Difference between revisions of "Timeline of web search engines"

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This page provides a full '''timeline of web search engines''', starting from the [[wikipedia:Archie search engine|Archie search engine]] in 1990. It is complementary to the [[wikipedia:history of web search engines|history of web search engines]] page that provides more qualitative detail on the history.
 
This page provides a full '''timeline of web search engines''', starting from the [[wikipedia:Archie search engine|Archie search engine]] in 1990. It is complementary to the [[wikipedia:history of web search engines|history of web search engines]] page that provides more qualitative detail on the history.
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== Sample questions ==
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The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:
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* What are some historically significant search engines and when were they launched?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Search engine launch".
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** You will see the launch of search engines, notable for their historical importance like {{w|WebCrawler}}, or by their magnitude, like {{w|Google}} and {{w|Yahoo!}}.
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* What are some significant events illustrating the evolution of {{w|internet search}}?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Search evolution".
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** You will see the evolution of internet search toward {{w|mobile search}}, and the envisage of future mainstream search toward [[w:voice search|voice]].
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* What are some numbers illustrating the evolution of search engine?
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** Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Statistics".
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** For internet userbase evolution, sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Statistics (internet userbase)".
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==Big picture==
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{| class="wikitable"
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! Time period !! Development summary !! More details
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|-
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| || Pre-web search engine period ||
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|-
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| || web search engine period ||
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|-
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| || Google period ||
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|-
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|}
  
 
==Full timeline==
 
==Full timeline==
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| 1945 || || Concept development || American engineer {{w|Vannevar Bush}} introduces the concept of “collection of data and observations, the extraction of parallel material from the existing record, and the final insertion of new material into the general body of the common record.”<ref name="amcodigital.com">{{cite web |title=THE HISTORY OF SEO (SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMIZATION) |url=https://www.amcodigital.com/history-of-seo/ |website=amcodigital.com |accessdate=7 January 2020}}</ref> Bush emphasizes the necessity for an expansive index for all knowledge, stating: "[Information] has been extended far beyond our present ability to make real use of the record. A record, if it is to be useful to science, must be continuously extended, it must be stored...Our ineptitude in getting at the record is largely caused by the artificiality of the systems of indexing. The human mind does not work this way. It operates by association."<ref name="whatisseo.comd">{{cite web |title=History of Search Engines |url=https://www.whatisseo.com/history-of-search-engines.html |website=whatisseo.com |accessdate=7 January 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Pariser |first1=Eli |title=The Filter Bubble: What The Internet Is Hiding From You |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=-FWO0puw3nYC&pg=PT165&dq=vannevar+bush+1945+collection+of+data&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjnm735idToAhXtIbkGHfNICPgQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=vannevar%20bush%201945%20collection%20of%20data&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Miller |first1=Gary |last2=Benke |first2=Meg |last3=Chaloux |first3=Bruce |last4=Ragan |first4=Lawrence C. |last5=Schroeder |first5=Raymond |last6=Smutz |first6=Wayne |last7=Swan |first7=Karen |title=Leading the e-Learning Transformation of Higher Education: Meeting the Challenges of Technology and Distance Education |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=6jeFAwAAQBAJ&pg=PT84&dq=vannevar+bush+1945+collection+of+data&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjnm735idToAhXtIbkGHfNICPgQ6AEISjAE#v=onepage&q=vannevar%20bush%201945%20collection%20of%20data&f=false}}</ref>   
 
| 1945 || || Concept development || American engineer {{w|Vannevar Bush}} introduces the concept of “collection of data and observations, the extraction of parallel material from the existing record, and the final insertion of new material into the general body of the common record.”<ref name="amcodigital.com">{{cite web |title=THE HISTORY OF SEO (SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMIZATION) |url=https://www.amcodigital.com/history-of-seo/ |website=amcodigital.com |accessdate=7 January 2020}}</ref> Bush emphasizes the necessity for an expansive index for all knowledge, stating: "[Information] has been extended far beyond our present ability to make real use of the record. A record, if it is to be useful to science, must be continuously extended, it must be stored...Our ineptitude in getting at the record is largely caused by the artificiality of the systems of indexing. The human mind does not work this way. It operates by association."<ref name="whatisseo.comd">{{cite web |title=History of Search Engines |url=https://www.whatisseo.com/history-of-search-engines.html |website=whatisseo.com |accessdate=7 January 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Pariser |first1=Eli |title=The Filter Bubble: What The Internet Is Hiding From You |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=-FWO0puw3nYC&pg=PT165&dq=vannevar+bush+1945+collection+of+data&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjnm735idToAhXtIbkGHfNICPgQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=vannevar%20bush%201945%20collection%20of%20data&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Miller |first1=Gary |last2=Benke |first2=Meg |last3=Chaloux |first3=Bruce |last4=Ragan |first4=Lawrence C. |last5=Schroeder |first5=Raymond |last6=Smutz |first6=Wayne |last7=Swan |first7=Karen |title=Leading the e-Learning Transformation of Higher Education: Meeting the Challenges of Technology and Distance Education |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=6jeFAwAAQBAJ&pg=PT84&dq=vannevar+bush+1945+collection+of+data&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjnm735idToAhXtIbkGHfNICPgQ6AEISjAE#v=onepage&q=vannevar%20bush%201945%20collection%20of%20data&f=false}}</ref>   
 
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| 1987 || || [[w:Archie (search engine)|Archie]] || Early development || Search engine [[w:Archie (search engine)|Archie]] begins as a project for students and staff at {{w|McGill University}}, with aims to connect the McGill University School of Computer Science to the internet.<ref name="tellmeyourgoal.coms">{{cite web |title=The History of Search Engine Optimization |url=https://www.tellmeyourgoal.com/the-history-of-search-engine-optimization |website=tellmeyourgoal.com |accessdate=10 January 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=ARCHIE SEARCH ENGINE FROM MCGILL UNIVERSITY |url=http://www.historyofdomainnames.com/archie/ |website=historyofdomainnames.com |accessdate=6 April 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=ARCHIE SEARCH ENGINE |url=http://community.worldheritage.org/articles/eng/Archie_search_engine |website=worldheritage.org |accessdate=6 April 2020}}</ref>   
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| 1987 || || Pre-web search engine || Search engine [[w:Archie (search engine)|Archie]] begins as a project for students and staff at {{w|McGill University}}, with aims to connect the McGill University School of Computer Science to the internet.<ref name="tellmeyourgoal.coms">{{cite web |title=The History of Search Engine Optimization |url=https://www.tellmeyourgoal.com/the-history-of-search-engine-optimization |website=tellmeyourgoal.com |accessdate=10 January 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=ARCHIE SEARCH ENGINE FROM MCGILL UNIVERSITY |url=http://www.historyofdomainnames.com/archie/ |website=historyofdomainnames.com |accessdate=6 April 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=ARCHIE SEARCH ENGINE |url=http://community.worldheritage.org/articles/eng/Archie_search_engine |website=worldheritage.org |accessdate=6 April 2020}}</ref>   
 
