publishes The World's Scavengers, which provides a methodological guide to researching waste picking.[153]
2008 Solid waste Waste sorting French company Pellenc ST develops MIR (mid infrared) waste sorting technology, as a more efficient way to separate paper and cardboard.[154] France
2008 Solid waste Waste picking (international conference) In March, delegates from 30 countries gather in Bogotá, Colombia, for the first World Conference (and Third Latin American Conference) of Waste Pickers (WIEGO 2008). One of the key issues discussed is the global trend of privatization and concentration of waste management systems.[155] Colombia
2008 Solid waste Statistics 389 million tons of municipal solid waste are generated in the United States during the year.[156] United States
2008 General Policy The Waste Minimisation Act 2008 is passed in New Zealand. It encourages a reduction in the amount of waste consumers generate and dispose of in New Zealand and aims to lessen the environmental harm of waste.[157] New Zealand
2008 General Organization (for-profit) Suez Environnement is established. It is a French-based utility company which operates largely in the water and waste management sectors.[158][159][160] France
2008 Solid waste Waste picking (Concept development) Participants of the First World Conference of Waste Pickers choose to use the term "waste picker" for English usage to facilitate global communication.[161]
2008 Solid waste Technology The first remote-control Sandbonis (sand cleaning machines) are introduced at the 2008 Summer Olympics.[162] China
2008 Food waste Organization (non-profit) Stop Wasting Food (In Danish Stop Spild af Mad) is founded by Russo-Danish activist Selina Juul as a consumer organization that works for the reduction of food waste in society. [163] Due to this movement, Denmark would achieve a national reduction in food waste by 25% in 5 years (2010–2015).[164][165][166][167][168][169] Denmark
2009 Food waste Statistics Study estimates that from 20% to 40% of fruit and vegetables in the United Kingdom are rejected before they even reach retailers, as a result of high cosmetic standards.[170] United Kingdom
2009 General Policy A broad waste management act is introduced in South Africa, empowering the environment minister to require EPR measures on a product–by–product basis.[171] South Africa
2009 Plastic waste Organization (non-profit) Clean Oceans International is incorporated. It seeks to reduce plastic pollution in the oceans through a comprehensive global approach that includes research, technical innovation, public awareness, and efficient plastic waste management.[172][173][174] United States
2009 Solid waste Waste picking (organization) The Global Network of Waste Pickers is founded.[149]
2009 Solid waste Organization (non-profit) Online free group Freegle launches with aims to increase reuse and reduce landfill by offering a free Internet-based service where people can give away and ask for things that would otherwise be thrown away.[175] United Kingdom
2010 Biodegradable waste Program launch Miniwaste launches as an European project with the purpose to reduce the amount of organic waste from households in a manageable and sustainable way.[176]
2010 Plastic waste Statistics Coastal plastic waste generated within 50 kilometers of the coastline amounts to 99.5 million tons.[7] Worldwide
2010 Solid waste Waste picking (statistics) According to a UN Habitat report, Waste pickers provide between 50 and 100% of waste collecting services in most cities of the developing world.[177] Developing world
2010 Solid waste Waste picking (statistics) A study estimates that there are 1.5 million waste pickers in India alone at this time.[178] India
2010 Caustic waste Waste disposal incident The Ajka alumina plant accident occurs at a caustic waste reservoir in Hungary, when the northwestern corner of the dam of a reservoir collapses, freeing approximately one million cubic meters of liquid waste from red mud lakes. The mud floods several nearby localities. Ten people die, and 150 people are injured.[179] Hungary
2010–2012 Biowaste Program launch Miniwaste launches as a European project operated from January 2010 to December 2012, designed to "bring bio-waste back to life". The project endeavors to demonstrate that it is possible to significantly reduce the amount of organic waste at the source in a sustainable way, and to monitor actions for waste reduction in an efficient manner.[180] Europe
2011 Solid waste Technology A RESEM pyrolysis plant becomes operational in Texas, processing up to 60 tons per day.[181] United States
2011 Food waste Research Study estimates the total of global food loss and waste to around one third of the edible parts of food produced for human consumption, amounting to about 1.3 billion tons per year.[182]
2011 Solid waste Policy The government of Zanzibar prohibits the use of plastic bags.[183] Tanzania
2012 General Program launch The European Week for Waste Reduction launches as a 3-year project supported by the LIFE+ Programme of the European Commission.[184][185][186] It is an initiative aiming to promote the implementation of awareness-raising actions about sustainable resource and waste management during a single week.[187]
