Timeline of waste management
This is a timeline of waste management, focusing mainly on municipal solid waste and commercial waste. Human waste is treated on the timeline of sanitation. Radioactive waste is not covered on this timeline. Recycling is covered on the timeline of recycling. Rise of common items in waste, such as beverage cans, plastics, and paper, are described.
|Time period||Development summary|
|Middle Ages||After the fall of Rome, waste collection and municipal sanitation begins a decline that would last throughout this era.|
|18th – 19th centuries||Industrial revolution flourishes. Industrialization along sustained urban growth in Western Europe causes a rapid deterioration in levels of sanitation and the general quality of urban life. Late in the 19th century, a technological approach to solid-waste management begins to develop.|
|20th century||Municipal systems of waste disposal spring up at the turn of the century in large cities of Europe and North America. Technological advances continue during the first half of the century. Garbage grinders, compaction trucks, and pneumatic collection systems develop.|
|1930s||The Dumpster is introduced in the United States.|
|1940s||Disposal of packaging material increases by 67% after World War II as consumerism and obsolescence become entrenched in emerging developed countries.|
|1950s||Dempster develops as a refuse handling system. Rapid growth in global plastic production begins.|
|1960s||The first garbage bags meant for usage at homes appear during the decade. Also, the first automated vacuum collection system is created in Sweden.|
|1970s||Smaller dumpsters are introduced, often known as wheelie bins which are also emptied mechanically. In the mid-1970s Petersen Industries introduce the first grapple truck for municipal waste collection.|
|1990s||Garbage trucks technology changes dramatically. Societies start wasting food more than ever in the developed world.|
|Year||Waste type||Event type||Details|
|3000 BC||A landfill is developed in Knossos, Crete, with large holes dug for refuse. Garbage is dumped and filled with dirt at various levels.||Greece|
|2100 BC||System||The elite section in the city of Heraclopolis maintains a waste collection and disposal system.||Egypt|
|500 BC||Policy||A municipal dump is organized in Athens. Regulations require waste to be dumped at least a mile from the city limits.||Greece|
|1350||Policy||Britain makes a law mandating clean front yards. However, the law is not taken too seriously.||United Kingdom|
|1357||Policy||The city authorities of London forbid throwing rubbish, earth, gravel or dung into the Thames.||United Kingdom|
|1407||Policy||Britain passes a law declaring waste should be stored inside till rakers to remove it.||United Kingdom|
|1551||German papermaker Andreas Bernhart begins placing his paper in wrappers labeled with his name and address. This is the first recorded use of packaging.||Germany|
|1714||Policy||Every city in England is required to have an official scavenger.||United Kingdom|
|1751||English official Corbyn Morris in London proposes a uniform public management for cleaning the city in order to preserve the health of the people.||United Kingdom|
|1757||Service||The first municipal street–cleaning service in the United States is started in Philadelphia by Benjamin Franklin. During the same time period, American homes begin digging solid waste pits instead of throwing it out of doors and windows.||United States|
|1786||Service||A proper waste collection service is first instigated in the Cape Colony.||South Africa|
|1842||Publication||British Social reformer, Edwin Chadwick publishes report The Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population in which he argues for the importance of adequate waste removal and management facilities to improve the health and wellbeing of the city's population.||United Kingdom|
|1855||Background||The first human–made plastic is invented.|
|1869||Background||American John Hyatt starts producing "celluloid", thus giving birth to the plastics industry.||United States|
|1874||Publication||Edwin Chadwick writes his Report of an Inquiry into the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain, linking disease to filthy environmental conditions.|
|1874||Facility||The first incinerator is built in Nottingham by Manlove, Alliott & Co. Ltd.. This would mark a significant development in solid-waste treatment and disposal practices in the country.||United Kingdom|
|1884||System||Eugène Poubelle introduces the first integrated kerbside collection and recycling system, requiring residents to separate their waste into perishable items, paper and cloth, and crockery and shells. "He also established rules for how private collectors and city workers should cooperate and he developed standard dimensions for refuse containers: his name in France is now synonymous with the garbage can. Under Poubelle, food waste and other organics collected in Paris were transported to nearby Saint Ouen where they were composted. This continued well into the 20th century when plastics began to contaminate the waste stream."||France|