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| 1990 || || Pre-web search engine || The [[wikipedia:Archie search engine|Archie search engine]], created by [[wikipedia:Alan Emtage|Alan Emtage]], Bill Heelan and J. Peter Deutsch, computer science students at [[wikipedia:McGill University|McGill University]]  in [[wikipedia:Montreal|Montreal]], goes live. The program downloads the directory listings of all the files located on public anonymous FTP ([[wikipedia:File Transfer Protocol|File Transfer Protocol]]) sites, creates a searchable database of a lot of  file names; however, Archie does not index the contents of these sites since the amount of data is so limited it can be readily searched manually.<ref>{{ cite web | title = The First Search Engine, Archie | url = http://www.isrl.uiuc.edu/~chip/projects/timeline/1990archie.htm | accessdate = 2007-05-26 | archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20070621141150/http://isrl.uiuc.edu/~chip/projects/timeline/1990archie.htm| archivedate= 21 June 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref><ref>{{ cite web | title = In Russian: History of the Internet. The First Search Engine | url = http://www.xserver.ru/computer/nets/internet/196/ | accessdate = 2012-02-23 }}</ref><ref name=seh/><ref name=internetseh>{{cite web|url=http://www.wordstream.com/articles/internet-search-engines-history|title = History of Search Engines - Chronological List of Internet Search Engines|accessdate = February 3, 2014}}</ref>
 
| 1990 || || Pre-web search engine || The [[wikipedia:Archie search engine|Archie search engine]], created by [[wikipedia:Alan Emtage|Alan Emtage]], Bill Heelan and J. Peter Deutsch, computer science students at [[wikipedia:McGill University|McGill University]]  in [[wikipedia:Montreal|Montreal]], goes live. The program downloads the directory listings of all the files located on public anonymous FTP ([[wikipedia:File Transfer Protocol|File Transfer Protocol]]) sites, creates a searchable database of a lot of  file names; however, Archie does not index the contents of these sites since the amount of data is so limited it can be readily searched manually.<ref>{{ cite web | title = The First Search Engine, Archie | url = http://www.isrl.uiuc.edu/~chip/projects/timeline/1990archie.htm | accessdate = 2007-05-26 | archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20070621141150/http://isrl.uiuc.edu/~chip/projects/timeline/1990archie.htm| archivedate= 21 June 2007 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref><ref>{{ cite web | title = In Russian: History of the Internet. The First Search Engine | url = http://www.xserver.ru/computer/nets/internet/196/ | accessdate = 2012-02-23 }}</ref><ref name=seh/><ref name=internetseh>{{cite web|url=http://www.wordstream.com/articles/internet-search-engines-history|title = History of Search Engines - Chronological List of Internet Search Engines|accessdate = February 3, 2014}}</ref>
 
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| 1991 || || Pre-web search engine || The rise of [[wikipedia:Gopher (protocol)|Gopher]] (created in 1991 by [[wikipedia:Mark McCahill|Mark McCahill]]  at the [[wikipedia:University of Minnesota|University of Minnesota]]) leads to two new search programs, [[wikipedia:Veronica (computer)|Veronica]]  and [[wikipedia:Jughead (computer)|Jughead]]. Like Archie, they search the file names and titles stored in Gopher index systems. Veronica (''V''ery ''E''asy ''R''odent-''O''riented ''N''et-wide ''I''ndex to ''C''omputerized ''A''rchives) provides a keyword search of most Gopher menu titles in the entire Gopher listings. Jughead (''J''onzy's ''U''niversal ''G''opher ''H''ierarchy ''E''xcavation ''A''nd ''D''isplay) is a tool for obtaining menu information from specific Gopher servers.  While the name of the search engine "Archie" was not a reference to the [[wikipedia:Archie Comics|Archie comic book]] series, "[[wikipedia:Veronica Lodge|Veronica]]" and "[[wikipedia:Jughead Jones|Jughead]]" are characters in the series, thus referencing their predecessor.<ref name=seh>{{Cite web|url=http://www.searchenginehistory.com/|title = Search Engine History|accessdate = February 3, 2014}}</ref>
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| 1991 || || Pre-web search engine || The rise of [[wikipedia:Gopher (protocol)|Gopher]] (created in 1991 by [[wikipedia:Mark McCahill|Mark McCahill]]  at the [[wikipedia:University of Minnesota|University of Minnesota]]) leads to two new search programs, [[wikipedia:Veronica (computer)|Veronica]]  and [[wikipedia:Jughead (computer)|Jughead]]. Like Archie, they search the file names and titles stored in Gopher index systems. Veronica (''V''ery ''E''asy ''R''odent-''O''riented ''N''et-wide ''I''ndex to ''C''omputerized ''A''rchives) provides a keyword search of most Gopher menu titles in the entire Gopher listings. Jughead (''J''onzy's ''U''niversal ''G''opher ''H''ierarchy ''E''xcavation ''A''nd ''D''isplay) is a tool for obtaining menu information from specific Gopher servers.  While the name of the search engine "Archie" was not a reference to the [[wikipedia:Archie Comics|Archie comic book]] series, "[[wikipedia:Veronica Lodge|Veronica]]" and "[[wikipedia:Jughead Jones|Jughead]]" are characters in the series, thus referencing their predecessor.<ref name=seh>{{Cite web|url=http://www.searchenginehistory.com/|title = Search Engine History|accessdate = February 3, 2014}}</ref> Gopher is considered to be the first search engine using a hypertext paradigm.<ref name="thehistoryofseo.com">{{cite web |title=The History of Search Engine Optimization |url=http://www.thehistoryofseo.com/The-Industry/The_History_of_Search_Engine_Optimization.aspx|website=thehistoryofseo.com |accessdate=6 January 2020}}</ref> A step toward the {{w|World Wide Web}} hypertext transfer protocol ({{w|HTTP}}), it would become popular for several years, because it provides a way to share text files from all over the world.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Kent |first1=Allen |title=Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science: Volume 71 - Supplement 34 |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=saa39p6C538C&pg=PA148&lpg=PA148&dq=%22Gopher+was+a%22&source=bl&ots=qVqIqoC2jc&sig=ACfU3U0DyZVfruHDKqZWjJ42nsJ3rRX2rg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjlrIa43ovpAhWnKrkGHSrqCWwQ6AEwDHoECAwQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22Gopher%20was%20a%22&f=false}}</ref>
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| 1991 || || || English computer scientist {{w|Tim Berners-Lee}} in {{w|Geneva}} launches his WWW Virtual Library <code>vlib.org</code>. It is considered the oldest catalog on the [[w:World Wide Web|Web]].<ref name="wordstream.come">{{cite web |title=THE HISTORY OF SEARCH ENGINES |url=https://www.wordstream.com/articles/internet-search-engines-history |website=wordstream.com |accessdate=7 January 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Van Rys |first1=John |last2=Meyer |first2=Verne |last3=Sebranek |first3=Patrick |title=The Research Writer, Spiral bound Version |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=g4HP5TIs2-cC&pg=PA84&dq=Tim+Berners-Lee+set+up+a+Virtual+Library+%221991%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi2l_vUlNToAhXTILkGHRNVD5IQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=Tim%20Berners-Lee%20set%20up%20a%20Virtual%20Library%20%221991%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Scheeren |first1=William O. |title=The Hidden Web: A Sourcebook |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=KgTqbPXQqroC&pg=PA46&dq=Tim+Berners-Lee+set+up+a+Virtual+Library+%221991%22+vlib.org&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjCgvDOltToAhWNI7kGHTwQCDIQ6AEIMzAB#v=onepage&q=Tim%20Berners-Lee%20set%20up%20a%20Virtual%20Library%20%221991%22%20vlib.org&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Tortosa |first1=Virgilio |title=Escrituras digitales: tecnologías de la creación en la era virtual |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=5UF-g_q2rqQC&pg=PA179&dq=Tim+Berners-Lee+set+up+a+Virtual+Library+%221991%22+vlib.org&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjCgvDOltToAhWNI7kGHTwQCDIQ6AEIPDAC#v=onepage&q=Tim%20Berners-Lee%20set%20up%20a%20Virtual%20Library%20%221991%22%20vlib.org&f=false}}</ref> 
 