2012 Biomedical waste Statistics Up to US$2.5 billion are spent in the United States for the proper disposal of medical waste.[188] United States
2012 General Organization (for-profit) Envirogreen Recycling is founded in Northern Ireland. It operates in the waste management industry.[189] United Kingdom
2012 Plastic waste Global waste trade China receives nearly half of all the plastic waste that the United States send abroad for recycling and about one-third of the European Union’s plastic waste exports in the year.[190] China
2013 Solid waste Publication Global initiative D-Waste publishes the first Waste Atlas Report. Through this report the concept of the Waste Atlas and its main features are presented to the public.[191] An interactive waste management map [192], Waste Atlas visualizes global solid waste management data for comparison and benchmarking purposes.[193]
2013 Hazardous waste Policy (international law) The Minamata Convention on Mercury is signed in Minamata, Japan.[194] Japan
2013 Biodegradable waste Organization (non-profit) The Composting Association is founded as a trade organization for the biodegradable waste management industry in the United Kingdom.[195] United Kingdom
2014 Plastic waste Global waste trade According to study, China receives 56 percent by weight of global scrap plastic exports.[190] China
2014 Textile waste Statistics In the United States, an average person throws away approximately 80 pounds of used clothing per person per year. On average it costs cities US$45 per ton to dispose of old clothing.[196] United States
2014 Food waste Statistics A National Geographic study indicates that more than 30% of the food in the United States, valued at $162 billion annually, isn't eaten.[197] United States
2014 Demolition waste Statistics 505.1 million tons of demolition debris is generated in the United States in this year. Out of the 505.1 million tons, the debris is composed of 353.6 million tons of concrete, 76.6 million tons of asphalt concrete, 35.8 million tons of wood product, 12.7 million tons of asphalt shingles, 11.8 million tons of brick and clay tile, 10.3 million tons of drywall and plaster, and 4.3 million tons of steel.[198] United States
2014 Plastic waste Statistics The plastic global production reaches 300 million tons. 40% by weight of world production takes place in Asia. North America and Europe cover each 20%.[183]
2014 General Illegal dumping The Italian government starts funding health screenings to track the rise in illnesses in Campania.[199] Studies conducted using the data collected from these screenings find elevated instances of leukemia, lymphoma, and colorectal and liver cancer mortality in one of Campania's districts. The study attributes this increase in cancer and cancer mortality with toxic exposures from the illegal waste.[200] Italy
2015 Plastic waste Policy The first state-wide ban on plastic bags in grocery and convenience stores is enacted in California.[81] United States
2015 Plastic waste Statistics An estimated 55 percent of global plastic waste is discarded in the year, 25 percent is incinerated, and 20 percent is recycled.[7]
2015 Food waste Service launch Olio launches as a mobile app for food-sharing, aiming to reduce food waste.[201] United Kingdom
2016 General Program launch The Government of India launches a web application to track the status of various kinds of wastes generated in the country.[202] India
2016 Plastic waste Research Japanese scientists discover a species of bacteria called ideonella sakainesis that eats plastics commonly found in water bottles by an enzyme that turns the Polyethylene terephthalate to generate an intermediate chemical which is taken up by the cell, then broken down even further giving the bacteria carbon and energy to grow.[81] Japan
2016 Electronic waste Statistics Yearly worldwide accumulation of e-waste reaches 49.3 million tons.[203]
2016 General Statistics The global annual waste generation is estimated to be 2.01 billion tons in this year.[204] Worldwide
2017 Electronic waste Research Research team at Stanford University develops a flexible and biodegradable semiconductor that could help drastically decrease electronic waste in the future.[81] United states
2017 Municipal solid waste Statistics The total generation of municipal solid waste in the year was 267.8 million tons in the United States. Of this amount, approximately 67 million tons were recycled and 27 million tons were composted, resulting in a 35.2 percent recycling and composting rate. In addition, more than 34 million tons of MSW (12.7 percent) were combusted with energy recovery and more than 139 million tons of MSW (52.1 percent) were landfilled.[205] United States
2017 Electronic waste Statistics Almost 50 million tons of electronic waste are thrown out, a 20% increase from 2015.[81]
2018 Solid waste Facility A waste-to-energy plant is built in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. It is Africa’s first energy plant that converts trash into electricity.[206][207] Ethiopia