|1885||Facility||A waste incinerator is built in Governors Island, New York.||United States|
|1895||System||New York City becomes the first U.S. city with public-sector garbage management.||United States|
|1896||Cory Environmental||United Kingdom|
|1898||Organization||Chartered Institution of Wastes Management||United Kingdom|
|1907||The plastic is invented. "The first synthetic plastic — Bakelite — was produced in 1907, marking the beginning of the global plastics industry."|
|1912||British waste management Biffa is founded.||United Kingdom|
|1916||Technology||Cities in the United States begin switching from horse–drawn to motorized waste collection equipment.||United States|
|1920s||Technology||A dumping lever mechanism is introduced for garbage removal trucks.||United Kingdom|
|1920s||Using wetlands for disposal of waste become popular in the United States.||United States|
|1920s||Technology||Mechanical transport for solid waste management is introduced in South Africa.||South Africa|
|1930||Policy||The king of Patiala in India converts cars into garbage vehicles.||India|
|1934||Policy||The United States supreme court bans municipal waste dumping into oceans.||United States|
|1934||German Recycling and waste management company Remondis is founded.||Germany|
|1935||Background||The can of bear is first commercialized.||United States|
|1937||Technology||American businessman George Dempster invents the Dempster-Dumpster system in which wheeled waste containers are mechanically tipped into the truck. His containers become known as Dumpsters, entering the word to the language.||United States|
|1938||Technology||The Garwood Load Packer becomes the first truck to incorporate a hydraulic compactor. "In 1938, the Garwood Load Packer revolutionized the industry when the notion of including a compactor in the truck was implemented. The first primitive compactor could double a truck's capacity. This was made possible by use of a hydraulic press which compacted the contents of the truck periodically."|
|1938||Background||American phycisist Chester Carlson develops the Xerography process.||United States|
|1942||Technology||Low density polyethylene is invented.|
|1944||Background||Dow Chemical Company develops styrophoam.||United States|
|1949||Statistics||Over 2500 Garwood Load Packers are in use across the United States and Canada.||United States, Canada|
|1950||Technology||Canadian inventor Harry Wasylyk from Winnipeg invents the first garbage bag.||Canada|
|1952||Technology||American body builder Vincen Bowles, develops and sells a fixed-bucket front loader. The device would be subsequently modified to service detachable containers.||United States|
|1953||Keep America Beautiful||United States|
|1955||Technology||The Dempster Dumpmaster is introduced as the first front loader.|
|1956||Policy||The Clean Air Act is passed in Britain, replacing solid fuel for heating house by with gas and electricity.||United Kingdom|
|1960||Covanta Energy||United States|
|1960s||Technology||The first patents for residential garbage compactors are filed in the United States.||United States|
|1960–1965||Technology||The modern lightweight shopping bag is invented by Swedish engineer Sten Gustaf Thulin. This simple, strong bag with a high load carrying capacity is patented in 1965 by Celloplast, a producer of cellulose film based in Norrkoping.||Sweden|
|1961||Technology||The first vacuum waste system in the world is installed at Sollefteå Hospital in Sollefteå, Sweden.||Sweden|
|1965||Technology||The first vacuum system for household waste is installed in the new residential district of Ör-Hallonbergen, Sweden.||Sweden|
|1968||Waste Management ||United States|
|1968||Browning-Ferris Industries||United States|
|1970||Organization||The International Solid Waste Association is founded.|
|1970||Organization||Waste Industries||United States|
|1972||Organization||The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment is held in Stockholm, Sweden. This event is considered to mark a turning point in waste management.||Sweden|
|1973||Study (discipline)||Garbology, the study of modern refuse and trash as well as the use of trash cans, compactors and various types of trash can liners, is started as an academic discipline at the University of Arizona, originating from an idea of two students for a class project.||United States|
|1975||Policy||The waste hierarchy concept is introduced for the first time as a waste policy by The European Union’s Waste Framework Directive, emphasizing the importance of waste minimization, and the protection of the environment and human health, as a priority. Following the this Directive, the European Union policy and legislation would further adapt to the principles of the waste hierarchy.|
|1975||Australian waste management company Cleanaway is founded.||Australia|
|1975||American waste management company Casella Waste Systems is founded.||United States|
|1976||Policy||The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is enacted in the United States to close open dumps, create standards for landfills, incinerators and the disposal of hazardous waste. It is the principal federal law in the country governing the disposal of solid waste and hazardous waste.||United States|