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| 1992 || || Virtual library of the web || [[wikipedia:Timothy Berners-Lee|Timothy Berners-Lee]] sets up the [[wikipedia:Virtual Library|Virtual Library]] (VLib), a loose confederation of topical experts maintaining relevant topical link lists.<ref name=seh/><ref name=internetseh/>
 
| 1992 || || Virtual library of the web || [[wikipedia:Timothy Berners-Lee|Timothy Berners-Lee]] sets up the [[wikipedia:Virtual Library|Virtual Library]] (VLib), a loose confederation of topical experts maintaining relevant topical link lists.<ref name=seh/><ref name=internetseh/>
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| 1993 || February || Early development || Six Stanford students create Architext, a project seeking to use statistical analysis of word relationships to improve relevancy of searches on the Internet. Architext would later become the search engine {{w|Excite}}.<ref name="thehistoryofseo.com"/>  Excite would revolutionize how information is categorized, making it easier to find information “by sorting results based on keywords found within content and backend optimization.”<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO">{{cite web |title=A Brief History of Search & SEO |url=https://blog.hubspot.com/marketing/a-brief-history-of-search-seo |website=blog.hubspot.com |accessdate=6 January 2020}}</ref><ref name="bluefrogdm.coms"/><ref>{{cite book |last1=Livingston |first1=Jessica |title=Founders at Work: Stories of Startups' Early Days |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=ktm885vGIXEC&pg=PA61&dq=%22architext%22+%221993%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiWiPeJsdToAhXPFbkGHU-sCR4Q6AEIPzAD#v=onepage&q=%22architext%22%20%221993%22&f=false}}</ref>
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| 1993 || April 22 || || The graphical Mosaic web browser improves [[w:Gopher (protocol)|Gopher]]’s primarily text-based interface.<ref name="thehistoryofseo.com"/> Mosaic is considered the first popular graphical web browser.<ref>{{cite web |title=Happy birthday, Mosaic: 20 years of the graphical web browser |url=https://www.zdnet.com/article/happy-birthday-mosaic-20-years-of-the-graphical-web-browser/ |website=zdnet.com |accessdate=28 June 2020}}</ref>
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| 1993 || June || Early development || Matthew Gray at {{w|MIT}} develops the {{w|World Wide Web Wanderer}}, which is considered the first web crawler to measure the size of the Web.<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/><ref name="wordstream.come"/><ref name="seo.comf"/> 
 
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| 1993 || June || First [[wikipedia:web robot|web robot]] || [[wikipedia:Matthew K. Gray|Matthew Gray]] produces the first known [[wikipedia:web robot|web robot]], the [[wikipedia:Perl|Perl]]-based [[wikipedia:World Wide Web Wanderer|World Wide Web Wanderer]], and uses it to generate an index of the web called the Wandex.<ref name=seh/><ref name=internetseh/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mit.edu/~mkgray/net/background.html|title = Internet Growth and Statistics: Credit and Background|last = Gray|first = Matthew|accessdate = February 3, 2014}}</ref> However, the World Wide Web Wanderer is intended only to measure the size of the web rather than to facilitate search.
 
| 1993 || June || First [[wikipedia:web robot|web robot]] || [[wikipedia:Matthew K. Gray|Matthew Gray]] produces the first known [[wikipedia:web robot|web robot]], the [[wikipedia:Perl|Perl]]-based [[wikipedia:World Wide Web Wanderer|World Wide Web Wanderer]], and uses it to generate an index of the web called the Wandex.<ref name=seh/><ref name=internetseh/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mit.edu/~mkgray/net/background.html|title = Internet Growth and Statistics: Credit and Background|last = Gray|first = Matthew|accessdate = February 3, 2014}}</ref> However, the World Wide Web Wanderer is intended only to measure the size of the web rather than to facilitate search.
 
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| 1993 || September 2 || First web search engine || [[wikipedia:W3Catalog|W3Catalog]], written by [[wikipedia:Oscar Nierstrasz|Oscar Nierstrasz]] at the [[wikipedia:University of Geneva|University of Geneva]], is released to the world. It is the world's first web search engine. It does not rely on a crawler and indexer but rather on already existing high-quality lists of websites. One of its main drawbacks is that the bot accesses each page hundreds of times each day, causing performance degradation.<ref name=seh/><ref name=internetseh/><ref name="history">{{cite web |url=http://scg.unibe.ch/archive/software/w3catalog/|title=W3 Catalog History}}</ref><ref name="virtual">{{cite web|url=http://www-ksl.stanford.edu/people/gruber/virtual-documents-htw/|title=Virtual documents that explain How Things Work: Dynamically generated question-answering documents|author=Thomas R. Gruber, Sunil Vemuri and James Rice|date=December 1995|publisher=Knowledge Systems Laboratory, Stanford University}}</ref>
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| 1993 || September 2 || First web search engine || [[wikipedia:W3Catalog|W3Catalog]], written by [[wikipedia:Oscar Nierstrasz|Oscar Nierstrasz]] at the [[wikipedia:University of Geneva|University of Geneva]], is released to the world. It is the world's first web search engine. It does not rely on a crawler and indexer but rather on already existing high-quality lists of websites. One of its main drawbacks is that the bot accesses each page hundreds of times each day, causing performance degradation.<ref name=seh/><ref name=internetseh/><ref name="history">{{cite web |url=http://scg.unibe.ch/archive/software/w3catalog/|title=W3 Catalog History}}</ref><ref name="virtual">{{cite web|url=http://www-ksl.stanford.edu/people/gruber/virtual-documents-htw/|title=Virtual documents that explain How Things Work: Dynamically generated question-answering documents|author=Thomas R. Gruber, Sunil Vemuri and James Rice|date=December 1995|publisher=Knowledge Systems Laboratory, Stanford University}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=First Search Engine |url=https://thisdayintechhistory.com/09/02/first-search-engine/|website=thisdayintechhistory.com |accessdate=10 April 2020}}</ref>
 
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| 1993 || October/November || Second web search engine || [[wikipedia:Aliweb|Aliweb]], a web search engine created by [[wikipedia:Martijn Koster|Martijn Koster]], is announced. It does not use a web robot, but instead depends on being notified by website administrators of the existence at each site of an index file in a particular format. The absence of a bot means that less bandwidth is used; however, most website administrators are not aware of the need to submit their data.<ref name=seh/><ref name=internetseh/>
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| 1993 || October/November || Second web search engine || [[wikipedia:Aliweb|Aliweb]], a web search engine created by [[wikipedia:Martijn Koster|Martijn Koster]], is announced. It does not use a web robot, but instead depends on being notified by website administrators of the existence at each site of an index file in a particular format. The absence of a bot means that less bandwidth is used; however, most website administrators are not aware of the need to submit their data.<ref name=seh/><ref name=internetseh/><ref>{{cite book |last1=Maze |first1=Susan |last2=Moxley |first2=David |last3=Smith |first3=Donna J. |title=Authoritative Guide to Web Search Engines |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=ZkxqAAAAMAAJ&q=%22Aliweb%22+%221993%22&dq=%22Aliweb%22+%221993%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjUwJaDttToAhUiHbkGHb6JDMsQ6AEIYzAH}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Auxiliar Administrativo. Servicio Canario de Salud. SCS. Temario Vol. II. |edition=Editorial CEP |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=7y-xDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA326&dq=%22Aliweb%22+%221993%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjUwJaDttToAhUiHbkGHb6JDMsQ6AEIODAC#v=onepage&q=%22Aliweb%22%20%221993%22&f=false}}</ref><ref name="ddd">{{cite book |title=Enhancing the Power of the Internet |edition=Masoud Nikravesh, Ben Azvine, Ronald R. Yager, Lofti A. Zadeh |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=R2f8CAAAQBAJ&pg=PA17&dq=%22Aliweb%22+%221993%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjUwJaDttToAhUiHbkGHb6JDMsQ6AEIMDAB#v=onepage&q=%22Aliweb%22%20%221993%22&f=false}}</ref> 
 