2018 General Policy The Chinese National Sword comes into effect in February to ban imports of 24 types of waste material and set a tougher standard for contamination levels in others. Many scrap materials are banned and others are not accepted unless they meet an extremely strict contamination rate of 0.5 percent. This policy would be regarded by many as a “catastrophe” that will have a “devastating impact” on global recycling.[208][209] China
2018 General Program launch The World Economic Forum, World Resources Institute, Philips, Ellen MacArthur Foundation, United Nations Environment Programme, and over 40 other partners launch the Platform for Accelerating the Circular Economy (PACE). The circular economy is an economic system aimed at eliminating waste and the continual use of resources.[210]
2019 Plastic waste Research A research group led by scientists of Washington State University finds a way to turn plastic waste products into jet fuel.[211] United States
2019 Plastic waste Policy California introduces legislation proposing a phase out of single-use plastic products by 2030.[212] United States
2020 Electronic waste Statistics The amount of worldwide e-waste generation is expected to exceed 50 million tons by this year, with an annual growth between 4% and 5%.[213]
2021 Electronic waste Statistics The United Nations University predicts that yearly worldwide accumulation of e-waste would reach 57.5 million tons by this year.[203] Worldwide
2025 General Statistics The global waste management market size is expected to reach US$484.9 billion from US$303.6 billion in 2017, rising at a CAGR of 6.0% from 2018 to 2025.[214]

Meta information on the timeline

How the timeline was built

The initial version of the timeline was written by User:Sebastian.

Funding information for this timeline is available.

What the timeline is still missing

Timeline update strategy

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 "Solid-waste management". britannica.com. Retrieved 14 August 2017. 
  2. "Closing the loop – the circular economy, what it means and what it can do for you" (PDF). pwc.com. Retrieved 27 May 2020. 
  3. Florence Nightingale, Selected Writings of Florence Nightingale, ed. Lucy Ridgely Seymer (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1954), pp. 38287
  4. "A Brief History on the Electronic Waste Disposal Industry". ecycleatlanta.com. Retrieved 27 May 2020. 
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 Chandrappa, Ramesha; Bhusan Das, Diganta. Solid Waste Management: Principles and Practice. Retrieved 12 August 2017. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "The Early Dumpmaster". classicrefusetrucks.com. Retrieved 11 August 2017. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 "Plastic Pollution". ourworldindata.org. Retrieved 13 February 2020. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Humans invent simplest but highly important things by mistake". pravdareport.com. Retrieved 14 August 2017. 
  9. "Chutes to suck waste from estate". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 27 May 2020. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 "History of the Garbage Man". garbagemanday.org. Retrieved 14 August 2017. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 "THE HISTORY OF RECYCLING AROUND THE WORLD". paprec.com. Retrieved 4 February 2020. 
  12. Toner, J. P. (2009) Popular culture in ancient Rome. p. 19
  13. "Glass Timeline - Important Dates and Facts in Glass History". historyofglass.com. Retrieved 28 May 2020. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 Plastics in Food Packaging Conference. Plastics Instit. 
  15. Herbert, Lewis (2007). "Centenary History of Waste and Waste Managers in London and South East England". Chartered Institution of Wastes Management. 
  16. "10 First Electricity Milestones". smashinglists.com. Retrieved 27 May 2020. 
  17. Chadwick, Edwin (1842). Report...from the Poor Law Commissioners on an Inquiry into the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population of Great Britain. London. pp. 369–372.  via Laura Del Col (11 October 2002). "Chadwick's Report on Sanitary Conditions". The Victorian Web. 
  18. Russell, Loris S. (2003). A Heritage of Light: Lamps and Lighting in the Early Canadian Home. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-3765-8. 
  19. "The history of Veolia: 1853-1900". veolia.com. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  20. Strauss, Michael J. Hostile Business and the Sovereign State: Privatized Governance, State Security and International Law. 
  21. UK Patent office (1857). Patents for inventions. UK Patent office. p. 255. 
  22. Herbert, Lewis (2007). "Centenary History of Waste and Waste Managers in London and South East England" (PDF). Chartered Institution of Wastes Management. 
  23. "TRASH WORTHY OFFICIAL". sites.google.com. Retrieved 23 April 2020. 
  24. Frederique Krupa, Parisian Garbage from 1789-1900, Paris: Urban Sanitation Before the 20th Century: A History of Invisible Infrastructure
  25. "Energy Recovery - Basic Information". US EPA. 
  26. National Waste & Recycling Association. "History of Solid Waste Management". Washington, D.C. Retrieved 11 August 2017. 