|1976||Canadian waste-to-energy technology and engineering services company Himark BioGas is founded.||Canada|
|1977||Environmentalism||Organization||American environmental advocacy organization Californians Against Waste is founded.||United States|
|1980||Hazardous waste||Organization||Clean Harbors is founded. It provides hazardous waste disposal for companies.||United States|
|1988||Waste collection||Organization||Allied Waste Industries is founded. Its major business is waste collection and recycling.||United States|
|1989 (22 March)||Organization||The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal is adopted to stop movement of hazardous waste from one country to other country. 105 states sign the Final Act of the convention. ||Switzerland|
|1989||Organization||Clean Up Australia||Australia|
|1990||Statistics||Global municipal solid waste touches 1.3 billion metric tons.|
|1990||SA Waste Holdings||South Africa|
|1991||"In Switzerland, the first electronic waste recycling system was implemented in 1991, beginning with collection of old refrigerators; over the years, all other electric and electronic devices were gradually added to the system. The established producer responsibility organization is SWICO, mainly handling information, communication, and organization technology." The European Union implemented a similar system in February 2003, under the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE Directive, 2002/96/EC).||Switzerland|
|1992 (5 May)||Policy||The Basel Convention enters into force. Many countries pass legislations enlisting waste that cannot be imported into their territory.|
|1993||Organization||Environmental Waste Controls||United Kingdom|
|1997||Technology||Lee Rathbun introduces the Lightning Rear Steer System, which includes an elevated, rear-facing cab for both driving the truck and operating the loader. This configuration allows the operator to follow behind haul trucks and load continuously.|
|1997||Waste Connections||United States|
|1998||Republic Services||United States|
|2000||Statistics||Over 5,000 cities in the United States use Pay as you throw programs, which charge residents based on amounts of garbage they throw away.||United States|
|2000||Study||The United States Environmental Protection Agency confirms a link between global warming and waste, showing that reducing garbage and recycling cuts down greenhouse gas emissions.||United Sattes|
|2000||Policy||The Waste-Management Law is promulgated in Japan, requiring 3R components (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) measured in 10 industries and 69 product items, covering about 50% of the waste generated in the country.||Japan|
|2000||Waste & Resources Action Programme||United Kingdom|
|2000||Advanced Disposal Services||United States|
|2001||Policy||The Ecological Solid Waste Management Act is enacted by the Government of the Philippines, after collapse of dumpsite during the Payatas landslide resulted in over 200 deaths in 2000.||Philippines|
|2001||Waste Services Inc.|
|2002||Statistics||Total global solid waste touches nearly 12 billion tons, out of which 11 billion tons are from industrial wastes and 1.6 billion tons are municipal solid wastes.|
|2002||Organization||International Waste Working Group – IWWG|
|2003||Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive|
|2004||Study conducted at the University of Arizona indicates that 14 to 15% of United States edible food is untouched or unopened, amounting to $43 billion worth of discarded, but edible, food.|
|2006||Statistics||Electronic waste makes up 5% of the total solid waste stream.|
|2007||Policy||The Solid Waste Management (SWM) and Public Cleansing Act is enacted by the Government of Malaysia in order to federalize SWM and progress the nation to status of a developed country by 2020.||Malaysia|
|2007||Love Food, Hate Waste||United Kingdom|
|2007||Policy||San Francisco becomes the first city in the United States to prohibit the distribution of plastic bags by grocery stores."||United States|
|2008||Technology||French company Pellenc ST develops MIR (mid infrared) waste sorting technology, as a more efficient way to separate paper and cardboard.||France|
|2008||Statistics||389 million tonnes of municipal solid waste are generated in the United States during the year.||United States|
|2008||Waste Minimisation Act 2008||New Zealand|
|2008||Organization||Stop Wasting Food (In Danish Stop Spild af Mad) is founded by Russo-Danish activist Selina Juul as a consumer organization that works for the reduction of food waste in society.  Due to this movement, Denmark would achieve a national reduction in food waste by 25% in 5 years (2010–2015).||Denmark|
|2009||Statistics||Study estimates that from 20% to 40% of fruit and vegetables in the United Kingdom are rejected before they even reach retailers, as a result of high cosmetic standards.||United Kingdom|
|2009||Policy||A broad waste management act is introduced in South Africa, empowering the environment minister to require EPR measures on a product–by–product basis.||South Africa|