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| 1993 || December || First web search engine to use a crawler and indexer || [[wikipedia:JumpStation|JumpStation]], created by [[wikipedia:Jonathon Fletcher|Jonathon Fletcher]], is released. It is the first WWW resource-discovery tool to combine the three essential features of a web search engine (crawling, indexing, and searching).<ref name=seh/><ref name=internetseh/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://metro.co.uk/2009/03/15/why-we-nearly-mcgoogled-it-545208/|title = Why we nearly McGoogled it|date = March 15, 2009|accessdate = February 3, 2014|publisher = ''Metro''}}</ref>
 
| 1993 || December || First web search engine to use a crawler and indexer || [[wikipedia:JumpStation|JumpStation]], created by [[wikipedia:Jonathon Fletcher|Jonathon Fletcher]], is released. It is the first WWW resource-discovery tool to combine the three essential features of a web search engine (crawling, indexing, and searching).<ref name=seh/><ref name=internetseh/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://metro.co.uk/2009/03/15/why-we-nearly-mcgoogled-it-545208/|title = Why we nearly McGoogled it|date = March 15, 2009|accessdate = February 3, 2014|publisher = ''Metro''}}</ref>
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| 1993 || || Statistics || There are approximately 600 websites online at the time.<ref name="seo.comf"/><ref name="William R."/> 
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| 1993 || || Statistics (internet userbase) || The are about 10 million internet users at the time.<ref name="seo.comf"/> 
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|-
 +
| 1994 || January || Search engine launch || {{w|Stanford University}} students {{w|Jerry Wang}} and {{w|David Filo}} create {{w|Yahoo!}} in a campus trailer. Yahoo starts originally as an Internet bookmark list and directory of interesting sites. Webmasters have to manually submit their page to the Yahoo directory for indexing so that it would be there for Yahoo to find when someone performed a search.<ref>{{cite book |last1=So |first1=Shermon |last2=Westland |first2=J.Christopher |title=Red Wired: China’s Internet revolution |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=vbqIAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA1&dq=%22yahoo%22+%221994%22+%22wang%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwidqce2vtToAhX4HLkGHcw-BL4Q6AEIVDAF#v=onepage&q=%22yahoo%22%20%221994%22%20%22wang%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Huff |first1=Priscilla Y |title=Business and Industry |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=mywYAAAAIAAJ&q=%22yahoo%22+%221994%22+%22wang%22+%22filo%22&dq=%22yahoo%22+%221994%22+%22wang%22+%22filo%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiNs-HSvtToAhWNErkGHVkZBGkQ6AEIKDAA}}</ref><ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref name="wordstream.come"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1994 || January || New web search engine || [[wikipedia:Infoseek|Infoseek]] is launched.<ref name=seh/><ref name=internetseh/>
 
| 1994 || January || New web search engine || [[wikipedia:Infoseek|Infoseek]] is launched.<ref name=seh/><ref name=internetseh/>
Line 37: Line 78:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1994 || July || New web search engine || [[wikipedia:Lycos|Lycos]], a web search engine, is released.<ref name=internetseh/> It began as a research project by [[wikipedia:Michael Loren Mauldin|Michael Loren Mauldin]] of [[wikipedia:Carnegie Mellon University|Carnegie Mellon University's]] main [[wikipedia:Pittsburgh|Pittsburgh]] campus.
 
| 1994 || July || New web search engine || [[wikipedia:Lycos|Lycos]], a web search engine, is released.<ref name=internetseh/> It began as a research project by [[wikipedia:Michael Loren Mauldin|Michael Loren Mauldin]] of [[wikipedia:Carnegie Mellon University|Carnegie Mellon University's]] main [[wikipedia:Pittsburgh|Pittsburgh]] campus.
 +
|-
 +
| 1994 || || Statistics || The number of websites grows to 10,000, up from 600 websites in 1993.<ref name="William R."/> 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1995 || || New web directory || [[wikipedia:LookSmart|LookSmart]] is released. It competes with [[wikipedia:Yahoo!|Yahoo!]] as a web directory, and the competition makes both directories more inclusive.
 
| 1995 || || New web directory || [[wikipedia:LookSmart|LookSmart]] is released. It competes with [[wikipedia:Yahoo!|Yahoo!]] as a web directory, and the competition makes both directories more inclusive.
 
|-
 
|-
| 1996 || January–March|| New web search engine || [[wikipedia:Larry Page|Larry Page]] and [[wikipedia:Sergey Brin|Sergey Brin]] begin working on [[wikipedia:BackRub|BackRub]], the predecessor to [[wikipedia:Google Search|Google Search]]. The crawler begins activity in March.<ref name=internetseh/>
+
| 1995 || Late year || Search engine launch || {{w|Excite}} is commercially released as a crawling search engine.<ref name="thehistoryofseo.com"/><ref>{{cite book |last1=DESAI |first1=SANDEEP |last2=SRIVASTAVA |first2=ABHISHEK |title=SOFTWARE TESTING : A Practical Approach |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=B4sQDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA280&dq=Excite+1995&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwibwo7-pNToAhVFE7kGHU08B3kQ6AEIQjAD#v=onepage&q=Excite%201995&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Comm |first1=Joel |title=Click Here to Order: Stories of the World's Most Successful Internet Marketing Entrepreneurs |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=YkEdWYvuUk8C&pg=PA263&dq=Excite+1995&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwibwo7-pNToAhVFE7kGHU08B3kQ6AEIUjAF#v=onepage&q=Excite%201995&f=false}}</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| 1995 || || Statistics || The number of websites grows to 100,000, up from 10,000 websites in 1994.<ref name="William R."/> 
 +
|-
 +
| 1996 || January–March || Search engine launch || {{w|Stanford University}} students {{w|Larry Page}} and {{w|Sergey Brin}} build and test [[w:BackRub (search engine)|Backrub]], a new search engine that ranks sites based on inbound link relevancy and popularity. The crawler begins activity in March.<ref name=internetseh/> Backrub would ultimately become {{w|Google}}.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Breverton |first1=Terry |title=Breverton's Encyclopedia of Inventions: A Compendium of Technological Leaps, Groundbreaking Discoveries and Scientific Breakthroughs that Changed the World |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=VepgBQAAQBAJ&pg=PT559&dq=backrub+1996&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjSo8P3qNToAhVUDrkGHd4jBoYQ6AEIMTAB#v=onepage&q=backrub%201996&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=MIRANDA GONZALEZ |first1=FRANCISCO JAVIER |last2=RUBIO LACOBA |first2=SERGIO |last3=CHAMORRO MERA |first3=ANTONIO |title=Dirección de operaciones. Casos prácticos y recursos didácticos |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=N9r7CAAAQBAJ&pg=PA105&dq=backrub+1996&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjSo8P3qNToAhVUDrkGHd4jBoYQ6AEIQzAD#v=onepage&q=backrub%201996&f=false}}</ref><ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref name="seo.comf"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1996 || May || New web search engine || [[wikipedia:Inktomi|Inktomi]] releases its [[wikipedia:HotBot|HotBot]] search engine.<ref name=internetseh/>
+
| 1996 || May || New web search engine || [[wikipedia:Inktomi|Inktomi]] releases its [[wikipedia:HotBot|HotBot]] search engine.<ref name=internetseh/><ref name="tellmeyourgoal.coms"/>  
 
|-
 
|-
| 1997 || April || New natural language-based web search engine || [[wikipedia:Ask Jeeves|Ask Jeeves]], a natural language web search engine, that aims to rank links by popularity, is released. It would later become [[wikipedia:Ask.com|Ask.com]].<ref name=internetseh/><ref name=official-google-history>{{cite web|url=https://www.google.com/about/company/history/|title = Our history in depth|publisher = [[wikipedia:Google|Google]]|date = September 15, 1997|accessdate = February 1, 2014}}</ref>
+
| 1996 || || Statistics || The number of websites grows to 650,000, up from 100,000 websites in 1995.<ref name="seo.comf"/><ref name="William R."/> 
 +
|-
 +
| 1996 || || Statistics (internet userbase) || The are about 74 million internet users at this time.<ref name="seo.comf"/> 
 +
|-
 +
| 1996 || || || A search engine called "{{w|RankDex}}" from IDD Information Services, designed by {{w|Robin Li}}, launches, providing a strategy for site-scoring and page-ranking.<ref>{{cite journal |last= Li |first= Yanhong |date= August 6, 2002 |title= Toward a qualitative search engine |journal=IEEE Internet Computing |volume= 2 |issue= 4 |pages= 24–29 |doi= 10.1109/4236.707687}}</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| 1997 || April || New natural language-based web search engine || [[wikipedia:Ask Jeeves|Ask Jeeves]], a natural language web search engine, that aims to rank links by popularity, is released. It would later become [[wikipedia:Ask.com|Ask.com]].<ref name=internetseh/><ref name=official-google-history>{{cite web|url=https://www.google.com/about/company/history/|title = Our history in depth|publisher = [[wikipedia:Google|Google]]|date = September 15, 1997|accessdate = February 1, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Sajja |first1=Priti Srinivas |last2=Akerkar |first2=Rajendra |title=Intelligent Technologies for Web Applications |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=f_7RBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA88&dq=%22Ask+Jeeves%22+%22in+1997%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj35ryevNToAhXYCrkGHfJmD80Q6AEIMDAB#v=onepage&q=%22Ask%20Jeeves%22%20%22in%201997%22&f=false}}</ref> AskJeeves later becomes [[w:Ask.com|<code>ask.com</code>]].<ref name="seo.comf"/><ref name="tellmeyourgoal.coms"/><ref name="ddd"/> 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1998 || July–September || New web search portal || [[wikipedia:MSN|MSN]] launches a search portal called MSN Search, using search results from [[wikipedia:Inktomi|Inktomi]]. After many changes to the backend search engine, MSN would start developing in-house search technology in 2005, and later change its name to [[wikipedia:Bing (search engine)|Bing]] in June 2009.
 