  27. "The history of Cory". coryenergy.com. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  28. Plunkett's Renewable, Alternative & Hydrogen Energy Industry Almanac 2008 (Jack W. Plunkett ed.). 
  29. "Motor-Cars for Dust Collection", The Automotor and Horseless Carriage Journal, February 1897, p192
  30. "CIWM History". ciwm.co.uk. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  31. "These Five Companies Are Leading The Charge On Recycling". forbes.com. Retrieved 9 February 2020. 
  32. "Biffa". biffa.co.uk. Retrieved 13 February 2020. 
  33. "Biffa Waste". cv-library.co.uk. Retrieved 13 February 2020. 
  34. "Biffa". customers.microsoft.com. Retrieved 13 February 2020. 
  35. Denise DiFulco (August 23, 2007). "Grist for the Daily Grind". The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 April 2020. 
  36. "Covered Bodies". Archived from the original on 2015-01-06. 
  37. "Learning from the Rethmann way". letsrecycle.com. Retrieved 9 February 2020. 
  38. "Waste Connections". wasteconnections.com. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  39. "Waste Connections, Inc.". referenceforbusiness.com. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  40. 40.0 40.1 "Garwood Load Packer". tigerdude.com. Retrieved 11 August 2017. 
  41. "MISSION & HISTORY". kab.org. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  42. "Simply Recycling Won't Keep America Beautiful". plasticpollutioncoalition.org. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  43. Melillo, Wendy. How McGruff and the Crying Indian Changed America: A History of Iconic Ad Council Campaigns. 
  44. "Oerther named associate editor of environmental engineering journal". econnection.mst.edu. Retrieved 27 April 2020. 
  45. Felix Hoots, Paul Schumacher Jr.; Glover, Robert (2004). "History of Analytical Orbit Modeling in the U.S. Space Surveillance System". Journal of Guidance Control and Dynamics. 27 (2): 174–185. Bibcode:2004JGCD...27..174H. doi:10.2514/1.9161. 
  46. "About the ADR". unece.org. Retrieved 24 April 2020. 
  47. "Covanta Holding Corporation". zoominfo.com. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  48. "Covanta Holding Corporation". finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  49. "SNAPSHOTS OF PUBLIC SANITATION". hygieneforhealth.org.au. Retrieved 27 August 2017. 
  50. "Polyethylene 'T-Shirt" Carrier Bag (1965)". plasticsnewseurope.com. Retrieved 27 August 2017. 
  51. "Solid Waste Association of North America". zoominfo.com. Retrieved 23 April 2020. 
  52. "Solid Waste Association of North America". idealist.org. Retrieved 30 April 2020. 
  53. 53.0 53.1 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-10. Retrieved 2010-11-25. 
  54. "National Waste & Recycling Association". wasterecycling.org. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  55. "Descripción general de National Waste & Recycling Association". glassdoor.com.ar. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  56. "National Waste and Recycling Association (NWRA)". nerc.org. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  57. "Inside the 1966 Aberfan Disaster, one of Britain's most tragic mining disasters, where a collapsing mountain of coal waste killed 116 school children". businessinsider.com. Retrieved 27 May 2020. 
  58. "Waste Management Inc.". encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  59. "WASTE GIANT TOSSING OUT ITS NAME". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  60. National Priorities List Sites: Vermont. 
  61. City of Scottsdale, Arizona, Solid Waste Management Division - Classic Refuse Trucks, November 6, 2005.
  62. "The World's Leading Network Promoting Professional and Sustainable Waste Management". iswa.org. Retrieved 14 August 2017. 
  63. "A Brief History of the International Solid Waste Association's World Congress". waste-management-world.com. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  64. National Priorities List Sites: Vermont. 
  65. "Waste Industries USA, Inc". northcarolinahistory.org. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  66. "United Nations Conference on the Human Environment". britannica.com. Retrieved 1 May 2020. 
  67. "Ocean Dumping Act: A Summary of the Law" (PDF). gc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 27 April 2020. 
  68. "Oslo Dumping Convention" (PDF). treaties.un.org. Retrieved 23 April 2020. 
  69. "The Buffalo Creek Flood and Disaster: Official Report from the Governor's Ad Hoc Commission of Inquiry 1973". wvculture.org. Retrieved 27 May 2020. 
  70. "West Virginia's Buffalo Creek Flood: A Study of the Hydrology and Engineering Geology" (PDF). pubs.usgs.gov. Retrieved 27 May 2020. 