|2010||"plastic waste generated in coastal regions is most at risk of entering the oceans; in 2010 coastal plastic waste – generated within 50 kilometres of the coastline – amounted to 99.5 million tonnes"|
|2011||Technology||A RESEM pyrolysis plant becomes operational in Texas, processing up to 60 tons per day.||United States|
|2011||Study||Study estimates the total of global food loss and waste to around one third of the edible parts of food produced for human consumption, amounting to about 1.3 billion tonnes per year.|
|2011||Policy||The government of Zanzibar prohibits the use of plastic bags.||Tanzania|
|2012||European Week for Waste Reduction|
|2013||Publication||Global initiative D-Waste publishes the first Waste Atlas Report. Through this report the concept of the Waste Atlas and its main features are presented to the public.|
|2014||"More than 15 million tons of used textile waste is generated each year in the United States, and the amount has doubled over the last 20 years. In 2014, over 16 million tons of textile waste was generated, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. Of this amount, 2.62 million tons were recycled, 3.14 million tons were combusted for energy recovery, and 10.46 million tons were sent to the landfill. An average American throws away approximately 80 pounds of used clothing per person per year. On average, nationally, it costs cities $45 per ton to dispose of old clothing. Synthetic clothing may take hundreds of years to decompose."||United States|
|2014||Statistics||A National Geographic study indicates that more than 30% of the food in the United States, valued at $162 billion annually, isn't eaten.||United States|
|2014||Background||The plastic global production reaches 300 million tons. 40% by weight of world production takes place in Asia. North America and Europe cover each 20%.|
|2015||Policy||The first state-wide ban on plastic bags in grocery and convenience stores is enacted in California.||United States|
|2015||"In 2015, an estimated 55 percent of global plastic waste was discarded, 25 percent was incinerated, and 20 percent recycled."|
|2016||The Government of India launches a web application to track the status of various kinds of wastes generated in the country.||India|
|2016||Study||Japanese scientists discover a species of bacteria called ideonella sakainesis that eats plastics commonly found in water bottles by an enzyme that turns the Polyethylene terephthalate to generate an intermediate chemical which is taken up by the cell, then broken down even further giving the bacteria carbon and energy to grow.||Japan|
|2016||" The United Nations University reported that in 2016, the yearly worldwide accumulation of e-waste had reached 49.3 million tons. By 2021 it’s predicted this number reaches 57.5 million tons."|
|2016|| "EPA released significant findings on the economic benefits of the recycling industry with an update to the national Recycling Economic Information (REI) Study in 2016. This study analyzes the numbers of jobs, wages and tax revenues attributed to recycling. The study found that in a single year, recycling and reuse activities in the United States accounted for:
757,000 jobs $36.6 billion in wages; and $6.7 billion in tax revenues. This equates to 1.57 jobs, $76,000 in wages, and $14,101 in tax revenues for every 1,000 tons of materials recycled."
|2017||Study||Research team at Stanford University develops a flexible and biodegradable semiconductor that could help drastically decrease electronic waste in the future.||United states|
|2017||Statistics||Almost 50 million tons of electronic waste are thrown out, a 20% increase from 2015.|
|2018||Facility||A waste-to-energy plant is built in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. It is Africa’s first energy plant that converts trash into electricity.||Ethiopia|
|2018||"So the Chinese National Sword, which came into effect in February 2018 to ban imports of 24 types of waste material and set a tougher standard for contamination levels in others, has been regarded by many as a “catastrophe” that will have a “devastating impact” on global recycling." ". Since early 2018, China has banned many scrap materials and has not accepted others unless they meet an extremely strict contamination rate of 0.5 percent."||China|
|2020||"The amount of worldwide e-waste generation is expected to exceed 50 million tons by 2020, with an annual growth between 4% and 5%."|
|2021||"These short lifespans cause a high amount of e-waste. The United Nations University reported that in 2016, the yearly worldwide accumulation of e-waste had reached 49.3 million tons. By 2021 it’s predicted this number reaches 57.5 million tons."|
|2025||The global waste management market size is expected to reach US$484.9 billion from US$303.6 billion in 2017, rising at a CAGR of 6.0% from 2018 to 2025.|
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- Timeline of recycling
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- Timeline of hygiene
- Timeline of pollution
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