| 1998 || July–September || New web search portal || [[wikipedia:MSN|MSN]] launches a search portal called MSN Search, using search results from [[wikipedia:Inktomi|Inktomi]]. After many changes to the backend search engine, MSN would start developing in-house search technology in 2005, and later change its name to [[wikipedia:Bing (search engine)|Bing]] in June 2009.
Line 50: Line 103:
 
| 1997 || September 15 || New web search engine || The domain Google.com is registered.<ref name=official-google-history/> Soon, Google Search is available to the public from this domain (around 1998).
 
| 1997 || September 15 || New web search engine || The domain Google.com is registered.<ref name=official-google-history/> Soon, Google Search is available to the public from this domain (around 1998).
 
|-
 
|-
| 1997 || September 23 || New web search engine (non-English) || [[wikipedia:Arkady Volozh|Arkady Volozh]] and [[wikipedia:Ilya Segalovich|Ilya Segalovich]] launch their [[wikipedia:Russian (language)|Russian]] web search engine yandex.ru and publicly present it at the Softool exhibition in Moscow. The initial development is by Comptek; Yandex would become a separate company in 2000.<ref name="yandexcomhistory">[http://company.yandex.com/general_info/history.xml About Yandex &mdash; History of Yandex]. Retrieved May 24, 2011. [http://www.webcitation.org/5yvl8XgIr Archived copy].</ref>
+
| 1997 || September 23 || New web search engine (non-English) || [[wikipedia:Arkady Volozh|Arkady Volozh]] and [[wikipedia:Ilya Segalovich|Ilya Segalovich]] launch their [[wikipedia:Russian (language)|Russian]] web search engine yandex.ru and publicly present it at the Softool exhibition in Moscow. The initial development is by Comptek; Yandex would become a separate company in 2000.<ref name="yandexcomhistory">[http://company.yandex.com/general_info/history.xml About Yandex &mdash; History of Yandex]. Retrieved May 24, 2011. [http://www.webcitation.org/5yvl8XgIr Archived copy].</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Hidden Champions in CEE and Turkey: Carving Out a Global Niche |edition=Peter McKiernan, Danica Purg |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=PGi4BAAAQBAJ&pg=PA300&lpg=PA300&dq=%22Yandex+Search%22+%22september+23%22&source=bl&ots=1fQcDh-YcJ&sig=ACfU3U0WxatvZ4q6wbel4tAr59N4KAbUWQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjZxYvk1ovpAhWQGbkGHVBvCWYQ6AEwAHoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22Yandex%20Search%22%20%22september%2023%22&f=false}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Johnsen |first1=Maria |title=Multilingual Digital Marketing: Become The Market Leader |url=https://books.google.com.ar/books?id=vjOMCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA84&lpg=PA84&dq=%22Yandex+Search%22+%22september+23%22&source=bl&ots=8YgZ-E7AaI&sig=ACfU3U13sMAd0kRIllCx0hKkNrHo-mZcTQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjZxYvk1ovpAhWQGbkGHVBvCWYQ6AEwAXoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=%22Yandex%20Search%22%20%22september%2023%22&f=false}}</ref> It is Russia’s largest search engine.<ref name="seo.comf"/> 
 +
|-
 +
| 1997 || || Statistics || The number of websites surpasses 1,000,000, up from 650,000 websites in 1996.<ref name="William R."/><ref name="seo.comf"/> 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1998 || June 5 || New web directory || Gnuhoo, a web directory project by [[wikipedia:Rich Skrenta|Rich Skrenta]] and [[wikipedia:Bob Truel|Bob Truel]], both employees of [[wikipedia:Sun Microsystems|Sun Microsystems]], launches.<ref name=internetseh/><ref name="SlashdotGnuhoo">{{cite web|url=http://slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=98/06/23/0849239| accessdate = April 27, 2007|work=[[wikipedia:Slashdot|Slashdot]] | title=The GnuHoo BooBoo}}</ref> It would later be renamed the [[wikipedia:Open Directory Project|Open Directory Project]].
 
| 1998 || June 5 || New web directory || Gnuhoo, a web directory project by [[wikipedia:Rich Skrenta|Rich Skrenta]] and [[wikipedia:Bob Truel|Bob Truel]], both employees of [[wikipedia:Sun Microsystems|Sun Microsystems]], launches.<ref name=internetseh/><ref name="SlashdotGnuhoo">{{cite web|url=http://slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=98/06/23/0849239| accessdate = April 27, 2007|work=[[wikipedia:Slashdot|Slashdot]] | title=The GnuHoo BooBoo}}</ref> It would later be renamed the [[wikipedia:Open Directory Project|Open Directory Project]].
 +
|-
 +
| 1998 || || Search engine launch || [[w:Yahoo! Gemini|Goto.com]] launches with sponsored links and paid search. Advertisers bid on Goto.com to rank above organic search results, which are powered by {{w|Inktomi}}. Goto.com would be ultimately acquired by {{w|Yahoo!}}.<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/><ref name="amcodigital.com"/> 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 1999 || May || New web search engine || [[wikipedia:AlltheWeb|AlltheWeb]], based on the Ph.D. thesis of Tor Egge at the [[wikipedia:Norwegian University of Science and Technology|Norwegian University of Science and Technology]], titled ''FTP Search'', launches. The engine is launched by Egge's company [[wikipedia:Fast Search & Transfer|Fast Search & Transfer]], established on July 16, 1997.<ref name=internetseh/>
 
| 1999 || May || New web search engine || [[wikipedia:AlltheWeb|AlltheWeb]], based on the Ph.D. thesis of Tor Egge at the [[wikipedia:Norwegian University of Science and Technology|Norwegian University of Science and Technology]], titled ''FTP Search'', launches. The engine is launched by Egge's company [[wikipedia:Fast Search & Transfer|Fast Search & Transfer]], established on July 16, 1997.<ref name=internetseh/>
 +
|-
 +
| 1999 || || Statistics || The number of websites online reaches 2.2 million.<ref name="seo.comf"/> 
 +
|-
 +
| 1999 || || Statistics (internet userbase) || The number of internet users reaches 279 million.<ref name="seo.comf"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2000 || January 1 || New web search portal || [[wikipedia:Baidu|Baidu]], a Chinese company that would grow to provide many search-related services, launches.
 
| 2000 || January 1 || New web search portal || [[wikipedia:Baidu|Baidu]], a Chinese company that would grow to provide many search-related services, launches.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2002-3 || || Web search business consolidation || [[wikipedia:Yahoo!|Yahoo!]] buys Inktomi (2002) and then [[wikipedia:Overture Services Inc.|Overture Services Inc.]] (2003) which has already bought [[wikipedia:AlltheWeb|AlltheWeb]] and [[wikipedia:Altavista|Altavista]]. Starting 2003, Yahoo! starts using its own [[wikipedia:Yahoo Slurp|Yahoo Slurp]] web crawler to power [[wikipedia:Yahoo! Search|Yahoo! Search]]. Yahoo! Search combines the technologies of all Yahoo!'s acquisitions (until 2002, Yahoo! had been using Google to power its search).
 