  71. "Events Leading To The Buffalo Creek Disaster". buffalocreekflood.org. Retrieved 27 May 2020. 
  72. "We Are What We Throw Away". nytimes.com. Retrieved 13 August 2017. 
  73. "Hazards of Illegal Dumping". hallcounty.org. Retrieved 1 May 2020. 
  74. "EU waste policy" (PDF). ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 26 April 2020. 
  75. 75.0 75.1 European Commission (2014). "EU Waste Legislation". Archived from the original on 17 August 2017. 
  76. "Who We Are". blackburnok.com. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  77. "Casella's Competitors, Revenue, Number of Employees, Funding and Acquisitions". owler.com. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  78. "Casella Waste Systems". casella.com. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  79. "Casella Waste Systems". crunchbase.com. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  80. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, P.L. 94-580, et seq., October 21, 1976. RCRA Full text.
  81. 81.0 81.1 81.2 81.3 81.4 81.5 81.6 Bradbury, Matt. "A Brief Timeline of the History of Recycling". buschsystems.com. Retrieved 15 August 2017. 
  82. "Himark BioGas". crunchbase.com. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  83. "Californians Against Waste". ballotpedia.org. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  84. "Californians Against Waste". cawrecycles.org. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  85. "Bioresource Technology". journals.elsevier.com. Retrieved 27 April 2020. 
  86. "Clean Harbors". linkedin.com. Retrieved 26 April 2020. 
  87. "Project Spotlight: Clean Harbors". shanahansound.com. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  88. "Clean Harbors to Present at Baird's 49th Annual Industrial Conference". businesswire.com. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  89. Etribi, T.L. (1981). The People of the Gabbal: Life and work among the Zabbaleen of Manshiyet Nasser. Cairo: Environmental Quality International. 
  90. "GOING FROM WASTE COLLECTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT". wm.com. Retrieved 28 April 2020. 
  91. "New Mexico city finds buried treasure of Atari games". money.cnn.com. Retrieved 27 May 2020. 
  92. "ATARI VIDEO GAME BURIAL HITS EBAY". hackaday.com. Retrieved 27 May 2020. 
  93. "Resource efficiency and waste management: the science challenge". doi:10.1177/0734242X12468411. 
  94. Knight, Danielle (3 Nov 1998). "U.S. Toxic Waste to be Returned to Sender". Inter-Press Agency. Retrieved 6 April 2013. 
  95. Beans, Bruce E. "The Waste That Didn't Make Haste". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 27 May 2020. 
  96. "World's Most Unwanted Garbage: Cargo of the Khian Sea". neatorama.com. Retrieved 27 May 2020. 
  97. "Garbage Barge (Khian Sea)". philadelphiaencyclopedia.org. Retrieved 27 May 2020. 
  98. "Eltex Recycling". linkedin.com. Retrieved 25 April 2020. 
  99. Gross, Jane (12 July 1988). "Beach Debris Still a Mystery; 77 Syringes Wash Up on S.I.". The New York Times. p. 1. 
  100. "Where Is Allied Waste Industries Inc Corporate Office Headquarters". corporateofficeheadquarters.org. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  101. Bartone, C. (January 1988). "The Value in Wastes". Decade Watch. 
  102. US EPA, OA. "EPA History: Ocean Dumping Ban Act of 1988". epa-history-ocean-dumping-ban-act-1988.html. Retrieved 2019-11-19. 
  103. "Celebrating National Volunteer Week: Clean Up Australia". xero.com. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  104. "Convention on Civil Liability for Damage Caused during Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road, Rail and Inland Navigation Vessels (CRTD)". unece.org. Retrieved 27 April 2020. 
  105. "SA Waste Holdings". alchetron.com. Retrieved 17 February 2020. 
  106. Castillo, H. (1990). La Sociedad de la Basura: Caciquismo Urbano en la Ciudad de México. Second Edition. Mexico City: UNAM. 
  107. 107.0 107.1 "The Bloodborne Pathogen Standard: An Overview". usg.edu. Retrieved 22 April 2020. 
  108. "Biodegradation". springerlink. Springer Netherlands. Retrieved 28 April 2020. 
  109. "Umwelt Schweiz, Electrical and electronic equipment". Retrieved 2006-11-24. 
  110. Laura A. Pratt, Decreasing Dirty Dumping? A Reevaluation of Toxic Waste Colonialism and the Global Management of Transboundary Hazardous Waste, 35 Wm. & Mary Envtl. L. & Pol'y Rev. (2011), http://scholarship.law.wm.edu/wmelpr/vol35/iss2/5
  111. Skoda, Elisabeth. "Getting ready for the German Packaging Law". packagingeurope.com. Retrieved 26 April 2020. 
  112. "Urban Waste Water Directive Overview". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 23 April 2020. 
  113. "Guidance for Complying with the European Union (EU)" (PDF). energy-assurance.com. Retrieved 27 April 2020. 
  114. "Environmental Waste Controls". fasttrack.co.uk. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  115. "GIENT". linkedin.com. Retrieved 26 April 2020. 
  116. Harrebye, S. Social Change and Creative Activism in the 21st Century: The Mirror Effect. 
  117. "Project References" (PDF). wasteconcern.org/. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  118. "About the Basel Action Network," BAN.org. Accessed: August 5, 2013.
  119. "Basel Action Network". linkedin.com. Retrieved 26 April 2020. 
  120. "Landfill tax : introduction & early history" (PDF). parliament.uk. Retrieved 26 April 2020. 
  121. "The Landfill Tax Regulations 1996". legislation.gov.uk. The National Archives. Retrieved 25 September 2017. 
  122. "History". petersenind.com. Retrieved 23 April 2020. 
  123. "Waste Connections Inc.: Connecting the county to recycling, composting". spokanejournal.com. Retrieved 17 February 2020. 
  124. Environmentally Sustainable Buildings Challenges and Policies: Challenges and Policies. OECD. 
  125. "Rotterdam Convention". treaties.un.org. Retrieved 27 April 2020. 
  126. Abhishek, K N; Suryavanshi, Harshal N; Sam, George; Chaithanya, K H; Punde, Prashant; Singh, S Swetha. "Management of Biomedical Waste: An Exploratory Study". PMC 4589724Freely accessible. PMID 26435621. 
  127. "HOUSTON REPUBLIC SERVICES ACCIDENT LAWYERS". whlaw.com. Retrieved 17 February 2020. 
  128. 128.0 128.1 128.2 "WASTE MANAGEMENT in ASIAN COUNTRIES" (PDF). wedocs.unep.org. Retrieved 26 April 2020. 
  129. "About the ADN". unece.org. Retrieved 24 April 2020. 
  130. "Waste Incineration Directive" (PDF). wrap.org.uk. Retrieved 27 April 2020. 
  131. "Assessing Extended Producer Responsibility LAWS in JAPAN". acs.org. Retrieved 17 August 2017. 
  132. "WRAP (Waste and Resources Action Programme)". nacro.org.au. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  133. "Advanced Disposal Services". finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved 17 February 2020. 
  134. "Occupational Safety and Health Administration". osha.gov. Retrieved 22 April 2020. 
  135. Tatelbaum, MF. "Needlestick safety and prevention act.". PMID 16902692. 
  136. "National Waste Services Inc". bloomberg.com. Retrieved 19 February 2020. 
  137. "EU landfill directive". archive.is. Retrieved 30 April 2020. 
  138. "IWWG – International Waste Working Group". detritusjournal.com. Retrieved 19 February 2020. 
  139. "Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment". 
  140. Poikela, Kari; Lehtinen, Ulla; Tanskanen, Pia; Román, Elisabeth; Keiski, Riitta L.; Pongrácz, Eva. "Overview of the WEEE Directive and Its Implementation in the Nordic Countries: National Realisations and Best Practices". doi:10.1155/2014/457372. 
  141. "The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive". sustainabledevelopment.un.org. Retrieved 22 February 2020. 
  142. "Electronic Waste Recycling Act of 2003". calrecycle.ca.gov. Retrieved 27 May 2020. 
  143. "Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive" (PDF). cov.com. Retrieved 28 April 2020. 
  144. "De cartoneros a recicladores: 15 años entre la calle y el Estado". laizquierdadiario.com. Retrieved 22 April 2020. 
  145. "US wastes half its food". Retrieved 15 August 2017. 
  146. ArrowBio Process Finstein, M. S., Zadik, Y., Marshall, A. T. & Brody, D. (2004) The ArrowBio Process for Mixed Municipal Solid Waste – Responses to “Requests for Information”, Proceedings for Biodegradable and Residual Waste Management, Proceedings. (Eds. E. K. Papadimitriou & E. I. Stentiford), Technology and Service Providers Forum, p. 407-413
  147. "Hazardous Waste (England and Wales) Regulations 2005". wastecare.co.uk. Retrieved 27 April 2020. 