| 2002-3 || || Web search business consolidation || [[wikipedia:Yahoo!|Yahoo!]] buys Inktomi (2002) and then [[wikipedia:Overture Services Inc.|Overture Services Inc.]] (2003) which has already bought [[wikipedia:AlltheWeb|AlltheWeb]] and [[wikipedia:Altavista|Altavista]]. Starting 2003, Yahoo! starts using its own [[wikipedia:Yahoo Slurp|Yahoo Slurp]] web crawler to power [[wikipedia:Yahoo! Search|Yahoo! Search]]. Yahoo! Search combines the technologies of all Yahoo!'s acquisitions (until 2002, Yahoo! had been using Google to power its search).
 +
|-
 +
| 2003 || || Statistics (internet userbase) || The number of websites online reaches 38 million.<ref name="seo.comf"/> 
 +
|-
 +
| 2003 || || Statistics (internet userbase) || The number of internet users reaches 782 million.<ref name="seo.comf"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2004-5 || November (2004) - February (2005) || Change in backend providers || Microsoft starts using its own indexer and crawler for MSN Search rather than using blended results from [[wikipedia:LookSmart|LookSmart]] and [[wikipedia:Inktomi|Inktomi]].
 
| 2004-5 || November (2004) - February (2005) || Change in backend providers || Microsoft starts using its own indexer and crawler for MSN Search rather than using blended results from [[wikipedia:LookSmart|LookSmart]] and [[wikipedia:Inktomi|Inktomi]].
Line 69: Line 134:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2006-2009 || || New human-curated web search engine || [[wikipedia:Wikia|Wikia]] launches [[wikipedia:Wikia Search|Wikia Search]], a search engine based on human curation, but then shuts it down. Relevant dates: publicly proposed December 23, 2006<ref name=TimesDec23>{{cite web|last=Doran|first=James|url=http://business.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,9075-2517026,00.html|title=Founder of Wikipedia plans search engine to rival Google|work=The Times |location=London |date=December 23, 2006|accessdate=January 6, 2007 }}</ref> and January 31, 2007,<ref>[http://www.informationweek.com/news/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=197003494 Wales: Search Wikia Will Succeed Where Google Cannot], InformationWeek, February 5, 2007. Retrieved July 27, 2007.</ref> private pre-alpha December 24, 2007,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://lists.wikia.com/pipermail/search-l/2007-December/000845.html |title=private pre-alpha invites available |accessdate=December 24, 2007 |last=Wales |first=Jimmy |date=December 24, 2007 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/12/24/AR2007122401567.html |title=Wikia Search Project to Launch January 7, Wales says |accessdate=December 24, 2007 |date=December 24, 2007 |work=The Washington Post}}</ref> toolbar release August 2008, shutdown March–May 2009.<ref>[http://news.cnet.com/8301-17939_109-10207896-2.html Wales giving up on Wikia Search]</ref>
 
| 2006-2009 || || New human-curated web search engine || [[wikipedia:Wikia|Wikia]] launches [[wikipedia:Wikia Search|Wikia Search]], a search engine based on human curation, but then shuts it down. Relevant dates: publicly proposed December 23, 2006<ref name=TimesDec23>{{cite web|last=Doran|first=James|url=http://business.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,9075-2517026,00.html|title=Founder of Wikipedia plans search engine to rival Google|work=The Times |location=London |date=December 23, 2006|accessdate=January 6, 2007 }}</ref> and January 31, 2007,<ref>[http://www.informationweek.com/news/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=197003494 Wales: Search Wikia Will Succeed Where Google Cannot], InformationWeek, February 5, 2007. Retrieved July 27, 2007.</ref> private pre-alpha December 24, 2007,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://lists.wikia.com/pipermail/search-l/2007-December/000845.html |title=private pre-alpha invites available |accessdate=December 24, 2007 |last=Wales |first=Jimmy |date=December 24, 2007 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/12/24/AR2007122401567.html |title=Wikia Search Project to Launch January 7, Wales says |accessdate=December 24, 2007 |date=December 24, 2007 |work=The Washington Post}}</ref> toolbar release August 2008, shutdown March–May 2009.<ref>[http://news.cnet.com/8301-17939_109-10207896-2.html Wales giving up on Wikia Search]</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| 2007 || || Search evolution || Search starts to evolve in new ways. Updates are aimed at improving the user experience.<ref name="20 Years of SEO: A Brief History of Search Engine Optimization"/> 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2008 || January 28 || New web search engine || [[wikipedia:Cuil|Cuil]], a web search engine created by ex-Googlers that uses picture thumbnails to display search results, launches.<ref name="AP1">Liedtke, Michael, ''[http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/25884709 Ex-Google engineers debut 'Cuil' way to search]'', Associated Press, 28 July 2008, retrieved 13 Dec 2009</ref> It would later shut down on September 17, 2010.<ref>{{cite news|author=Michael Arrington|title=Cuil Goes Down, And We Hear It’s Down For Good|url=http://techcrunch.com/2010/09/17/cuil-goes-down-and-we-hear-its-down-for-good/|publisher=TechCrunch|date=2010-09-17}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|author=Devindra, Hardawar|title=Supposed Google-killer Cuil’s reign of terror may finally be over|url=http://venturebeat.com/2010/09/17/supposed-google-killer-cuils-reign-of-terror-may-finally-be-over/|publisher=VentureBeat|date=2010-09-17}}</ref><ref name=REF_ID>{{cite news |title=Cuil is Stone Cold – Another 'Google Killer' Bites the Dust |author= |newspaper=SearchEngineWatch |date=2010-09-18 |url=http://blog.searchenginewatch.com/100918-132701 }}</ref>
 
| 2008 || January 28 || New web search engine || [[wikipedia:Cuil|Cuil]], a web search engine created by ex-Googlers that uses picture thumbnails to display search results, launches.<ref name="AP1">Liedtke, Michael, ''[http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/25884709 Ex-Google engineers debut 'Cuil' way to search]'', Associated Press, 28 July 2008, retrieved 13 Dec 2009</ref> It would later shut down on September 17, 2010.<ref>{{cite news|author=Michael Arrington|title=Cuil Goes Down, And We Hear It’s Down For Good|url=http://techcrunch.com/2010/09/17/cuil-goes-down-and-we-hear-its-down-for-good/|publisher=TechCrunch|date=2010-09-17}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|author=Devindra, Hardawar|title=Supposed Google-killer Cuil’s reign of terror may finally be over|url=http://venturebeat.com/2010/09/17/supposed-google-killer-cuils-reign-of-terror-may-finally-be-over/|publisher=VentureBeat|date=2010-09-17}}</ref><ref name=REF_ID>{{cite news |title=Cuil is Stone Cold – Another 'Google Killer' Bites the Dust |author= |newspaper=SearchEngineWatch |date=2010-09-18 |url=http://blog.searchenginewatch.com/100918-132701 }}</ref>
 +
|-
 +
| 2009 || June 3 || Search engine launch || [[w:Bing (search engine)|Bing]] launches, with {{w|Microsoft}} aggressively marketing it as the search engine that would produce noticeably better results than {{w|Google}}.<ref name="A Brief History of Search & SEO"/><ref name="seo.comf"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
| 2009 || July 29 || Web search engine consolidation || [[wikipedia:Microsoft|Microsoft]] and [[wikipedia:Yahoo!|Yahoo!]] announce that they have made a ten-year deal in which the [[wikipedia:Yahoo! Search|Yahoo! search engine]] would be replaced by Bing. Yahoo! will get to keep 88% of the revenue from all search ad sales on its site for the first five years of the deal, and have the right to sell adverts on some Microsoft sites. Yahoo! Search will still maintain its own [[wikipedia:user interface|user interface]], but will eventually feature "Powered by Bing™" branding.<ref>{{cite news |title=Microsoft and Yahoo seal web deal |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/8174763.stm |date=29 July 2009 <!-- 13:58 UK -->  |accessdate=2009-07-29 |publisher=BBC News}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title=REFILE-UPDATE 1-Microsoft, Yahoo in 10-year Web search deal |url=http://www.reuters.com/article/CMPSRV/idUSN2921665320090729 |date=Jul 29, 2009 <!-- 8:27am EDT -->  |accessdate=2009-07-29 |author=Tiffany Wu |author2=Derek Caney  |publisher= [[wikipedia:Thomson Reuters|Thomson Reuters]] }}</ref>  All Yahoo! Search global customers and partners are expected to be transitioned by early 2012.<ref name=YahooHelp>{{cite web|url=http://help.yahoo.com/l/us/yahoo/search/alliance/alliance-2.html;_ylt=AvrC8b99B5.r4JmW33gA5ChaMnlG|title=When will the change happen? How long will the transition take?|publisher=Yahoo!|date=1 December 2011|accessdate=10 May 2012}}</ref>
 