  148. Harvesting Feminist Knowledge for Public Policy: Rebuilding Progress (Devaki Jain, Diane Elson ed.). 
  149. 149.0 149.1 Development Centre Studies Tackling Vulnerability in the Informal Economy. OECD, International Labour Organization. 
  150. "TRAFIGURA: A TOXIC JOURNEY". amnesty.org. Retrieved 27 May 2020. 
  151. "Côte d'Ivoire: Trafigura unrepentant 10 years after toxic waste dump". amnesty.org. Retrieved 27 May 2020. 
  152. "THE GLOBAL ISSUE OF FOOD WASTE". lovefoodhatewaste.co.nz. Retrieved 19 February 2020. 
  153. Martin, Medina (2007). The World's Scavengers: Salvaging for Sustainable Consumption and Production. New York: Altamira Press. 
  154. "Waste sorting - A look at the separation and sorting techniques in today's European marke". waste-management-world.com. Retrieved 11 August 2017. 
  155. Samson, Melanie (2009). Wasted Citizenship? Reclaimers and the Privatised Expansion of the Public Sphere. Cambridge: Cambridge. 
  156. Ekström, Karin M. Waste Management and Sustainable Consumption: Reflections on Consumer Waste. Retrieved 16 August 2017. 
  157. "Waste Minimisation Act 2008". mfe.govt.nz. Retrieved 17 February 2020. 
  158. "GDF Suez merger achieved amidst controversy". eurofound.europa.eu. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  159. "Suez, Suez Environnement and GDF Suez". polarisinstitute.org. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  160. "Suez Environnement Profile". psiru.org. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  161. Samson, Melanie (2008). Refusing to be Cast Aside: Waste Pickers Organizing Around the World. Cambridge, Massachusetts: WIEGO. 
  162. Movie Themes, Mascots and a Lady With a Net, Greg Bishop 16.8.2008
  163. "Medlemmer" [Members] (in Danish). stopspildafmad.dk. Retrieved 2015-09-04. 
  164. Helen Russell. "How did Denmark become a leader in the food waste revolution?". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 August 2017. 
  165. Irene Hell. "Denmark leads Europe in tackling food waste". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 13 August 2017. 
  166. Jonathan Bloom. "Denmark Capitalizes on Culture to Stop Food Waste". National Geographic. Retrieved 13 August 2017. 
  167. Prathap Nair. "The country where unwanted food is selling out". BBC. Retrieved 13 August 2017. 
  168. Harriet Noble. "Denmark's Food Waste Vigilante". BBC World Hacks. Retrieved 2017-02-18. 
  169. Kathleen Hawkins. "How one woman is winning the fight against food waste". BBC News. Retrieved 13 August 2017. 
  170. humans.txt. "The Global Food Waste Scandal - Feedback". Feedback. Retrieved 13 August 2017. 
  171. "The S tate of P lay on Extende d Producer Responsibility (EPR): Opportunities and C hallenges" (PDF). oecd.org. Retrieved 16 August 2017. 
  172. "The Response". The Clean Oceans Project. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  173. Jennings, Cheryl. "Radar used to monitor currents in the bay". KGO-TV. Retrieved 27 April 2020. 
  174. "Clean Oceans to bring plastics to fuel machine prototype to Santa Cruz Co.". santacruzsentinel.com. Retrieved 27 April 2020. 
  175. Upham, Paul; Bögel, Paula; Johansen, Katinka. Energy Transitions and Social Psychology: A Sociotechnical Perspective. 
  176. "MINIWASTE". ec.europa.eu/. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  177. UN Habitat (2010). Solid Waste Management in the World's Cities 2010. London: Earthscan. 
  178. Chaturvedi, Bharati (2010). "Mainstreaming Waste Pickers and the Informal Recycling Sector in the Municipal Solid Waste". Handling and Management Rules 2000, A Discussion Paper. 
  179. Deadly sludge escape kills three in western Hungary, BBC News, 5 October 2010 
  180. "Miniwaste Guide" (PDF). acrplus.org. Retrieved 27 April 2020. 
  181. "Background information about waste disposal practices Essay". essaygraph.com. Retrieved 23 April 2020. 