| 2009 || July 29 || Web search engine consolidation || [[wikipedia:Microsoft|Microsoft]] and [[wikipedia:Yahoo!|Yahoo!]] announce that they have made a ten-year deal in which the [[wikipedia:Yahoo! Search|Yahoo! search engine]] would be replaced by Bing. Yahoo! will get to keep 88% of the revenue from all search ad sales on its site for the first five years of the deal, and have the right to sell adverts on some Microsoft sites. Yahoo! Search will still maintain its own [[wikipedia:user interface|user interface]], but will eventually feature "Powered by Bing™" branding.<ref>{{cite news |title=Microsoft and Yahoo seal web deal |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/8174763.stm |date=29 July 2009 <!-- 13:58 UK -->  |accessdate=2009-07-29 |publisher=BBC News}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title=REFILE-UPDATE 1-Microsoft, Yahoo in 10-year Web search deal |url=http://www.reuters.com/article/CMPSRV/idUSN2921665320090729 |date=Jul 29, 2009 <!-- 8:27am EDT -->  |accessdate=2009-07-29 |author=Tiffany Wu |author2=Derek Caney  |publisher= [[wikipedia:Thomson Reuters|Thomson Reuters]] }}</ref>  All Yahoo! Search global customers and partners are expected to be transitioned by early 2012.<ref name=YahooHelp>{{cite web|url=http://help.yahoo.com/l/us/yahoo/search/alliance/alliance-2.html;_ylt=AvrC8b99B5.r4JmW33gA5ChaMnlG|title=When will the change happen? How long will the transition take?|publisher=Yahoo!|date=1 December 2011|accessdate=10 May 2012}}</ref>

Latest revision as of 20:00, 29 June 2020

The content on this page is forked from the English Wikipedia page entitled "Timeline of web search engines". The original page still exists at Timeline of web search engines. The original content was released under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License (CC-BY-SA), so this page inherits this license.

This page provides a full timeline of web search engines, starting from the Archie search engine in 1990. It is complementary to the history of web search engines page that provides more qualitative detail on the history.

Sample questions

The following are some interesting questions that can be answered by reading this timeline:

  • What are some historically significant search engines and when were they launched?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Search engine launch".
    • You will see the launch of search engines, notable for their historical importance like WebCrawler, or by their magnitude, like Google and Yahoo!.
  • What are some significant events illustrating the evolution of internet search?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Search evolution".
    • You will see the evolution of internet search toward mobile search, and the envisage of future mainstream search toward voice.
  • What are some numbers illustrating the evolution of search engine?
    • Sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Statistics".
    • For internet userbase evolution, sort the full timeline by "Event type" and look for the group of rows with value "Statistics (internet userbase)".

Big picture

Time period Development summary More details
Pre-web search engine period
web search engine period
Google period