  182. Gustavsson, J, Cederberg, C & Sonesson, U, 2011, Global Food Losses and Food Waste, Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations, Gothenburg Sweden, available at: http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2012/ph240/briggs1/docs/mb060e00.pdf
  183. 183.0 183.1 "Recycling municipal waste". coursera.org. Retrieved 16 August 2017. 
  184. European Commission - Environment Policy & Governance, LIFE + Projects 2007, 2009
  185. "European Week for Waste Reduction". certh.gr. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  186. "European Week for Waste Reduction" (PDF). ewwr.eu. Retrieved 12 February 2020. 
  187. "The Project". ewwr.eu. Retrieved 24 April 2020. 
  188. "Medical Waste Disposal – The Definitive Guide 2020". biomedicalwastesolutions.com. Retrieved 22 April 2020. 
  189. "ENVIROGREEN RECYCLING LIMITED". beta.companieshouse.gov.uk. Retrieved 26 April 2020. 
  190. 190.0 190.1 "Will China's crackdown on 'foreign garbage' force wealthy countries to recycle more of their own waste?". theconversation.com. Retrieved 2 May 2020. 
  191. "SWEEP-Net contribution to Waste Atlas". sweep-net.org. Retrieved 14 August 2017. 
  192. "Interactive 'Waste Atlas' maps out worldwide waste". 
  193. "Waste Atlas: solid waste management data across the world". 
  194. "Minamata Convention on Mercury". epa.gov. Retrieved 24 April 2020. 
  195. "MAINTAINING HIGH STANDARDS". wrm-ltd.co.uk. Retrieved 19 February 2020. 
  196. "Textile and Garment Recycling Facts and Figures". thebalancesmb.comd. Retrieved 4 February 2020. 
  197. "One-Third of Food Is Lost or Wasted: What Can Be Done". news.nationalgeographic.com. 2014-10-13. Retrieved 13 August 2017. 
  198. "Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: 2014 Fact SheetAssessing Trends in Material Generation, Recycling, Composting, Combustion with Energy Recovery and Landfilling in the United States" (PDF). United States Environmental Protection Agency. November 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2020. 
  199. Triassi, Maria; Alfano, Rossella; Illario, Maddalena; Nardone, Antonio; Caporale, Oreste; Montuori, Paolo (February 2015). "Environmental Pollution from Illegal Waste Disposal and Health Effects: A Review on the "Triangle of Death"". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 12 (2): 1216–1236. ISSN 1661-7827. PMC 4344663Freely accessible. PMID 25622140. doi:10.3390/ijerph120201216. 
  200. Senior, Kathryn; Mazza, Alfredo (September 2004). "Italian "Triangle of death" linked to waste crisis". The Lancet Oncology. 5 (9): 525–527. ISSN 1470-2045. PMID 15384216. doi:10.1016/s1470-2045(04)01561-x. 
  201. "OLIO". crunchbase.com. Retrieved 23 April 2020. 
  202. "Government launches web-based integrated waste management system", The Times of India, 25 May 2016 
  203. 203.0 203.1 "The Complete Guide to Recycling Electronics". pandasecurity.com. Retrieved 4 February 2020. 
  204. "Global Waste to Grow by 70 Percent by 2050 Unless Urgent Action is Taken: World Bank Report". worldbank.org. Retrieved 25 April 2020. 
  205. "National Overview: Facts and Figures on Materials, Wastes and Recycling". epa.gov. Retrieved 22 April 2020. 
  206. "Ethiopia builds Africa's first energy plant that converts trash into electricity". face2faceafrica.com. Retrieved 26 February 2018. 
  207. "Energy from rubbish to power Addis Ababa". bbc.com. Retrieved 26 February 2018. 
  208. "COULD THE CHINESE NATIONAL SWORD INSPIRE GLOBAL RECYCLING INNOVATION?". recycling.tomra.com. Retrieved 4 February 2020. 
  209. "How American Recycling Is Changing After China's National Sword". citylab.com. Retrieved 11 February 2020. 
  210. Hub, IISD's SDG Knowledge. "WEF Launches Public-Private Platform on Circular Economy | News | SDG Knowledge Hub | IISD". Retrieved 27 May 2020. 
  211. "Research group finds way to turn plastic waste products into jet fuel". phys.org. 
  212. "Recycling is going to waste!". atlanticcouncil.org. Retrieved 1 May 2020. 
  213. "E-Waste Recycling Facts and Figures". thebalancesmb.com. Retrieved 4 February 2020. 
  214. "Top 10 Waste Management Companies In The World". pulpandpaper-technology.com. Retrieved 9 February 2020.