Full timeline

Year Month and date (if available) Event type Event
1945 Concept development American engineer Vannevar Bush introduces the concept of “collection of data and observations, the extraction of parallel material from the existing record, and the final insertion of new material into the general body of the common record.”[1] Bush emphasizes the necessity for an expansive index for all knowledge, stating: "[Information] has been extended far beyond our present ability to make real use of the record. A record, if it is to be useful to science, must be continuously extended, it must be stored...Our ineptitude in getting at the record is largely caused by the artificiality of the systems of indexing. The human mind does not work this way. It operates by association."[2][3][4]
1987 Pre-web search engine Search engine Archie begins as a project for students and staff at McGill University, with aims to connect the McGill University School of Computer Science to the internet.[5][6][7]
1990 Pre-web search engine The Archie search engine, created by Alan Emtage, Bill Heelan and J. Peter Deutsch, computer science students at McGill University in Montreal, goes live. The program downloads the directory listings of all the files located on public anonymous FTP (File Transfer Protocol) sites, creates a searchable database of a lot of file names; however, Archie does not index the contents of these sites since the amount of data is so limited it can be readily searched manually.[8][9][10][11]
1991 Pre-web search engine The rise of Gopher (created in 1991 by Mark McCahill at the University of Minnesota) leads to two new search programs, Veronica and Jughead. Like Archie, they search the file names and titles stored in Gopher index systems. Veronica (Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives) provides a keyword search of most Gopher menu titles in the entire Gopher listings. Jughead (Jonzy's Universal Gopher Hierarchy Excavation And Display) is a tool for obtaining menu information from specific Gopher servers. While the name of the search engine "Archie" was not a reference to the Archie comic book series, "Veronica" and "Jughead" are characters in the series, thus referencing their predecessor.[10] Gopher is considered to be the first search engine using a hypertext paradigm.[12] A step toward the World Wide Web hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP), it would become popular for several years, because it provides a way to share text files from all over the world.[13]
1991 English computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee in Geneva launches his WWW Virtual Library vlib.org. It is considered the oldest catalog on the Web.[14][15][16][17]
1992 Virtual library of the web Timothy Berners-Lee sets up the Virtual Library (VLib), a loose confederation of topical experts maintaining relevant topical link lists.[10][11]
1993 February Early development Six Stanford students create Architext, a project seeking to use statistical analysis of word relationships to improve relevancy of searches on the Internet. Architext would later become the search engine Excite.[12] Excite would revolutionize how information is categorized, making it easier to find information “by sorting results based on keywords found within content and backend optimization.”[18][19][20]
1993 April 22 The graphical Mosaic web browser improves Gopher’s primarily text-based interface.[12] Mosaic is considered the first popular graphical web browser.[21]
1993 June Early development Matthew Gray at MIT develops the World Wide Web Wanderer, which is considered the first web crawler to measure the size of the Web.[18][14][22]
1993 June First web robot Matthew Gray produces the first known web robot, the Perl-based World Wide Web Wanderer, and uses it to generate an index of the web called the Wandex.[10][11][23] However, the World Wide Web Wanderer is intended only to measure the size of the web rather than to facilitate search.
1993 September 2 First web search engine W3Catalog, written by Oscar Nierstrasz at the University of Geneva, is released to the world. It is the world's first web search engine. It does not rely on a crawler and indexer but rather on already existing high-quality lists of websites. One of its main drawbacks is that the bot accesses each page hundreds of times each day, causing performance degradation.[10][11][24][25][26]
1993 October/November Second web search engine Aliweb, a web search engine created by Martijn Koster, is announced. It does not use a web robot, but instead depends on being notified by website administrators of the existence at each site of an index file in a particular format. The absence of a bot means that less bandwidth is used; however, most website administrators are not aware of the need to submit their data.[10][11][27][28][29]
1993 December First web search engine to use a crawler and indexer JumpStation, created by Jonathon Fletcher, is released. It is the first WWW resource-discovery tool to combine the three essential features of a web search engine (crawling, indexing, and searching).[10][11][30]
1993 Statistics There are approximately 600 websites online at the time.[22][31]
1993 Statistics (internet userbase) The are about 10 million internet users at the time.[22]
1994 January Search engine launch Stanford University students Jerry Wang and David Filo create Yahoo! in a campus trailer. Yahoo starts originally as an Internet bookmark list and directory of interesting sites. Webmasters have to manually submit their page to the Yahoo directory for indexing so that it would be there for Yahoo to find when someone performed a search.[32][33][34][14]
1994 January New web search engine Infoseek is launched.[10][11]
1994 January Web search engine supporting natural language queries Altavista is launched. This is a first among web search engines in many ways: it has unlimited bandwidth, allows natural language queries, has search tips, and allows people to add or delete their domains in 24 hours.[10][11]
1994 March New web search engine The World-Wide Web Worm is released. It is claimed to have been created in September 1993, at which time there did not exist any crawler-based search engine, but it is not the earliest at the time of its actual release. It supports Perl-based regular expressions.[10][11]
1994 April 20 New web search engine The WebCrawler search engine, created by Brian Pinkerton at the University of Washington, is released.[11] Unlike its predecessors, it allows users to search for any word in any webpage, which has become the standard for all major search engines since.
1994 April New web directory Yahoo! launches its web directory.[11] Yahoo! would not build its own web search engine until 2002, relying until then on outsourcing the search function to other companies.
1994 July New web search engine Lycos, a web search engine, is released.[11] It began as a research project by Michael Loren Mauldin of Carnegie Mellon University's main Pittsburgh campus.
1994 Statistics The number of websites grows to 10,000, up from 600 websites in 1993.[31]
1995 New web directory LookSmart is released. It competes with Yahoo! as a web directory, and the competition makes both directories more inclusive.
1995 Late year Search engine launch Excite is commercially released as a crawling search engine.[12][35][36]
1995 Statistics The number of websites grows to 100,000, up from 10,000 websites in 1994.[31]
1996 January–March Search engine launch Stanford University students Larry Page and Sergey Brin build and test Backrub, a new search engine that ranks sites based on inbound link relevancy and popularity. The crawler begins activity in March.[11] Backrub would ultimately become Google.[37][38][34][22]
1996 May New web search engine Inktomi releases its HotBot search engine.[11][5]
1996 Statistics The number of websites grows to 650,000, up from 100,000 websites in 1995.[22][31]
1996 Statistics (internet userbase) The are about 74 million internet users at this time.[22]
1996 A search engine called "RankDex" from IDD Information Services, designed by Robin Li, launches, providing a strategy for site-scoring and page-ranking.[39]
1997 April New natural language-based web search engine Ask Jeeves, a natural language web search engine, that aims to rank links by popularity, is released. It would later become Ask.com.[11][40][41] AskJeeves later becomes ask.com.[22][5][29]
1998 July–September New web search portal MSN launches a search portal called MSN Search, using search results from Inktomi. After many changes to the backend search engine, MSN would start developing in-house search technology in 2005, and later change its name to Bing in June 2009.
1997 September 15 New web search engine The domain Google.com is registered.[40] Soon, Google Search is available to the public from this domain (around 1998).
1997 September 23 New web search engine (non-English) Arkady Volozh and Ilya Segalovich launch their Russian web search engine yandex.ru and publicly present it at the Softool exhibition in Moscow. The initial development is by Comptek; Yandex would become a separate company in 2000.[42][43][44] It is Russia’s largest search engine.[22]
1997 Statistics The number of websites surpasses 1,000,000, up from 650,000 websites in 1996.[31][22]
1998 June 5 New web directory Gnuhoo, a web directory project by Rich Skrenta and Bob Truel, both employees of Sun Microsystems, launches.[11][45] It would later be renamed the Open Directory Project.
1998 Search engine launch Goto.com launches with sponsored links and paid search. Advertisers bid on Goto.com to rank above organic search results, which are powered by Inktomi. Goto.com would be ultimately acquired by Yahoo!.[34][1]
1999 May New web search engine AlltheWeb, based on the Ph.D. thesis of Tor Egge at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, titled FTP Search, launches. The engine is launched by Egge's company Fast Search & Transfer, established on July 16, 1997.[11]
1999 Statistics The number of websites online reaches 2.2 million.[22]
1999 Statistics (internet userbase) The number of internet users reaches 279 million.[22]
2000 January 1 New web search portal Baidu, a Chinese company that would grow to provide many search-related services, launches.
2002-3 Web search business consolidation Yahoo! buys Inktomi (2002) and then Overture Services Inc. (2003) which has already bought AlltheWeb and Altavista. Starting 2003, Yahoo! starts using its own Yahoo Slurp web crawler to power Yahoo! Search. Yahoo! Search combines the technologies of all Yahoo!'s acquisitions (until 2002, Yahoo! had been using Google to power its search).
2003 Statistics (internet userbase) The number of websites online reaches 38 million.[22]
2003 Statistics (internet userbase) The number of internet users reaches 782 million.[22]
2004-5 November (2004) - February (2005) Change in backend providers Microsoft starts using its own indexer and crawler for MSN Search rather than using blended results from LookSmart and Inktomi.
2004 December User experience Google Suggest is introduced as a Google Labs feature.[46][47]
2005 January Webmaster tools To combat link spam, Google, Yahoo! and Microsoft collectively introduce the nofollow attribute.[48][49]
2005 October New web search engine Overture owner Bill Gross launches the Snap search engine, with many features such as display of search volumes and other information, as well as sophisticated auto-completion and related terms display. It is unable to get traction and soon goes out of business.[11][50]
2006-2009 New human-curated web search engine Wikia launches Wikia Search, a search engine based on human curation, but then shuts it down. Relevant dates: publicly proposed December 23, 2006[51] and January 31, 2007,[52] private pre-alpha December 24, 2007,[53][54] toolbar release August 2008, shutdown March–May 2009.[55]
2007 Search evolution Search starts to evolve in new ways. Updates are aimed at improving the user experience.[34]
2008 January 28 New web search engine Cuil, a web search engine created by ex-Googlers that uses picture thumbnails to display search results, launches.[56] It would later shut down on September 17, 2010.[57][58][59]
2009 June 3 Search engine launch Bing launches, with Microsoft aggressively marketing it as the search engine that would produce noticeably better results than Google.[18][22]
2009 July 29 Web search engine consolidation Microsoft and Yahoo! announce that they have made a ten-year deal in which the Yahoo! search engine would be replaced by Bing. Yahoo! will get to keep 88% of the revenue from all search ad sales on its site for the first five years of the deal, and have the right to sell adverts on some Microsoft sites. Yahoo! Search will still maintain its own user interface, but will eventually feature "Powered by Bing™" branding.[60][61] All Yahoo! Search global customers and partners are expected to be transitioned by early 2012.[62]
2009 August 10 (announced), rollout completed and made live June 8, 2010 Search algorithm update Named Caffeine, this update is announced on August 10, 2009. It promises faster crawling, expansion of the index, and a near-real-time integration of indexing and ranking.[48][63][64][65][66] The rollout is made live on June 8, 2010.[67][68][69]
2010 September 8 User experience Google launches Google Instant, described as a search-before-you-type feature: as users are typing, Google predicts the user's whole search query (using the same technology as in Google Suggest, later called the autocomplete feature) and instantaneously shows results for the top prediction.[70][71][72] Google claims that this is estimated to save 2–5 seconds per search query.[73] SEO commentators initially believe that this will have a major effect on search engine optimization, but soon revise downward their estimate of the impact.[48][74]
2010 November 1 New web search engine Blekko, a search engine that uses slashtags to allow people to search in more targeted categories, launches.[75]
2011 June 2 Webmaster tools Google, Yahoo!, and Microsoft announce Schema.org, a joint initiative that supports a richer range of tags that websites can use to convey better information.[48][76][77][78]
2011 February 23–24 Search algorithm update Google launches Google Panda, a major update affecting 12% of search queries. The update continues with the earlier work of cracking down on spam, content farms, scrapers, and websites with a high ad-to-content ratio.[48][79][80][81] The rollout is gradual over several months, and Panda will see many further updates.
2012 January 10 Search algorithm update, user experience Google launches Search Plus Your World, a deep integration of one's social data into search.[82][83] SEO commentators are critical of how the search results favor Google+ and push it to users, compared to more widely used social networks such as Facebook and Twitter.[84][85][86][87]
2012 April 24 Search algorithm update Google launches its "Webspam update" which would soon become known as Google Penguin.[48][88][89][90][91]
2012 May 10 User experience Microsoft announces a redesign of its Bing search engine that includes "Sidebar", a social feature that searches users' social networks for information relevant to the search query.[92]
2012 May 16 Search algorithm update Google starts rolling out Knowledge Graph, used by Google internally to store semantic relationships between objects. Google now begins displaying supplemental information about objects related to search queries on the side.[48][93][94][95]
2013 August 21–22 (approximate date for rollout), September 26 (announcement) Search algorithm update Google releases Google Hummingbird, a core algorithm update that may enable more semantic search and more effective use of the Knowledge Graph in the future.[48][96][97]

See also

References

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